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  • 1.
    Abdul Kader, Hale
    et al.
    Centre for Risk and Insurance Studies, University of Nottingham, Nottingham,.
    Adams, Michael
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The determinants of reinsurance in the Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar years, 1919–392010In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 268-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing a framework from agency theory, we use a panel data design to examine the factors motivating the level of demand for reinsurance in the rapidly developing Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar period 1919–39. We find that as hypothesised, reinsurance enabled Swedish fire insurers to mitigate underwriting and solvency risks and thus increased their capacity to underwrite new business in uncertain economic times. This in turn helped to increase the supply of indemnity coverage for property (buildings) fire risks in the Swedish insurance market. We also find that as expected, investment earnings are inversely related to reinsurance purchases. However, contrary to what was hypothesised, reinsurance appears to be positively related to liquidity levels, suggesting that over our period of analysis, fire insurers could have been reinsuring to ‘protect’ earnings and accumulated cash reserves therefore enabling investment opportunities to be realised. Analysis of the sub-period 1919–28 further supports this contention, while our results for the economic depression years after 1929 show that reinsurance helped mitigate underwriting and insolvency risks, suggesting that the reinsurance decision of fire insurance companies could be motivated by macroeconomic factors.

  • 2.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Convergence of CO2 emissions and economic growth in the OECD countries: did the type of fuel matter?2017In: Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, ISSN 1556-7249, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 618-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes convergence in CO2 emissions in the OECD countries with respect to the source of emissions (oil versus coal). The investigated period 1973-2010 is divided into two sub-periods, 1973-1991 and 1992-2010. The first period covers the OPEC oil price shocks, where the OECD oil policy was to a high extent governed by energy security concerns and cold war strategic considerations. The second period corresponds to the end of the cold war and the rise of climate policy in several OECD countries. Due to such contextual differences, oil and coal behave differently in the two sub-periods. The generally stronger convergence with respect to oil-related emissions until 1991 conditional on GDP per capita is compatible with a situation where the rising oil prices led to a strong transformation in the countries of interest. Besides, we evidence decoupling of economic growth from oil-related emissions in the post-cold war period.

  • 3.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Turkey.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Periods of converging carbon dioxide emissions from oil combustion in a pre-Kyoto context2016In: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, Vol. 19, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by oil combustion for a panel of 86 countries considering the importance of analyzing sub-periods separately. The investigation also points at the necessity of choosing a restricted global sample, which takes into account, for instance, that Eastern Bloc countries reacted differently to increasing world crude oil prices than the rest of the world. The analysis builds on examining the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with additional control variables such as emissions from combustion of solid fuels. The results reveal evidence in support of unconditional β-convergence of CO2 emissions intensity due to oil combustion in the restricted sample for the sub-periods 1973–1979 and 1979–1991, while no evidence for convergence was found for the post-1991, pre-Kyoto period. We could not find support for coal substituting technologies.

  • 4. Adams, M.
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Veprauskaite, E.
    Competing models of organizational form: Risk management strategies and underwriting profitability in the Swedish fire insurance market between 1903 and 19392012In: Journal of Economic History, ISSN 0022-0507, E-ISSN 1471-6372, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 990-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual and stock insurers have coexisted and competed against each other in insurance markets for centuries. In this article, we examine the risk management strategies and underwriting profitability of the different organizational forms in Sweden's property fire insurance market between 1903 and 1939. We demonstrate that stock insurers acted as intermediaries between policyholders and reinsurers to operate effectively in the potentially high-risk segments of the fire insurance market. In contrast, nationwide mutual insurers kept larger reserves to balance fluctuations in claims experiences, while local insurance pools relied on social obligation and trust to mobilize capital after adverse fire events.

