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  • 1.
    Dal, Michael
    et al.
    School of Education, University of Iceland, Reykjavık, Iceland.
    Elo, Janne
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Research on pedagogical entrepreneurship: A literature review based on studies from Finland, Iceland and Sweden2016In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 159-182, article id 30036Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for entrepreneurship in the educational system are present not only in the Nordic countries, but also in the majority of other Western countries. Linked to these strategies different research efforts have been made. Although the research efforts have a common origin in supranational policies on entrepreneurship, there has been little research analysing the similarities and differences in how the topic is addressed by researchers in different countries. Being able to relate to both the policy and the available research in a nuanced way is important especially in the context of teacher education. The purpose of this article is to review the most recent research in pedagogical entrepreneurship from three countries: Finland, Iceland and Sweden. The aim is to discover whether the common phenomena of entrepreneurship in an educational context are approached differently in these three countries. The review of 21 articles in all, covering aim, method, concepts, references and results, draws a rather fragmented picture of the research. The main results are that the reviewed research was mostly qualitative and covered the entire spectrum from theoretical research to practice-oriented research. A variety of concepts were used. The analysis of the use of references uncovered a need to be more aware of including research from neighbouring regions. The research field seems to be quite lively and is still developing. However, it would benefit from a better dialogue between researchers in order to strengthen the contribution of Nordic research on pedagogical entrepreneurship.

  • 2.
    Falk Lundqvist, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hallberg, Per-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Entreprenöriellt lärande: i praktik och teori2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Falk-Lundqvist, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hallberg, Per-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Entreprenöriell pedagogik i skolan: Drivkrafter för elevers lärande2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    A pilot project concerning the establishment of 'advanced' education training schools: dilemmas and problems for the Swedish teacher education2016In: Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Teacher Education in Swedish and Social Sciences.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Teacher Education in Swedish and Social Sciences.
    Enterprise in Swedish rural schools: Capacity building through learning networks2003In: Queensland Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 1329-0703, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 83-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In about a hundred schools in the northern parts of Sweden, extensive development work is being carried out with the title Företagsamhet i skolan ('Enterprise in schools'). The purpose has been to support the ability of a new generation to manage its own future in a part of the country characterised by depopulation and unemployment. Our point of departure is the big regional venture that has been made in order to develop enterprise in schools in northern Sweden (the so-called PRIO 1 project) and current rhetoric. The exploration of enterprise in schools is marred by a number of fundamental difficulties. This has to do with the concept's varying meanings and roots in other research disciplines. The primary aim of this study is to analyse whether enterprise in schools contributes to education and, if so, which of its aspects are central. The study shows that the manifestations of enterprise in schools are in many ways in accordance with the school development aspirations of the last few decades, and the concept thereby runs the risk of being dismissed as a new label for old ambitions that have not been completely fulfilled. We argue, however, that the specific contribution that 'enterprise in schools' can make in education is found in the network development that has been started on different levels in the schools in northern Sweden. We therefore wish to emphasise 'learning networks' as an important part of capacity building.

  • 6.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Teacher Education in Swedish and Social Sciences.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Teacher Education in Swedish and Social Sciences.
    Enterprise Learning: a challenge to education?2005In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 219-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern part of Sweden is characterised by depopulation and relatively high levels of unemployment among young people. As a consequence, a number of projects have been established for the purpose of strengthening young people’s creativity and spirit of enterprise. The aim of this article is to problematise the concept of ‘enterprise education’ as understood in Swedish schools. This is done by visualising the rhetoric that surrounds the effort of introducing Enterprise in Schools (‘Företagsamhet i skolan’) and by trying to understand what the concept means in practice from the perspective of apprenticeship theory. The authors’ research involves classroom observations and interviews with teachers and students from different schools. The results show that the discourse about Enterprise in Schools is based on catchwords such as cooperation, power of initiative, creativity and activity. The authors’ studies of the organisation and implementation of the teaching have visualised the collaborative aim and emphasis on learning through schoolwork.

  • 7.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Entrepreneurial learning through distributed leadership2019In: Abstract book: 2019-03-06, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2019, p. 929-930Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic: This study examined how a Swedish elementary school K-9 organised their improving process of entrepreneurial learning through teacher leaders ’professional development. 

