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  • 1.
    Dal, Michael
    et al.
    School of Education, University of Iceland, Reykjavık, Iceland.
    Elo, Janne
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Research on pedagogical entrepreneurship: A literature review based on studies from Finland, Iceland and Sweden2016Ingår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 159-182, artikel-id 30036Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for entrepreneurship in the educational system are present not only in the Nordic countries, but also in the majority of other Western countries. Linked to these strategies different research efforts have been made. Although the research efforts have a common origin in supranational policies on entrepreneurship, there has been little research analysing the similarities and differences in how the topic is addressed by researchers in different countries. Being able to relate to both the policy and the available research in a nuanced way is important especially in the context of teacher education. The purpose of this article is to review the most recent research in pedagogical entrepreneurship from three countries: Finland, Iceland and Sweden. The aim is to discover whether the common phenomena of entrepreneurship in an educational context are approached differently in these three countries. The review of 21 articles in all, covering aim, method, concepts, references and results, draws a rather fragmented picture of the research. The main results are that the reviewed research was mostly qualitative and covered the entire spectrum from theoretical research to practice-oriented research. A variety of concepts were used. The analysis of the use of references uncovered a need to be more aware of including research from neighbouring regions. The research field seems to be quite lively and is still developing. However, it would benefit from a better dialogue between researchers in order to strengthen the contribution of Nordic research on pedagogical entrepreneurship.

  • 2.
    Diehl, Monika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    The Impact of Classification and Framing in Entrepreneurial Education: Field Observations in Two Lower Secondary Schools2015Ingår i: Universal Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 2332-3205, Vol. 3, nr 8, s. 489-501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article’s purpose is to examine, on the basis of Bernstein’s theory of classification and framing, how teachers express the concept and content of entrepreneurship in classroom practices in two Swedish lower secondary schools. The study is part of a national school improvement program aiming to better understand, develop and encourage entrepreneurial education and learning. The broad perspective of entrepreneurial education is used in Swedish compulsory school and thereby in this study. In 2011 the curriculum was reversed, which meant, in addition to introducing entrepreneurship, adding focus on learning outcomes. The data sample is based on observation and field notes. The results show differences between the schools and subjects.  The classification is strong in both schools, but the framing differs. Differences in framing are based on characteristics of individual teachers, and to some extent subjects, rather than schools. Together with other circumstances - such as teachers’ views and knowledge, school organization and subject division - the task can be perceived as challenging.

  • 3.
    Falk Lundqvist, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Hallberg, Per-Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Entreprenöriellt lärande: i praktik och teori2014 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Falk-Lundqvist, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Hallberg, Per-Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning (BUSV).
    Entreprenöriell pedagogik i skolan: Drivkrafter för elevers lärande2011 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Hoppe, Magnus
    et al.
    School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Educational approaches to entrepreneurship in higher education: a view from the Swedish horizon2017Ingår i: Education + Training, ISSN 0040-0912, E-ISSN 1758-6127, Vol. 59, nr 7/8, s. 751-767Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present and develop models of educational approaches to entrepreneurship that can provide complementary analytical structures to better study, enact and reflect upon the role of entrepreneurship in higher education.

    Design/methodology/approach: A general framework for entrepreneurship education is developed by using theory as well as practical experiences from the fields of business, engineering and pedagogy. The paper is mainly conceptual where the unfolding Swedish practice is used as contextual backdrop.

    Findings: The FOR/IN/THROUGH/ABOUT (FITA) taxonomy is presented and used to develop three models of how to approach entrepreneurship in higher education depending on purpose. As there exists a didactical divide between entrepreneurial education for business and entrepreneurial approach to teaching and learning, educators and researchers ought to let their specific context influence the adoption of the taxonomy as well as the presented models.

    Research limitations/implications: The differentiations suggested by the presented models can be used to both structure the designs and limit claims of future research. More heuristic research is called for.

    Practical implications: The use of FITA in the designing of entrepreneurship education offers new opportunities for enhancing complementary student learning in higher education.

    Social implications: The study suggests that any political or scholarly initiative must acknowledge the diversity of entrepreneurship education and chose different approaches depending on what is to be achieved.

    Originality/value: The multidisciplinary approach has made it possible to present and create models that denote a common ground for a productive discussion on how to better understand and make use of entrepreneurship in higher education.

  • 6.
    Hoppe, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Entreprenörskap och entreprenöriellt lärande2016Ingår i: Pedagogik för högskolelärare / [ed] Thomas Hansson, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2016, 1, s. 311-334Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Hörnqvist, Maj-Lis
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för skolledarutveckling. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Fostering an entrepreneurial attitude: challenges in the leadership of school principals2014Ingår i: Education + Training, ISSN 0040-0912, E-ISSN 1758-6127, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 551-561Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to uncover the meaning of entrepreneurship in schools and a school leadership which aims to nurture an entrepreneurial attitude. The authors will also discuss what challenges there could be for principals to lead activities to develop an entrepreneurial attitude to learning and teaching.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper integrates policy documents and scientific material concerning entrepreneurial attitude, leadership and school culture.

    Findings – In Sweden as well as internationally there are clear policy intentions for renewal of schoolwork in a more entrepreneurial direction. The most striking challenges for principals are to be enough creative within the boarders set by school authorities when setting vision and goals for the development of their schools to enhance an entrepreneurial attitude, building trust and distributing power among staff, along with having courage to think outside “the box”.

    Research limitations/implications – The point of departure is entrepreneurial attitude in education as understood in a Swedish context. International policies as well as research are discussed.

    Practical implications – The paper illuminates strategic ways of thinking and acting according to leadership in an entrepreneurial learning school context.

    Originality/value – The role of principals as well as the significance of culture in a school context focused on developing an entrepreneurial attitude is quite often discussed in research. School differs from business in that there are more restrictions set by school authorities. The paper shows an undeveloped area which can be useful to identify and problematize challenges for leadership.