  • 5.
    Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Norway.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Commercial banking, insurance and economic growth in Sweden between 1830 and 19982009In: Accounting Business and Financial History, ISSN 0958-5206, E-ISSN 1466-4275, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine empirically the dynamic historical relation between commercial bank lending, insurance and economic (income) growth in Sweden using time-series data from 1830 to 1998 and performing tests for Granger causality. Because of the non-stationary nature of the time series examined the procedure of Toda andYamamoto (1995) is used. Our results, which have accounted for possible regime changes due to different exchange rate mechanisms over time, indicate that insurance has Granger-caused economic growth and bank lending. Therefore, we conclude that insurance is an important prerequisite for stimulating economic growth and that this could have important implications for contemporary developing economies.

  • 6. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Veprauskaite, Elena
    Managing policy lapse risk in Sweden’s life insurance market between 1915 and 19472018In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the challenges that Swedish life insurers faced in managing the lapse risk of policies written on the lives of the industrial urban working class between 1915 and 1947. We observe that with the threat of State socialisation of insurance in the 1930s, industrial life insurers modified their business practices to better control policy lapses. Using firm-level data, we also analyse the effect of socio-economic changes, such as rising real wages, interest rate fluctuations and unemployment on life insurance policy lapses. Our results support contemporary tests of the emergency fund and interest rate explanations for the voluntary premature termination of life insurance policies.

  • 7. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Yihui Jia, Joy
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mutuality as a control for information asymmetry: a historical analysis of the claims experience of mutual and stock fire insur ance companies in Sweden, 1889 to 19392011In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 1074-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We test two competing arguments regarding the influence of organisational form onunderwritingperformance usingdatafromtheSwedish fireinsuranceindustry for the years 1889 to 1939 – a period of both economic growth and stagnation. Since mutuality is a response to information asymmetry problems, mutual insurers are expected to report lower annual claims relative to premiums than stock insurance companies. However, an alternative view is that stock insurers seek to reduce information asymmetry problems by issuing non-participatory rights insurance contracts with high deductibles that induce risk-sharing between the insurer’s shareholders and policyholders. This implies that stock insurers are likely to report lower annual claims than mutual insurers. Our results show that organisational form is an important determinant of the claims experience of Swedish fire insurers, suggesting that mutuality acts as an effective control for information asymmetries in the market.

  • 8. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Hardwick, Philip
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Firm size and growth in Sweden's life insurance market between 1855 and 1947: A test of Gibrat's law2014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 956-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data for the period from 1855 to 1947 and the two sub-periods, 1855-1902 and 1903-47, the article examines whether the organic growth rates of 38 Swedish life insurance firms are independent of size, as predicted by Gibrat's (1931) Law of Proportionate Effects. Using panel unit root tests and panel Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) regression, the article finds a significant difference between the growth rates of small and large Swedish life insurance firms (with smaller firms tending to grow faster than larger firms), a result that clearly contradicts Gibrat's Law as a long-run tendency in the Swedish life insurance sector. significant influences were also found on firm growth from profitability, organisational form, reinsurance, the real rate of interest and the Swedish regulatory environment.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Life insurance and income growth: the case of Sweden 1830-19502010In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 203-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide an analysis of the life insurance market in Sweden from the early 19th century to the mid 20th century. We consider determinants put forward in the financial history literature to explain the growth of life insurance. The paper shows that income elasticity of demand gives a fairly good approximation of the development in the twentieth century, while the development of risk and insurance innovation among other things need to be taken into account to explain the growth of life insurance in nineteenth century. The price of life insurance, measured as the overhead-to-premium-income-ratio, remained fairly constant during the second half of the 19th century, while the risk, as indicated in terms of crude mortality rates and its volatility did decline.  This probably improved the return on life-insurance savings and further helped the entry of new firms. The average premium size was reduced to enable the diffusion of life insurance to workers.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Is Structural Change Speeding Up? The Case of Sweden, 1850-20002008In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 1750-2837 (electronic) 0358-5522 (paper), Vol. 56, no 3, p. 192-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the importance of structural change on productivity growth and conditions in the labour market. From a productivity perspective, a positive relation is found between structural change and productivity growth from the industrial breakthrough until the first oil crisis. From the early 1970s, this positive relation weakened and eventually became negative as labour moved from high to low productive industries. From a labour market perspective, it is found that extent of sectoral reallocation of labour has become more intense over the twentieth century. The extent of job gains and losses seems to have been more intense during the postwar period than during the industrialization phase.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Unintentional climate policy: Swedish experiences of carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth 1950-20052010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the development of carbon dioxide emissions in Sweden, especially with a focus on the absolute reductions during the post-war period, during the 1970s and 1980s. The paper shows that the largest reductions were achieved before the introduction of an active climate policy in 1991. This was in turn the result of significant improvements in energy efficiency and energy conversion, while structural changes were considerably less important. One reason behind this decoupling process may be that the active energy policy put pressure on households and industries to conserve energy and to substitute from oil to electricity and biofuels. The process was substantially reinforced by the development of world oil prices in combination with the development of domestic electricity prices, where nuclear power seems to have played an important role.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Välfärden, skatterna, baumoleffekten och högerpopulismens framväxt2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi ser i dag en förtroendekris för de politiska krafter som under hela efterkrigstiden har fört en kamp kring avvägningen mellan skatter och offentligt finansierad välfärd under förutsättning att den makroekonomiska jämvikten inteäventyras. Utmanare är högerpopulismen som vunnit mark genom utpekandetav invandring som en allmän förklaring till höga skatter och upplevda brister ivälfärden. Men lika lite som invandringen egentligen kan förklara långsiktigtstigande skatter, lika bortglömd tycks Baumoleffekten vara. Bristen på strukturellekonomisk-historisk analys för att förstå utmaningarna för välfärdsfinansieringär uppenbara

