umu.sePublikasjoner
Endre søk
Begrens søket
12 1 - 50 of 64
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Performance, anxiety and the mathematical self image2014Inngår i: Special Needs Education in Mathematics: New Trends, Problems and Possibilities / [ed] Anne Berit Fuglestad, Kristiansand: Portal forlag, 2014, s. 86-91Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In present pilot study the relation between mathematical performance, test anxiety and mathematical self image is being examined in two Swedish grade 3 pupils. A difference between the high achieving and the low achieving pupils is possible to discern. A negative or uncertain mathematical self image seems to be connected to test anxiety, but not to performance when we look at these two young pupils. The experience of taking the test is affecting the high and low achiever differently. There are indications that the context and the kind of information given about the tests and the pupil's abilities affect both the level of test anxiety and the pupil’s evolving mathematical self image. Educational implications are being discussed.

  • 2.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Vad vet vi om hur matematiklärare arbetar för att utveckla elevers matematikkunskaper?2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Brooman, Daniel S
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Food aversions, food neophobia, and disgust: interrelations and gender differences2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Stress och påverkan på de nationella provresultaten för åk 32014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur upplever 9-10 åringar de nationella proven i åk 3? Påverkar upplevelsen prestationen? Påverkas något matematikdelområde mer eller mindre av upplevelsen? Skiljer sig olika uppgifter åt beroende på om de har mer eller mindre text respektive bilder? Vad kan man som lärare tänka på och göra i allmänhet och i synnerhet vid prov/förhörssituationer?

    Läsåret 2012/13 genomfördes en studie med 624 st elever i åk 3 för att bringa klarhet i ovan frågor. Eleverna fick göra olika arbetsminnesövningar och svara på frågor om stress, motivation och attityder, etc. Teoretiskt tror man nämligen att allt för hög nivå av t ex stress (prestationsångest) sänker ens prestation på ett prov/förhör. Resultaten på de olika nationella delproven i matematik kördes därför statistiskt mot nivå av självrapporterad stress/ångest och uppskattad eller egentlig prestationsförmåga hos eleverna.

    Uppskattad eller egentlig förmåga att prestera i matematik för elever kan mätas genom t ex deras arbetsminneskapacitet. Arbetsminne är en kognitiv förmåga som är väl klarlagd för att väsentligen påverka prestation och utveckling inom t ex matematik- och läsförståelse hos både vuxna och barn (Menon, 2010). Det finns dessutom starka kopplingar mellan arbetsminneskapacitet och skolprestation i teoretiska ämnen. Majoriteten av de elever som har inlärningssvårigheter i skolan verkar även ha svag arbetsminnesförmåga (Gathercole et al., 2006).

    Arbetsminnet kan förenklat beskrivas som bestå av tre olika specialiserade komponenter. En huvudcentral som t ex kontrollerar, fördelar, uppmärksammar och processerar information, och hämtar/lagrar information från/i långtidsminnet. Till sin hjälp har denna huvudcentral en visuell-spatial del för hantering av bilder, former och dimension, samt en auditiv del för behandling av lingvistik (Baddeley, 1986). Matematik innefattar olika områden som beror av olika kognitiva förmågor (t ex huvudräkning, problemlösning), vilka i sin tur är relaterade till visuell-spatial och/eller auditiv fakta (Rasmussen & Bisanz, 2005).

    ”Provstress” eller ”provängslan” är en etablerad term för att beskriva elevers påverkan och upplevelse av prov. Termen innefattar ofta för barn observerbara beteenden (t ex gå på toan, vicka på stolen, titta sig omkring), tankar/oro (t ex jag kommer aldrig att klara det här, mina föräldrar kommer att bli arga om jag misslyckas), autonoma/somatiska reaktioner (t ex svettas, ont i magen, varm om kinderna) (Zeidner, 2007). Man tror att provängslan är ett inlärt beteende som väcks tidigt i skolåren (Pekrun, 2000). Det är ett väldigt inskränkande tillstånd (Rothman, 2004) som starkt kan begränsa elevers prestation i alla åldrar (Birenbaum & Gutvirtz, 1993). Även om ett visst mått av provängslan är nödvändigt för att öka fokus, motivation och förberedelse (Gregor, 2005), kan det i allt för höga nivåer negativt påverka en elevs prestation och resultat på ett prov (Zeidner, 2007), särskilt i matematik (e.g. Putwain, 2008). 

    Om och hur stark den kognitiva störningen är av provängslan används alltså i vår studie som ett mått eller symptom på elevers ev. underprestation. Vi undersöker också om eleverna uppvisar mer eller mindre av beteenden, autonoma reaktioner eller tankar relaterat till provängslan. Slutligen summerar vi våra resultat mot undervisning och prov/förhörssituationer. En jämförelse kommer även att göras med Finländska och Kinesiska åk-3 elever.

  • 5.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Factors of importance for mathematics performance in grade 3: working memory capacity, teat anxiety and self-regulation2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Pupil perceptions of national tests in science: perceived importance, invested effort, and test anxiety2013Inngår i: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 497-510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although large-scale national tests have been used for many years in Swedish compulsory schools, very little is known about how pupils actually react to these tests. The question is relevant, however, as pupil reactions in the test situation may affect test performance as well as future attitudes towards assessment. The question is relevant also in light of the changing assessment culture in Sweden and other European countries. The main purpose of the present study was to explore how a sample of grade 9 pupils perceived their first encounter with national tests in science, mainly in terms of perceived importance of the test, reported invested effort, and feelings of test anxiety, and how these aspects were related to test performance. Results show that a majority of the pupils seemed to perceive the test as rather important and claimed that they spent effort on the test. There was, however, also a fair group of students who did not perceive the test as very important. Ratings of perceived importance and invested effort and motivation were positively related to performance, particularly for the boys. Many students also reported that they felt anxious before and during the test, but the relationship between test anxiety and test performance was rather weak. Findings illuminate how pupils may perceive and behave in the assessment situation, and point to the need of further studies investigating the psychology of test-taking.