    Theoretical framework: The schools’ point of departure and the pedagogical perspective werebased on entrepreneurial learning (Falk-Lundqvist, Hallberg, Leffler & Svedberg, 2011;Peltonen, 2015; Sagar, 2013; Surlemont, 2007), distributed leadership (Harris & Muijs,2005; Harris & DeFlaminis, 2016) that was grounded in collegial learning (cf. Harris & Muijs,2005; Timperley, 2011) as well as collegial mentoring. The pupils and the teachers in this school were divided in six teams according to grade level. Each team had a “teacher leader for professional development” (TLPD), appointed by the principal. The TLPDs mission was to lead the school development and to support their colleagues’ professional development. They had ongoing process oriented training (cf Scherp, 2013; Timperley, 2011) with external educators, focusing on teacher leadership, colleagues’ learning and entrepreneurial learning. Every third week they met their principals and discussed ongoing development strategies. The process included reading and discussing research literature about teaching and learning. The analysis of the data was grounded in theories of distributed leadership and collegial learning.

    Methodological design: The study involved individual in-depth interviews with six TLPDs, andobservations of TLPDs meetings and TLPDs leadership in their teams.Conclusions: A preliminary analysis of the data showed not only the importance of continuousprofessional development for teacher leaders but also the importance of a school organisation that provides teachers with opportunities and legitimacy to lead their colleagues. Another finding showed that reading the same literature and have collegial discussions were important both for school development and for the legitimacy of the TLPDs, thus narrowing the knowledge practice gap (Kennedy, 2014) On the ‘darker’ side of teacher leadership were all the different experiences on leading colleagues and identifying their role as TLPDs. Difficulties in managing team members’ different ambitions and willingness for common development were also evident. This paper argues for considering these challenges in future professional learning practices to support teacher leaders. It also calls for unpacking of potential cultural practices to support teacher leadership, for example, issues of power and hierarchies.

    Relevance to Nordic educational research: Entrepreneurial learning as well as distributed leadership is one key factor in school improvement strategies in the Nordic countries  (cf Dal et al. 2016).

  • 8.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Practice Schools, a Swedish National Improvement Program Focusing School Based Studies2019In: ECER 2019 - European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany 3rd-6th September 2019: "Education in an Era of Risk – the Role of Educational Research for the Future", 2019, European Educational Research Association , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher Education in Sweden, as well as in the rest of Europe, struggle with issues about how to increase the quality of teacher education programs. A strong drive for this is that the quality of Teacher Education has an important impact on pupils' achievement in school (European Commission, 2008). Another reason is that a high quality in education will make teachers more likely to stay in the profession, and thus reduce the lack of teachers. Research has shown that it is a common challenge in the European countries to train and develop student teachers with valid qualifications, both at a practical and scientific level (Råde, 2014). In Sweden a current issue is how to develop the practical part of the teacher student education, the school based studies (SBS), and to link theory to practice and integrate university-based knowledge with work-place knowledge (Karlsson Lohmader (2015). The importance of well-educated and qualified teachers, and thus a high-quality Teacher Education who can respond to these demands, are highlighted in policies (e.g. European Commission, 2013, 2014; Swedish Ministry of Education and Research 2010), as well as in research (e.g. Kelchtermans, G. Smith, K. & Vanderlinde, R. 2018; Valliant and Manso, 2013; Ievers et al., 2013; White, Dickerson & Weston, 2015).

    In order to find ways to develop the practical part of student teachers' education, a national improvement program over five years has been launched in Sweden, concerning the establishment of ‘advanced’ education training schools, so called practice schools.  According to the Swedish Higher Education Authority (UKÄ) decision, 15 Universities have received funding to participate in the improvement program (UKÄ, 2014:2). The programs’ framework is wide and conditions and strategies differ between the Universities. However, three quality aspects have crystallized: concentration, competence and collaboration. A higher concentration of students and competent supervisors (SBTEs) in a school is expected to increase opportunities for sharing experiences. The aspect competence investigates if the Universities contribute with supervisors- training for school based teacher educators (SBTEs) and ensures that there are teachers at the Universities (institute- based teacher educators, IBTEs) which follow up the students' development during school based education (SBE). The aspect collaboration investigate organizational conditions and activities where the Teacher Education and the schools jointly develop student teachers' practical part of their education.

