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  • 1.
    Bäckman, Lars
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Soveri, Anna
    Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Turku PET Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Dahlin, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Neely, Anna S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Virta, Jere
    Turku PET Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Matti
    Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Rinne, Juha O
    Turku PET Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Effects of working-memory training on striatal dopamine release2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 333, no 6043, p. 718-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Updating of working memory has been associated with striato-frontal brain regions and phasic dopaminergic neurotransmission. We assessed raclopride binding to striatal dopamine (DA) D2 receptors during a letter-updating task and a control condition before and after 5 weeks of updating training. Results showed that updating affected DA activity before training and that training further increased striatal DA release during updating. These findings highlight the pivotal role of transient neural processes associated with D2 receptor activity in working memory.

  • 2.
    Dahlin, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska institutet,Stockholm.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Training of the executive component of working memory: subcortial areas mediate transfer effects2009In: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, ISSN 0922-6028, E-ISSN 1878-3627, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 405-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Several recent studies show that training can improve working memory (WM) performance. In this review, many issues related to WM training, such as neural basis, transfer effects, and age-related changes are addressed.

    Method: We focus on our own studies investigating training on tasks taxing the executive updating function and discuss our findings in relation to results from other studies investigating training of the executive component of WM.

    Results: The review confirms positive behavioral effects of training on working memory. The most common neural pattern following training is fronto-parietal activity decreases. Increases in sub-cortical areas are also frequently reported after training, and we suggest that such increases indicate changes in the underlying skill following training. Transfer effects are in general difficult to demonstrate. Some studies show that older adults increase their performance after WM training. However, transfer effects are small or nonexistent in old age.

    Conclusions: The main finding in this review is that sub-cortical areas seem to have a critical role in mediating transfer effects to untrained tasks after at least some forms of working memory training (such as updating).

  • 3.
    Dahlin, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Plasticity of executive functioning in young and older adults: immediative training gains, transfer, and long-term maintenance2008In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 720-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigated immediate training gains, transfer effects, and 18-month maintenance after 5 weeks of computer-based training in updating of information in working memory in young and older subjects. Trained young and older adults improved significantly more than controls on the criterion task (letter memory), and these gains were maintained 18 months later. Transfer effects were in general limited and restricted to the young participants, who showed transfer to an untrained task that required updating (3-back). The findings demonstrate substantial and durable plasticity of executive functioning across adulthood and old age, although there appear to be age-related constraints in the ability to generalize the acquired updating skill.

  • 4.
    Dahlin, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, 11330 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Transfer of learning after updating training mediated by the striatum2008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 320, no 5882, p. 1510-1512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process-specific training can improve performance on untrained tasks, but the magnitude of gain is variable and often there is no transfer at all. We demonstrate transfer to a 3-back test of working memory after 5 weeks of training in updating. The transfer effect was based on a joint training-related activity increase for the criterion (letter memory) and transfer tasks in a striatal region that also was recruited pretraining. No transfer was observed to a task that did not engage updating and striatal regions, and age-related striatal changes imposed constraints on transfer. These findings indicate that transfer can occur if the criterion and transfer tasks engage specific overlapping processing components and brain regions.

  • 5. Derwinger, A
    et al.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    MacDonald, S
    Backman, L
    Forgetting numbers in old age: Strategy and learning speed matter2005In: GERONTOLOGY, ISSN 0304-324X, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 277-288Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Derwingwer, A
    et al.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Backman, L
    Design your own memory strategies! Self-generated strategy training versus mnemonic training in old age: An 8-month follow-up2005In: NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION, ISSN 0960-2011, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 37-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Jones, S
    et al.
    Lars, NB
    Sandblom, J
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Ingvar, M
    Petersson, KM
    Backman, L
    Cognitive and neural plasticity in aging: General and task-specific limitations2006In: NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS, ISSN 0149-7634, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 864-871Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8. Kivipelto, Miia
    et al.
    Solomon, Alina
    Ahtiluoto, Satu
    Ngandu, Tiia
    Lehtisalo, Jenni
    Antikainen, Riitta
    Backman, Lars
    Hanninen, Tuomo
    Jula, Antti
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Lindstrom, Jaana
    Mangialasche, Francesca
    Nissinen, Aulikki
    Paajanen, Teemu
    Pajala, Satu
    Peltonen, Markku
    Rauramaa, Rainer
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Strandberg, Timo
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Soininen, Hilkka
    The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER): Study design and progress2013In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 657-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) is a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial ongoing in Finland.