  • 7.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Börjesson, Arne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Self-reported memory strategies and their relationship to immediate and delayed text recall and working memory capacity2014Inngår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 385-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of fifth-grade children in the reproduction of the content of a new text - directly, after they had read it (immediate recall), and one week later (delayed recall) - and to investigate the relationship between performance, self-reported memory strategies, and working memory capacity (WMC). The results revealed that more complex strategies are associated with better performances, and that children with high WMC outperformed children with lower WMC in immediate and delayed text recall tasks. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that memory strategy and WMC are the strongest predictors for both immediate and delayed recall tasks. It is argued that self-reported memory strategies are possible to use as estimates of strategy proficiency. The awareness of the importance of memory strategies and children’s WMC in education are further discussed.

  • 8.
    Korhonen, Johan
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Relationship between mathematical skills, mathematical self-concept andtest anxiety in Finnish and Swedish grade 3 pupils2014Inngår i: Special Needs Education in Mathematics: New Trends, Problems and Possibilities / [ed] Anne Berit Fuglestad, Kristiansand: Portal forlag, 2014, s. 104-116Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a cross-national study on students´ mathematical skills, mathematical self-concept, and test anxiety in grade 3. A total of 172 students from 6 different schools in Finland and Sweden participated in the study. We utilized structural equation modelling and specified a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis model to investigate the relationship between mathematical skills, mathematical self-concept and test anxiety in boys and girls. Consistent with the literature we found evidence for strong relationship between mathematical skills and mathematical self-concept. In contrast to the literature no relationship between mathematical skills and test anxiety was found. However, mathematical self-concept was found to be related to test anxiety, which is in line with previous research. Gender differences in favour of boys emerged in the level of mathematical self-concept and test-anxiety but not in mathematical skills.

  • 9.
    Korhonen, Johan
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Additive and multiplicative effects of working memory and test anxiety on mathematics performance in grade 3 students2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between test anxiety and working memory (WM) on mathematics performance in younger children. A sample of 624 grade 3 students completed a test battery consisting of a test anxiety scale, WM tasks, and the Swedish national examination in mathematics for grade 3. The main effects of test anxiety and WM, and the two-way interaction between test anxiety and WM on mathematics performance, were modelled with structural equation modelling techniques. Additionally, the effects were also tested separately on tasks with high WM demands (mathematical problem-solving) versus low WM demands (basic arithmetic). As expected, WM positively predicted mathematics performance in all three models (overall mathematics performance, problem-solving tasks, and basic arithmetic). Test anxiety had a negative effect on problem solving on the whole sample level but concerning basic arithmetic only students with lower WM were affected by the negative effects of test anxiety on performance. These students probably use counting based strategies that impose more WM load and have lower WM capacity than their peers who are more likely to use memory based strategies (i.e., fact-retrieval) in addition to having higher WM capacity. Thus, students with low WM are more vulnerable to the negative effects of test anxiety in low WM tasks like basic arithmetic. The results are discussed in relation to the early identification of test anxiety.

  • 10.
    Korhonen, Johan
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Additive and multiplicative effects of working memory and test anxiety on mathematics performance in grade 3 students2018Inngår i: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 572-595Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between test anxiety and working memory (WM) on mathematics performance in younger children. A sample of 624 grade 3 students completed a test battery consisting of a test anxiety scale, WM tasks and the Swedish national examination in mathematics for grade 3. The main effects of test anxiety and WM, and the two-way interaction between test anxiety and WM on mathematics performance, were modelled with structural equation modelling techniques. Additionally, the effects were also tested separately on tasks with high WM demands (mathematical problem-solving) versus low WM demands (basic arithmetic). As expected, WM positively predicted mathematics performance in all three models (overall mathematics performance, problem-solving tasks, and basic arithmetic). Test anxiety had a negative effect on problem-solving on the whole sample level but concerning basic arithmetic only students with lower WM were affected by the negative effects of test anxiety on performance. Thus, students with low WM are more vulnerable to the negative effects of test anxiety in low WM tasks like basic arithmetic. The results are discussed in relation to the early identification of test anxiety.

  • 11.
    Korhonen, Johan
    et al.
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    The role of cognitive-affective factors in underachievement2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning (BUSV).
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    A matter of timing: time use, freedom and influence in school from a student perspective2003Inngår i: the 9th European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany, 2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    När styrningen av tiden blir skolans och lärarnas sak2005Inngår i: Utan timplan - forskning och utvärdering: Antologi från Timplanedelegationen, Stockholm: Fritzes , 2005, s. 55-76Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Försöksverksamheten med utbildning utan timplan i grundskolan startade läsåret 2000/01. Timplanedelegationen har haft det övergripande ansvaret för att leda, stödja och utvärdera försöket. Vi har också haft i uppgift att lämna underlag till regeringen inför dess ställningstagande till om och i så fall hur timplanen i grundskolan kan avskaffas. Delegationen redovisade nyligen sina slutsatser och förslag i slutbetänkandet Utan timplan – för målinriktat lärande (SOU 2005:101). Av slutbetänkandet framgår att delegationen föreslår att den nationella timplanen skall avskaffas. Erfarenheterna av försöket visar sammantaget att en avveckling av timplanen på sikt kan bidra till en ökad måluppfyllelse genom att stimulera utvecklingen i skolorna. Enligt vår uppfattning bör dock en avveckling av timplanen kompletteras med andra åtgärder, bl.a. vad gäller den minsta garantera undervisningstiden, målsystemet samt utbildning och kompetensutveckling av lärare och rektorer. En avveckling behöver dessutom stödjas av en effektiv implementering. För de deltagande skolorna innebär försöksverksamheten en fullständig befrielse från den nationella timplanens uppdelning i tid per ämne eller ämnesgrupp. Skolor som deltar i försöksverksamheten omfattas av övriga bestämmelser som gäller för grundskolan. Det innebär bl.a. att de skall följa läroplanen (Lpo 94) och arbeta enligt de kursplaner som finns för grundskolans ämnen och ämnesgrupper, att bestämmelsen om antalet garanterade timmar för grundskolans nio år (6 665 timmar) gäller samt att eleverna skall få såväl en väl avvägd skoltid som väl avvägda läsår och skoldagar. Hur tiden skall disponeras bestäms dock av skolorna. Försöksverksamheten omfattar knappt 900 kommunala grundskolor i 79 kommuner. Försöket var från början tänkt att avlutas den 30 juni 2005, men har förlängts till den 30 juni 2007, i avvaktan på beredningen av delegationens förslag.