  • 13.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mike B., Adams
    Jonas, Andersson
    The Historical Relation between Banking, Insurance and Economic Growth in Sweden: 1830 to 19982005Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Adams, Mike
    School of Management, University of Bath.
    Upreti, Vineet
    School of Management, University of Bath.
    The determinants of investment returns in the fire insurance industry: the case of Sweden, 1903-19392013In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 73-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weemploy a panel data research design to examine the determinants of investmentreturns in the Swedish property fire insurance industry from 1903 to 1939 – aperiod of great economic and political uncertainty. Contrary to expectations,we find that mutual fire insurers generated systematically higher investmentreturns than stock fire insurers. Investment returns are inversely related toleverage but positively related to liquidity, showing that firms adopting amore precautionary investment strategy attain higher returns.

  • 15.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Samförstånd, spänning och förändring: institutioner och ekonomisk tillväxt i svensk ekonomisk historia under 150 år2017In: Marknad och politik / [ed] Lars Hultkrantz och Pär Österholm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 12, p. 11-39Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Lindmark, MagnusUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Strukturernas dynamik : kontinuitet och förändring i ekonomisk historia: festskrift till Olle Krantz2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 17. Astrid, Kander
    et al.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Foreign trade and declining pollution in Sweden: A decomposition analysis of long-term structural and technological effects2006In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 34, no 13, p. 1590-1599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines whether there exists any causal relationship between foreign trade and declining pollution in developed countries. In other words, do developed countries outsource their problems to less developed countries rather than solve them? The case study is the Swedish economy and the two environmental indicators employed are energy consumption and CO2 emissions. No causal relationships are found, since Sweden has long been a net exporter of embodied energy and CO2 and continues to be so after 1970, when energy consumption stabilizes and CO2 emissions decline. In addition, the ratios of net exported energy and CO2 to total consumption remain stable, which means there were no effects on the energy intensity or CO2 intensity either. These results suggest that internal forces, like efficiency improvements, changed consumption patterns and transformation of the energy system, have been crucial for relative environmental improvement in Sweden, while foreign trade has played no role.