    Materials: Participants (1200 individuals at risk of cognitive decline) are recruited from previous population-based non-intervention studies. Inclusion criteria are CAIDE Dementia Risk Score >= 6 and cognitive performance at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age (but not substantial impairment) assessed with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery. The 2-year multidomain intervention consists of: nutritional guidance; exercise; cognitive training and social activity; and management of metabolic and vascular risk factors. Persons in the control group receive regular health advice. The primary outcome is cognitive performance as measured by the modified Neuropsychological Test Battery, Stroop test, and Trail Making Test. Main secondary outcomes are: dementia (after extended follow-up); disability; depressive symptoms; vascular risk factors and outcomes; quality of life; utilization of health resources; and neuroimaging measures.

    Results: Screening began in September 2009 and was completed in December 2011. All 1200 persons are enrolled and the intervention is ongoing as planned. Baseline clinical characteristics indicate that several vascular risk factors and unhealthy lifestyle related factors are present, creating a window of opportunity for prevention. The intervention will be completed during 2014.

    Conclusions: The FINGER is at the forefront of international collaborative efforts to solve the clinical and public health problems of early identification of individuals at increased risk of late-life cognitive impairment, and of developing intervention strategies to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive impairment and dementia.

  • 9. MacDonald, SWS
    et al.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Derwinger, A
    Backman, L
    Rate of acquisition, adult age, and basic cognitive abilities predict forgetting: New views on a classic problem2006In: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL, ISSN 0096-3445, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 368-390Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Stenlund, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lisbeth, Slunga Järvholm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University.
    Effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention for patients with stress-related exhaustion2015In: Stress, ISSN 1025-3890, E-ISSN 1607-8888, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 578-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-related exhaustion has been linked to a pattern of selective cognitive impairments, mainly affecting executive functioning, attention and episodic memory. Little is known about potential treatments of these cognitive deficits. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention, designed to target the specific cognitive impairments associated with stress-related exhaustion. To this end, patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED) were randomized to either a multimodal stress rehabilitation program with the addition of a process-based cognitive training intervention (training group, n = 27) or a treatment-as-usual control condition, consisting of multimodal stress rehabilitation with no additional training (control group, n = 32). Treatment effects were evaluated through an extensive cognitive test battery, assessing both near- and far transfer effects, as well as self-report forms regarding subjective cognitive complaints and burnout levels. Results showed pronounced training-related improvements on the criterion updating task (p < 0.001). Further, evidence was found of selective near transfer effects to updating (p = 0.01) and episodic memory (p = 0.04). Also, the trained group reported less subjective memory complaints (p = 0.02) and levels of burnout decreased for both groups, but more so for the trained group (p = 0.04), following the intervention. These findings suggest that process-based cognitive training may be a viable method to address the cognitive impairments associated with ED.

  • 11.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Stenlund, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Karlstad University.
    Effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention for patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized clinical trial2015In: International Convention of Psychological Science, Amsterdam, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluated whether a computerized process-based cognitive training program improves cognitive function in patients with stress-related exhaustion (n=59). Results showed training effects that were generalizable beyond the specific training tasks, suggesting that cognitive training may be a viable part of the rehabilitation of stress-related exhaustion.

  • 12. Ngandu, Tiia
    et al.
    Lehtisalo, Jenni
    Solomon, Alina
    Levälahti, Esko
    Ahtiluoto, Satu
    Antikainen, Riitta
    Bäckman, Lars
    Hänninen, Tuomo
    Jula, Antti
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Lindström, Jaana
    Mangialasche, Francesca
    Paajanen, Teemu
    Pajala, Satu
    Peltonen, Markku
    Rauramaa, Rainer
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Strandberg, Timo
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Kivipelto, Miia
    A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial2015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 385, no 9984, p. 2255-2263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Modifiable vascular and lifestyle-related risk factors have been associated with dementia risk in observational studies. In the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), a proof-of-concept randomised controlled trial, we aimed to assess a multidomain approach to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people from the general population.