  • 14.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning (BUSV).
    Skolans frihet och ansvar att styra sin tid: Delrapport från SKUT-projektet till Regeringens timplanedelegation2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Tidsanvändning i den svenska grundskolan: från statlig styrning till mikropolitik2002Inngår i: Teacher education in collaboration, Umeå, 2002Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå School of Education (USE).
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Time use in Swedish schools: from state regulation to micro politics2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last twenty-five years, Sweden has turned from an education system characterised by strong central management and detailed regulation to having one of the most decentralised systems in Europe (OECD 1998). This shift has been accompanied by the introduction of market mechanisms, such as choice, vouchers and increased competition, and by considerable cuts in the budgets of municipalities and schools. Today the State prescribes the educational objectives of pre-school, primary and secondary school, and controls the extent to which educational goals have been reached. Most other decisions, however, concerning e.g. the organisation of work, choice of methods and class sizes, are delegated to the local and, in particular, to the school level. Recently, still further steps towards decentralisation and deregulation have been taken, in regards to the regulation of time use and time allocation in primary school. In this paper we critically examine the potential effects and importance of such a step, based upon an empirical study among school managers and headmasters. 1 Initially, the Swedish case is briefly presented and discussed in an international perspective.

  • 17.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Time use in Swedish schools: from state regulation to micro politics2003Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning.
    Timmarna i skolan: Sammanfattande slutrapport från projektet Skola utan nationell timplan (SKUT)2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    En styrning i tiden2004Inngår i: The 32nd Nordic Conference on Educational Research, Reykjavik, Iceland, Reykjavik, Island, 2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    En styrning i tiden: Time is on our side2004Inngår i: Studies in Educational Policy and Educational Philosophy, ISSN 1651-6370, nr 1, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    In a short time Sweden has changed from having one of the most centralised education systems to one of far-going decentralisation and management by objectives and results. Accordingly, state regulation of teaching hours in comprehensive education has gradually become weakened. The paper  addresses questions related to time governance and school development, mainly at the municipal and school level. How do local directors of education and headteachers reason about the national time table and other factors governing and constraining time allocation? What and who are defined as driving forces and obstacles in this respect?

  • 21.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Masters of their time?: time and teachers in an education policy context2005Inngår i: The 11nd European Conference on Educational Research, Dublin, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher policies and the working condition of teachers have been paid attention to in several recent international inquiries and research projects. For example, the OECD project Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers (OECD 2005) aimed at identifying "innovative and successful policy initiatives and practices" by analysing recruitment and working condition of teachers in 25 countries. In a recent Eurydice project (2003, 2004) the attractiveness, distinctive features and occupational content of the teaching profession in 30 European countries were studied. Also a Nordic research project on restructuring of education and teacher professionalism (Carlgren et.al. 2002) may be mentioned here. Such research clearly shows that global changes of teacher work have taken place during the 1990s and early 2000s, changes which are closely related to new demands on education - the demands of global economy for mobile, flexible and highly qualified workforce, and national, regional and local endeavours to promote economic growth and competetiveness. In the educational sphere the responsebility to realise such aims to a high extent is deployed to schools, principals and teachers, which are supposed to act autonomously and efficiently in order to attain the educational objectives. The "new teacher role" includes teamwork, individualisation, pupil-active teaching methods, and, increasingly, activities outside the classroom such as planning, documentation and evaluation. Teacher work seems to be characterised by less distinct boundaries between subject categories and teacher/staff categories. The matter of power and control over teachers´ working time is however rather complex. On the one hand, a gradual deregulation and decentralisation of decisions concerning school hours and teachers´ working time has taken place, e.g. in Sweden, allowing for increased local autonomy. Here, both politicians, the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and teacher unions have been in favour of this development. On the other hand increased work load and financial cuts put severe strain on teacher time (c.f Hargreaves 1994). Obsolete regulations of teaching and teacher hours may act "from behind" and preserve old power relations and time organisation. Also, as e.g. Andy Hargreaves (1994) correctly has underlined, teachers and administrators/decision-makers, respectively, may have quite different time perspectives. Against this background, the paper highlights and critically analyses the power and control over teachers´ working time. A Swedish experiment aiming at more flexible time use and school development is presented and discussed as an example (c.f. Nyroos et.al. 2004). The Swedish case is compared and contrasted to recent policies and change of teachers´ working conditions in other European countries. The discussion of the Swedish case is based on analysis of agreements and political documents, interviews with teacher union representatives and teachers participating in the experiment where schools are allowed to set aside the regulation of the national time schedule.