  • 8.
    Hörnqvist, Maj-Lis
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Principals’ Leadership in Nurturing an Entrepreneurial Attitude2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Unemployment rises in Eurozone countries, particularly among young people. Entrepreneurship research and policy has presented entrepreneurship education as a magical means to change attitudes among school principals and teachers to work towards development and long-term growth in society. This seems to be a somewhat simplified solution of a complex problem. However, unemployment among young people as well as changing needs of societies are presented as reasons why the concept of entrepreneurship has been raised on the education policy agendas of most European countries (European Commission, 2004; OECD, 1989). The European Commission, OECD, The World Bank, and UNESCO, as well as the Swedish National Agency for Education (Skolverket), have all produced policy documents for entrepreneurship in the education system. The Swedish school policy for entrepreneurship is based on a Government strategy. The purpose in the policy is to stimulate creativity among young people and to encourage them to be innovative and create new ideas and to transform these ideas into practice (Government Offices of Sweden, 2009).Research about the role of principals for developing an entrepreneurial attitude in learning and teaching in schools, are in many ways an unexplored area. Our aim is to uncover the meaning of an entrepreneurial attitude in schools and discuss what challenges there could be in respect to principals. Entrepreneurship in an educational context can be understood in two ways (Erkkilä, 2000): entrepreneurship education, or a narrow understanding i.e. education in starting and running business, and enterprise education, or a broad understanding, with a focus on abilities that characterizes entrepreneurs such as an energetic, creative, cooperative and innovative person who looks for opportunities and is not afraid of taking risks (Johannisson & Madsén, 1997).  Based on a broad understanding, our point of departure is a school culture characterized by identifying opportunities and transforming ideas into practical and purposeful activities (Skolverket, 2010). The focus in this paper is on the entrepreneurial attitude as understood in a Swedish context- The research questions concern challenges in leadership for developing this kind of entrepreneurial attitude.  Deakins et al., (2005) claim that leadership in entrepreneurial schools consists of two parts, one is the internal work with the staff like communication, coaching and reflection and the other is external like building networks with local communities. Internally, building a vision and setting directions along with understanding and developing people, redesigning the organization, and managing the teaching and learning program, is according to Leithwood, et al., (2008) leadership qualities and practices characterizing leadership capabilities. A crucial aspect is then self-confidence, i.e. how people believe in their own capability. Self-efficacy theory state that self-efficacy beliefs raises motivation and thoughts that is important to develop necessary skills (Bandura, 1997). Another crucial aspect connected to self-efficacy, is to build trust and improve teachers qualities. Robinson (2010) argues that building relational trust is one essential capability in leadership. Applied to how to foster an entrepreneurial attitude in school, we will highlight some challenges for principals.

    MethodsResearch on entrepreneurship is multi-disciplinary though it has its ground in an economic context; hence there is a lot of research about entrepreneurship.  School leadership is also a well-studied field, but leadership in school focused on developing an entrepreneurial mindset is still an unexplored area. We like to merge these perspectives to find challenges to principals’ leadership towards an entrepreneurial attitude in school work. In our analytical framework we are inspired by Hynes (1996) and Cope’s (2005) theories on entrepreneurial learning, contrasted with theories of leadership cf. Leithwood and Janzi (2005). Our empirical material consists of policy documents and scientific studies and reports.

    ResultsIn leading school towards an entrepreneurial attitude, the transformation of ideas into practical activities might be the most provocative part, though it can be a big culture-breaking challenge in school. A challenge for principals is to have and firmly establish a clear direction and focus on possibilities within all regulations with attention on students’ utilizing their full potential for learning. This means to motivate and coach teachers to supervise students within the boundaries set by national steering documents, without limit their creativity. Without a firm belief in the value of this orientation, and a self-efficacy belief in the ability to set clear directions, a feeling of losing control can be frightening and threatening for the professional self, regardless of being a principal or a teacher. Another challenge for principals is then to be enough acquainted to what is going on in classrooms to know how support and motivate teachers to invest energy in this learning process (Hersey et al., 2001). Finally, a big challenge is to build network with businesses and workplaces to open up new arenas for learning.

  • 9.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    An Entrepreneurial Attitude: Implications for Leadership in Schools2013Ingår i: Creativity and innovation in educational research: ECER 2013, September 10-13, Istanbul, Turkey, 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerning heads of preschool and principals leadership, the entrepreneurial approach is relatively unproblematised, although research have shown classroom leadership to be important for pupils learning and for what characterizes successful schools (Ellmin, 2011; Höög & Johansson, 2011). I have chosen the term ‘entrepreneurship’ since its considerable space in existing curriculum and what it means to lead a school towards an entrepreneurial attitude.

    An entrepreneur is characterized as an individual who take risks, has a creative and innovative attitude, one who sees opportunities rather than obstructions, and coordinates through networks (Leffler, 2006). What then, are the capabilities of heads of preschool and principals in the present enquiry that has significance on a leadership that will promote entrepreneurship?

    As a phenomenon and concept entrepreneurship has existed for almost two decades on a policy level. Already 1989 the OECD presented the report “Towards an ’enterprising’ culture – a challenge for education and training”. The report expressed a strong concern for the unemployment among youth that paralleled the need for change in schools work and working tradition. Entrepreneurial abilities were considered necessary not only for the labor market, but also a changed need for the society in general. The need of individuals that can take responsibility, initiative, and show creativity was highlighted. It was mostly a question of trying to utilize the young generations’ capacity, and to develop their enterprising competencies (OECD, 1989). In the Education Act (2010:800), the concept of knowledge is given a broad meaning, which is mirrored in the curricula (Skolverket, 2011a, 2011b). A clear change in these was that teaching was supposed to focus on development of abilities and skills that would contribute to an attitude in pupils promoting entrepreneurship. This includes among other aspects, that school shall stimulate the pupils’ creativity and curiosity, as well as the will to explore individual ideas and solve problems. What does this implicate for the leadership in school?

    Concerning entrepreneurship, leadership in school is often considered equal to leadership in the business world. Is it possible to make this comparison, and what is there to learn for school in this comparison on aspects of leadership development? In the analysis of the enquiry the four leadership roles described by Ichak Adizes (1997) are tested; the Producer (P), the Administrator (A), the Entrepreneur (E), and the Integrator (I). In discussing their interrelationships within the results of the enquiry, the significance of the different leadership roles of the heads of preschool and principals may be visualized.

    The aim of the present paper is thus to problematize entrepreneurship as a concept and phenomenon in the school context, and to discuss what leadership roles, according to Adizes, that could be considered successful in implementing entrepreneurship. What roles does the successful school leader display? What expectations and requirements can we establish according to the results? The results may give a reference to what heads of preschool and principals need to express in order to successfully develop their activity towards entrepreneurship.

     

    Method

    This study is a part of research project: National Policy meets Local Implementations Structures, funded by the Swedish research council. The study is based on national and local policy documents and a survey of school-leaders, and it’s limited to heads of preschool and principals in public as well as in independent and compulsory schools. The questionnaire focuses on the relation between national policy and local implementation strategies.  There are also interview materials that will be used.

