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  • 1.
    Andersson, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lindvall, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Brändström, Helge
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Air transport of patients with intracranial air: computer model of pressure effects2003In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 138-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Arnell, Kai
    et al.
    Department of Paediatric Surgery, University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Eklund, Anders
    Evaluation of Strata NSC and Codman Hakim adjustable cerebrospinal fluid shunts and their corresponding antisiphon devices: laboratory investigation2009In: Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, ISSN 1933-0707, E-ISSN 1933-0715, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECT: The authors investigated and compared the in vitro characteristics of 2 CSF shunts, the Strata NSC and the Codman Hakim, and their corresponding antisiphon devices (ASDs).

    METHODS: Six new CSF shunts and the corresponding ASDs for each model were tested in an automated, computerized experimental setup based on pressure regulation. Opening pressure accuracy, resistance, sensitivity to abdominal pressure, antisiphon effect, and the influence of different ASD positions were determined.

    RESULTS: In general the shunts performed according to the manufacturers' specifications. However, at the lowest setting, the opening pressure of the Strata NSC was close to 0, and in the Codman Hakim shunt, it was higher than specified. The resistance in the Codman Hakim shunt (5.4 mm Hg/ml/min) was much higher than that in the Strata NSC (3.6 mm Hg/ml/min). Abdominal pressure affected opening pressure in both valves. Positioning the Strata ASD above or below the ventricular catheter tip resulted in higher and lower opening pressures, respectively, than when it was placed in line with the catheter. The positioning of the Codman Hakim ASD did not influence the opening pressure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both CSF shunts work properly, but at the lowest setting the opening pressure of the Strata NSC was near 0 and in the Codman Hakim it was twice the manufacturer's specifications. The resistance in the Strata NSC was below the normal physiological range, and in the Codman Hakim device it was in the lower range of normal. The ASD did not change the shunt characteristics in the lying position and therefore might not do so in children. If this is the case, then a shunt system with an integrated ASD could be implanted at the first shunt insertion, thus avoiding a second operation and the possibility of infection.

  • 3.
    Behrens, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Lenfeldt, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Ambarki, Khalid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Transcranial Doppler pulsatility index: not an accurate method to assess intracranial pressure.2010In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 1050-1057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) assessment of intracranial blood flow velocity has been suggested to accurately determine intracranial pressure (ICP). OBJECTIVE: We attempted to validate this method in patients with communicating cerebrospinal fluid systems using predetermined pressure levels. METHODS: Ten patients underwent a lumbar infusion test, applying 4 to 5 preset ICP levels. On each level, the pulsatility index (PI) in the middle cerebral artery was determined by measuring the blood flow velocity using TCD. ICP was simultaneously measured with an intraparenchymal sensor. ICP and PI were compared using correlation analysis. For further understanding of the ICP-PI relationship, a mathematical model of the intracranial dynamics was simulated using a computer. RESULTS: The ICP-PI regression equation was based on data from 8 patients. For 2 patients, no audible Doppler signal was obtained. The equation was ICP = 23*PI + 14 (R = 0.22, P < .01, N = 35). The 95% confidence interval for a mean ICP of 20 mm Hg was -3.8 to 43.8 mm Hg. Individually, the regression coefficients varied from 42 to 90 and the offsets from -32 to +3. The mathematical simulations suggest that variations in vessel compliance, autoregulation, and arterial pressure have a serious effect on the ICP-PI relationship. CONCLUSIONS: The in vivo results show that PI is not a reliable predictor of ICP. Mathematical simulations indicate that this is caused by variations in physiological parameters.