  • 22.
    Löfgren, Hans O.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    First-level trial of two school-based prevention programmes for depression, anxiety and social problems in adolescentsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognizing the positive mental health benefits of school-based interventions, the present study examined the effect of the preventive programmes. A small feasibility try-out turned out to have conclusive results worth reporting. Choosing Healthy Actions and Thoughts (CHAT) was examined and compared to Life-Skills, commonly used primary preventive method in Swedish schools that has been evaluated in research studies and showing effects on social skills. The aim was to determine if CHAT can be included in the school curriculum and result in positive mental health gains. A community sample of 59 pupils in grade 7 completed a test battery including the Sense of Coherence, the Children’s Depression Inventory, and the Youth Self Report instruments. Post intervention measures were performed at two time points, i.e., right after the intervention sessions and after 12 months follow-up. The two programmes aimed at improving mental health in schoolchildren and both are administered by teachers. The main result was improvement in self-reported depression symptoms for the CHAT programme and less social problems for the Life-Skill programme. There is however a dimension, attention problems, where the programmes had no effect. The feasibility was considered satisfactory. Educational and healthcare implications are discussed.

  • 23.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Broman, Daniel A
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Gender differences in factors affecting rejecting of food in healthy young Swedish adults2004Inngår i: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 295-301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the objectives to better understand gender-related differences in variables of importance for food intake, and interrelations between these variables, 100 healthy, young women and 100 healthy, young men responded to self-administrated questionnaires about general food rejection, learned illness-associated food aversions, disgust (the Disgust Scale), food neophobia (the Food Neophobia Scale), nausea and appetite. The results show that food rejection and aversions were more common in women (69 and 38%, respectively) than in men (47 and 18%), and that women are more disgust sensitive than men. However, no differences between women and men were observed regarding reasons for rejecting food (predominantly sensory attributes), prevalence of gastrointestinal illness as an associated aversion symptom (95 vs 89%), type of aversive food due to associated illness (predominantly high protein items), or food neophobia. Based on path analyses, a model is proposed of interrelations between disgust, food neophobia, learned food aversions, nausea, appetite, and general food rejection in healthy young adults.

  • 24.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Maunuksela, E.
    Department of Food Technology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Niskanen, T.
    Department of Food Technology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tuorila, H.
    Department of Food Technology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Applicability of the Scandinavian odor identification test: a Finnish–Swedish comparison2002Inngår i: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 122, nr 3, s. 294-297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of using the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test (SOIT), developed for clinical purposes for use with Swedish subjects, for assessment of another northern European population was studied by comparing test performance between 127 Finnish and 127 Swedish participants, who were matched for age (19-85 years) and gender. The results showed very similar performance between countries and demonstrated, as expected, age- and gender-related differences in performance. Test-retest reliability was as good in Finnish as in Swedish subgroups of participants and no significant difference between countries in terms of diagnostic distribution (normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia) was found when using existing cut-off scores. The findings suggest that the SOIT, with its diagnostic cut-off scores, is reliable and valid for use with Finnish populations.

  • 25.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Does standardized assessment in mathematics hamper or support young pupils’ learning?2010Inngår i: MAtematikDIdaktiskaForskningsseminariet-7, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 26.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Iscensättning av kön i idrott: en nutidshistoria om idrottsmannen och idrottskvinnan2001Inngår i: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning, ISSN 1404-7659, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 85-86Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Special education a provision and an adjacent system: exemplified through test anxiety2015Inngår i: Journal of psychology and behavioral science, ISSN ISSN 2374-2380 (Print) 2374-2399 (Online), Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 10-19, artikkel-id PBS-1125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of the recently released DSM-5, here is discussed a common emotional experience among pupils and students, test anxiety, and demonstrated its multifaceted character, which terminates eligibility for both special educational and medical services. Severe test anxiety is associated with a huge range of deleterious life trajectories. However, it is also a biological reality; normative in its origin and in essence benign. Present paper merges the latest knowledge from different disciplines, and presents measures for theory and practice. Because intense and excessive test anxiety seems to be highly prevalent and the pathological symptoms are similar to those of other childhood anxiety disorders childhood test anxiety warrants attention.

  • 28.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Testing or Not Testing Young Pupils: What are the consequences for learning in mathematics?2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For several years Sweden has fall down in the international rankings on education, especially in mathematics. As a consequence different political initiatives have been made; however, none has had the wanted effect on pupils’ mathematical performance. The latest reform involves mandatory national tests in mathematics for grade-3-pupils. From having one of the most decentralised educational systems in the EU, the pendulum is now heading another course, i.e. re-centralisation. International comparisons reveal that different countries have various kinds of standardised school tests. Still, Sweden appears to protrude with this step. The downside of standardised testing is that it may lead to situation specific stress, i.e. test anxiety (TA) among pupils. Repeated of times research has proved that serve TA has a significant negative impact on performance, and high anxious pupils considerable under-achieve. Thus, the result is not only biased, it also adventures the individual’s future academic and occupational choices. Some groups tend to be more exposed to TA; girls, elderly, and low-achievers are suggested to experiencing more TA. Additionally, a subject mentioned to call forth more stress is mathematics. Contrary to impairing education, there is substantial, but very often neglected, support for repeated testing to improve pupils’ learning, i.e. the testing effect (TE). Tests could enhance later retention more than additional study of the material, even without feedback, and is applicable for related but nontested material. This effect is robust across many types of materials, has been observed in different age groups, and under most circumstances. Moreover, repeated testing has been shown to reduce TA, make pupils more positive to education, and low-achievers seem to benefit more from it. A key factor influencing a pupil’s ability to learn is the cognitive system of working memory (WM). The WM is also stressed to be the underlying component in TA, and TE. Thus, when anxiety interferes with WM in a negative way there will be a knock-on effect on the capacity. Pupils are preoccupied with worrisome thoughts which interrupt the maintenance of task-relevant information and disrupt performance. Yet, WM is a component that is modulated by repeated testing. Every time a memory is retrieved it enhances the memory traces which in turn decrease the load on WM. In understanding the contribution of TA and TE, a proposed theoretical model based on the characteristics of the WM, outlined by Baddeley, is here suggested for this two-sided possibility of testing. Research on the effects of testing in younger children is generally a neglected area, and from a multi-theoretical perspective yet to be explored. In comparison to other countries Sweden has few tests in mathematics but now moves another direction. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to clarify the influence of national test in mathematics on young pupils’ learning. The following question will be addressed: i) What are pupils’ experiences of TA, and how does this affect learning in mathematics?, ii) How does recurring testing affect pupils’ learning in mathematics?, iii) Are different groups of pupils (i.e. gender, achievement level) experiencing above aspects differently?