     

    Results

    The producers’ (P) role appears clearly in the analysis.  The heads of the preschool and principals have high personal demands to balance the budget and develop their work towards higher achievement.  At the same time the results show that the administrator (A) role varies. Managing others is also included in this role and the heads of preschool and principals indicate with an average of 84.4 % that their work affects the work of teachers positively. While the administrator complies with the decision of others, it is the entrepreneurs’ (E) task to accomplish their own. The heads of the preschool and principals experience that they can operate  independently and make their own decision about the schools’ internal organization (77 %) and the direction of the educational work at their units (80,1%).  However, to take risks and break the pattern is not prominent for these leaders, only 5.6 % indicates this. Finally the integrator (I) shows that 77.4 % of the heads of the preschool and principals integrate upwards towards managers and 68, 1 % integrates aside through informal networks. All in all, the analysis shows that PAI is prominent while E has a smaller and more withdrawn role.

  • 10.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    An Entrepreneurial Attitude: Implications for Teachers' Leadership Skills?2019Ingår i: Leadership and Policy in Schools, ISSN 1570-0763, E-ISSN 1744-5043, s. 1-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship in school is a widespread issue within the school system and it is therefore important to problematise teachers and their role when entrepreneurship is emphasized in their school practice. The teachers in this study, from the secondary and upper secondary levels, were all participating in a Swedish three-year school improvement programme on entrepreneurship in school. Based on a questionnaire and interviews, the results were categorized into four main teacher leadership skills: teachership, leadership, professional leadership, and "professionship". This study high-lights the importance of teachers' relationship to their students, new thinking about teaching and learning, and subject knowledge.

  • 11.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    Critical moments: Reflexivitet i forskning i egen praktik2008Ingår i: Se skolan - Forskningsmetoder i pedagogiskt arbete / [ed] Carina Rönnqvist & Monika Vinterek, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2008, s. 201-210Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 12.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Enterprise Learning and School Subjects – A Subject Didactic Issue?2014Ingår i: Journal of Education and Training, ISSN 2330-9709, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 15-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish government, entrepreneurship is supposed to “run like a read thread” through the education system. Teachers are in their teaching required to stimulate skills that are vital for entrepreneurship. This study problematizes the relation between school subjects and enterprise learning from a discourse analytical approach. The point of departure is policy documents and research on entrepreneurship in schools. By using interviews with teachers and a principal, interpretations and understanding of enterprise learning is analyzed. The results show that teachers emphasize the concepts connection with real life and creating meaningfulness in their rhetoric, but by omitting the didactic questions why and for whom, tend both the concepts creating meaningfulness and connection with real lift to deal with teachers’ experiences and understanding and not on pupils’ learning.

  • 13.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Entrepreneurship in Schools and the Invisible of Gender: A Swedish Context2012Ingår i: Entrepreneurship - Gender, Geographies and Social Context / [ed] Thierry Burger-Helmchen, Rijeka: InTech, 2012, s. 31-52Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Entreprenör - entreprenös2012Ingår i: Tema: Entreprenörskap / [ed] Åsa Sundström, Malmö: Fortbildning i Stockholm AB , 2012, s. 7-13Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Entreprenöriellt förhållningssätt i undervisning och lärande2015Ingår i: Grunnskole lærerutdanning gjennom pedagogisk entreprenørskap / [ed] Frode Olav Haara og Inger Karin Røe Ødegård, Cappelen Damm AS, 2015, 1, s. 80-95Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    Entreprenörskap i skolan: företagande eller företagsamma elever?2009Ingår i: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 20-37Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    Entreprenörskap och företagsamhet i skolan2002Ingår i: Forskningen i Skolan/Skolan i Forskningen: Ett möte på lika villkor : Dokumentation från forskningssymposium i Umeå 11-12 april 2002 / [ed] Annika Andræ Thelin, Stockholm: Skolverket , 2002, , s. 50s. 21-23Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    Entreprenörskap och företagsamhet i skolan2008Ingår i: Grundskoletidningen, ISSN 1652-7844, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 34-42Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    Entreprenörskap och Företagsamhet i skolan - en del i Pedagogiskt arbete2002Ingår i: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning, ISSN 1404-7659, nr 1-2, s. 87-100Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Pedagogiskt arbete som forskningsfält ger nya möjligheter för utbildade lärare att forska i sin egen praktik. En forskare kan ses som en entreprenör som genom sin forskningsresa genomför en entreprenöriell handling. Entreprenörskap och företagsamhet är begrepp som ofta förknippas med ekonomi av något slag, men genom en vidare innebörd kan begreppet användas på alla som är förändringsbenägna och vill utveckla och utvecklas i en verksamhet. Entreprenörskap och företagsamhet i skolan bygger på att låta eleverna ta mera initiativ, bli mera självständiga och ansvarstagande så att de får de förutsättningar som behövs för att kunna starta egna företag. Att starta företag behöver inte vara huvudmålet utan målet kan också vara att utveckla mera elevaktiva arbetssätt och öppna skolan mot närsamhället. Både elever och lärare behöver kunskaper om hur de själva lär. Läraren har huvudansvaret för lärprocessen men eleven ska också ges möjlighet att ta större initiativ och ansvar i sitt eget lärande.

  • 20.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    Entreprenörskapets många ansikten2010Ingår i: Vårboken, Umeå: Umeå School of Education, Umeå University , 2010, s. 5-14Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    Företagsamhet i företagsamma Halland: erfarenheter och lärdomar från en grundskolas gemensamma satsning på företagsamt lärande2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att arbeta med en skolas förändringsarbete mot företagsamt lärande är en både givande och svår uppgift. Utmaningen är att verkligen få fram vilken utveckling som skett och vad som kan betecknas som själva kärnan i den utvecklingen samt att synliggöra detta. Denna forskningsrapport redovisar en studie som genomförts i en grundskolas årskurser 6-9, där jag fått möjlighet att följa den gemensamma kompetensutvecklingen i företagsamt lärande. Samtliga lärare genomgick under år 2008 en femdagarsutbildning i företagsamt lärande som leddes av lärare från Umeå universitet. Studien innehåller enkätsvar från lä-rare, observationer i klassrum och fokusgruppsintervjuer med lärare och elever samt enskilda intervjuer med rektorer. Syf-tet med studien är att undersöka vilka effekter en riktad och medveten kompetensutveckling i företagsamt lärande och en-treprenörskap kan få för lärares och pedagogers lärprocesser och vilka avtryck det ger i skolpraktiken. Eftersom mitt sätt att analysera är diskursanalytiskt innehåller rapporten utdrag från fältanteckningar och citat från intervjusamtal. Det är hur lärare och elever berättar om kunskap och lärande och sin förståel-se av företagsamt lärande som analyseras. Resultaten visar att denna skola som utvecklingsområde är komplex och att det inte går att dra någon enhetlig slutsats om hur långt skolan kom-mit i sitt förändringsarbete. Lärares arbete verkar fortfarande vara en enskild angelägenhet, trots att de arbetar i arbetslag. De förändringar som lärarna är överens om i stort är att de ska sträva mot att arbeta mer ämnesövergripande och mer utåt mot det närliggande samhället. Förändringar på enskild nivå går att utläsa och där handlar det om konkreta förändringar som att utveckla sätten att ställa frågor mot mer öppna och problem-formulerade frågor och att låta eleverna vara medbedömare i varandras arbeten. Eleverna blev inte direkt involverade i detta förändringsarbete. De kände inte till att lärarna gick en utbildning i företagsamt lärande och vad det skulle komma att innebära för undervisningen. Däremot kom de med kreativa synpunkter på sin undervisning och gav flera exempel på när de verkligen upplevt att de lärt sig saker. En sammanfattande slutsats är att lärarna inte reflekterat över vad de ska förändra i sitt förhållningssätt till lärande för att göra undervisningen mer företagsam utan mer funderat över vilka moment och metoder som ska ingå.