  • 4.
    Behrens, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Lenfeldt, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Ambarki, Khalid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF).
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Intracranial Pressure and Pulsatility Index:  2011In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 69, no 4, p. E1033-E1034Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Behrens, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Lenfeldt, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Qvarlander, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Are intracranial pressure wave amplitudes measurable through lumbar puncture?2013In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 127, no 4, p. 233-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether pulsations measured in the brain correspond to those measured in lumbar space, and subsequently whether lumbar punctures could replace invasive recordings. Methods In ten patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus, simultaneous recordings of the intracranial pressure (ICP; intraparenchymal) and lumbar pressure (LP; cerebrospinal fluid pressure) were performed. During registration, pressure was altered between resting pressure and 45mmHg using an infusion test. Data were analyzed regarding pulsations (i.e., amplitudes). Also, the pressure sensors were compared in a bench test. Results The correlation between intracranial and lumbar amplitudes was 0.98. At resting pressure, and moderately elevated ICP, intracranial pulse amplitudes exceeded that of lumbar space with about 0.9mmHg. At the highest ICP, the difference changed to 0.2mmHg. The bench test showed that the agreement of sensor readings was good at resting pressure, but reduced at higher amplitudes. Conclusions Compared to intracranial registrations, amplitudes measured through lumbar puncture were slightly attenuated. The bench test showed that differences were not attributable to dissimilarities of the sensor systems. A lumbar pressure amplitude measurement is an alternative to ICP recording, but the thresholds for what should be interpreted as elevated amplitudes need to be adjusted.

  • 6.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Hariz, Gun-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Hariz, Marwan I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Thalamic deep brain stimulation in the treatment of essential tremor: a long-term follow-up2007In: British Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0268-8697, E-ISSN 1360-046X, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 504-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus ventralis intermedius thalami (Vim) in the treatment of essential tremor (ET) is well documented concerning the acute effects. Reports of the long-term effects are, however, few and the aim of the present study was to analyse the long-term efficacy of this treatment. Nineteen patients operated with unilateral Vim-DBS were evaluated with the Essential Tremor Rating Scale (ETRS) before surgery, and after a mean time of 1 and 7 years after surgery. The ETRS score for tremor of the contralateral hand was reduced from 6.8 at baseline to 1.2 and 2.7, respectively, on stimulation at follow-up. For hand function (item 11 – 14) the score was reduced from 12.7 to 4.1 and 8.2, respectively. Vim-DBS is an efficient treatment for ET, also after many years of treatment. There is, however, a decreasing effect over time, most noticeable concerning tremor of action.

    Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02688690701552278

  • 7.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Jabre, Mazen
    Bejjani, Boulos-Paul
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Electromagnetic environmental influences on implanted deep brain stimulators2006In: Neuromodulation (Malden, Mass.), ISSN 1094-7159, E-ISSN 1525-1403, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 262-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective.  The objective of this study was to report our observations on the external electromagnetic field influences on deep brain stimulation (DBS) in our patient population and how these influences affected our patients’ lives and other healthcare-related conditions.

    Materials and Methods.  We have retrospectively analyzed data concerning the effects of external electromagnetic fields on 172 of our patients implanted with DBS.

    Results.  Identifiable electromagnetic sources turned the implantable pulse generator (IPG) off in 20 patients. In two patients, these episodes necessitated replacement of the Itrel II IPG (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) with the magnetically shielded Kinetra IPG (Medtronic Inc.). Six patients received cardiac pacemakers, leading, in two patients, to interference between the systems. Our experience concerning magnetic resonance imaging, electrocardiogram (ECG), heart defibrillation, electro-cautery, and other sources of electromagnetic interference also is described.

    Conclusions.  External electromagnetic interference may, in rare cases, constitute a severe threat to the well-being of the patient implanted with a DBS system. Also, malfunction of a DBS system may constitute a medical emergency. Nevertheless, in spite of these external electromagnetic influences, we consider DBS to be a safe method, provided safety protocols are followed, and provided that provider awareness about potential hazards is present.

  • 8.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Sandvik, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Hariz, Marwan
    UCL Insitute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, Uk.
    Fytagoridis, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Hariz, Gun-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Influence of age, gender and severity of tremor on outcome after thalamic and subthalamic DBS for essential tremor2011In: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, ISSN 1353-8020, E-ISSN 1873-5126, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 617-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for essential tremor (ET). The nucleus ventralis intermedius thalami (Vim) is the target of choice, but promising results have been presented regarding DBS in the posterior subthalamic area (PSA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of gender, age and severity of disease on the outcome of these procedures. Sixty eight patients (34 Vim, 34 PSA) with ET were included in this non-randomised study. Evaluation using the Essential Tremor Rating Scale (ETRS) was performed before, and one year after surgery concerning PSA DBS, and at a mean of 28 ± 24 months concerning Vim DBS. Items 5/6 and 11-14 (hand tremor and hand function) were selected for analysis of tremor outcome. The efficacy of DBS on essential tremor was not related to age or gender. Nor was it associated with the severity of tremor when the percentual reduction of tremor on stimulation was taken into account. However, patients with a more severe tremor at baseline had a higher degree of residual tremor on stimulation. Tremor in the treated hand and hand function were improved with 70% in the Vim group and 89% in the PSA group.