    Method

    Present study uses a refined and modernised standardised test measuring children’s TA, and a WM test for children tapping on the phonological loop (believed to be most sensitive to anxiety). Mathematical achievements are determined with the national tests. Statistical analyses (SPSS), supported by lengthy observations during the whole grade 3 year, are used. Forty grade-3-pupils (20 girls and 20 boys) in two classes are in focus.

    Expected Outcomes

    Preliminary results suggest that WM capacity could predict mathematics achievement. However, there is no evidence for experienced TA among the pupils, thus no tendency for under achievement in any group. It is therefore possible that the increased number of testing, by the national tests and the teachers’ additional preparation tests at the prospect of the national tests, have a TE, i.e. learning in mathematics is benefitted by more testing of relevant as well as non-tested material. Further, the teachers’ attitudes and active focus on the national tests probably have had positive effect on the pupils’ test realisation. However, it is not excluded that the young age is answerable for the absence of TA.

  • 29.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning.
    Tid till förfogande: Förändrad användning och fördelning av undervisningstid i grundskolans senare år?2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish education system has undergone decentralisation and deregulation since the late 1970s. The 1999 parliamentary resolution for a 5-year experiment of increased school autonomy in time allocation, was a late step in this development. Approximately 900 compulsory schools in 79 municipalities no longer had to adhere to the regulation of the national time schedule.

    The overall aim of this thesis is to describe and analyse changes of time allocation and time use in schools during the experiment. The analysis has the theories and research by Basil Bernstein and Michael Fullan as the point of departure. Framing and classification, educational change and teachers’ work culture are some of the key concepts. The results from interviews with 32 local directors formed the basis of selection of three participating municipalities and schools in the longitudinal study. The sample included both municipalities participating and some not participating in the experiment. The schools had varying motives for participating, and different initial time allocation strategies and procedures. However, they all shared an ambition to strengthen curriculum and school development. Pupils, teachers and head teachers from three classes and teacher teams in the three schools were interviewed and observed over a period of two years. Documents on time use and policies from the three schools were analysed.

    No dramatic changes were observed. Changes rarely meant a redistribution of time between contents/subjects or pupils. Instead they were predominantly about weakened boundaries between subjects and teachers, increased teacher control over the work and giving pupils more influence over their own learning situation. So called open lessons, when pupils were allowed to choose what, where and how to study, cross-disciplinary studies and subject-integrated teamwork facilitated this. A majority of pupils and teachers appreciated the increased freedom and control over their work. Some teachers, however, tended to be more hesitant, pointing to risks of work overload and lowered academic achievement. Both teachers and pupils doubted that all pupils could manage highly autonomous studies, and agreed that some needed more structure and help from the teachers. Teachers in practical and aesthetic subjects were often constrained from engaging in cross-disciplinary studies and teamwork. Having one’s teaching assignment divided between many different classes and even schools, and lack of premises were commonly mentioned obstacles.

    Committed head teachers and well-functioning teacher teams were significant factors were commonly in the observed development process. Also, active support from the municipality and network-participation were contributing factors. Attention is drawn to the fact that it is not possible to relate the observed changes exclusively to the time schedule experiment. They were feasible within the existing, flexible frames of the national time schedule. Furthermore, a number of other changes occurred parallel to the experiment.

  • 30.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Time to learn, time to develop?: change processes in three schools with weak national time regulation2007Inngår i: Pedagogy, Culture & Society, ISSN 1468-1366, E-ISSN 1747-5104, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 37-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses change of time use and time allocation in three schools participating in a Swedish five-year national experiment in which State regulation of teaching time was weakened. Participating schools could freely decide how to use and distribute teaching time. The experiment was launched at a late stage in a 25-year decentralisation process. During this period, the Swedish education system has become one of the most decentralised ones among the OECD countries. Based on a four-year longitudinal study, the initiation and implementation of more goal-oriented and flexible time allocations in the three schools were analysed. When removing the time schedule one would expect schools to change both time allocation and pedagogy. However, in all three schools, change concerned the latter rather than distribution of teaching hours across subjects, pupils and so on. In particular, change was about replacing traditional subject-based teaching by thematic, cross-disciplinary studies and introducing working forms resulting in increased autonomy, but more responsibility on the part of the pupils. It is concluded that the additional weakening of time governance did not have any dramatic effects on initiation and implementation of school development. It primarily resulted in a confirmation, legitimisation and to some extent speeding up of existing change efforts. More generally it led to increased possibilities of information, networking and attention.