  • 22.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    Företagsamma elever: Diskurser kring entreprenörskap och företagsamhet i skolan2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study and problematize the concepts of entrepreneurship and enterprise in Swed-ish compulsory schools. The studies presented in this thesis focus both on scientific publications and official documents that deal with entrepreneurship and enterprise in compulsory schools and on school projects that have been carried out in years 4 to 6 in the county of Västerbotten. The main questions of the study are:

    • How did the discourse on entrepreneurship and enterprise in school arise?

    • What do concepts of entrepreneurship and enterprise mean in Swedish nine-year compulsory schools?

    • How is discursive practice concerning Entrepreneurship and Enterprise in schools expressed?

    Michel Foucault’s theories of discourse, power and discipline have been used as analytical tools, together with gender theories. Characteristic for the research on entrepreneurship is that it is multidisciplinary. There are difficulties, both nationally and internationally, to explicitly define the concept of ”entrepreneur”. The entrepreneur is described as an individual with abilities to take action, initiative and risks but also as being creative, innovative and cooperative. These are characteristics that both society and school can make use of. Unemployment among young people and changing needs in society are reasons why the concept “enter-prise” is present on most of the agendas of the OECD countries today. Society requires individuals who can take responsibility and initiative and who are creative. Training in and about entrepreneurship has devel-oped and therefore it has been possible to stress its relevance for the entire educational system. Training for entrepreneurship is directed towards economics, i e a discourse about enterprise while training about entre-preneurship turns against training in general by relating to up-bringing and human inner qualities. A dis-course in enterprise has been formed, whose aim is to develop pupils into responsible, creative, active, cooperative and enterprising members of society. This is where a new discourse is created and it is a dis-course in enterprise and schools. Even so, the road into school is via economics because the main aim of entrepreneurship is economic growth and increased employment rate. Throughout the different texts about entrepreneurship and enterprise in school there is a tendency to use dichotomies. In this case it concerns what is the right or the wrong way of teaching. Enterprise teaching, as it is used in entrepreneurship and enterprise in schools, is considered the right and true way of teaching, while the practice in schools is de-scribed as the opposite. A struggle between two discourses appears; the struggle between the entrepreneurial school discourse and the official school discourse, the latter with its origin in the national curriculum from 1994, Lpo 94. At the end of the 1990s a number of school projects were initiated, both nationally and inter-nationally, aiming at stimulating pupils’ enterprising skills. In the county of Västerbotten school projects were initiated under the overarching project PRIO1, Priority Enterprise County of Västerbotten and in-cluded students of all ages. The schools could choose either an entrepreneurial or an enterprising approach to their projects. The enterprise approach was more invisible, less concrete and more difficult to evaluate and measure. The work with entrepreneurship and enterprise in school in the investigated schools show that well-established and current discourses in the schools were transferred to the ”new” discourse. Instead of transferring the “new aspects” that the project was expected to contribute to the current discourse, the ”old” and already well-known aspects were transferred to the new discourse. Consequently, the projects themselves did not result in a comprehensive change of the discourse in practice.

  • 23.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    The many faces of entrepreneurship: a discursive battle for the school arena2009Ingår i: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 104-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship and enterprise in schools are concepts that are appearing more andmore frequently in local curricula for the compulsory nine-year school system in Sweden. Themeanings of the concepts of entrepreneurship and enterprise in schools vary, however. Over the lastfew years, the concept of entrepreneurship has started to appear in contexts other than economic ones,and economic authorities are now expressing a need for a widening of the concept of entrepreneurshipto include all sectors of society. This article further problematizes entrepreneurship and enterprise bydiscussing the following issues: the broader application of the perspective of entrepreneurship, theentrepreneurial perspective that focuses on a business orientation, and the enterprise perspectiveconcerning the development of an individual’s inherent abilities. The results show that teachers are stillwrestling with the contribution of entrepreneurship in school activities.