  • 9.
    Bobinski, Lukas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Lindvall, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Complications following cranioplasty using autologous bone or polymethylmethacrylate-Retrospective experience from a single center2013In: Clinical neurology and neurosurgery (Dutch-Flemish ed. Print), ISSN 0303-8467, E-ISSN 1872-6968, Vol. 115, no 9, p. 1788-1791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A decompressive hemicraniectomy is a potentially life-saving intervention following head trauma. Once performed patients are obliged to undergo a second procedure with cranioplasty. Two of the most commonly used materials are autologous bone and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). We have now evaluated complications following a cranioplasty using these materials. Materials and methods: During a 7-year period (2002-2008) 49 patients were operated with a decompressive craniectomy following head trauma. Patients received a cranioplasty consisting of autologous bone (30 patients, 61.2%) or PMMA (19 patients, 38.8%) and were followed at least 24 months. Patient data were collected retrospectively. Results: Twenty patients (20/49, 40.8%) experienced a complication that prompted a re-operation. There was a significantly higher rate of complications leading to a re-operation (53.3% vs. 21.1%, p = 0.03) and a shorter survival time of the cranioplasty (mean 48.1 +/- 7.8 vs. 79.5 +/- 9.0 months, p = 0.035) in patients with autologous bone compared to PMMA. Bone resorption and the presence of postoperative hematomas were significantly more common in patients with autologous bone. The material used for cranioplasty was the only variable that significantly correlated to the rate of complications. Conclusions: In our series we had a high percentage of patients needing re-operation due to complications following a cranioplasty. Though generally considered a straightforward procedure, complications and associated morbidity in patients undergoing cranioplasty should not be underestimated. 

  • 10.
    Bobinski, Lukas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Dynamics of brain tissue changes induced by traumatic brain injury assessed with the Marshall, Morris-Marshall, and the Rotterdam classifications and its impact on outcome in a prostacyclin placebo-controlled study2012In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 154, no 6, p. 1069-1079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluates the types and dynamics of intracranial pathological changes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) who participated in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study of add-on treatment with prostacyclin. Further, the changes of brain CT scan and their correlation to Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS), maximal intracranial pressure (ICPmax), minimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPmin), and Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) at 3, 6, and 12 months were studied. Forty-eight subjects with severe traumatic brain injury were treated according to an ICP-targeted therapy protocol based on the Lund concept with the addition of prostacyclin or placebo. The first available CT scans (CTi) and follow-up scans nearest to 24 h (CT24) were evaluated using the Marshall, Rotterdam, and Morris-Marshall classifications. There was a significant correlation of the initial Marshall, Rotterdam, Morris-Marshall classifications and GOS at 3 and 12 months. The CT24 Marshall classification did not significantly correlate to GOS while the Rotterdam and the Morris-Marshall classification did. The CTi Rotterdam classification predicted outcome evaluated as GOS at 3 and 12 months. Prostacyclin treatment did not influence the dynamic of tissue changes. The Rotterdam classification seems to be appropriate for describing the evolution of the injuries on the CT scans and contributes in predicting of outcome in patients treated with an ICP-targeted therapy. The Morris-Marshall classification can also be used for prognostication of outcome but it describes only the impact of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH).

  • 11.
    Bobinski, Lukas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Rotterdam score, ICP, CPP, S-100B, NSE and their association with Decompressive Craniectomy in severe Traumatic Brain InjuryArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Brorsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Rodling-Wahlström, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Severe traumatic brain injury: consequences of early adverse events2011In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 944-951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several factors associated with an unfavourable outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been described: prolonged pre-hospital time, secondary referral to a level 1 trauma centre, the occurrence of secondary insults such as hypoxia, hypotension or low end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO(2)). To determine whether adverse events were linked to outcome, patients with severe TBI were studied before arrival at a level 1 trauma centre.

