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  • 1.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Beyond Post-productivism: From Rural Policy Discource to Rural Diversity2014In: European Countryside, ISSN 1803-8417, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 297-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a strong discourse in public policy aimed at transforming rural places from venues of primary production into truly diverse socioeconomic landscapes. Yet conceptualisations of the rural as envisioned in the policy and politics of the ‘new economy’ often prove to be elusive on the ground. However, post-productive activity in rural areas has become a major focus for rural studies scholars. This paper investigates the ideas of post-productivism in the existing literature, and argues for a holistic understanding of post-productivism as an idea and political ambition rather than an imperative and irreversible change of rural economic activity. The purpose of the study is to make clear the division between post-productivism and the related concepts of post-production and post-productive activities in order to better understand processes of rural change in relation to different geographical contexts. It is argued that post-productivism as a concept stands apart from de facto post-production and alternative concepts such as multifunctionality and should be regarded as part of broader regional development discourses. The paper outlines several important fields in which post-productivism is a necessary component for rural transformation and development. While it is not always easily captured in indicators or empirical studies in rural locations, post- productivism exists at the level of discourse and planning and thus has real effects on the ground. The paper concludes by offering suggestions on how to apply the concepts of post-productivism, post-production and multifunctionality in future studies. 

  • 2.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Public spending on rural tourism in Sweden2016In: Fennia, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 194, no 1, p. 18-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is an important part of rural policies in European countries. An increased demand for rural amenities is seen as creating a more diversified labour market and contributing to the restructuring of the economy, from primary sectors and manufacturing to a more service-oriented economy, which has been termed a "new rural economy". As a result, and as often presented in many policy documents, tourism is now seen as a universal tool for rural development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of public spending on tourism in rural areas in Sweden. It focuses on public spending on the main programme for rural development, the Swedish rural development programme, but also on the regional structural funds programmes, from 2000 to 2013. Another subject of interest is how policy makers understand rural tourism as presented in policy documents since these documents, to a great extent, direct programme spending in terms of projects and their content. This study is based on register data on programme spending, policy documents and programme evaluation reports. Results show that a relatively small amount of total public spending targets tourism – mainly going to accommodation, activities and marketing efforts – indicating that tourism is still not a prioritised area despite policy makers’ understanding of rural tourism as expressed in policy documents. Thus, although public efforts target adequate parts of the tourism industry, they cannot be expected to contribute significantly to the restructuring of the rural economy.

  • 3.
    Boman, Mattias
    et al.
    SLU.
    Fredman, Peter
    MIUN.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Ericsson, Göran
    SLU.
    Outdoor recreation – A necessity or a luxury?: Estimation of Engel curves for Sweden2013In: Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, ISSN 2213-0780, Vol. 3-4, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Income constitutes one important constraint for the degree of participation in outdoor recreation. The effect of this constraint can be measured by the income elasticity of outdoor recreation demand, which is of policy interest when the distribution of recreation opportunities across socio economic groups is a concern. This study investigated income elasticity of expenditures for three types of outdoor recreation in Sweden, at the individual level: outdoor recreation as an aggregated composite good, outdoor recreation close to home (less than 100km away from the permanent residence), and hunting. The findings indicated that outdoor recreation as a composite is a luxury good with elasticity in excess of unity (i.e. a relative increase in income will lead to a greater relative increase in demand). The elasticities of the specific activities were found to be lower. Outdoor recreation close to home was characterized as a necessity with elasticity less than unity (i.e. a relative increase in income will lead to a smaller relative increase in demand). The results further suggested that an increase in income could lead to either a decrease or an increase in the demand for hunting, indicating that hunting might be an inferior good or possibly a necessity.

  • 4.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hyper-production: a new metric of multifinctionality2015In: European Countryside, ISSN 1803-8417, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 134-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multifunctionality has emerged as the dominant framework for understanding rural socioeconomic landscapes. The central claim of multifunctionality – that rural regions need to be understood as being made up of more than just traditional uses – has led to the incorporation of new rural activities into regional development plans, e.g., tourism. In some places, such post-productive activity is perceived to be slowly replacing productive uses of the land, e.g., agriculture/forestry. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support such claims. Drawing on previous research and data from the Swedish countryside this paper shows that, even as the number of persons employed within traditional activities decreases, the economic output per areal unit and per labour hour is increasing over time and traditional uses still occupy the majority of rural space. Hyper-production is introduced as a new metric for understanding multifunctional regions going forward. The complementary union of economic mainstays, such as agriculture, and newer activities with more quality-of-life benefits, such as tourism, is highlighted in terms of economic diversification, job creation and local social capital development, while the conflict-prone intersection of these two modes is also acknowledged. Understanding hyper-production as a key metric of multifunctionality is thus argued as integral to planning and developing resilient rural regions now and for the future. 