    Methods In a double-blind randomised controlled trial we enrolled individuals aged 60-77 years recruited from previous national surveys. Inclusion criteria were CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia) Dementia Risk Score of at least 6 points and cognition at mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. We randomly assigned participants in a 1: 1 ratio to a 2 year multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, vascular risk monitoring), or a control group (general health advice). Computer-generated allocation was done in blocks of four (two individuals randomly allocated to each group) at each site. Group allocation was not actively disclosed to participants and outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was change in cognition as measured through comprehensive neuropsychological test battery (NTB) Z score. Analysis was by modified intention to treat (all participants with at least one post-baseline observation). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01041989.

    Findings Between Sept 7, 2009, and Nov 24, 2011, we screened 2654 individuals and randomly assigned 1260 to the intervention group (n=631) or control group (n=629). 591 (94%) participants in the intervention group and 599 (95%) in the control group had at least one post-baseline assessment and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Estimated mean change in NTB total Z score at 2 years was 0.20 (SE 0.02, SD 0.51) in the intervention group and 0.16 (0.01, 0.51) in the control group. Between-group difference in the change of NTB total score per year was 0.022 (95% CI 0.002-0.042, p=0.030). 153 (12%) individuals dropped out overall. Adverse events occurred in 46 (7%) participants in the intervention group compared with six (1%) participants in the control group; the most common adverse event was musculoskeletal pain (32 [5%] individuals for intervention vs no individuals for control).

    Interpretation Findings from this large, long-term, randomised controlled trial suggest that a multidomain intervention could improve or maintain cognitive functioning in at-risk elderly people from the general population.

  • 13.
    Nordvall, Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-Reported Impulsivity and its Relation to Executive Functions in Interned Youth2017In: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 910-922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In adolescence, antisocial behaviors increase in prevalence, an occurrence that has been related to the parallel increase of impulsive behaviors. However, impulsivity is a conglomerate of unidimensional impulsigenic traits, divided into aspects of behavioral dyscontrol and sensation seeking. In the present study, we examine how these traits differ between interned youth and an aged-matched control group, and how they relate to executive functioning. Results indicate that impulsigenic traits related to behavioral dyscontrol, but not sensation seeking, are more pronounced in interned adolescents. Also, executive functioning was predictive of lack of premeditation, a trait specifically related to antisocial behavior. One implication of this is that interventions improving executive functioning could be beneficial in the rehabilitation of interned adolescents with impulsivity-related problems.

  • 14.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Dahlin, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Neural correlates of variable working memory load across adult age and skill: dissociative patterns within the fronto-parietal network2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined neural changes related to variations in working memory load by using an n-back task with three levels and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Younger adults were divided into high- and low-performing groups (Young-High; Young-Low) and compared with older adults. Relative to Young-High, capacity-constraints in working memory were apparent between load 1-2 for the elderly and between load 2-3 for Young-Low. Capacity-constraints in neural activity followed this pattern by showing a monotonically increasing response in parietal cortex and thalamus for Young-High, whereas activity leveled off at 1-back for the elderly and at 2-back for Young-Low. The response in dorsal frontal cortex followed a similar pattern with the addition that the magnitude of activation differed within capacity limitations (Old > Young at 1-back; Young-Low > Young-High at 2-back). These findings indicate that an important determinant of WM capacity is the ability to keep the frontal cortex adequately engaged in relation to current task demands.