    The present study is the third part study of the Swedish national improvement program. The first two studies took a local and a regional perspective. In addition, this study covers a national perspective on the improvement program by answering the following questions:

    How have the three quality aspects, concentration, competence and collaboration, developed in the program?

    What kind of challenges do the improvement program face?

    Method

    In the present study statistic material, documents, interviews with project leaders from Universities as well as principals and SBTEs experiences have informed us through different useful methods (Bryman, 1997; Patel & Davidson, 2011) and can be seen as an explorative study. Our aim has been to present the problem area in an overall and a general way by using different methods and information sources. One of the authors has been a part of the Swedish Higher Education Authority assessment group (UKÄ report, 2017) and contributes with knowledge from an interview study on a national level,  which together with knowledge from an ongoing evaluation (both authors)  on a regional level, including interviews with stakeholders,  school leaders and  SBTEs, have formed the basis for this study. The material has been analysed in relation to the quality aspects that have emerged from obstructive as well as supportive aspects. 

    Results            

    The results show that the 15 Universities have had extensive possibilities to develop their own design of their projects, linked to the improvement program but according to interpretation of the three quality aspects concentration, competence and collaboration. However, consensus prevails in terms of competence and is concretized by: all SBTEs must be given supervisor training. Surprisingly, there is no specific competence demands for IBTEs. All schools have organized for SBTEs to be able to attend a supervisors’ education. The mobility among SBTEs  and IBTEs have been a challenge in the improvement program. Competence has been more connected to the individual rather than a position as SBTEs and IBTEs, which have made the organisation around school based studies vulnerable. The concentration of SBTEs and students have also been affected by the mobility and has given rise to discussions and questioning of the relationship between more students and increased quality. The collaboration between Universities and the schools has in many ways been connected to assessment. The IBTEs visit students during a lesson and afterwards, together with the student and the SBTE, they discuss the lesson and the students’ different abilities and knowledge linked to the course goals, a so called “ three-part-discussion”. From all school units there have been a desire for closer cooperation between school and University to make schools a clearer and more important part of Teacher Education, which has not been the case for several schools. This was one important reason for schools to join the project - a way to increase the opportunities to participate in research projects and/or gain access to current school research.  This democratic way of letting Universities and practice schools develop the VFU in a variety of ways has given important knowledge to the improvement program.

  • 9.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Quality Through Increased Concentration of Student Teachers?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Teacher Education at the University of Umeå is one of fifteen universities in Sweden participating in a National Project over five years concerning the establishment of ‘advanced’ education training schools. The goal is threefold: 1) to develop teacher education with a focus on developing the school based studies (VFU) for student teacher, 2) to increase the knowledge and skills of the SBTEs (school based teacher educators) and IBTEs (institute- based teacher educators) by offering in-service education and 3) to initiate research programs with the participating municipality schools (Umeå teacher education application document, 2014). The background is that Teacher Education in Sweden as well as in the rest of Europe struggle with issues concerning how to increase the quality of teachers in our schools, not only as a single problem for the schools but also the effects on student teachers’ practical part of teacher education, and in the end, it has shown that the quality of Teacher Education has a strong influence on pupils’ performance in school (European Commission, 2008).  Research has shown that there is a common challenge in the European countries to educate and develop student teachers with valid qualifications, both on a practical and a scientific level (Råde, 2014). The importance of well-educated and qualified teachers, and thus a high-quality Teacher Education who can respond to these demands, are highlighted in policies (e.g. European Commission, 2013, 2014; Swedish Ministry of Education and Research 2010), as well as in research (e.g. Harris & Muijs, 2005; Timperley, 2011; Darling –Hammond, 2006; Valliant and Manso, 2013; Ievers et al., 2013; White, Dickerson & Weston, 2015). The Swedish pilot project is trying to face these challenges by using different strategies to increase the qualities in Teacher Education.

    One of the main strategies in VFU is to increase the concentration of teacher students at advanced teacher training schools and thus also increase the concentration of the educated supervisors (SBTEs). The idea is that an elevated concentration of both SBTEs and student teachers at the advanced teacher training school, will have a positive impact of the quality as a variation of supervising and peer learning will occur (Government Offices, 2013).