  • 5.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Climate change in Northern Sweden: intra-regional perceptions of vulnerability among winter-oriented tourism businesses2011In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 919-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a potential threat to society and business. Although research has noted that the tourism sector may be robust on the macro scale, significant losses at local levels have been suggested. This paper examines Upper Norrland, in Northern Sweden, by measuring the perceptions of winter-oriented tourism entrepreneurs. Their perceptions of potential threats from climate change are assessed, including how entrepreneurs view the future, in terms of climate change impacts and sustainability of the region as a winter-tourism destination. A quantitative survey of entrepreneurs (n = 63) gave responses along geographical and operator dimensions to reveal local differences within the Upper Norrland region, showing the coastland to be perceived as more exposed to change than inland areas. Venue-based businesses see climate change as a higher priority than activity-based, potentially mobile, businesses, regardless of their location. The general perception among businesses is that climate change will not drastically impact the tourism sector over the next 10 years. A basic model for mapping local differences is outlined to stimulate further study of the under-researched intra-regional nuances in climate change and tourism research. A case is made for regional planners to use this tool and to educate local businesses on adaptation techniques.

  • 6.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Sweden Centre for Rural Medicine (GMC), Storuman, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    The Continuing Advance and Retreat of Rural Settlement in the Northern Inland of Sweden2019In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 7-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1960, a range of leading rural geographers started a debate about population development and the “advance and retreat” of human settlement in sparsely populated rural areas, including in the inland north of Sweden. In what came to be known as the “Siljan Symposium,” they identified a number of key themes in relation to migration and human mobility that were thought to determine settlement patterns in the inland north, including: internal migration and urbanisation of populations; the role of simultaneous in- and out-migration in re-shaping settlement patterns; redistribution of rural populations through return migration and international migration; and changing preferences for settlement in different northern “zones” based on the methods for exploiting natural resources for agriculture, forestry, mining and energy production. This paper re-visits the main themes from the 1960 Siljan Symposium and examines Swedish register data to identify how migration patterns and the resulting “advance and retreat” of human settlement have changed across the inland of Västerbotten and Norrbotten. The results suggest that, while general urban-rural and regional- local settlement patterns appear to have been relatively consistent, new forms of migration (including internal, return and international) with different preferences for rural settlement emerging in different localities as a result of both persistent (mining, forestry, energy) and changing (tourism, lifestyle) values of natural resources. We also observe substantial differences in migration and urbanisation rates between Norrbotten and Västerbotten. The paper then discusses how the persistence and discontinuity of experiences over the past decades may provide insights into the potential future patterns of northern settlement.

  • 7.
    Carson, Doris A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Carson, Dean BUmeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.Lundmark, LindaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Tourism, mobilities, and development in sparsely populated areas2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism 'mobilities' are not restricted to the movement of tourists between places of origin and destinations. Particularly in more peripheral, remote, or sparsely populated destinations, workers and residents are also likely to be frequently moving between locations. Such destinations attract seasonal or temporary residents, sometimes with only loose ties to the tourism industry. These flows of mobile populations are accompanied by flows of other resources – money, knowledge, ideas and innovations – which can be used to help the economic and social development of the destination. This book examines key aspects of the human mobilities associated with tourism in sparsely populated areas, and investigates how new mobility patterns inspired by technological, economic, political, and social change provide both opportunities and risks for those areas. Examples are drawn from the northern peripheries of Europe and the north of Australia, and the book provides a framework for continuing research into the role that tourism and 'new mobilities' can play in regional development in these locations.