  • 24.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Falk-Lundqvist, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Drivkraft Söderhamn: resultat och reflektion ur ett vetenskapligt perspektiv2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Falk-Lundqvist, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Entrepreneurial learning and school improvement - a Swedish perspective2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Falk-Lundqvist, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    What about Students’ Right to the “Right” Education?: An Entrepreneurial Attitude to Teaching and Learning2013Ingår i: International Educational Innovation and Public Sector Entrepreneurship / [ed] Alexander W. Wiseman, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013, s. 191-208Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    From, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Entrepreneurial leadership skills in education2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in education in entrepreneurship has increased in Sweden as well as in the rest of the European countries and the Western Countries. The importance of good leadership for teaching and learning is highlighted in practice as well as in research (e.g. Hynes, 1996; Harris & Muijs, 2005; Jones & Iredale, 2010), but there are few studies which explicit focus on entrepreneurial leadership skills in education. The model of teachers’ leadership, means according to Harris and Muijs (2005),”creating the conditions in which people work together and learn together, where they construct and refine meaning, leading to a shared purpose or set of goals” (p. 17).  This study highlights central aspects and characteristics of entrepreneurial teachers.  One central area in today’s debate on school is what students learn or not learn in school. How well they are suited for a life in a changing society and how education can be supportive. International as well as in in the European Union and on a national Swedish basis, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial learning is promoted as a way to arm our young people. Never the less there are challenges for teachers (as well as principals) in implementing an educational strategy based on central concepts in entrepreneurial teacher leadership.The entrepreneurial teacher is often equated with an enthusiastic individual who is not afraid of breaking old habitual patterns and is a driving force for change (Johannisson & Madsén, 1997; Røe Ødegård, 2012). The entrepreneurial teacher acts as a guide more than a director and has the courage to give their students freedom that is required for them to be able to develop their entrepreneurial skills. OECD (1989) points out the importance of “shift of power”, in teachers’ relationship to the students, which means that the teacher should give free rein and has more trust to the students’ willingness and ability to use their own capacity. The interaction between teachers and students highlight problems of how to make creative questions to help students to develop entrepreneurial skills such as identifying possibilities and to make students able to think by themes selves and use more learning arenas than the classroom. The teaching and learning culture will then contain a culture with many questions and answers instead of a focus on the “right answer”. It is also of importance that the teacher visualizes and assesses the leaning processes (Falk-Lundqvist, Hallberg, Leffler, & Svedberg, 2011).  It is in many ways about teachers own learning about learning (cf Timperley, 2012).  However, entrepreneurial teachers are also in some studies described as “enthusiastic individuals”.  They are known as people with a strong driving force but also as individuals who are used to go their own ways (Leffler, 2006). On policy level, entrepreneurial teachers are described in the report Entrepreneurship Education - Enabling Teachers as a Critical Success Factor (European Commission, 2011) with a lot of skills, such as positive attitude, passionate about what they are doing and confident in their teaching. They are also able to listen attentively and can pick up and put to use new ideas.   These qualities are according to the European Commission unlikely to be found in one individual alone. Rather it is more realistic to expect to find such qualities distributed across a range of individuals. Is it possible to identify teachers with certain skills and attribute, and identify them as entrepreneurial teachers?  If, so, what can we learn from these teachers as leaders in the classroom?

    Methodology This study is a part of a Swedish three year school improvement programme Entrepreneurial Learning, funded by Ifous (Innovation, research and development in school) and Umeå University, involving 27 schools in secondary and upper secondary school and is limited to schools in public as well as in independent schools (Other results from the  improvement program see, Leffler & Näsström, 2014).  The study is based on a survey, which aim is to measure emotional intelligence among leaders, Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) and was conducted by an external partner, Kandidata AB.   The sample is based on selected teachers, a total of 90, from secondary and upper secondary schools. Principals were asked to make a selection of eight teachers with entrepreneurial skills, four theoretical and four practical/ aesthetic teachers. (Skilled teachers as a sample are used in other research projects, e.g. Nordänger, 2010).  To give the principals a similar starting point, they got the outline “The entrepreneurial teacher” from the report Entrepreneurship Education: Enabling Teachers as a Crititcal Success Factor (European Commission, 2011).  The selected group of teachers went through a web based EQ-i test which aim is to create successful leadership profiles, in this case entrepreneurial teachers. One reason for using the EQ-i test is that there are studies which show that emotional intelligence is important in private as well as in professional life (Stein & Book, 2005). The teachers as a group were in focus and the results were analysed and categorised in SPSS (a software package used for statistical analysis). The results were categorised in five skill areas: Self-perception, Self-expression, Interpersonal, Decision making and Stress management.

    Conclusions The results give a picture of a group of teachers with good self-perception. It's about teachers who can make use of their emotions and are confident in themselves. That means that they are able to listen to their own feelings and use them in their expressions. They are also relationship-oriented and sensitive to other people and have the ability to take in others' perspectives in their decisions. A further characteristic is that they are socially responsible and have a strong motivation for their actions. They are also characterized by a relatively low impulse control, which means that they dare to think and go outside "the box". However, they have a certain impatience and restlessness which means that they have difficulties to wait for others.  When compared to the European Commission’s (2011) view of entrepreneurial teachers, this study emphasizes the importance of social and relational abilities (cf Nieto, 2007). It also highlights, as other studies about teacher leadership, the importance of working as a group and not as individuals and to learn from each other (cf Harris & Muijs, 2005). There were no significant differences between theoretical and practical/aesthetic teachers. This study will be followed up with observations in classrooms and interviews with teachers.  

  • 28.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Hörnqvist, Maj-Lis
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för skolledarutveckling.
    Entreprenöriellt förhållningssätt i skolan: möjligheter och utmaningar för skolledare2014Ingår i: Ledarskap i centrum: om rektor och förskolechef / [ed] Monika Törnsén & Helene Ärlestig, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2014, s. 131-143Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lindster Norberg, Eva-Lena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Diehl, Monika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Näsström, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Att tänka fritt är stort, men att tänka utanför boxen är större: Ifous-programmet Entreprenöriellt lärande, Resultat från år 12013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lundberg, Gun
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Att vilja lära språk är entreprenöriellt lärande2012Ingår i: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, nr 2, s. 15-21Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 31.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Mahieu, Ron
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Entreprenörskap: ett nytt fostransprojekt i skolan2010Ingår i: Fostran i skola och utbildning: historiska perspektiv / [ed] Anna Larsson, Uppsala: Fören. för svensk undervisningshistoria , 2010, s. 177-169Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Näsström, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Entrepreneurial learning and school improvement: a Swedish case2014Ingår i: International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education, ISSN 2349-0373, Vol. 1, nr 11, s. 243-254Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial learning has become a concern for schools almost all over the world. This article aims to investigate what characterizes educationin lower and upper secondary schoolsthat claimto be working toahigh orlow degree withentrepreneurial learning and what implications this might have fordifferent teaching methods. The results, measured at the end of the first year of a three-year school im-provement program, showthat schools with a high degree of entrepreneurial learning cooperate more with the local community, read more pedagogical literature and have changed their rhetoric toa higher degree than schools with a low degree of entrepreneurial learning. The results also indicate that teaching methods involving the local community havepositive effects onpupils’ learning.

  • 33.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    A pilot project concerning the establishment of 'advanced' education training schools: dilemmas and problems for the Swedish teacher education2016Ingår i: Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    Enterprise in Swedish rural schools: Capacity building through learning networks2003Ingår i: Queensland Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 1329-0703, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 83-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In about a hundred schools in the northern parts of Sweden, extensive development work is being carried out with the title Företagsamhet i skolan ('Enterprise in schools'). The purpose has been to support the ability of a new generation to manage its own future in a part of the country characterised by depopulation and unemployment. Our point of departure is the big regional venture that has been made in order to develop enterprise in schools in northern Sweden (the so-called PRIO 1 project) and current rhetoric. The exploration of enterprise in schools is marred by a number of fundamental difficulties. This has to do with the concept's varying meanings and roots in other research disciplines. The primary aim of this study is to analyse whether enterprise in schools contributes to education and, if so, which of its aspects are central. The study shows that the manifestations of enterprise in schools are in many ways in accordance with the school development aspirations of the last few decades, and the concept thereby runs the risk of being dismissed as a new label for old ambitions that have not been completely fulfilled. We argue, however, that the specific contribution that 'enterprise in schools' can make in education is found in the network development that has been started on different levels in the schools in northern Sweden. We therefore wish to emphasise 'learning networks' as an important part of capacity building.