    The present study is the second part of a process evaluation of a pilot project on School Based Studies (VFU) in teacher education at the University of Umeå, Sweden, which was launched in 2015 and will be finished in 2019. An organizational focus was in the first part of the evaluation. In this second part the focus is on quality, identified as increased concentration of student teachers in VFU. The purpose with the present study is thus to take a closer look at the chosen strategy for raised quality in VFU and the following questions have guided the study:

    • Has the concentration of student teachers and SBTEs increased?
    • In what ways have the concentration of student teachers and SBTEs been utilized?

    Methodology: In the previous study the first step was to map the project organization and to get in contact with vital stakeholders both from university level and municipality level (Blossing, 2004).  In the present study, the second step, statistic material as well as student teachers’ experiences have informed us through different methods:  observations in class rooms, interviews, surveys and seminars (Bryman, 1997). Student teachers and their work-based training has been observed at the advanced teacher training schools and in connection, ten interviews with student teachers were performed. In conjunction with the regular evaluations that follow completed periods of school based studies, questions related to the purpose of the training schools have been added to the survey. 105 student teachers have responded to the survey. In addition seminars have been conducted at four of the advanced teacher training schools led by lecturer from the University which resulted in that SBTEs and student teachers jointly discussed and made notes about their experience of VFU both as student teachers and as SBTEs. The triangulation have aimed to provide a composite picture of the project and demonstrate strengths, weaknesses and areas for improvement. Both the quantitative and the qualitative material have been compiled and analyzed.

    Results: The purpose of the project is to increase the quality of VFU in Teacher Education. The results show that the main purpose to increase the concentration of student teachers at the advanced teacher training schools has not yet been full filled. This can be understood in two ways; on the one hand, there are more students in the areas of advanced teacher training schools, on the other hand, the areas have expanded and include more schools. This means that in practice there can be less student teachers than before in one school and the benefits that can be gained from increased concentration cannot be reached. We are aware of that the outcome of this study is context dependent on a regional level. However, there are a few teacher training schools, especially upper secondary schools where there has been a high concentration of student teachers and qualified SBTEs. These schools and SBTEs have developed the learning environment in several ways, for example joint seminars, group supervising and student-to-student- auscultations. The student teachers at these schools express the benefits of peer learning and flexible ways of being supervised. Overall there is a lack of knowledge of the goal, possibilities and benefits with the advanced teacher training school both among student teachers and SBTEs. However, as this is an ongoing project it is possible to make improvement. The contribution of the present study is to highlight development opportunities as well as demands in relation to quality aspects on VFU in Teacher Education.

  • 10.
    Leffler, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mahieu, Ron
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skapa och våga: om entreprenörskap i skolan2010Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Lidström, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lovén, Anders
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Disqualified in school and beyond? School-to-work experiences among young adults without upper secondary qualificationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lovén, Anders
    Malmö Högskola.
    Mårald, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    No particular way to go: careers of young adults lacking upper secondary qualifications2017In: Journal of Education and Work, ISSN 1363-9080, E-ISSN 1469-9435, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 39-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to deepen understanding of the trajectories through school and into adulthood of people who did not attain valued qualifications from upper secondary school ('non-completers'), and explore the fruitfulness of careership theory for such analysis. It is based on interviews with 100 young Swedes: 81 non-completers and 19 who had attended special upper secondary schools catering for young people with mild cognitive disability. Their narratives portray sparse socio-economic resources and difficult family situations, learning problems and marginalisation processes in school. They commonly learned to perceive themselves as failures and 'different'. Framed by narrow horizons of action, these young people's careers were mostly characterised by enforced rather than self-initiated turning points. Often leading to unemployment and economic problems, leaving secondary school was less of a turning point than a continuation of failure, even if completing adult education and getting a job were regarded as self-initiated, positive shifts. We conclude that careership theory was useful for analysing and understanding the careers of the young people concerned. However, distinguishing between 'routines' and 'turning points' became especially difficult when studying lives of these young people hemmed in by sparser resources, fewer choices and less stable career trajectories than their peers.