  • 31.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    What can we learn from the Swedish national test in grade 3: a failure with algorithms?2013Inngår i: Special needs education in mathematics: new trends, problems and possibilities / [ed] Anne Berit Fuglestad, Kristiansand: Portal forlag, 2013, s. 53-63Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has drawn attention to the difficulties associated with developing a mathematical competency. Forty grade 3 pupils taking the national tests in mathematics was assessed with respect to their working memory capacity and anxiety about testing. The pupils seemed not to understand algorithms, and they reported that they were anxious about them. In the current paper, the data were revisited and further analyses conducted in order to examine whether there were any differences in working memory load and test anxiety between algorithms associated with subtraction and those for addition. The result reveal that the working memory load was heavier and the anxiety level higher for subtraction compared to addition. Solution strategy and cognitive overload, might explain this.

  • 32.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Where does time go?: Teaching and time use from the perspective of teachers2004Inngår i: 32nd Nordic Conference on Educational Research, 2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Where does time go?: teaching and time use from the perspective of teachers2008Inngår i: Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, ISSN 1354-0602, E-ISSN 1470-1278, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 17-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last three decades Swedish education has undergone radical decentralisation involving increased school autonomy. One aspect of this change is the gradual weakening of the state regulation of teaching time. Thus, Sweden is somewhat of an extreme in the EU. This is accentuated by a five-year experiment, where 900 compulsory schools were allowed more freedom in the allocation of school hours. Thirty teachers from three compulsory schools participating in the experiment were interviewed and team meetings observed during a two-year period. The article explores and analyses changes in time-distribution, classification and framing of the curricula and teachers' work in the three teams and their classes, and analyses teachers' experiences of the changes. A major trend towards weakened classification and framing was found. A majority of the teachers were positive to more flexible time use, teamwork and cross-disciplinary studies. However, despite the experiment a majority still felt inhibited by the national time schedule and too little time for development work. Variations between the three cases are discussed in terms of different team cultures. The school characterised by development-oriented culture had changed their work and teaching most.

  • 34.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Young pupils as a part of the local education agency: their experiences2009Inngår i: Third Nordic Research Network: Critical perspectives on Education and Agency, Halden Norway, Nordcrit , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 35.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå School of Education (USE). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Exploring the presence of test anxiety and its relation to mathematical achievement in a sample of grade 32012Inngår i: Skrifter från Svensk matematikdidaktisk forskning, MADIF, ISSN 1651-3274, s. 151-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims at exploring if a sample of Swedish grade 3 pupils reported any test anxiety and whether there were any relations to performance in different mathematical areas. Overall, test anxiety explained 20% of the variance for the total mathematical score, with the subscale “thoughts” as the significant predictor. The model of test anxiety also explained Number understanding, Mass and Time, Patterns, and Mathematical problems; however Mental arithmetic and Written arithmetic algorithms were not significantly explained by the model. Test anxiety seems not to be a major problem in this sample; still, significant negative correlations were found, which likely might influence the pupils in some aspects.

  • 36.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning (BUSV). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Broman, Daniel A
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Is there a relation between, and a gender difference in, food aversions, food neophobia, and disgust?2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning (BUSV).
    Broman, Daniel S.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Is there a relation between, and a gender difference in, food aversions, food neophobia, and disgust?2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kognitiva implikationer för matematiklärande hos yngre elever2015Inngår i: Resultatdialog 2015 / [ed] Vetenskapsrådet, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, s. 160-171Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt projekt visar att kognition och emotion har stor betydelse for åk 3 elevers matematikprestation. Det var 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik för elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil. Det fanns inget samband mellan kronologisk ålder och matematikprestation. Låg arbetsminneskapacitet i samverkan med hög provångest bidrog negativt till matematikprestation. Skolklass bidrog till skillnader i elevers rapporterade provångest.

    Q1) Provångest och arbetsminne predicerade enskilt elevs matematikprestation; hög provångest respektive låg arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till låg matematikprestation, och låg provångest respektive god arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till god matematikprestation. Därtill fanns en samverkanseffekt vilken var ogynnsam för elever med låg arbetsminneskapacitet, jämfört med elever med medel och hög arbetsminneskapacitet.

    Q2) Elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil hade 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik. Elever som presterade lågt i matematik hade dock inte uteslutande en risk-kognitiv profil. Likaväl fanns andra profiler än den stödjande-kognitiva profilen i gruppen med bra matematikprestation. Lika lovande som att 75 % av elever med en risk-profil inte presterade lågt i matematik, lika nedslående är det att endast 16 % av elever med en stödjande-kognitiv profil presterade bra i matematik.

    Q3) Grad av matematikprestation ar en funktion av arbetsminneskapacitet, men olika subkomponenter i arbetsminnet karaktariserar olika nivaer av matematikprestation. Lågpresterande elever påvisade framförallt betydande sämre visuospatial förmåga (bearbeta visuell och spatial information), medan god fonologisk förmåga (auditivt material) var karaktaristiskt för den högpresterande elevgruppen. I ett didaktiskt perspektiv pekar dessa resultat på vikten av anpassade pedagogiska insatser i relation till kognitiva förmågor.

    Q4) Skolklass har en betydande inverkan på elevers skattade provångest. För skolklasser med ett högt medelvärde på provångest verkade självregleringsförmåga ytterligare bidra till rapporterad provångest.

    Q5) Resultatet visar inte på någon relativ ålderseffekt och modereras inte heller av arbetsminneskapacitet. Resultatet tyder på att biologisk mognad i termer av arbetsminnet är viktigare än relativa åldereffekter.

