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  • 1. Beldowski, Jacek
    et al.
    Klusek, Zygmunt
    Szubska, Marta
    Turja, Raisa
    Bulczak, Anna I.
    Rak, Daniel
    Brenner, Matthias
    Lang, Thomas
    Kotwicki, Lech
    Grzelak, Katarzyna
    Jakacki, Jaromir
    Fricke, Nicolai
    Ostin, Anders
    Olsson, Ulf
    Fabisiak, Jacek
    Garnaga, Galina
    Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt
    Majewski, Piotr
    Broeg, Katja
    Soderstrom, Martin
    Vanninen, Paula
    Popiel, Stanislaw
    Nawala, Jakub
    Lehtonen, Kari
    Berglind, Rune
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, European CBRNE Center.
    Schmidt, Beata
    Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment-An evaluation of the dumped munitions problem in the Baltic Sea2016In: Deep-sea research. Part II, Topical studies in oceanography, ISSN 0967-0645, E-ISSN 1879-0100, Vol. 128, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project has performed studies on chemical weapon (CW) detection, sediment pollution and spreading as well as biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea. Results suggest that munitions containing CWAs are more scattered on the seafloor than suspected, and previously undocumented dumpsite was discovered in Gdansk Deep. Pollution of sediments with CWA degradation products was local and close to the detected objects; however the pollution range was larger than predicted with theoretical models. Bottom currents observed in the dumpsites were strong enough for sediment re-suspension, and contributed to the transport of polluted sediments. Diversity and density of the faunal communities were poor at the dumping sites in comparison to the reference area, although the direct effects of CWA on benthos organisms were difficult to determine due to hypoxic or even anoxic conditions near the bottom. Equally, the low oxygen might have affected the biological effects assessed in cod and caged blue mussels. Nonetheless, both species showed significantly elevated molecular and cellular level responses at contaminated sites compared to reference sites.

  • 2.
    Berglind, Rune
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, European CBRNE Center.
    Leffler, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Interactions between pH, potassium, calcium, bromide, and phenol and their effects on the bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri2010In: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, ISSN 1528-7394, E-ISSN 1087-2620, Vol. 73, no 16, p. 1102-1112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little attention has been paid to how the light produced by the bacterium Vibrio fischeri in the Microtox assay is dependent on the concentration of essential ions such as sodium and potassium, and whether the concentrations of these ions affect the sensitivity of the test system to toxic chemicals. Five selected factors, pH, potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), bromide (Br(-)), and phenol (Phe), were simultaneously varied over a set of systematically planned experiments according to a D-optimal design that supported the estimation of a model with linear, quadratic, and two-factor interatcions of the studied factors. The bacterial light production represented by the gamma values in the Microtox assay for the 24 selected combinations of factors was measured at 5 and 15 min. The gamma values varied from negative to positive values greater than 1, indicating stimulation and inhibition of bacterial light production, respectively. The relationship between the gamma values and the factor settings was investigated with multiple linear regression. After 5 min of exposure, the light production was significantly affected by linear and quadratic terms for K(+), pH, and Phe and an interaction between pH and Phe. The situation was more complex after 15 min of exposure, since in addition significant interactions were found for K x Phe and Ca x pH. The tolerance of V. fischeri to Phe was enhanced by increasing the K and Ca concentrations. Data indicate that the ion composition and pH of the sample, as well as the diluents, need to be considered when the toxicity of salts, water samples, and extracts of sediments and soils are tested using commercially certified toxicity test kits.

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