    Methods: Prospective, observational study design. Patients with severe TBI (n = 48), admitted to Umea University Hospital between January 2002 to December 2005 were included. All medical records from the site of the accident to arrival at the level 1 trauma centre were collected and evaluated.

    Results: A pre-hospital time of >60 min, secondary referral to a level 1 trauma centre, documented hypoxia (oxygen saturation <95%), hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg), hyperventilation (ETCO(2) <4.5 kPa) or tachycardia (heart rate >100 beats/min) at any time before arrival at a level 1 trauma centre were not significantly related to an unfavourable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale 1-3).

    Conclusion: Early adverse events before arrival at a level 1 trauma centre were without significance for outcome after severe TBI in the trauma system studied.

  • 13.
    Brändström, Helge
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Hoseason, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Sundström, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Birgander, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Risk for intracranial pressure increase related to enclosed air in post-craniotomy patients during air ambulance transport: a retrospective cohort study with simulation2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 25, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Post-craniotomy intracranial air can be present in patients scheduled for air ambulance transport to their home hospital. We aimed to assess risk for in-flight intracranial pressure (ICP) increases related to observed intracranial air volumes, hypothetical sea level pre-transport ICP, and different potential flight levels and cabin pressures. METHODS: A cohort of consecutive subdural hematoma evacuation patients from one University Medical Centre was assessed with post-operative intracranial air volume measurements by computed tomography. Intracranial pressure changes related to estimated intracranial air volume effects of changing atmospheric pressure (simulating flight and cabin pressure changes up to 8000 ft) were simulated using an established model for intracranial pressure and volume relations. RESULTS: Approximately one third of the cohort had post-operative intracranial air. Of these, approximately one third had intracranial air volumes less than 11 ml. The simulation estimated that the expected changes in intracranial pressure during 'flight' would not result in intracranial hypertension. For intracranial air volumes above 11 ml, the simulation suggested that it was possible that intracranial hypertension could develop 'inflight' related to cabin pressure drop. Depending on the pre-flight intracranial pressure and air volume, this could occur quite early during the assent phase in the flight profile. DISCUSSION: These findings support the idea that there should be radiographic verification of the presence or absence of intracranial air after craniotomy for patients planned for long distance air transport. CONCLUSIONS: Very small amounts of air are clinically inconsequential. Otherwise, air transport with maintained ground-level cabin pressure should be a priority for these patients.

  • 14.
    Dahlqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Brännström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Hägg, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Testicular enlargement in a patient with a FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma2010In: Endocrine (Basingstoke), ISSN 1355-008X, E-ISSN 1559-0100, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 289-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinically non-functional pituitary adenomas are often derived from gonadotropin producing cells. However, gonadotropinomas causing elevated serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and clinical signs of FSH hypersecretion are very rarely described. Our patient, a 56-year-old man, was referred to our clinic with signs of hypogonadism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biochemical examinations showed a large pituitary adenoma and excessive levels of serum FSH. Clinical examination and ultrasound measurement revealed bilaterally enlarged testes. After pituitary surgery, serum FSH levels normalized and there was a decrease in testicular volume. This case suggests that supraphysiological levels of FSH from a gonadotropinoma can cause a clinically observable effect, i.e. testicular enlargement. This is in line with experimental studies showing biological effect of FSH from pituitary adenomas and previous occasional reports of ovarian hyperstimulation and testicular enlargement in patients with FSH-secreting gonadotropinomas.

  • 15.
    Eklund, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF).
    Jóhannesson, Gauti
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
    Johansson, Elias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Holmlund, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Qvarlander, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Ambarki, Khalid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    The Pressure Difference between Eye and Brain Changes with Posture2016In: Annals of Neurology, ISSN 0364-5134, E-ISSN 1531-8249, Vol. 80, no 2, p. 269-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The discovery of a posture-dependent effect on the difference between intraocular pressure (IOP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) at the level of lamina cribrosa could have important implications for understanding glaucoma and idiopathic intracranial hypertension and could help explain visual impairments in astronauts exposed to microgravity. The aim of this study was to determine the postural influence on the difference between simultaneously measured ICP and IOP.