  • 8.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia; Flinders University, Burra, Australia.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Tourism and mobilities in sparsely populated areas: towards a framework and research agenda2016In: Tourism, mobilities and development in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Doris Carson, Dean B. Carson, Linda Lundmark, Routledge, 2016, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Whyalla, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia ; Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Burra, Australia.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Tourism and mobilities in sparsely populated areas: towards a framework and research agenda2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 353-366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Tokmakcioglu, Kaya
    Department of Management Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Second Home Property Values in the Swedish Mountain2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has and will have its impacts on the tourism industry, especially where weather-dependent amenities constitute the key attractions. In this study, our aim is to assess the impacts of climate change on existing and proposed second homes in and around ski resorts in the Swedish mountains, which are determined as among the most attractive locations for such development. It is thought that, along with climate change induced natural disasters and phenomena such as landslides, avalanches, floods and permafrost thaw, property value loss (or gain) is a major climate change impact that needs to be considered in conjunction with the vulnerability of skiing-based second homes and their immediate and wider regions. For this purpose, firstly, corresponding (and lagged) states of the ski climate are treated as estimators for second home sales prices for the 2000-2016 period and, secondly, the quantified relationship is simulated according to future climate projections, based on data available from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The results are mapped in terms of existing and potential skiing-based second home regions, the latter with a certain focus on the "winners", and according to different representative concentration pathways.

  • 11.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Development of downhill skiing tourism in Sweden: past, present, and future2019In: Winter tourism: trends and challenges / [ed] Ulrike Pröbstl-Haider, Harold Richins and Stefan Türk, CABI Publishing, 2019, p. 305-323Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Demiroglu, Osman Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Saarinen, Jarkko
    Oulun yliopisto, Oulu, Finland; University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    The last resort?: Ski tourism and climate change in Arctic Sweden2019In: Journal of Tourism Futures, ISSN 2055-5911, E-ISSN 2055-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the external and internal factors that support or challenge a possible transformation of Arctic Sweden into a major ski destination under a changing climate. Design/methodology/approach – The paper questions future availability of the physical and the human factors that foster ski tourism development in Arctic Sweden and suggests a comparative case study in relation to the already existing large resort-based ski destinations in Arctic Finland. Findings – Preliminary documentary analysis shows that the governmental and the industrial discourses over the past decade have acknowledged a competitive edge for Sweden and its northernmost regions in particular and may even propose a structural shift for ski tourism in the near future agenda. The visualisations based on natural snow projections presented in this paper confirm this comparative advantage but other technical and socioeconomic development factors are further discussed, in relation to Arctic Finland. Research limitations/implications – Future research agenda is suggested to cover, first, assessment of natural and technical snow reliability of existing and all potential ski areas in Sweden and within its competitive set extending to all the Nordics and the Alps, then, incorporation of adaptive capacities of the suppliers but especially the likely substitution tendencies of the consumers, and finally, evaluation of the overall situation in terms of the regional development needs. Social implications – It is apparent that land use conflicts will arise in case of large ski resort-based destination development in Arctic Sweden, especially around the environmentally protected areas, which are not only already important attractions for nature-based tourism but also traditional livelihoods for the Sami. Originality/value – This is the first paper to discuss a potential regional and structural shift of ski tourism in Sweden.

  • 13.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Miun and ETOUR.
    Boman, Mattias
    SLU.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Mattsson, Leif
    SLU.
    Economic values in theSwedish nature-based recreation sector: a synthesis2012In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 903-910Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research synthesis reports the main findings from a review of economic values associated with nature-based recreation in Sweden. The purpose of the work was to support policy and to identify areas for future research. Data came from over 150 scientific publications and other public sources. The authors find inter alia a lack of systematic data for several recreation activities (including naturebased tourism), a significant growth in the outdoor equipment industry and a relatively modest economic involvement by the public sector. The information is structured under different categories to illustrate the significance and range of different economic values. The authors conclude that there is a need for more comprehensive and systematically collected data, methodological development and interdisciplinary research.