  • 35.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    Enterprise Learning: a challenge to education?2005Ingår i: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 219-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern part of Sweden is characterised by depopulation and relatively high levels of unemployment among young people. As a consequence, a number of projects have been established for the purpose of strengthening young people’s creativity and spirit of enterprise. The aim of this article is to problematise the concept of ‘enterprise education’ as understood in Swedish schools. This is done by visualising the rhetoric that surrounds the effort of introducing Enterprise in Schools (‘Företagsamhet i skolan’) and by trying to understand what the concept means in practice from the perspective of apprenticeship theory. The authors’ research involves classroom observations and interviews with teachers and students from different schools. The results show that the discourse about Enterprise in Schools is based on catchwords such as cooperation, power of initiative, creativity and activity. The authors’ studies of the organisation and implementation of the teaching have visualised the collaborative aim and emphasis on learning through schoolwork.

  • 36.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Entrepreneurial learning through distributed leadership2019Ingår i: Abstract book: 2019-03-06, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2019, s. 929-930Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic: This study examined how a Swedish elementary school K-9 organised their improving process of entrepreneurial learning through teacher leaders ’professional development. 

    Theoretical framework: The schools’ point of departure and the pedagogical perspective werebased on entrepreneurial learning (Falk-Lundqvist, Hallberg, Leffler & Svedberg, 2011;Peltonen, 2015; Sagar, 2013; Surlemont, 2007), distributed leadership (Harris & Muijs,2005; Harris & DeFlaminis, 2016) that was grounded in collegial learning (cf. Harris & Muijs,2005; Timperley, 2011) as well as collegial mentoring. The pupils and the teachers in this school were divided in six teams according to grade level. Each team had a “teacher leader for professional development” (TLPD), appointed by the principal. The TLPDs mission was to lead the school development and to support their colleagues’ professional development. They had ongoing process oriented training (cf Scherp, 2013; Timperley, 2011) with external educators, focusing on teacher leadership, colleagues’ learning and entrepreneurial learning. Every third week they met their principals and discussed ongoing development strategies. The process included reading and discussing research literature about teaching and learning. The analysis of the data was grounded in theories of distributed leadership and collegial learning.

    Methodological design: The study involved individual in-depth interviews with six TLPDs, andobservations of TLPDs meetings and TLPDs leadership in their teams.Conclusions: A preliminary analysis of the data showed not only the importance of continuousprofessional development for teacher leaders but also the importance of a school organisation that provides teachers with opportunities and legitimacy to lead their colleagues. Another finding showed that reading the same literature and have collegial discussions were important both for school development and for the legitimacy of the TLPDs, thus narrowing the knowledge practice gap (Kennedy, 2014) On the ‘darker’ side of teacher leadership were all the different experiences on leading colleagues and identifying their role as TLPDs. Difficulties in managing team members’ different ambitions and willingness for common development were also evident. This paper argues for considering these challenges in future professional learning practices to support teacher leaders. It also calls for unpacking of potential cultural practices to support teacher leadership, for example, issues of power and hierarchies.

    Relevance to Nordic educational research: Entrepreneurial learning as well as distributed leadership is one key factor in school improvement strategies in the Nordic countries  (cf Dal et al. 2016).

  • 37.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Practice Schools, a Swedish National Improvement Program Focusing School Based Studies2019Ingår i: ECER 2019 - European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany 3rd-6th September 2019: "Education in an Era of Risk – the Role of Educational Research for the Future", 2019, European Educational Research Association , 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher Education in Sweden, as well as in the rest of Europe, struggle with issues about how to increase the quality of teacher education programs. A strong drive for this is that the quality of Teacher Education has an important impact on pupils' achievement in school (European Commission, 2008). Another reason is that a high quality in education will make teachers more likely to stay in the profession, and thus reduce the lack of teachers. Research has shown that it is a common challenge in the European countries to train and develop student teachers with valid qualifications, both at a practical and scientific level (Råde, 2014). In Sweden a current issue is how to develop the practical part of the teacher student education, the school based studies (SBS), and to link theory to practice and integrate university-based knowledge with work-place knowledge (Karlsson Lohmader (2015). The importance of well-educated and qualified teachers, and thus a high-quality Teacher Education who can respond to these demands, are highlighted in policies (e.g. European Commission, 2013, 2014; Swedish Ministry of Education and Research 2010), as well as in research (e.g. Kelchtermans, G. Smith, K. & Vanderlinde, R. 2018; Valliant and Manso, 2013; Ievers et al., 2013; White, Dickerson & Weston, 2015).

    In order to find ways to develop the practical part of student teachers' education, a national improvement program over five years has been launched in Sweden, concerning the establishment of ‘advanced’ education training schools, so called practice schools.  According to the Swedish Higher Education Authority (UKÄ) decision, 15 Universities have received funding to participate in the improvement program (UKÄ, 2014:2). The programs’ framework is wide and conditions and strategies differ between the Universities. However, three quality aspects have crystallized: concentration, competence and collaboration. A higher concentration of students and competent supervisors (SBTEs) in a school is expected to increase opportunities for sharing experiences. The aspect competence investigates if the Universities contribute with supervisors- training for school based teacher educators (SBTEs) and ensures that there are teachers at the Universities (institute- based teacher educators, IBTEs) which follow up the students' development during school based education (SBE). The aspect collaboration investigate organizational conditions and activities where the Teacher Education and the schools jointly develop student teachers' practical part of their education.

    The present study is the third part study of the Swedish national improvement program. The first two studies took a local and a regional perspective. In addition, this study covers a national perspective on the improvement program by answering the following questions:

    How have the three quality aspects, concentration, competence and collaboration, developed in the program?

    What kind of challenges do the improvement program face?