  • 18. Balk, Berth M.
    et al.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. SLU.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shwana
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Environmental Performance in Swedish Manufacturing 1913-19902006In: The theory and practice of environmental and resource economics: essays in honour of Karl-Gustaf Löfgren / [ed] Thomas Aronsson, Roger Axelsson, Runar Brännlund, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2006, p. 287-306Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Satsa på radikal teknikförändring – inte på biobränslen!2007In: Bioenergi: till vad och hur mycket? / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Forskningsrådet Formas, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sustainability and Shared Value in the Interwar Swedish Copper Industry2016In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 197-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of the Swedish-based mining company Boliden examines the proactive strategies it adopted to deal with the potential for severe environmental problems associated with the establishment of its large copper smelter in the 1920s. The article demonstrates how international networks, personal experience, and knowledge transfer from the U.S. copper industry help to explain the importance given to environmental issues by the Swedish industrialists. It is suggested that the main explanation for the proactive stance of the Swedish managers is that they perceived excessive pollution as working against creating a profitable and sustainable business. This case provides compelling evidence that firms pursuing an agenda focused on earning profits can still deliver environmental innovation and value to the local community, compatible with the concept of creating shared value.

  • 21.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Kinneryd, Hanna
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and technological change in Swedish industry 1970–19902013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 85, p. 6-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emission reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical and empirical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions and technology adoption; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970–1990. Our empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied solely on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures. These standards were implemented in combination with extended compliance periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. In these ways the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected companies to coordinate pollution abatement measures with productive investments.

  • 22.
    Brandén, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sandqvist, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Tjänstesektorns storlek: sysselsättning, produktivitet, förädlingsvärde, andel av BNP, andel av export med särskilt fokus på KIBS2010Report (Other academic)
  • 23. Kander, Astrid
    et al.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and growth in the long run-Sweden during 200 years2004In: European Review of Economic History, ISSN 1361-4916, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 297-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the evolution of energy use and pollution emissions in Sweden over the past two centuries – a much longer period than has been investigated in the large literature on the environmental Kuznets curve. In this article we show that both energy consumption and pollution emissions in Sweden declined relative to GDP over the last two hundred years. In absolute terms both energy use and pollution increased up until 1970, after which date energy consumption stabilised and pollutant emissions declined, leading to less environmental stress. The energy intensity results are decomposed to determine the relative impact of structural changes in the output structure versus within-sector changes. For the period after 1970 another decomposition for pollution emissions is performed to separate out changes in preferences from energy-related changes. The analyses show that technical change in a broad sense has been crucial for explaining the long-term decline in both energy intensity and pollutant intensity, while the transition to the service economy had negligible effects. Changed preferences affected the decline in emissions after 1970.

  • 24.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    An EKC-pattern in historical perspective: carbon dioxideemissions, technology, fuel prices and growth in Sweden1870–19972002In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 333-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) has been subject to research and debate since the early 1990s. This articleexamines the inverted-U trajectory of Swedish CO2 emissions during an extended time period beginning in 1870. Thebasis for the investigation is a structural time series approach that utilizes a stochastic trend as an indicator oftechnological and structural change, and GDP growth and changes in the price of fuel and cement price asindependent variables. Finally, the development of technological and structural change with respect to CO2 emissionsis interpreted within the context of growth regimes. The result suggests that the period 1920–1960, with high,sustained growth rates was associated with less technological and structural changes relating to CO2 emissions thanperiods with lower growth rates, such as the late 1800s and the post-1970 period. Furthermore, it is suggested thattime-specific technological clusters may affect EKC patterns.

  • 25.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    En global lyxfälla?: Långsiktiga perspektiv på hushållens skuldsättning2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Estimates of changes in the Swedish standing timber volume 1800 to 1980: An EHNA Study1996Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Hälsopolisens livsmedelskontroller: Kommentar till Ulf Rämme2001In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, no 4, p. 595-598Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Koldioxideffektivitet i ekonomisk-historiskt perspektiv2001Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Miljöjusterade historiska nationalräkenskaper1994In: Nordiska historiska nationalräkenskaper: Workshop vid Olofsfors herrgård 27-28 maj 1994 / [ed] Olle Krantz, Umeå: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia , 1994, p. 1-29Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Patterns of Historical CO2 intensity Transitions among High and Low-Income Countries2004In: Explorations in Economic History, ISSN 0014-4983, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 426-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the long-term relationship between CO2 emissions and economic development for various high-income OECD countries that, in turn, are compared with pattern for developing countries. A majority of high-income countries have experienced environmental Kuznets curve types of transitions with respect to CO2 intensity (emissions per GDP), while the these patterns are absent in the poorer countries. Moreover, the overall historical pattern is one of convergence with respect to intensities. These observations are consistent with an explanation that takes into account includes time-specific, or vintage technology.