  • 13.
    Sporre, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svedberg, GudrunUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Changing societies – values, religions, and education: a selection of papers from a conference at Umeå University, June 20092010Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Moral education is envisioned change. As such it contains normative claims of the educating person or institution towards the person ‘to be educated’. The paper addresses the question of the legitimacy of moral education by examining the claims articulated in the pedagogical situation. In relation to autonomy as a goal of moral education, dialectic asymmetry and risky direction are suggested as adequate claims. They reflect the inter-subjective relationship between the educating person and the one ‘to be educated’ and they take into account a notion of negativity characterizing learning situations. The argument is developed by using the case of absenteeism SMS. As a pedagogic tool, absenteeism SMS should, according to my argumentation, be regarded as problematic, because of the tight control it creates.

  • 14.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Teacher Education in Swedish and Social Sciences.
    Entreprenörskapets avtryck i klassrummets praxis: om villkor och lärande i gymnasieskolans entreprenörskapsprojekt2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship has been entered on a supranational political agenda, in the EU and the OECD, and been emphatically described as a fundamental skill and a concern for schools and education. The agenda is reflected to a varying extent at the national and regional political levels. My aim is to describe, analyze and gain knowledge of what entrepreneurship in the Swedish upper secondary schools imply in practice, against the background of a local context. In particular, the conditions for learning.

    My approach is ethnographically inspired and this multiple case study is limited to two upper secondary school programmes. Data has been collected through observations, video recordings, informal conversations with pupils and teachers and formal conversations with headmasters. The material is analyzed in terms of three socioculturally inspiring foci.

    By means of a cultural-institutional focus, the stability and changeability of the programmes were elucidated. The previous institutional frameworks have been partially questioned by the teachers in the field, which has resulted in the following: In one of the upper secondary schools a new locally adapted programme has been composed, and courses and subjects have been integrated in a new way in the other school’s existing programme. The changes in the upper secondary programmes are to a great extent an example of a meeting between top-down and bottom-up initiatives. The changes of the institutional frameworks are connected to a discursive shift of the responsibility for pupils’ learning and education from teachers to pupils and also to teacher’s ambition to adapt interest- and experience-related teaching.

    In a situated focus, both programmes were identified as communities of practice with a joint enterprise, mutual engagement and a shared repertoire. These three dimensions were useful for examining specific aspects of the teaching. There has above all been an altered balance between reification and participation in the teaching as well as boundary crossing both outside the community of practice and within the community.

    Different conditions for learning were identified through an interpersonal focus. Both collaborative learning and cooperative learning were useful, but not sufficient concepts for describing the various forms of team learning. The conditions of cooperation and the pupils’ communication patterns revealed yet another form of team learning, which I call comparative learning. If the risk of everyday concepts getting the upper hand and trivialization can be avoided in team learning, there is in all these learning processes a potential for the pupils being able to develop strategies for handling complex tasks, taking initiatives and responsibility, cooperating and learning from one another in various different ways. In this way entrepreneurship has had an impact on the practice of the classrooms.

  • 15.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Kreativitet, innovation och entreprenörskap i det svenska utbildningssystemet.2011In: Kreativitet, innovasjon og entreprenørskap i utdanningssystemene i Norden. Bakgrunn og begrepsinnhold basert på politisk initiering og strategivalg / [ed] Jarle Sjøvoll, Köpenhamn: Norden , 2011, p. 253-294Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur framskrivs begrepp som innovation, kreativitet och entreprenörskap i de svenska styrdokumenten och hur omsätts detta i praktiken? Det är några av de frågor som denna studie söker besvara. Rapporten utgör det svenska bidraget till en större nordisk komparativ studie om kreativitet, innovation och entreprenörskap i de nordiska utbildningssystemen.