    Method

    In the present study statistic material, documents, interviews with project leaders from Universities as well as principals and SBTEs experiences have informed us through different useful methods (Bryman, 1997; Patel & Davidson, 2011) and can be seen as an explorative study. Our aim has been to present the problem area in an overall and a general way by using different methods and information sources. One of the authors has been a part of the Swedish Higher Education Authority assessment group (UKÄ report, 2017) and contributes with knowledge from an interview study on a national level,  which together with knowledge from an ongoing evaluation (both authors)  on a regional level, including interviews with stakeholders,  school leaders and  SBTEs, have formed the basis for this study. The material has been analysed in relation to the quality aspects that have emerged from obstructive as well as supportive aspects. 

    Results            

    The results show that the 15 Universities have had extensive possibilities to develop their own design of their projects, linked to the improvement program but according to interpretation of the three quality aspects concentration, competence and collaboration. However, consensus prevails in terms of competence and is concretized by: all SBTEs must be given supervisor training. Surprisingly, there is no specific competence demands for IBTEs. All schools have organized for SBTEs to be able to attend a supervisors’ education. The mobility among SBTEs  and IBTEs have been a challenge in the improvement program. Competence has been more connected to the individual rather than a position as SBTEs and IBTEs, which have made the organisation around school based studies vulnerable. The concentration of SBTEs and students have also been affected by the mobility and has given rise to discussions and questioning of the relationship between more students and increased quality. The collaboration between Universities and the schools has in many ways been connected to assessment. The IBTEs visit students during a lesson and afterwards, together with the student and the SBTE, they discuss the lesson and the students’ different abilities and knowledge linked to the course goals, a so called “ three-part-discussion”. From all school units there have been a desire for closer cooperation between school and University to make schools a clearer and more important part of Teacher Education, which has not been the case for several schools. This was one important reason for schools to join the project - a way to increase the opportunities to participate in research projects and/or gain access to current school research.  This democratic way of letting Universities and practice schools develop the VFU in a variety of ways has given important knowledge to the improvement program.

  • 38.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Quality Through Increased Concentration of Student Teachers?2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Teacher Education at the University of Umeå is one of fifteen universities in Sweden participating in a National Project over five years concerning the establishment of ‘advanced’ education training schools. The goal is threefold: 1) to develop teacher education with a focus on developing the school based studies (VFU) for student teacher, 2) to increase the knowledge and skills of the SBTEs (school based teacher educators) and IBTEs (institute- based teacher educators) by offering in-service education and 3) to initiate research programs with the participating municipality schools (Umeå teacher education application document, 2014). The background is that Teacher Education in Sweden as well as in the rest of Europe struggle with issues concerning how to increase the quality of teachers in our schools, not only as a single problem for the schools but also the effects on student teachers’ practical part of teacher education, and in the end, it has shown that the quality of Teacher Education has a strong influence on pupils’ performance in school (European Commission, 2008).  Research has shown that there is a common challenge in the European countries to educate and develop student teachers with valid qualifications, both on a practical and a scientific level (Råde, 2014). The importance of well-educated and qualified teachers, and thus a high-quality Teacher Education who can respond to these demands, are highlighted in policies (e.g. European Commission, 2013, 2014; Swedish Ministry of Education and Research 2010), as well as in research (e.g. Harris & Muijs, 2005; Timperley, 2011; Darling –Hammond, 2006; Valliant and Manso, 2013; Ievers et al., 2013; White, Dickerson & Weston, 2015). The Swedish pilot project is trying to face these challenges by using different strategies to increase the qualities in Teacher Education.

    One of the main strategies in VFU is to increase the concentration of teacher students at advanced teacher training schools and thus also increase the concentration of the educated supervisors (SBTEs). The idea is that an elevated concentration of both SBTEs and student teachers at the advanced teacher training school, will have a positive impact of the quality as a variation of supervising and peer learning will occur (Government Offices, 2013).

    The present study is the second part of a process evaluation of a pilot project on School Based Studies (VFU) in teacher education at the University of Umeå, Sweden, which was launched in 2015 and will be finished in 2019. An organizational focus was in the first part of the evaluation. In this second part the focus is on quality, identified as increased concentration of student teachers in VFU. The purpose with the present study is thus to take a closer look at the chosen strategy for raised quality in VFU and the following questions have guided the study:

    • Has the concentration of student teachers and SBTEs increased?
    • In what ways have the concentration of student teachers and SBTEs been utilized?

    Methodology: In the previous study the first step was to map the project organization and to get in contact with vital stakeholders both from university level and municipality level (Blossing, 2004).  In the present study, the second step, statistic material as well as student teachers’ experiences have informed us through different methods:  observations in class rooms, interviews, surveys and seminars (Bryman, 1997). Student teachers and their work-based training has been observed at the advanced teacher training schools and in connection, ten interviews with student teachers were performed. In conjunction with the regular evaluations that follow completed periods of school based studies, questions related to the purpose of the training schools have been added to the survey. 105 student teachers have responded to the survey. In addition seminars have been conducted at four of the advanced teacher training schools led by lecturer from the University which resulted in that SBTEs and student teachers jointly discussed and made notes about their experience of VFU both as student teachers and as SBTEs. The triangulation have aimed to provide a composite picture of the project and demonstrate strengths, weaknesses and areas for improvement. Both the quantitative and the qualitative material have been compiled and analyzed.

    Results: The purpose of the project is to increase the quality of VFU in Teacher Education. The results show that the main purpose to increase the concentration of student teachers at the advanced teacher training schools has not yet been full filled. This can be understood in two ways; on the one hand, there are more students in the areas of advanced teacher training schools, on the other hand, the areas have expanded and include more schools. This means that in practice there can be less student teachers than before in one school and the benefits that can be gained from increased concentration cannot be reached. We are aware of that the outcome of this study is context dependent on a regional level. However, there are a few teacher training schools, especially upper secondary schools where there has been a high concentration of student teachers and qualified SBTEs. These schools and SBTEs have developed the learning environment in several ways, for example joint seminars, group supervising and student-to-student- auscultations. The student teachers at these schools express the benefits of peer learning and flexible ways of being supervised. Overall there is a lack of knowledge of the goal, possibilities and benefits with the advanced teacher training school both among student teachers and SBTEs. However, as this is an ongoing project it is possible to make improvement. The contribution of the present study is to highlight development opportunities as well as demands in relation to quality aspects on VFU in Teacher Education.

  • 39.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Mahieu, Ron
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Skapa och våga: om entreprenörskap i skolan2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Åberg, Erika
    Allt hänger ihop!2011Ingår i: Grundskoletidningen, ISSN 1652-7844, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 22-26Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Entreprenöriell pedagogik och lärande för hållbar utveckling bör vara ett förhållningssätt till undervisning och lärande. Det ska inte bygga på enskilda insatser som ett mini-företag, utan själva lärandet är det intressanta.