  • 31.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Rethinking the environmental state: an economic history of the Swedish Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon2019In: In search of good energy policy / [ed] Marc Ozawa, Jonathan Chaplin,Michael Pollitt, David Reiner, Paul Warde, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 139-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to recognize that macroeconomic conditions and dynamics were important for the design of Swedish energy policy and that the transformation pressure on the Swedish energy system was exceptionally high by international comparison. Historic decisions, which were governed by a rationality fostered by the circumstances in the 1940s and early 1950s, came to form important structures which affected the outcome of the energy policy in the 1970s and 1980s. The perhaps most striking consequence of this was the emergence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon with few international counterparts. The transformative change of the Swedish energy system included several steps, which in retrospect seem accidental. The challenge today is to copy the sequence, while at the same time realizing that the structures and historical circumstances that brought about a sequence that was historically determined and of a contingent nature cannot easily serve as a 'copy and paste' learning example.

  • 32.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Riktlinjer för historiska miljöräkenskaper2001In: Nordiska historiska nationalräkenskaper: Nordic historical national accounts. Artikelsamling från workshop V, Anumark, 29 september till 1 oktober, 2000 / [ed] Magnus Lindmark och Peter Vikström, Umeå: Institutionen för ekonomisk historia , 2001, p. 85-108Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Some principles for environmental historical national accounting: a discussion paper1997In: Nordiska Historiska Nationalräkenskaper: Workshop 2 i Järvänpää 20-22 september 1996 / [ed] Jari Eloranta, Jyväskylä: Jyväskylä University , 1997Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Strypa tillväxten bästa lösningen?2013In: Generationsmålet: kontroverser kring klimat och konsumtion / [ed] Magnus Jiborn och Astrid Kander, Dialogos Förlag, 2013, 1, p. 78-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet diskuteras möjliga konsekvenser av att möta de svenska klimatmålen genom att minska konsumtionen. Vad händer med levnadsstandarden om vi hade halverat arbetstiden och vilken historisk epok motsvarar det i termer av materiell välfärd?

  • 35.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Technical change and the pattern of industrialization in Sweden 1880-1990: TFP calculations based on new estimates of stocks2003In: Nordic Historical National Accounts: Proceedings from Workshop VI Reykjavik 19-20 September 2003 / [ed] Gundmundur Jonsson, Reykjavik: University of Iceland , 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The Nature of Natural Resource Net Prices: On the presence of Hotelling rents, monopoly rents and Ricardian rents in Swedish iron ore industry2004In: Studying Economic Growth. New Tools and Perspectives: Workshop arranged in Umeå June 2-3 2003 / [ed] Peter Vikström, Umeå: Umeå : Univ., Inst. för ekonomisk historia , 2004, p. 189-205Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Towards environmental historical national accounts for Sweden: methodological considerations and estimates for the 19th and 20th centuries1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New questions in a changing economy demands development of both contemporary and historical national accounts. One such question concerns economic and environmental relationships. From a national accounting perspective this issue has been approached in terms of environmental accounting. The aim of this study is to investigate how proposals for integrated environmental and economic accounting can be used for an extension of the Historical National Accounts for Sweden and for examining the long-term relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation and resource depletion. This issue is approached through methodological considerations and estimates of iron ore and timber depletion and discharge of pollutants.

    The conclusions are that it is possible to construct environmental historical national accounts, but that the lack of historical data and theoretical difficulties cause a high level of abstraction and other problems concerning the series.

    The empirical investigations show that the 19th century can be considered a period of depletion intensive growth. Furthermore, there seems to be evidence of a correlation between changes in the natural resource net prices and previous periodizations of Swedish economic development. Concerning pollutants, the analyses shows an increase of the aggregated discharges until the late 1960s. However, the pollution intensity of growth has fallen throughout the period, possibly in a pattern of long trend periods.