  • 15. Richard, Edo
    et al.
    Andrieu, Sandrine
    Solomon, Alina
    Mangialasche, Francesca
    Ahtiluoto, Satu
    van Charante, Eric P. Moll
    Coley, Nicola
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Neely, Anna Stigsdotter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vellas, Bruno
    van Gool, Willem A.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Methodological challenges in designing dementia prevention trials: The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI)2012In: Journal of the Neurological Sciences, ISSN 0022-510X, E-ISSN 1878-5883, Vol. 322, no 1-2, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent epidemiological studies have indicated numerous associations between vascular and lifestyle related risk factors and incident dementia. However, evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) showing effectiveness of interventions aimed at these risk factors in preventing or postponing dementia onset is still lacking. Three large RDT on multi-component interventions to prevent dementia (preDIVA, FINGER. MAPT) have been initiated in Europe to address these issues. Irrespective of some methodological differences, all three studies target cardiovascular and lifestyle related risk factors. Collaboration within the newly founded 'European Dementia Prevention Initiative' (EDPI) will allow for a comprehensive exploration of optimal target population, intervention and outcome measures, which are currently unknown. Combining data of the ongoing studies and running simulation analyses will facilitate determining the optimal design including accurate sample-size calculations for future multi-national clinical trials on dementia prevention. Interventions aiming at dementia prevention should be pragmatic and easy to implement on a large scale in different health care systems, without generating high additional costs or burden on participants or physicians. As the optimal age for intervention precedes the optimal age for outcome assessment, traditional trial designs might lead to suboptimal timing of either of the two. Separation of intervention and outcome assessment in time is a potential solution, but requires studies with very long follow-up. International collaboration of research groups with experience in dementia prevention studies and well-organised logistics for these major projects is pivotal to success for future large-scale dementia prevention studies. Founding of EDPI is an important first step in this direction. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16. Rosenberg, Anna
    et al.
    Ngandu, Tiia
    Rusanen, Minna
    Antikainen, Riitta
    Bäckman, Lars
    Havulinna, Satu
    Hänninen, Tuomo
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Lehtisalo, Jenni
    Levälahti, Esko
    Lindström, Jaana
    Paajanen, Teemu
    Peltonen, Markku
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Social and Psychological Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Timo
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Solomon, Alina
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Multidomain lifestyle intervention benefits a large elderly population at risk for cognitive decline and dementia regardless of baseline characteristics: The FINGER trial2018In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The 2-year Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) multidomain lifestyle intervention trial (NCT01041989) demonstrated beneficial effects on cognition. We investigated whether sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, baseline cognition, or cardiovascular factors influenced intervention effects on cognition.

    Methods: The FINGER recruited 1260 people from the general Finnish population (60-77 years, at risk for dementia). Participants were randomized 1: 1 to multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognition, and vascular risk management) and regular health advice. Primary outcome was change in cognition (Neuropsychological Test Battery z-score). Prespecified analyses to investigate whether participants' characteristics modified response to intervention were carried out using mixed-model repeated-measures analyses.

    Results: Sociodemographics (sex, age, and education), socioeconomic status (income), cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination), cardiovascular factors (body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, fasting glucose, and overall cardiovascular risk), and cardiovascular comorbidity did not modify response to intervention (P-values for interaction > .05). Conclusions: The FINGER intervention was beneficial regardless of participants' characteristics and can thus be implemented in a large elderly population at increased risk for dementia. 

  • 17.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Derwinger-Hallberg, Anna
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memory plasticity in older adults: Cognitive predictors of training response and maintenance following learning of number-consonant mnemonic2016In: Neuropsychological rehabilitation (Print), ISSN 0960-2011, E-ISSN 1464-0694, Vol. 26, no 5-6, p. 742-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the relationship between cognitive factors and gains in number recall following training in a number–consonant mnemonic in a sample of 112 older adults (M = 70.9 years). The cognitive factors examined included baseline episodic memory, working memory, processing speed, and verbal knowledge. In addition, predictors of maintenance of gains to a follow-up assessment, eight months later, were examined. Whereas working memory was a prominent predictor of baseline recall, the magnitude of gains in recall from pre- to post-test assessments were predicted by baseline episodic memory, processing speed, and verbal knowledge. Verbal knowledge was the only significant predictor of maintenance. Collectively, the results indicate the need to consider multiple factors to account for individual differences in memory plasticity. The potential contribution of additional factors to individual differences in memory plasticity is discussed.