  • 39.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Hörnkvist Wiklund, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cognitive implications for learning in mathematics: young pupils and national testing2011Inngår i: The China-Sweden Symposium on Science and Humanities Education in the 21st Century, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Hörnkvist Wiklund, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Introducing national examination in Swedish primary education: implications for test anxiety2011Inngår i: The China-Sweden Symposium on Science and Humanities Education in the 21st Century, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    The department of Special Education, Åbo Akademy University Vaasa, Finland.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Children’s mathematical achievement and its relation to working memory, test anxiety, self-regulation: a person-centered approach2015Inngår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 73-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting the challenges of teaching for all individuals requires a multifaceted approach, especially from the Swedish standpoint of inclusive education for all pupils. In the context of applied standards for receiving special educational provision, the present paper strives to shed light on the scope of novel indicators, which can accommodate pupils’ different needs.  Founded upon 3 hitherto established robust psycho-educational concepts – working memory, test anxiety and self-regulation – all of which are important for educational, social, emotional and behavioural development, the present study examined those concepts in terms of profiles and their relations to mathematical achievement. 624 children between the ages of 8 and 10 completed a battery of tests, assessing working memory, test anxiety, self-regulation, and mathematical achievement. Person-centred analyses reiterated the negative academic outcomes associated with the aforementioned variables but also revealed individual variations that warrant attention. Furthermore pupils labelled with an ‘At-risk’ profile were more likely to achieve low Math scores, compared to pupils with an ‘In-vigour’ profile. Implication for special educational provision is discussed, and practical suggestions provided.

  • 42.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    The role of cognitive-affective factors in underachievement2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is converging evidence on the strong relationship between working memory capacity and mathematical performance. Test anxiety is a potential moderating factor involved in the relationship between working memory and academic performance. Based on Eysenck and Calvo’s (1992) Processing Efficiency Theory the present study investigated whether associations between working memory and educational achievement in mathematics were moderated by test anxiety. 624 children aged 9-10 years completed verbal, spatial, and complex working memory tasks. Test anxiety was measured using the Children’s Test Anxiety Scale (Wren & Benson, 2004). Mathematical performance was assessed using the Swedish national test in mathematics.

  • 43.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi Vasa.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Akademi Vasa.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Akademi Vasa.
    A cross-national comparison of test anxiety in Swedish and Finnish grade 3-pupils: measured by the CTAS2012Inngår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 615-636Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The education systems in Sweden and Finland have different formal and informal testing traditions. A recognised possible adverse effect of testing is test anxiety among pupils and students which may have a negative impact on examination performance. Research into which factors of testing practice affect the levels of test anxiety in younger pupils in real classroom settings is a neglected area internationally yet holds great importance for school practitioners. A cross-national study was conducted to determine whether there are any differences in test anxiety between groups of young pupils in Sweden and Finland, as measured by the Children’s Test Anxiety Scale (the CTAS), and whether these differences are ‘real’ differences or a result of differential item functioning. The dimensionality of the CTAS construct is further examined. Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyse the data obtained. Partial measurement invariance with respect to nationality and gender was achieved, demonstrating that the CTAS accurately measures latent constructs such as thoughts, autonomic reactions and off-task behaviours in boys and girls, and Swedish and Finnish pupils. No differences were found in the levels of test anxiety experienced by Swedish and Finnish pupils. Girls reported higher levels of autonomic reactions related to test anxiety, but no gender differences in thoughts and off-task behaviours were identified. Methodological limitations and the future implications of the results obtained are discussed.

  • 44.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå School of Education (USE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Academy, Vaasa, Finland.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Academy, Vaasa, Finland.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Academy, Vaasa, Finland.
    Different but alike: comparing the consequences oftwo national testing systems and implications for test anxiety2012Inngår i: ECER 2012, European Conference of Educational Research, Cádiz, Spain, September 17-21, 2012, ECER , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to other countries, Swedish pupils undergo a very small number of examinations during their compulsory education (OECD, 2005). However, a new assessment program that has recently been introduced in Sweden requires that pupils undergo an increased number of mandatory national examinations. In Finland, there are no national examinations taken by all pupils at a given stage in their basic education. Instead, schools are assessed on the basis of the test results of a random representative sample, typically in a single subject. Notwithstanding, Finnish pupils generally have more classroom examinations over the course of the school year. In addition to undergoing different numbers of exams during their time in school, pupils in Finland and Sweden also differ in terms of their levels of academic achievement, as measured by various international comparative studies in education. For several years, the ranking of Swedish pupils in these comparative exercises has fallen; there is a stable downwards trend in Sweden’s PISA rank. By contrast, Finnish pupils have maintained consistently high rankings (Kupiainen et al., 2009).

    Both Finland and Sweden could be said to have “low-stakes” national assessment systems, although this may be changing in the case of Sweden. While the Swedish accountability system is not really standards-based, it has certain elements that incline it in that direction (Eklöf et al., 2009). High-stakes tests are generally perceived as being stressful, resulting in anxiety (O’Neil & Abedi, 1992). If pupils experience high stress connected to taking a test, i.e. test anxiety, it may adversely affect their performance. Research has shown that as group, highly test-anxious individuals perform less well on examinations (Zeidner, 2007).

    On the other hand, it is possible that increased testing may boost educational performance. Studies have shown that tests influence pupils’ behaviour and stances, providing motivation and encouragement. Together with increases in test-taking skills, familiarity, and changes in attitudes (Connor-Greene, 2000), this seems to reduce test anxiety (Roediger et al., 2006).

    Test anxiety is a growing problem in diverse geographical and cultural settings. There are over 1 000 publications on test anxiety (Stöber & Pekrun, 2004), but little attention has been paid to its occurrence in Sweden or Finland. Even though test anxiety levels do not seem to differ greatly between nations, some cultural groups score higher than others on test anxiety scales (Bodas et al., 2008). Accordingly test anxiety may be sensitive to cultural and socialization factors, and so it may be imprudent to simply generalize previous research findings to other national populations (Zeidner, 1990).