  • 38.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Välfärdsstatens expansion. Ekonomisk tillväxt och offentlig sektor under 200 år. Av Peter H. Lindert2007In: Tidskrift for velferdsforskning, ISSN 0809-2052, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 65-66Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Öringsvatten eller terrawatt? : naturskydd i ett grönt strukturanalytiskt perspektiv2004In: Strukturernas dynamik : kontinuitet och förändring i ekonomisk historia : festskrift till Olle Krantz, Umeå : Univ., Inst. för ekonomisk historia, 2004 (Umeå : Print & Media, Umeå universitet) , 2004, p. 159-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Acar, Sevil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Department of Economics, Mahmutbey Dilmenler Caddesi, No: 26, Bagcilar, 34217 Istanbul, Turkey.
    Sustainability in the making? A historical estimate of Swedish sustainable and unsustainable development 1850-20002013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 176-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we estimate the long-rundevelopment of genuine savings in Sweden during the period 1850 to 2000. Bydoing so we are able to present a first analysis of long-run sustainabledevelopment during a single country’s transition to modern economic growth ratesand high income levels. We find that genuine savings may have been negative upuntil c. 1910. This suggests a period of transition to positive genuine savings in conjunction with or even preceding the transition to modern economic rates.Important contributions to the transition were increasing investments in humancapital, improved sanitary conditions, reduced depletion of forests andaccelerated investments in machinery and infrastructure.

  • 41.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Acar, Sevil
    The environmental Kuznets curve and the Pasteur effect: environmental costs in Sweden 1850-20002014In: European Review of Economic History, ISSN 1361-4916, E-ISSN 1474-0044, Vol. 18, p. 306-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of environmental problems is among other things affected by knowledge and economic growth and the perception of welfare. In this article, we present a method for aggregating historically relevant environmental pressure indicators, thereby acknowledging that the complexity of environmental problems calls for multi-indicator approaches. Secondly, we use the aggregate for exploring the long-run dynamics between the environment and economic growth, using a methodology used in the study of the so-called environmental Kuznets curve. We find evidence for a right tilted-S form dynamic relationship. The dynamics is analyzed in a framework stressing that new knowledge of environmental problems is an important driver for the changing relationship, here called "the Pasteur effect".

  • 42.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Acar, Sevil
    Istanbul, Turkey.
    The environmental Kuznets curve and the Pasteur effect: Environmental costs in Sweden 1850–20002014In: European Review of Economic History, ISSN 1361-4916, E-ISSN 1474-0044, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 306-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of environmental problems is among other things affected by knowledge and economic growth and the perception of welfare. In this article, we present a method for aggregating historically relevant environmental pressure indicators, thereby acknowledging that the complexity of environmental problems calls for multi-indicator approaches. Secondly, we use the aggregate for exploring the long-run dynamics between the environment and economic growth, using a methodology used in the study of the so-called environmental Kuznets curve. We find evidence for a right tilted-S form dynamic relationship. The dynamics is analyzed in a framework stressing that new knowledge of environmental problems is an important driver for the changing relationship, here called “the Pasteur effect”.

  • 43.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    All fired up: the growth of fire insurance in Sweden, 1830-19502010In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 99-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we investigate supply and demand factors that have been put forward to explain the growth of fire insurance markets in Sweden during the financial revolution. We show that income growth and urbanisation fostered the demand for fire insurance. The supply of fire insurance, on the other hand, helps explain financial market development. Fire insurance assisted in mortgaging fixed assets, such as houses, through guaranteeing them as collateral. On both the upply side and the demand side, fire insurance was a key factor of the financial revolution in Sweden.

  • 44.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    An historical wealth assessment – measuring the Swedish national wealth for the nineteenth and twentieth centuries2016In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 122-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides historical account of wealth accumulation and composition in Sweden during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A detailed account on capital formation during the industrialisation process shows that produced capital grew faster than natural capital from the 1850s. Natural capital was changing from a predominance of forest towards crop land as the main asset in the early twentieth century. Produced capital was largely bounded in the agriculture sector up till the second half of the nineteenth century. Heavy investments in the infrastructure sector and later in the manufacturing section changed the produced capital structure and thereby lowered transport costs and return of investment in manufacturing and services; providing incentives for accumulating the stock of produced capital and enhance consumption and living standard. The return on capital was dispersed from the outset of the period but has converged over time.