    Methods: Eleven healthy adult volunteers (age = 46 ± 10 years) were investigated with simultaneous ICP, assessed through lumbar puncture, and IOP measurements when supine, sitting, and in 9° head-down tilt (HDT). The trans–lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) was calculated as the difference between the IOP and ICP. To estimate the pressures at the lamina cribrosa, geometrical distances were estimated from magnetic resonance imaging and used to adjust for hydrostatic effects.

    Results: The TLCPD (in millimeters of mercury) between IOP and ICP was 12.3 ± 2.2 for supine, 19.8 ± 4.6 for sitting, and 6.6 ± 2.5 for HDT. The expected 24-hour average TLCPD on earth—assuming 8 hours supine and 16 hours upright—was estimated to be 17.3mmHg. By removing the hydrostatic effects on pressure, a corresponding 24-hour average TLCPD in microgravity environment was simulated to be 6.7mmHg.

    Interpretation: We provide a possible physiological explanation for how microgravity can cause symptoms similar to those seen in patients with elevated ICP. The observed posture dependency of TLCPD also implies that assessment of the difference between IOP and ICP in upright position may offer new understanding of the pathophysiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension and glaucoma. 

  • 16.
    Eklund, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Williams, Michael A
    Luciano, Mark G
    Dombrowski, Stephen M
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Hydrodynamics of the CertasTM programmable valve for the treatment of hydrocephalus2012In: Fluids and barriers of the CNS, ISSN 2045-8118, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 12-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The new CertasTM shunt for the treatment of hydrocephalus has seven standard pressure settings that according to the manufacturer range from 36 to 238 mmH2O, and an additional "Virtual Off" setting with an opening pressure >400 mmH2O. Information on actual pressure response and reliability of shunt performance is important in clinical application, especially the "Virtual Off" setting as a non-surgical replacement for shunt ligation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro hydrodynamic performance of the CertasTM shunt.

    METHODS: Six new CertasTM shunts with proximal and distal catheters were tested with an automated, computerized test system that raised the pressure from zero to a maximum pressure and back to zero at each valve setting. Opening pressure and flow resistance were determined.

    RESULTS: For settings 1-7 the measured opening pressure range was 26 to 247 mmH2O, and the mean change in opening pressure for a one-step adjustment was between 33 and 38 mmH2O. For setting 8 ("Virtual Off") the measured mean opening pressure was 494 +/- 34 mmH2O (range 451 to 556 mmH2O). The mean outflow resistance was 7.0 mmHg/ml/min (outflow conductance 17.9 ul/s/kPa).

    CONCLUSIONS: The six shunts had similar characteristics and closely matched the manufacturer's specifications for opening pressure at settings 1-7. The opening pressure for the "Virtual Off" setting was nearly 500 mmH2O, which is 100 mmH2O higher than the manufacturer's specification of ">400" and should be functionally off for most patients with communicating hydrocephalus. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate if the CSF dynamic profile persists after implantation in patients.

  • 17. Grenander, A.
    et al.
    Bredbacka, S.
    Rydvall, A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Aroch, R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Edner, G.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Olivecrona, M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Antithrombin treatment in patients with traumatic brain injury: a pilot study2001In: J Neurosurg Anesthesiol, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study will determine if early administration of antithrombin concentrate to patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) can inhibit or significantly shorten the time of coagulopathy. The progress of brain injury monitored by computed tomographic scan (CT) was also assessed, as was the time needed for intensive care and outcome related to Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). Twenty-eight patients with isolated brain trauma verified with CT were included in either of two parallel groups. The Glasgow coma score (GCS) was mean 7.5, and median 7.0; signifying a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury but with a mortality of only 3.5%. The patients randomized to antithrombin treatment received a total of 100 U/kg BW during 24 hours. To measure hypercoagulability, soluble fibrin (SF), D-dimer (D-d), and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) were assessed together with antithrombin (AT) and routine coagulation tests. Before treatment, SF, D-d, and TAT were markedly increased in both groups. Soluble fibrin and D-dimer (measured after treatment began) appeared to decrease faster in the AT group, and there was a statistically significant difference between the groups at 36 hours for SF and at 36 hours, 48 hours, and at Day 3 for D-d. Thrombin-antithrombin complex levels were very high in both groups but, surprisingly, showed no significant difference between the groups. The authors conclude that antithrombin concentrate administered to patients with severe TBI resulted in a marginal reduction of hypercoagulation. We could not detect any obvious influence by antithrombin on brain injury progress, on CT, or on outcome or time needed for intensive care.