  • 14.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    MIUN.
    Boman, Mattias
    SLU.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Svensson, Bo
    Lindberg, Kreg
    Friluftslivet i samhällsekonomin2013In: Friluftsliv i förändring: Resultat från ett forskningsprogram. Slutrapport / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Klas Sandell, Anders Mossing, Naturvårdsverket, 2013, p. 161-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Miun, Etour.
    Boman, Mattias
    SLU.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Svensson, Bo
    Lindberg, Kreg
    Friluftslivet i Samhällsekonomin: betydande belopp i både marknadsprissatta och icke-marknadsprissatta nyttigheter2014In: Friluftsliv i förändring: studier från svenska upplevelselandskap / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Klas Sandell, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2014, p. 167-181Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Avdelningen för turism/Etour, Mittuniversitetet.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Kan hela Sverige leva av naturturism?2008In: Ska hela Sverige leva? / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet Formas , 2008, p. 207-216Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Leder naturism till regional utveckling? Vad krävs för att bli en framgångsrik naturismföretagare? Och vad är det egentligen som lockar naturisterna? Attraktionerna på en turistort är själva kärnan, skriver Peter Fredman och Linda Lundmark. Men naturen kan vara en resurs för turismen bara om det samtidigt finns infrastruktur och ett lokalt utbud av produkter och service.

  • 17.
    Hedlund, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Repopulating and revitalising rural Sweden? Re-examining immigration as a solution to rural decline2017In: Geographical Journal, ISSN 0016-7398, E-ISSN 1475-4959, Vol. 183, no 4, p. 400-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing international immigration is often portrayed as a potential solution to persistent economic and population decline in rural areas. Based on longitudinal register data, this study examines the extent to which international migration has contributed to demographic and labour market changes in rural Sweden between 1990 and 2010. Results show that the urbanisation rate of international migrants is very high while their employment rate in rural areas remains comparatively low. Small positive changes are noticeable in the rate of higher education, self-employment and employment in new service-related industries among particular groups of immigrants. Immigrants to rural areas are a highly heterogeneous group in terms of their demographic and labour market characteristics, which should be considered when estimating the contributions of immigration to socio-economic development in rural areas. This study shows that, while international migration may dampen population decline in rural areas to some extent, particularly in the working-age groups, its potential to stimulate socio-economic revitalisation in rural areas needs to be questioned and examined from a more nuanced and longitudinal perspective.

  • 18.
    Hedlund, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Rural restructuring and gendered micro-dynamics of the agricultural labour market2017In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 195, no 1, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a comparison of the employment trajectories of two cohorts of men and women in the agricultural sector in Sweden, this article gives an account of the past 50 years’ decline in employment in agriculture. The findings show that the decline of employment in agriculture was the result of fewer entries into the sector and more exits out of the sector. The findings also suggest that the restructuring of the agricultural sector has had greater effects on women than men, with women exiting the sector to a greater degree or never entering it to begin with.

  • 19.
    Jansson, Bruno
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Jakobsen, Leif
    Hvidberg, M.
    Asmussen, M.
    Sandberg, M.
    Engström, C.
    Effektutvärdering av de geografiska målprogrammen inom EG:s strukturfonder2004Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Slee, Bill
    Villa, Mariann
    Feliciano, Diana
    Rural-urban policies: changing conceptions of the human-environment relationship2017In: Globalisation and change in forest ownership and forest use: natural resource management in transition / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 183-224Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes how understandings of the "rural" have progressed from a focus on either decline or amenity, whereby these more simplified understandings can be seen to have had an impact on rural policy development. The chapter argues that rural areas, including forests, need to be understood in relation to both production and integration with urban landscapes. It thus illustrates the role of both historical processes and policy in creating current understandings of the rural: drawing upon an example from the Swedish case, it amongst others shows that a redistributive tax system has played a larger and more crucial role than rural policy in retaining active rural areas in Sweden.