  • 18.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Executive process training in young and old adults2014In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 577-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of research on the modifiability of executive functions in different stages of life. Previous studies demonstrate robust training effects but limited transfer in younger and particularly in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a theoretically derived intervention for executive functioning, addressing several basic processes (updating, shifting, and inhibition), can induce transfer effects in early and late adulthood. Fifty-nine healthy adults, 29 young and 30 older adults, were randomly assigned to either training or no-contact control groups. The training groups received 15 sessions of executive process training for about 45 min/session during 5 weeks. A test battery including a criterion task and near, intermediate, and far transfer tasks was administered before and after training. Results showed pronounced age-equivalent gains on the criterion task. Near transfer was seen to non-trained updating and inhibition tasks for the young and older trained participants. However, only the young adults showed intermediate transfer to two complex working memory tasks. No far transfer effects were seen for either age group. These findings provide additional evidence for age-related constraints in the ability to generalize acquired executive skills, and specifically show that training of multiple executive processes is not sufficient to foster transfer beyond the very near in older adults.

  • 19.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Long-term effects of executive process training in young and old adults2016In: Neuropsychological rehabilitation (Print), ISSN 0960-2011, E-ISSN 1464-0694, Vol. 26, no 5-6, p. 761-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies have examined the magnitude of training and transfer effects after process-based training in early and late adulthood. However, little is known about how long-lasting these effects are. Here we investigate the degree of stability of training gains and transfer effects in younger and older adults 18 months after completion of executive process training, tapping updating, inhibition, and shifting. From the original sample, 24 out of 30 older participants, and 19 out of 29 young adults, returned for follow-up assessment at which the criterion and transfer tests from pre- and post-test were re-administered. The results demonstrated stability of training gains in the updating criterion task (Letter Memory Running Span), and in a near transfer updating task (Number Memory Running Span) for both age groups. The young adults improved performance in two complex working memory tasks immediately after training. These transfer effects did not survive across time. Our results provide evidence that executive process training has its greatest effect on transfer tasks with a substantial process overlap with the trained tasks: only those effects are maintained over an 18 month period in both early and late adulthood.

  • 20.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Maintenance of Training Gains and Near Transfer Effects in Young and Old Adults: an 18-Month Follow-up of Executive Process TrainingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Prior studies have examined the magnitude of training and transfer effects after process-based training in early and late adulthood. However, little is known about how long-lasting these effects are. Here we investigated the degree of stability of training gains and transfer effects in younger and older adults 18 months after completion of executive process training, tapping updating, inhibition, and shifting. Method: From the original sample, 24 out of 30 older participants, and 19 out of 29 young adults, returned for follow-up assessment at which the criterion and transfer tests from pre- and posttest were re-administered. Results: The results demonstrated stability of training gains in the updating criterion task (letter memory running span), and in a near transfer updating task (number memory running span) for both age groups. The young adults improved performance in two complex working memory tasks immediately after training. These transfer effects did not survive across time. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that executive process training has its greatest effect on transfer tasks with a substantial process overlap with the trained tasks: only those effects are maintained over an 18 month period in both early and late adulthood.

  • 21. Sipilä, Sarianna
    et al.
    Tirkkonen, Anna
    Hänninen, Tuomo
    Laukkanen, Pia
    Alen, Markku
    Fielding, Roger A.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Kokko, Katja
    Kulmala, Jenni
    Rantanen, Taina
    Sihvonen, Sanna E.
    Sillanpää, Elina
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Törmäkangas, Timo
    Promoting safe walking among older people: the effects of a physical and cognitive training intervention vs. physical training alone on mobility and falls among older community-dwelling men and women (the PASSWORD study): design and methods of a randomized controlled trial2018In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 18, article id 215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Safe and stable walking is a complex process involving the interaction of neuromuscular, sensory and cognitive functions. As physical and cognitive functions deteriorate with ageing, training of both functions may have more beneficial effects on walking and falls prevention than either alone. This article describes the study design, recruitment strategies and interventions of the PASSWORD study investigating whether a combination of physical and cognitive training (PTCT) has greater effects on walking speed, dual-task cost in walking speed, fall incidence and executive functions compared to physical training (PT) alone among 70-85-year-old community-dwelling sedentary or at most moderately physically active men and women.