  • 18. Grände, P-O
    et al.
    Koskinen, L-O
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Naredi, S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Reinstrup, P
    Romner, B
    Conventional treatments for severe head injury: are they effective, ineffective, or even harmful?2007In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 51, no 10, p. 1294-1296Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Hariz, Gun-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Long-term effect of deep brain stimulation for essential tremor on activities of daily living and health-related quality of life2008In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 387-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To report long-term effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on activities of daily living (ADL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with essential tremor (ET).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen consecutive patients were evaluated at baseline, at a mean of 1 year, then at a mean of 7 years after DBS using Tremor Rating Scale, Mini Mental Test, ADL Taxonomy, Nottingham Health Profile, Life Satisfaction Checklist, Visual Analogue Scale and interview.

    RESULTS: There was a decrease of DBS efficacy on tremor between 1 and 7 years post-operatively. The marked improvement in ADL at 1 year was no longer sustained at long-term, except for the ability to eat. Social life remained improved.

    CONCLUSION: Although there is a decrease of DBS effect on tremor at 7 years, and even though further ageing and co-morbidities may impact on the well-being of patients, there is still relevant benefit of DBS on few aspects of ADL and HRQoL in patients with ET.

  • 20.
    Holmlund, Petter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Johansson, Elias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Sundström, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Qvarlander, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Venous collapse regulates intracranial pressure in upright body positions2018In: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, ISSN 0363-6119, E-ISSN 1522-1490, Vol. 314, no 3, p. R377-R385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent interest in intracranial pressure (ICP) in the upright posture has revealed that the mechanisms regulating postural changes in ICP are not fully understood. We have suggested an explanatory model where the postural changes in ICP depend on well-established hydrostatic effects in the venous system and where these effects are interrupted by collapse of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) in more upright positions. The aim of this study was to investigate this relationship by simultaneous invasive measurements of ICP, venous pressure and IJV collapse in healthy volunteers. ICP (monitored via the lumbar route), central venous pressure (PICC-line) and IJV cross-sectional area (ultrasound) were measured in 11 healthy volunteers (47±10 years) in seven positions, from supine to sitting (0°-69°). Venous pressure and anatomical distances were used to predict ICP in accordance with the explanatory model, and IJV area was used to assess IJV collapse. The hypothesis was tested by comparing measured ICP to predicted ICP. Our model accurately described the general behavior of the observed postural ICP changes (mean difference: -0.03±2.7 mmHg). No difference was found between predicted and measured ICP for any tilt-angle (p-values: 0.65 - 0.94). The results support the hypothesis that postural ICP changes are governed by hydrostatic effects in the venous system and IJV collapse. This improved understanding of the postural ICP regulation may have important implications for the development of better treatments for neurological and neurosurgical conditions affecting ICP.

  • 21.
    Holmlund, Petter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Johansson, Elias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Qvarlander, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Ambarki, Khalid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Human jugular vein collapse in the upright posture: implications for postural intracranial pressure regulation2017In: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, ISSN 2045-8118, E-ISSN 2045-8118, Vol. 14, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intracranial pressure (ICP) is directly related to cranial dural venous pressure (P-dural). In the upright posture, P-dural is affected by the collapse of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) but this regulation of the venous pressure has not been fully understood. A potential biomechanical description of this regulation involves a transmission of surrounding atmospheric pressure to the internal venous pressure of the collapsed IJVs. This can be accomplished if hydrostatic effects are cancelled by the viscous losses in these collapsed veins, resulting in specific IJV cross-sectional areas that can be predicted from flow velocity and vessel inclination. Methods: We evaluated this potential mechanism in vivo by comparing predicted area to measured IJV area in healthy subjects. Seventeen healthy volunteers (age 45 +/- 9 years) were examined using ultrasound to assess IJV area and flow velocity. Ultrasound measurements were performed in supine and sitting positions. Results: IJV area was 94.5 mm(2) in supine and decreased to 6.5 +/- 5.1 mm(2) in sitting position, which agreed with the predicted IJV area of 8.7 +/- 5.2 mm(2) (equivalence limit +/- 5 mm(2), one-sided t tests, p = 0.03, 33 IJVs). Conclusions: The agreement between predicted and measured IJV area in sitting supports the occurrence of a hydrostatic-viscous pressure balance in the IJVs, which would result in a constant pressure segment in these collapsed veins, corresponding to a zero transmural pressure. This balance could thus serve as the mechanism by which collapse of the IJVs regulates P-dural and consequently ICP in the upright posture.