  • 21.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    The controversy over protected areas and forest-sector employment in Norrbotten, Sweden: forest stakeholder perceptions and statistics2010In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 146-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even as environmental protection constitutes an aim of national policy, the conservation of productive forest may impact communities reliant on local employment, with one example being Norrbotten County in Northern Sweden. The study focuses on the perceptions of environmental protection among stakeholders in forestry and of its relation to employment and how these compare with quantitative impacts of environmental protection. Results show that although forest stakeholders believe that forestry in the region is threatened by environmental protection, protection has thus far had only a limited impact on employment in the sector when compared to the impacts of internal processes of rationalization and mechanization. That stakeholders emphasize environmental protection as a crucial concern and risk may be due to their limited control over environmental protection processes as compared to internal processes in the production and management of the resource and the future of the forest economy. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 22.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    A holiday on ice on hold?: nature-based tourism and climate change in the nordic north2010In: Tourism and change in polar regions: climate, environment and experiences / [ed] C. Michael Hall & Jarkko Saarinen, Routledge , 2010, p. 177-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    A new age for nature-based tourism?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Economic restructuring into tourism: the case of the Swedish mountain range2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The labour force in the Swedish mountain range has been influenced by globalisation and restructuring of the economy. The problem for the region is twofold: (1) an ageing and smaller population; and (2) changes in the structure of employment. Due to decreasing employment in forestry and manufacturing, as well as downsizing of the public sector, the economy is going through rapid change. The increase of the importance of the tourism sector has been prominent in some parts of the mountainous area. This study focuses mainly on the character of the tourism labour market in the region and the implications of the development in the tourism sector. The data used are drawn from a database containing the total population in the area 1985–1999. Data are analysed using GIS. The main conclusions are that there has been a shift in employment from the primary sector and the public sector in the region. The tourism sector has been seen as an important receiver of work force but this development is found to be uneven and uncertain in some parts of the region. Although the permanent population is decreasing, increasing seasonal labour migration due to tourism businesses has been observed.

  • 25.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Efterfrågan på naturturism: Nuläge och potential för regional utveckling2009Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Forest-related employment in the European North: current trends and future development2005In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 183, no 2, p. 81-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the impact of climate change on the forest-related employment is important for making relevant policy decisions in areas where forestry is economically important. This paper contrasts two different areas in Sweden and Finland in terms of population structure, employment structure and forest-based economy. The paper discusses the future possible outcomes of climate change in terms of forest-related employment. The geographical level of analysis is the county of Norrbotten in Sweden, and the county of Lappi in Finland. These are sparsely populated peripheral areas with ageing populations. There has been a decline or stagnation in the economic and social conditions and the survival of many rural communities, in particular those inland, is seriously threatened. In the context of climate change the issue of how the forest growth will change and how well the different areas will adapt to these changes are addressed.

  • 27.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Mobility, Migration and Seasonal Tourism Employment2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 54-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Mountain resort labour market: the case of the Swedish mountain range2009In: Nordic Tourism: issues and cases / [ed] Hall, Colin Michael, Müller, Dieter K., Saarinen, Jarkko, Buffalo / Clevedon: Channel View Publications , 2009, p. 231-235Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Nature-based tourism demand: Age or habit?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Supply and demand of nature-based tourism in Sweden2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Säsongsberoendet inom turismen minskar dess betydelse för lokal utveckling2006In: GränsbrytningArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Brouder, Patrick
    MIUN.
    Fredman, Peter
    MIUN.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    När friluftsliv blir naturturism2013In: Friluftsliv i förändring: Resultat från ett forskningsprogram. Slutrapport / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Klas Sandell och Anders Mossing, Naturvårdsverket, 2013, p. 175-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Umeå University.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mituniversitet, ETOUR.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    När friluftslivet blir naturturism: en fråga om samspelet mellan det privata och det offentliga2014In: Friluftsliv i förändring: studier från svenska upplevelselandskap / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Klas Sandell, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2014, p. 182-195Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Ednarsson, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    International migration, self-employment and restructuring through tourism in sparsely populated areas2016In: Tourism, mobilities, and development in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Doris A. Carson, Dean B. Carson and Linda Lundmark, Routledge, 2016, p. 70-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Ednarsson, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    International migration, self-employment and restructuring through tourism in sparsely populated areas2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 422-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that different forms of migration in general, and tourism-related international migration in particular, could act as potential drivers for various forms of rural transformations. This paper investigates self-employment in tourism among foreign-born people in rural Sweden. The questions addressed in this paper are: What is the magnitude of self-employment, and what types of business do in-migrants run, in rural areas? A discussion on the extent to which in-migrants to rural areas contribute to rural restructuring through self-employment in tourism follows. The results are analyzed by drawing on theories connected to restructuring and ideas of the “new economy”. The longitudinal, individual and geo-referenced database ASTRID with official Swedish register data is used to identify foreign-born people self-employed in tourism in Sweden. Self- employment is more common for in-migrants coming from culturally proximate Western countries, followed by Asia and the Middle East. The length of time in Sweden plays a significant role in the incidence of self-employment in tourism, with restaurants dominating as the type of establishment. It can be discussed how much restaurants help invigorate the economy of rural areas, and how much they contribute to rural change and transformation in qualitative terms. 