  • 16.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Pedagogiskt entreprenörskap på formulerings- och realiseringsarenan2009In: Pedagogisk entreprenørskap: innovasjon och kreativitet i skoler i Norden / [ed] Skogen, K. & Sjov Sjøvoll, J, Trondhejm: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Visst finns det anledning att förhålla sig kritsk: Om att föstå, missförstå eller forma entreprenörskap i skolan2011In: Grundskoletidningen, ISSN 1652-7844, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 46-48Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Falk Lundqvist, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Collegial learning – an opportunity for educational development of entrepreneurial learning?2018In: NERA 2018: Abstract book: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges, Research Council of Norway, 2018, p. 562-562Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim Entrepreneurship in a school setting, and what is called entrepreneurial learning, has been problematized over the last twenty years and also implemented in various ways and with varying success in both the Nordic and other European countries' school systems. In many ways, the introduction of the concept has been linked to school development and teachers' professional development (Sagar, 2013) and various forms of in-service training have contributed to this. Different kinds of mentoring processes to enhance teachers’ collective learning and professional development have become more and more common as in-service training, for example Teacher Learning Communities. In this paper we use the concept collegial learning for those different methods aimed at teachers together and under supervision creating knowledge for development. However, and surprisingly, collegial learning does not seem to be discussed or studied as a method for developing teachers’ knowledge about entrepreneurial learning in school. The purpose of this study is to investigate and discuss collegial learning as a strategy for teachers’ in-service training and knowledge development and especially, as a strategy for understanding and developing entrepreneurial learning in schools.  Theoretical framework The study is based on several theoretical approaches and research, especially theories of collegial learning (Langelotz 2017), leadership (Ruskovaara & Pihkala, 2015) and entrepreneurial learning (Jones & Iredale, 2010). Methodology/research design The study is based on two part-studies. In the first part-study, four questionnaires have been continuously sent out and answered by mentors who lead teacher groups in collegial learning. In the second part-study, observations of teaching and interviews with mentors at an elementary K-9 school have been conducted. Common to both sub-studies is that the educators receive training and guidance in managing these processes. Expected conclusions/findings Preliminary results of these studies show that supervisors face structural barriers and interpersonal challenges. Teachers' experience exchanges prove to lead to both adaptation and development of the tasks they have to solve together. An adaptive learning leads to more routine and reproductive action, while development-oriented learning involves discovering and testing new action options. In terms of educational development towards increased entrepreneurial learning, the preliminary results show that adaptive learning is counterproductive. In order to meet changes in the surrounding world and promote entrepreneurial learning and diversity, different ways of action and reasoning are needed, which according to research should benefit from a development-oriented approach.

  • 19.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Botha, Melodi
    Department of Business Management, University of Pretoria, South Africa..
     A global entrepreneurship wind is supporting or obstructing democracy in schools: A comparative study in the North and the South2010In: Education Inquiry, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 309-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy documents for schools and education are being increasingly standardised all over the world and some research claims that a global curriculum is developing in which aspects such as entrepreneurship, lifelong learning and sustainable development are common denominators. This is regarded as a sign that economic rationality is gaining more and more ground in education alongside, or at the expense of, a democratic educational ideal. The aim of this study is to discuss one of these aspects, entrepreneurship, as a concern for schools and education and to put entrepreneurship in relation to the democracy-fostering mission of education. What do the policy documents have to say about entrepreneurship? Is there an inherent opposition between the entrepreneurial and the democratic justification of education? The paper is organised in two steps. The first step illustrates the global spread of entrepreneurship in policy documents for education through examples from the north and the south, respectively, in this case Sweden and South Africa. The second step deals with the concept of "democracy", which is of crucial relevance to education. Both connections and conflicts between fostering entrepreneurship and fostering democracy are discussed, and an integrative perspective is tested as an alternative to dualistic attitudes.

  • 20.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Lidström, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    “Do you really want to hear me out?”: young people with varying dis/abilities about their research participation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biographical research where “young people at risk” tell their story in some respect, has increased in quantity in the last two decades. Such social or educational research quite regularly pays attention to gender, ethnicity or social class. Disability is however more rarely dealt with. Maybe this has to do with the voices of disabled people not having been taken seriously in previous research as well as in society at large (cf. Munger & Mertens 2011; Rönnberg et al. 2011). Other possible reasons might be that such research is considered to involve specific methodological difficulties and is associated with rigorous ethical vetting. In this paper we explore methodological and ethical challenges and research strategies concerning interviewing young people with diverse dis/abilities. Conceptually the paper draws on arguments for involving young people in biographical research and inclusive disability research. Some arguments relate to the idea that (disadvantaged) young people should be given a voice and can contribute to knowledge about their experiences, viewpoints and circumstances (cf. Bynes & Rickards 2011; Conolly 2008). Other motives are, for example, that biographical methods may bring research, practice and policy into closer connection (Chamberlain 2002) and that multiple voices makes it possible to see difficulties not only as individual but also as structural (Atkinson 1997). In previous inclusive research focusing on methodological issues there is, however, an angle that is mainly – and paradoxically – disregarded, i.e. that young peoples’ opinions about their research participation seem to be neglected in favour of researchers’ understanding of methodological challenges and strategies. Hence, the paper aims to increase the knowledge of disabled young peoples’ views on their research participation: What are their considerations and motives for the research participation? What critical aspects of the research participation do they identify? What are their opinions on how researchers should encounter young people? Finally, the authors discuss the importance of considering respondents’ views on their research participation to decide on research strategies to encounter challenges when interviewing young people with varying dis/abilities.