  • 41.
    Lindster Norberg, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    From, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Could We Catch a Glimpse of An Entrepreneurial Citizen?: A Qualitative Study in Upper Secondary School in Sweden2015Ingår i: Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, ISSN 2055-0286, Vol. 2, nr 11, s. 11-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, educational curricula have been a tool for countries to foster the ‘right’ kind of future citizens. Since the 1980s, there has been an increasing global desire to create entrepreneurial citizens who possess certain abilities. This article will analyse what kind of citizen appears to be fostered when entrepreneurship is emphasised in school. The study is based on empirical research carried out in three geographically separated upper-secondary schools participating in an entrepreneurial program in Sweden. Interviews were performed with pupils in single-gender focus groups. Interviews with teachers were also completed with the help of cognitive maps. Furthermore, a framework was formulated for understanding the general abilities all pupils should develop according to secondary education curricula. These abilities formed four categories: factual knowledge/abilities, learning abilities, civic understanding/abilities and entrepreneurial abilities. When pupils’ voices are heard, and when their stories and conceptions about their future abilities are defined, it is clear that stories about entrepreneurial abilities are predominant. However, no stories about civic understanding abilities or learning abilities are given, and this is the most interesting result of this study. Is this lack of pupils’ understanding regarding the importance of civic abilities worrying and something to be concerned about when fostering future citizens through education?

  • 42.
    Norqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Learning in non-formal education: is it “youthful” for youth in action?2017Ingår i: International Review of Education, ISSN 0020-8566, E-ISSN 1573-0638, Vol. 63, nr 2, s. 235-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers insights into the practices of a non-formal education programme for youth provided by the European Union (EU). It takes a qualitative approach and is based on a case study of the European Voluntary Service (EVS). Data were collected during individual and focus group interviews with learners (the EVS volunteers), decision takers and trainers, with the aim of deriving an understanding of learning in non-formal education. The research questions concerned learning, the recognition of learning and perspectives of usefulness. The study also examined the Youthpass documentation tool as a key to understanding the recognition of learning and to determine whether the learning was useful for learners (the volunteers). The findings and analysis offer several interpretations of learning, and the recognition of learning, which take place in non-formal education. The findings also revealed that it is complicated to divide learning into formal and non-formal categories; instead, non-formal education is useful for individual learners when both formal and non-formal educational contexts are integrated. As a consequence, the division of formal and non-formal (and possibly even informal) learning creates a gap which works against the development of flexible and interconnected education with ubiquitous learning and mobility within and across formal and non-formal education. This development is not in the best interests of learners, especially when seeking useful learning and education for youth (what the authors term "youthful" for youth in action).

  • 43.
    Norqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML). School of Information Science and Learning Technologies (SISLT, iSchool), University of Missouri, USA.
    Sweden and informal learning: Towards Integrated Views of Learning in a Digital Media World. A Pedagogical Attitude?2016Ingår i: Handbuch Informelles Lernen: Interdiziplinäre und Internationale Perspektiven / [ed] Harring, M., Witte, M. D, Burger, T., Weinheim/München: Juventa Verlag, 2016, s. 217-235Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 44.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Falk Lundqvist, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Collegial learning – an opportunity for educational development of entrepreneurial learning?2018Ingår i: NERA 2018: Abstract book: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges, Research Council of Norway, 2018, s. 562-562Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim Entrepreneurship in a school setting, and what is called entrepreneurial learning, has been problematized over the last twenty years and also implemented in various ways and with varying success in both the Nordic and other European countries' school systems. In many ways, the introduction of the concept has been linked to school development and teachers' professional development (Sagar, 2013) and various forms of in-service training have contributed to this. Different kinds of mentoring processes to enhance teachers’ collective learning and professional development have become more and more common as in-service training, for example Teacher Learning Communities. In this paper we use the concept collegial learning for those different methods aimed at teachers together and under supervision creating knowledge for development. However, and surprisingly, collegial learning does not seem to be discussed or studied as a method for developing teachers’ knowledge about entrepreneurial learning in school. The purpose of this study is to investigate and discuss collegial learning as a strategy for teachers’ in-service training and knowledge development and especially, as a strategy for understanding and developing entrepreneurial learning in schools.  Theoretical framework The study is based on several theoretical approaches and research, especially theories of collegial learning (Langelotz 2017), leadership (Ruskovaara & Pihkala, 2015) and entrepreneurial learning (Jones & Iredale, 2010). Methodology/research design The study is based on two part-studies. In the first part-study, four questionnaires have been continuously sent out and answered by mentors who lead teacher groups in collegial learning. In the second part-study, observations of teaching and interviews with mentors at an elementary K-9 school have been conducted. Common to both sub-studies is that the educators receive training and guidance in managing these processes. Expected conclusions/findings Preliminary results of these studies show that supervisors face structural barriers and interpersonal challenges. Teachers' experience exchanges prove to lead to both adaptation and development of the tasks they have to solve together. An adaptive learning leads to more routine and reproductive action, while development-oriented learning involves discovering and testing new action options. In terms of educational development towards increased entrepreneurial learning, the preliminary results show that adaptive learning is counterproductive. In order to meet changes in the surrounding world and promote entrepreneurial learning and diversity, different ways of action and reasoning are needed, which according to research should benefit from a development-oriented approach.

  • 45.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning (BUSV).
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Botha, Melodi
    Department of Business Management, University of Pretoria, South Africa..
     A global entrepreneurship wind is supporting or obstructing democracy in schools: A comparative study in the North and the South2010Ingår i: Education Inquiry, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 309-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy documents for schools and education are being increasingly standardised all over the world and some research claims that a global curriculum is developing in which aspects such as entrepreneurship, lifelong learning and sustainable development are common denominators. This is regarded as a sign that economic rationality is gaining more and more ground in education alongside, or at the expense of, a democratic educational ideal. The aim of this study is to discuss one of these aspects, entrepreneurship, as a concern for schools and education and to put entrepreneurship in relation to the democracy-fostering mission of education. What do the policy documents have to say about entrepreneurship? Is there an inherent opposition between the entrepreneurial and the democratic justification of education? The paper is organised in two steps. The first step illustrates the global spread of entrepreneurship in policy documents for education through examples from the north and the south, respectively, in this case Sweden and South Africa. The second step deals with the concept of "democracy", which is of crucial relevance to education. Both connections and conflicts between fostering entrepreneurship and fostering democracy are discussed, and an integrative perspective is tested as an alternative to dualistic attitudes.

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