  • 36.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet / ETOUR.
    Boman, Mattias
    SLU Alnarp.
    Mattsson, Leif
    SLU Alnarp.
    Economic values in the Swedish nature-based recreation sector: a synthesisIn: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research synthesis reports the main findings from a review of economic values associated with nature-based recreation in Sweden. The purpose of the work was to support policy and identify areas for future research. Data came from over 150 scientific publications and other public sources. The information is structured under different categories to illustrate the economic significance and range of this sector. We find inter alia a lack of systematic data for several recreation activities (including nature-based tourism), a significant growth in the outdoor equipment industry, and a rather modest economic involvement by the public sector. We conclude there is a need for more comprehensive and systematically collected data, methodological development and interdisciplinary research.

  • 37.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Jansson, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Socioeconomic development and vulnerabilities in the Barents region2004Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Lundmark, Linda JT
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    ETOUR; Mittuniversitetet.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University; Stockholm University.
    National parks and protected areas and the role for employment in tourism and forest sectors: a Swedish case2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of national parks and other protected areas has been widely promoted because of its potential for regional development in peripheral and sparsely populated areas. The argument is that the economic and social benefits seen in national parks in the USA and UK will also occur in the Swedish context in the form of an increased tourism-related labor market. Our aim was to analyze the possibility of such a development both in light of the policy visions of positive regional and local development and from the adversary point of view that protection of land is making it more difficult for 15 sparsely populated mountain municipalities in Sweden to prosper. We used a database covering the entire population of the area for 1991 to 2001. Our results show that factors other than the protected areas are connected to the development of a tourism labor market. The most positively correlated variables for change in tourism employment are population growth and proximity to ski lifts. Positive population development is also correlated to a positive change in the number of people employed in forest sectors. Thus, one of the main outcomes is that the assumed and almost automatic positive relation between nature conservation and tourism can is questionable.

  • 39.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lemelin, Raynald H.
    Lakehead University.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    New issues in polar tourism: conclusion2013In: New issues in polar tourism: communities, environments, politics / [ed] Dieter K. Müller, Linda Lundmark, Raynald H. Lemelin, Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013, p. 217-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the goal of this book was not to pursue a distinct research question but rather illustrate the multitude of thematic issues that are currently being investigated in the polar Norths, two topics: the governance of ecological resources, and the ways in which polar communities manage to create agency through various development strategies emerged throughout the book.  In-order to illustrate this agency, the content of this book has been divided into three parts: Conceptualizing Polar Tourism and Polar Regions, Politics and the Environment and Business and Community Perspectives thus without a separation between Arctic and Antarctic research. In this concluding chapter a summary of the issues in polar tourism highlighted in this book is made and a comment on the current state of the research field is offered, with some suggestions for future research.

  • 40.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Second home localizations in the Swedish mountain range2005In: Tourism, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Second Home Localizations in the Swedish Mountain Range: Slutrapport2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Second home ownership: a blessing for all?2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 281-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second home ownership is often regarded as being positive for the owners. Previous research shows that owning a second home means a great deal for the general satisfaction and quality of life of the owners. Historically, the political goal of expanding second home ownership among the Swedish population was to improve health and well-being and provide access to outdoor recreation and rural landscapes for the growing urban population, which is assumed to correlate with high satisfaction and quality of life among individuals. However, owning a second home does not always relate to positive experiences for owners, an issue not highlighted in previous second home research. Therefore, the purpose of the research presented here is to add to existing theories on second home ownership with special reference to the ambiguous relationships that exist between owners and their second homes. This is done by exploring and describing the group of second home owners who express negative experiences. The data used are retrieved from a nationwide questionnaire survey, targeting a representative sample of second home owners in Sweden during 2009. Results show that some 72,000 second home owners in Sweden can be defined as less satisfied and that age, health and income are important for ownership satisfaction.