    Method

    The results are based on two interview studies involving 47 young people and young adults living in eight Swedish municipalities, strategically selected for context diversity. A common feature of all respondents is that they have some kind of disability (chiefly learning disabilities or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD), are in transitional circumstances – from school to work, starting their adult life, etc. –, and lack a diploma from upper secondary school resulting in enhanced difficulties on the labour market, no entry to tertiary education, etc. One study involves 21 young adults  (9 women and 12 men) 20-30 (on average 22) years old, registered at a public employment office as having a disability. The other study involves 28 (17 women and 11 men) final-year students (19-20 years old) at upper secondary special schools for people with intellectual disability and/or autism. The individual semi-structured interviews were conducted in the respondents’ hometown in 2011, took around one hour to carry out and were recorded (with a few exceptions). The study is part of a research project – Troublesome transitions: School-to-work transitions of young people at risk in a longitudinal perspective – funded by the Swedish Research Council.

    Expected Outcomes

    When asked about their research participation the young adults pay great attention to informa-tion about the participation and the researchers’ responses when verbally giving their informed consent before the interview. They have various motives for their research participation, but their most common reason is however to make their voices heard to make an impact on research and, hopefully, contribute to improving the conditions for (disadvantaged) young people. Regarding the interview situation the young disabled respondents pinpoint aspects referring to the participant-researcher interaction, i.e. the importance of understanding each other and of creating a comfortable interview alliance. They value, for example, being under-stood and appreciated with respect to their ability, health or poor circumstances at the time of the interview. Sensible approaches to in biographical studies are important, not least when involving young people with varying dis/ablities. The authors argue that researchers are re-sponsible for creating good conditions, and the present study is intended to add to the knowl-edge of such challenges and research strategies. Even though our findings show that the re-spondents pay attention to the same critical methodological aspects that the authors as well as previous research observe, the respondents’ views of those aspects are important.

    References

    Atkinson, Dorothy (1997). An Auto/Biographical Approach to Learning Disability Research. Aldershot, Ashgate. Bynes, Linda J. & Rickards, Field W. (2011). Listening to the Voices of Students With Disabilities: Can Such Voices Inform Practice? Australasian Journal of Special Education, 35:1, 25-34. Chamberlayne, Prue (2002). Conclusions: social transition and biographical work. In: Chamberlayne, Prue; Rustin, Michael & Wengraf, Tom (eds). Biogra-phy and Social Exclusion in Europe. Experiences and life journeys. Bristol: Policy Press. Conolly, Anna (2009). Challenges of Generating Qualitative Data with Socially Excluded Young People. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 11:2, 201-214. Munger, Kelly M & Mertens, Donna M. (2011). Conducting Research with the Disability Community: A Rights-Based Approach. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 132: 23-33. Rönnberg, Jerker; Classon, Elisabeth, Danermark, Berth; Karlsson, Thomas (2011). Forskning om funktionsnedsättning och funktionshinder 2002-2010 (Research about impairment and disability 2002-2010). Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (in Swedish).

  • 21.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Lovén, Anders
    Lidström, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Disqualified in school and beyond? School-to-work experiences of young adults without upper secondary status.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European countries, upper secondary qualification is identified as critical for individuals’ career development as well as a key to the progress of communities and society at large. In an European perspective, Sweden today has relatively high proportion of young people without upper secondary status when leaving upper secondary school as well as high youth unemployment rates. The restructuring of the public sector, the reduction of the Swedish welfare system and the development of the school system towards increased deregulation, decentralization and market release seems to have had a particularly negative effect on young people at risk.  In this paper the intention is to give voice to young adults without upper secondary qualifications, some of them with different kinds of disabilities, some with non-Swedish background and most of them unemployed. How do they describe their pathways in school and school-to-work (STW)-transitions? How do they describe measures intended to promote completion of school and getting a foothold in the labour market? What characterizes their horizons of action? The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge about biographical experiences of STW- transitions among young adults in their twenties without upper secondary status, focusing on their understanding of institutional processes, their experiences and individual strategies. The study is part of the research project - Troublesome transitions: School-to-work transitions of young people at risk in a longitudinal perspective - funded by the Swedish Research Council.  To analyse the young adults’ narratives about their STW-transitions a careership theory is applied, outlined by Hodkinson and Sparkes.  The theory considers the agency-structure interrelationship, and is connected to Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, field and capital. Key concepts are routines, turning-points, field and horizon of action.