    Methods: Community-dwelling sedentary or at most moderately physically active, men and women living in the city of Jyvaskyla will be recruited and randomized into physical training (PT) and physical and cognitive training (PTCT). The 12-month interventions include supervised training sessions and home exercises. Both groups attend physical training intervention, which follows the current physical activity guidelines. The PTCT group performes also a web-based computer program targeting executive functions. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months thereafter. Falls data are collected during the interventions and the subsequent one-year follow-up. The primary outcome is 10-m walking speed. Secondary outcomes include 6-min walking distance, dual-task cost in walking speed, fall incidence and executive function assessed with color Stroop and Trail Making A and B tests. Explanatory outcomes include e.g. body composition and bone characteristics, physical performance, physical activity, life-space mobility, fall-related self-efficacy, emotional well-being and personality characteristics.

    Discussion: The study is designed to capture the additive and possible synergistic effects of physical and cognitive training. When completed, the study will provide new knowledge on the effects of physical and cognitive training on the prevention of walking limitations and rate of falls in older people. The expected results will be of value in informing strategies designed to promote safe walking among older people and may have a significant health and socio-economic impact.

  • 22. Solomon, Alina
    et al.
    Turunen, Heidi
    Ngandu, Tiia
    Peltonen, Markku
    Levälahti, Esko
    Helisalmi, Seppo
    Antikainen, Riitta
    Bäckman, Lars
    Hänninen, Tuomo
    Jula, Antti
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Lehtisalo, Jenni
    Lindström, Jaana
    Paajanen, Teemu
    Pajala, Satu
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Timo
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Effect of the Apolipoprotein E Genotype on Cognitive Change During a Multidomain Lifestyle Intervention A Subgroup Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial2018In: JAMA Neurology, ISSN 2168-6149, E-ISSN 2168-6157, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 462-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE: The role of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 allele as an effect modifier in lifestyle interventions to prevent cognitive impairment is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the APOE epsilon 4 allele modifies the previously reported significant cognitive benefits of a multidomain lifestyle intervention (prespecified subgroup analysis). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) was a randomized clinical trial in 6 centers across Finland (screening and randomization performed from September 7, 2009, through November 24, 2011; intervention duration, 2 years). Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2015, to March 31, 2016. The study population was at-risk older individuals from the general population. Inclusion criteria were age of 60 to 77 years; Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia risk score of at least 6 points; and cognition at a mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Individuals with dementia or substantial cognitive impairment and conditions that prevented cooperation or safe engagement in the intervention were excluded. APOE genotype data were available for 1175 of the 1260 participants. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned in a 1: 1 ratio to a multidomain intervention group (diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk management) or a control group (general health advice). Group allocation was not actively disclosed to participants, and outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcome was change in cognition measured through a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Analysis was based on modified intention to treat (participants with at least 1 postbaseline assessment). RESULTS: A total of 1109 participants (mean [SD] age, 69.3 [4.7] years; 514 [46.3%] female) were included in the analysis: 362 APOE epsilon 4 allele carriers (173 intervention and 189 control) and 747 noncarriers (380 intervention and 367 control). The APOE epsilon 4 carriers and noncarriers were not significantly different at baseline (except for serum cholesterol level). The difference between the intervention and control groups in annual neuropsychological test battery total score change was 0.037 (95% CI, 0.001 to 0.073) among carriers and 0.014 (95% CI, -0.011 to 0.039) among noncarriers. Intervention effect was not significantly different between carriers and noncarriers (0.023; 95% CI, -0.021 to 0.067). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Healthy lifestyle changesmay be beneficial for cognition in older at-risk individuals even in the presence of APOE-related genetic susceptibility to dementia. Whether such benefits are more pronounced in APOE epsilon 4 carriers compared with noncarriers should be further investigated. The findings also emphasize the importance of early prevention strategies that target multiple modifiable risk factors simultaneously.