  • 43.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Turismen i Sverige: branscher och aktörer2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har turismnäringen vuxit kraftigt under de senaste årtiondena, och är idag en av de sektorer av ekonomin som har störst tillväxtpotential i framtiden. Detta betyder att allt fler människor arbetar med turism och allt fler aktörer (företag och organisationer) på något sätt har en relation till denna dynamiska näring. Som en konsekvens av detta blir turismnäringen allt mer komplex och mångfacetterad. Boken Turismen i Sverige–En branschöversikt ger på ett lättbegripligt sätt läsaren en snabb inblick i turismnäringens utveckling, utbredning och omfattning i Sverige. Boken beskriver näringens olika delkomponenter utifrån ett deskriptivt och geografiskt perspektiv, vilket ger läsaren kunskaper som är nyttiga i samband med exempelvis omvärldsanalyser.

  • 44.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Besöka naturen hemma eller borta?: Delresultat från en nationell enkät om friluftsliv och naturturism i Sverige2008Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Vad är friluftsliv?: Delresultat från en nationell enkät om friluftsliv och naturturism i Sverige2008Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Vara i naturen - varför eller varför inte?: Delresultat från en nationell enkät om friluftsliv och naturturism i Sverige2008Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    An Arctic tourism innovation systems approach2013In: / [ed] Raynald Harvey Lemelin, Patrick Maher, Daniela Liggett, 2013, p. 243-251Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    The supply of nature-based tourism activities in Sweden2010In: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 379-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a long period of urbanisation and globalisation, the demand for nature and naturebasedrecreation and tourism in large part comes from metropolitan areas and from abroad.Th e development of nature-based tourism is encouraged by regional policy and developmentschemes. However the positive potential of nature-based tourism for regional developmentand rural entrepreneurship is contested. Th is encourages the identifi cation of factors thatmay explain the success or failure of destinations and businesses focusing on nature basedtourism products and how the supply of nature-based tourism activities coincide withdomestic demand in Sweden with the aim to discuss the potential of nature-based tourismfor socio-economic development. Th e question addressed is: what supply is there in terms ofnature-based activities in Sweden? Th e paper is based on a survey of nature-based tourismsupply on regional web pages in Sweden. Th e material indicates that supply and demandhave diffi culties to meet. From a supply-side perspective variations in accessibility and alack of suitable products limit the possibility to actually make a living out of nature-basedtourism. Hence, it is concluded that nature-based tourism is a viable development optiononly for few destinations.

  • 49.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Jansson, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Effects of climate change and extreme events on forest communities in the European North2008In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 87, no 1-2, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European north is increasingly affected by changes in climate and climate variability. These changes and their causes are global in scope but specific impacts vary considerably between different regions. Recent incidents and events show that forest-resource based regions have difficulties in alleviating adverse effects of these changes. Also, the future socio-economic impact is to date unexplored. Norrbotten in Sweden, Lappi in Finland and Arkhangelsk oblast in Russia are regions that differ significantly in terms of their socio-economic characteristics and capacities. A modified employment multiplier model is used to predict future changes. Scenarios of changing forest resources provide quantitative estimations of the sensitivity of regional employment. These estimates are used to assess and discuss the adaptive capacities of the regions. Results show that Arkhangelsk oblast is more vulnerable to climate variability than Norrbotten and Lappi. This is due to the continued dependency on natural resources in combination with different capacities to counteract negative effects or to take advantage of the opportunities offered by climate change in this region.

  • 50.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Paskevich, Albina
    Department of Economy and Society, Högskolan Dalarna, 791 88 Falun, Sweden.
    Jansson, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Effects of climate change and extreme events on forest communities in the European North.2008In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009 (Print) 1573-1480 (Online), Vol. 87, no 1-2, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European north is increasingly affected by changes in climate and climate variability. These changes and their causes are global in scope but specific impacts vary considerably between different regions. Recent incidents and events show that forest-resource based regions have difficulties in alleviating adverse effects of these changes. Also, the future socio-economic impact is to date unexplored. Norrbotten in Sweden, Lappi in Finland and Arkhangelsk oblast in Russia are regions that differ significantly in terms of their socio-economic characteristics and capacities. A modified employment multiplier model is used to predict future changes. Scenarios of changing forest resources provide quantitative estimations of the sensitivity of regional employment. These estimates are used to assess and discuss the adaptive capacities of the regions. Results show that Arkhangelsk oblast is more vulnerable to climate variability than Norrbotten and Lappi. This is due to the continued dependency on natural resources in combination with different capacities to counteract negative effects or to take advantage of the opportunities offered by climate change in this region.

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