    Method The study is based on interviews with 111young adults, from twenty selected Swedish municipalities (of 290). The municipalities were selected according to different types, such as urban, suburban and industrial areas, and according to more or less successful communities when it comes to the percentage of young people who have completed upper secondary school, rates of employment and proportion dependent on social welfare. Aiming at reaching a diverse group of young people at risk we did guide our gatekeepers to mediate contact in respect to: a gender mix, age around 20 and without upper secondary qualifications. Beside these general criteria, which all respondents share, we ensured that young people with non-Swedish background and young people with disabilities that participated in ordinary schools as well as special schools were included. A thematic interview guide was employed and besides these themes there was space for the young adults’ narratives and digressions. The interviews were conducted in the respondents’ hometowns in 2011 or 2012 and took around one hour to carry out. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed based on emerging themes.

    Expected Outcomes The young adults display fragmentized paths, both during education and after,with many shifts and a majority seem to have experienced more turning-points than peers of the same age. Some of these turning-points can be described as forced, others as structural and yet others as self-initiated.  Many experience a turbulent time and unsafe conditions after leaving school. The most common explanation to their situation is school-failure  – something they blame themselves. The study shows in the group of young adults lacking upper secondary qualification, the type of municipality they live in has a smaller significance to their STW-transition. The patterns – troublesome education-background with lack of (proper) support at school, fragmentized transition patterns, lack of influence, alienation, absence of measures entering the labor market  and  temporary low-qualified employment – is recurring and their experiences and their horizon of action can to a larger extent be linked to background-variables such as gender, dis/ability and the accumulated capital of the family than to geographical location. By numbers, young men are more exposed. However it is the young women who express greater distress about the future. Young adults with disabilities is collectively the group that faces the greatest challenges during the establishing-phase.

    References Bradley, Harriet & Devadason, Ranji (2008). Fractured transitions: Young adults' pathways into contemporary labour markets. Sociology, 42(1) 119-136. Enguita, Mariano Fernández, Luis Mena Martínez, and Jaime Riviere Gómez (2010). School Failure and Dropouts in Spain." Social Studies Collection. Retrieved from http://multimedia. lacaixa. es/lacaixa/ondemand/obrasocial/pdf/estudiossociales/vol29_en. p df  Fenton, Steve, & Dermott, Esther (2006). Fragmented careers? Winners and losers in young adult labour markets. Work, Employment & Society, 20(2) 205-221. Furlong, Andy (2006). Not a very NEET solution: representing problematic labour market transitions among early school leavers. Work, employment & society, 20 (3) 553-569. Hattam, Robert & Smyth, John (2003). ‘Not Everyone Has a Perfect Life’: becoming somebody without school. Pedagogy, Culture & Society. 11 (3), 379-398.  Hodkinson, Phil & Sparkes, Andrew C. (1997). Careership: A Sociological Theory of Career Decision Making. British Journal of Sociology of Education 18 (1), 29–44. McGrath, Brian (2009). School disengagement and ‘structural options’ Narrative illustrations on an analytical approach. Young, 17(1), 81-101. Sappa, Viviana & Bonica, Laura (2011). School-to-work transitional outcomes of a group of Italian school dropouts: Challenges for promoting social inclusion. Education + Training, 53 (7) 625-637.  Stauber, Barbara & Walther, Andreas (2006). De-standardised pathways to adulthood: European perspectives on informal learning in informal networks. Papers: Revista de sociologia, (79), 241-262. Thomson, Rachel, Holland, Janeth, Sharpe, Sue, McGrellis, Sheena, & Henderson, Sheila. (2006). Inventing adulthoods: a biographical approach to youth transitions. Sage Publications Limited. 

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