  • 45.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Growth Performance and Organizational Forms: The Case of Swedish Life Insurance, 1890 to 19502015In: Corporate Forms and Organizational Choice in International Insurance / [ed] Robin Pearson and Takau Yoneyama, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2015, 1, p. 244-260Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish life insurance, mutual and stock insurers have competed since the late nineteenth century. Stock insurers were prime movers controlling the early market. After the establishment of the first mutual insurer in 1887, however, stock insurers lost substantial market share. By themid-twentieth century, mutual insurers controlled 70 per cent of the life insurance market. In this chapter we explain how and why the mutual form was more successful than the stock organizational form in Swedish life insurance from the late nineteenth century to the midtwentieth century. Our preliminary results show that mutuals were more successful than stock companies in attracting demand from the growing wage-labour population. By introducing the concept of industrial insurance and by keeping claims experiences low, mutual companies were able to efficiently expand their businesses and their market share.

  • 46.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Household firewood consumption in Sweden during the nineteenth century2010In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, no 2, p. 55-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Household firewood consumption underwent significant changes during the industrial breakthrough. Recent literature on Sweden makes thecase that greater energy efficiency drastically reduced rural household fuel consumption, while coal substituted for firewood in cities. This article shows that although coal substituted for wood in some urban areas, rural firewood consumption was not reduced. Higher standards of living indicate contrary to previous results that fuel consumption increased during the industrialisation process. The study shows that households with higher standard of living consumed more fuel and that rural households, due to lower fuel prices, consumed relatively more fuel than urban households. The result shows contrary to previous research that the total energy intensity decreased more rapidly after and no tbefore the industrial breakthrough.

  • 47.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Tillväxten och de stigande förväntningarnas missnöje2019In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 75-76Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Where Was the Wealth of the Nation?: Measuring Swedish Capital for the 19th and 20th Centuries2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents estimates of the Swedish national wealth from 1830 to 2010. This contributes to economic historical research on structural change and growth, while it also supplements debates on the composition of wealth and incomes across countries. The report also includes for the first time a historical estimate of the Consumer Rate Interest CRI and an estimate of wealth based on surveys and insurance data. The report includes an extensive description and documentation of the historical estimates. The main findings are that the proportion of intangible capital grew before modern economic growth was achieved in Sweden during the 1890’s. Secondly, we show that the proportion of natural assets fell prior to and during the industrialization, while the share of produced capital has fluctuated, but has remained fairly stable over the period as a whole.

  • 49.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Expansion for pollution reduction? Environmental adaption of a Swedish and a Canadian metal smelter, 1960-20052008In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 530-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the historical developments of the environmental adaptation process at one Swedish metal smelting firm, contrasting the result with cases in Canada. The findings suggest that the Swedish system in excluding stakeholders, focusing on plant emissions and stipulating pollution reduction at economically feasible costs mitigated risk which resulted in long-term contracts in a cooperative framework in which engineers were given a high degree of discretion. This enabled an 'expansion-for-emission-reduction' strategy which is consistent with the so-called Porter and van der Linde hypothesis. Moreover, the findings suggest that environmental management systems should be considered in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) research.

  • 50.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Technical change, carbon dioxide reduction and energyconsumption in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1973-20062010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the historical relation between carbon dioxide emission and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paperindustry 1973-2006. We find that the industry achieved an 80 per cent reduction in CO2 emission. Foremost energy substitution but also efficiently improvement contributed to the reduction. Growing prices of fossil fuel due to market price change and taxes and subvention, explains most of the efficiency improvements and substitution. Taxes on energy explain 40 per cent of the total reduction in CO2 active climate policy in 1991. Co2 intensity. Most of the reduction took place before the implementation of

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