    The objective of present study was thus to determine whether pupils in two unlike school settings, Sweden and Finland, differ in their experiences of test anxiety. Moreover, we examined the test anxiety instrument of Wren and Benson (2004) and their construct of test anxiety; a statistical comparison of its groups and items was undertaken to assess its utility for studying Swedish and Finnish pupils. The result is further discussed and related to Europe-wide patterns and trends in national testing systems.

    Method

    103 girls (34 Swedish) and 69 boys (29 Swedish) between nine and ten years of age participated. The children came from eleven grade three classes (4 Swedish and 7 Finnish) from six different schools (2 Swedish). Finnish and Swedish are being speaking in both countries, and therefore both language groups were included from both countries. The CTAS (the Children’s Test Anxiety Scale: Wren & Benson, 2004) is a refined and modernized 30-item self-reported pen-and-paper instrument. The CTAS assesses an individual’s level of anxiety about testing on a 1-4 Likert scale, asking for participants’ response about how anxious they would feel in response to various settings and experiences. The CTAS is one of several widely-used test anxiety inventories that have satisfactory reliability coefficients and high practicality in naturalistic field settings (Zeidner, 2007). The test has three dimensions: thoughts; autonomic reactions; and off-task behaviors.

    Expected Outcomes

    No differences were found between the levels of test anxiety of Swedish and Finnish pupils. Additionally, low levels of test anxiety were reported. The CTAS was found to accurately measure the latent constructs of thoughts, autonomic reactions and off task behavior in both Finnish and Swedish boys and girls. Two items relating to worries about the test going badly indicated the existence of differences between the two nations. Swedish pupils experienced more worry about what would happen if they failed, whereas Finns worried more about what their parents would say if they failed. The great majority of national tests in Europe are mandatory for all pupils. The use of sample tests in Finland for the purpose of monitoring national performance is relatively widespread in Europe. Only a smaller number of countries, including Sweden, use the tests for formative purposes. Accordingly, either Finland or Sweden has the traditional objective with national testing which is to certify individual pupil attainment, a system being connected to stress. Sample tests are argued to not significantly increasing the burden on pupils (Eurydice, 2009). Consequently, the low reported levels of test anxiety here could be a result of current policies on national testing in respectively country.

    References

    Bodas, J., Ollendick, T. H., & Sovani, A. V. (2008). Test anxiety in Indian children: a cross-cultural perspective. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 21(4), 387-404. Connor-Greene P A (2000) Assessing and promoting student learning: blurring the line between teaching and testing Teaching of Psychology, 27(2), 84-88. Eklöf H., Andersson, E., & Wikström, C. (2009). The concept of accountability in education: does the Swedish school system apply? Cadmo, 2, 1-12. Eurydice. (2009). National testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Brussels: Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency P9 Eurydice, Retrieved March, 16, 2010, from http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/109EN.pdf Kupiainen, S., Hautamäki, J., & Karjalainen, T. (2009). The Finnish Education System and Pisa. Undervisningsministeriet, Ministry of Education, Helsinki University Print. O’Neil, H. F., Jr., & Abedi, J. (1992). Japanese children’s trait and state worry and emotionality in a high-stakes testing environment. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 5(3), 225-239. OECD. (2005). Education at a glance: OECD indicators. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Roediger, H. L. III, McDaniel, M., & McDermott, K. (2006). Test enhanced learning. APS Observer, 19(3). Stöber, J., & Pekrun, R. (2004). Advances in test anxiety research. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 17(3), 205-211. Wren, D. G., & Benson, J. (2004). Measuring test anxiety in children: scale development and internal construct validation. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 17(3), 227-240. Zeidner, M. (1990). Does test anxiety bias scholastic aptitude test performance by gender and social group? Journal of Personality Assessment, 55(1&2), 145-160. Zeidner, M. (2007). Test anxiety in educational contexts: Concepts, findings, and future directions. In P. A. Schutz, & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion and education (165-184). San Diego, CA: Elsevier INC

  • 45.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Peng, Aihui
    Faculty of Education, Southwest University, China/School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    A cross-cultural analysis of test anxiety among Chinese, Finnish and Swedish pupilsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Peng, Aihui
    Faculty of Education, Southwest University, China/School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Cultural and Gender Differences in Experiences and Expression of Test Anxiety Among Chinese, Finnish, and Swedish Grade 3 Pupils2015Inngår i: International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, ISSN 2168-3603, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 37-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While test anxiety has been studied extensively, little consideration has been given to the cultural impacts of children's experiences and expressions of test anxiety. The aim of this work was to examine whether variance in test anxiety scores can be predicted based on gender and cultural setting. Three hundred and ninety-eight pupils in Grade 3 in China, Finland, and Sweden, each of which has different testing realities, completed the Children's Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS). Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) results indicated that the Chinese sample scored more highly on the autonomic reactions component, whereas the Nordic sample scored higher on the off-task behaviors component. Significant interaction effects between gender and culture were also observed: The Nordic girls exhibited higher levels of autonomic reactions, but the opposite was seen in the Chinese sample, with boys reporting higher levels of the cognitive component. The conceptualization of test anxiety encompassing the off-task behaviors component does not appear to be universal for children. It is also suggested that gender differences vary as a function of culture.

  • 47.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Umeå School of Education (USE).
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Local time governance in comprehensive schools2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Broman, Daniel A
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Food aversions, food neophobia, and disgust: interrelations and gender differences2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Att hantera tiden: Skolchefer om att delta respektive inte delta i timplaneförsöket2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 50.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Local time governance in comprehensive schools2004Inngår i: Teacher education and international collaboration: its strength and challenges / [ed] Erixon, Per-Olof, 1954-, special monograph editors: Gun-Marie Frånberg and Gloria Ladson-Billings, Umeå: Fakulteten för lärarutbildningarna, Umeå universitet , 2004, s. 145-162Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
12 1 - 50 of 64
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf