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  • 1.
    Backman, Fredrick
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Making Place for Space: a History of 'Space Town' Kiruna 1943-20002015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Science and technology have a tendency to clump together in places where they spawn other forms of societal activities. Sometimes these places become famous through processes known as place-making, or the social construction of place. Because the scientific and technological activities affect the places, and the places conversely affect the science and technology, it is relevant to study how and why these connections emerge.

    This dissertation examines the particular case of the northern Swedish town of Kiruna, which has become known for being a `space town' because of its scientific, technological, and other activities that relate to the near space around the earth. The overall objective is to analyse the processes underlying the making of Kiruna as a space town in the period 1943--2000.

    Five parts make up the study. First is an examination of how the development of space physics research in Kiruna led to the setting up of a scientific observatory. The second part studies how the Swedish participation in the European Space Research Organisationmade Kiruna the place for a rocket base. Next follows an analysis of how local business efforts contributed to forming a new satellite technology business and the Space House office building. The fourth part concerns how the visions to establish a space `university' eventually led to the emergence of the Space Campus. Last is an epilogue that briefly analyses the space tourism efforts in Kiruna.

    A central finding is that the space town has emerged as the result of entwined processes where, on the one hand, ideas about the near space around the earth have led to new activities and physical structures, and, on the other hand, these new activities and built structures conversely have inspired to new ideas. Of importance is also the geographical place where these developments have occurred. Here, a reoccurring argument to placing the activities and structures in Kiruna was the town's geographically favourable location for specific scientific and technological activities.

    Another finding is that the development has gradually led to the emergence of a kind of identity or notion of Kiruna as a particular place for space activities. Although this form of place-making has occurred largely through spontaneous processes, it was also the result of intentional efforts.

    Together, these different place-making processes have formed the `space town' of Kiruna.

  • 2.
    Backman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Is there a Nordic Model for the treatment of introduced tree species?: A comparison of the use, policy, and debate concerning introduced tree species in the Nordic countries2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 222-232Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares the use, policy, and debate concerning introduced tree species in the five Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland). These countries have a long common history and are culturally similar. They are often framed under the benchmark of the Nordic Model or even the Nordic Forestry Model. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Nordic countries' treatment of introduced tree species share common aspects, and that global environmental agreements and international currents in science and policy have reinforced these similarities. The comparison shows that globalization is strong and it seems, at least at a first glimpse, that the Nordic countries follow a kind of Nordic Model in their approach to introduced tree species. However, the history and importance of forestry, ecological conditions, afforestation campaigns, traditions of using introduced trees, understandings, and stakeholder positions have shaped different national and even regional path dependencies and circumstances. This, in turn, has transmuted international policy-making, regulations, and discussions into different specific ways to interpret, control, and implement the use of introduced trees in practice. This article concludes that global environmental agreements and international currents in science and policy adapt to diverse national contexts.

  • 3.
    Nordlund, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Backman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Rec. av Stig Örjan Ohlsson & Siiri Tomingas-Joandi (red.), Den otidsenlige Urban Hiärne: Föredrag från det internationella Hiärne-symposiet i Saadjärv, 31 augusti-4 september 20052009In: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648, p. 390-391Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Backman, FredrikUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.Golubev, AlexeyNorlin, BjörnUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.Ohlsson, Lars
    Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Volume I, A-M2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Backman, FredrikUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.Golubev, AlexeyNorlin, BjörnUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.Ohlsson, Lars
    Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Volume II, N-Z2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
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