  • 23.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    A fronto-striatal workout to promote neuro-plasticity in old adults2013In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 50, no Special issue, suppl. 1, p. S7-S8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sehlstedt, I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekman, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Qwillbard, Tony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Working Memory Updating Training in Older Adults: Is Level of Performance After Training Related to Transfer?2013In: Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0269-8803, E-ISSN 2151-2124, Vol. 27, no Supplement 1, p. 69-70Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vikström, Sofia
    Department of Occupational Therapy, NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Josephsson, Staffan
    Department of Occupational Therapy, NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Collaborative memory intervention in dementia: Caregiver participation matters2009In: Neuropsychological rehabilitation (Print), ISSN 0960-2011, E-ISSN 1464-0694, Vol. 14, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a collaborative memory intervention for persons with dementia and their spousal caregivers, where the couple acquired and practised memory supportive strategies (spaced-retrieval and hierarchical cuing) to learn a face-name association and to set a table for coffee/tea. The collaborative intervention was compared to an individual intervention where the person with dementia received the same training but without the participating caregiver and to a control group of couples receiving no training. The results showed that following collaborative intervention recall performance in two collaborative tasks became more equally shared between the spouses, reflected in a decrease in recall for the caregiver and in an increase in recall for the spouse with dementia between pre- and post-test; whereas for the other two groups the caregivers dominated collaborative recall both at pre- and post-test. The results also showed that the persons with dementia in the collaborative group improved their individually assessed episodic memory performance as compared to the persons with dementia in the other two groups. Finally, training had no effects on episodic memory, perceived burden or depressive symptoms for the caregivers. These results suggest that the active participation of the caregiver matters in cognitive dementia rehabilitation.

  • 26. Vaskivuo, Laura
    et al.
    Hokkanen, Laura
    Hänninen, Tuomo
    Antikainen, Riitta
    Backman, Lars
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Paajanen, Teemu
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Social and Psychological Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Timo
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Ngandu, Tiia
    Associations between prospective and retrospective subjective memory complaints and neuropsychological performance in older adults: the finger study2018In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1099-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are among the key concerns in the elderly, but their role in detecting objective cognitive problems is unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between SMCs (both prospective and retrospective memory complaints) and neuropsychological test performance in older adults at risk of cognitive decline. Methods: This investigation is part of the FINGER project, a multicenter randomized controlled trial aiming at preventing cognitive decline in high-risk individuals. The cognitive assessment of participants was conducted at baseline using a modified neuropsychological test battery (NTB). SMCs were evaluated with the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) in a sub-sample of 560 participants (mean age, 69.9 years). Results: Having more prospective SMCs was associated with slower processing speed, but not with other NTB domains. Retrospective SMCs were linked to poorer function on NTB total score, processing speed, and memory. Executive function domain was not associated with any PRMQ ratings. Depressive symptoms and poor quality of life diluted the observed associations for NTB total score and memory. However, the association between PRMQ and processing speed remained even after full adjustments. Conclusions: Our results indicate that self-reported memory problems, measured with PRMQ, are associated with objectively measured cognitive performance. Such complaints in healthy elderly people also seem to reflect reduced mental tempo, rather than memory deficits. Slowing of processing speed may thus be negatively related to memory self-efficacy. It is also important to consider affective factors among those who report memory problems.

  • 27. Vikström, S
    et al.
    Borell, L
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Josephsson, S
    Caregivers' self-initiated support toward their partners with dementia when performing an everyday occupation together at home2005In: OTJR-OCCUPATION PARTICIPATION AND HEALTH, ISSN 1539-4492, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 149-159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Wikström, Sofia
    et al.
    Josephsson, Staffan
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Nygård, Louise
    Engagement in activities: Experiences of persons with dementia and their caregiving spouses2008In: Dementia, ISSN 1471-3012, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 251-270Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Slunga Birgander, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Enviromental Medicine.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive function in outpatients with perceived chronic stress2007In: Scand J Work Environ Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 29 of 29
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