  • 22.
    Holmlund, Petter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Johansson, Elias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Qvarlander, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Ambarki, Khalid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Jugular vein collapse in upright and its relation to intracranial pressure regulation2017In: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, ISSN 0271-678X, E-ISSN 1559-7016, Vol. 37, p. 297-297Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Huijben, Jilske A.
    et al.
    Wiegers, Eveline J. A.
    de Keizer, Nicolette F.
    Maas, Andrew I. R.
    Menon, David
    Ercole, Ari
    Citerio, Giuseppe
    Lecky, Fiona
    Wilson, Lindsay
    Cnossen, Maryse C.
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Steyerberg, Ewout W.
    van der Jagt, Mathieu
    Lingsma, Hester F.
    Aries, Marcel
    Badenes, Rafael
    Beishuizen, Albertus
    Bilotta, Federico
    Chieregato, Arturo
    Cingolani, Emiliano
    Cnossen, Maryse
    Coburn, Mark
    Coles, Jonathan P.
    Delargy, Mark
    Depreitere, Bart
    Flaatten, Hans
    Golyk, Volodymyr
    Grauwmeijer, Erik
    Haitsma, Iain
    Helbok, Raimund
    Hoedemaekers, Cornelia
    Jacobs, Bram
    Jellema, Korne
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Maegele, Marc
    Martin Delgado, Maria Cruz
    Moller, Kirsten
    Moreno, Rui
    Nelson, David
    Oldenbeuving, Annemarie W.
    Payen, Jean-Francois
    Pejakovic, Jasmina
    Ribbbers, Gerard M.
    Rossaint, Rolf
    Schoonman, Guus Geurt
    Steiner, Luzius A.
    Stocchetti, Nino
    Silvio, Fabio
    Takala, Riikka
    Tenovuo, Olli
    Valeinis, Eglis
    van den Bergh, Walter M.
    van Essen, Thomas
    van Leeuwen, Nikki
    Verhofstad, Michael H. J.
    Vos, Pieter E.
    Development of a quality indicator set to measure and improve quality of ICU care for patients with traumatic brain injury2019In: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 23, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We aimed to develop a set of quality indicators for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in intensive care units (ICUs) across Europe and to explore barriers and facilitators for implementation of these quality indicators.

    Methods: A preliminary list of 66 quality indicators was developed, based on current guidelines, existing practice variation, and clinical expertise in TBI management at the ICU. Eight TBI experts of the Advisory Committee preselected the quality indicators during a first Delphi round. A larger Europe-wide expert panel was recruited for the next two Delphi rounds. Quality indicator definitions were evaluated on four criteria: validity (better performance on the indicator reflects better processes of care and leads to better patient outcome), feasibility (data are available or easy to obtain), discriminability (variability in clinical practice), and actionability (professionals can act based on the indicator). Experts scored indicators on a 5-point Likert scale delivered by an electronic survey tool.

    Results. The expert panel consisted of 50 experts from 18 countries across Europe, mostly intensivists (N=24, 48%) and neurosurgeons (N=7, 14%). Experts agreed on a final set of 42 indicators to assess quality of ICU care: 17 structure indicators, 16 process indicators, and 9 outcome indicators. Experts are motivated to implement this finally proposed set (N=49, 98%) and indicated routine measurement in registries (N=41, 82%), benchmarking (N=42, 84%), and quality improvement programs (N=41, 82%) as future steps. Administrative burden was indicated as the most important barrier for implementation of the indicator set (N=48, 98%).

    Conclusions: This Delphi consensus study gives insight in which quality indicators have the potential to improve quality of TBI care at European ICUs. The proposed quality indicator set is recommended to be used across Europe for registry purposes to gain insight in current ICU practices and outcomes of patients with TBI. This indicator set may become an important tool to support benchmarking and quality improvement programs for patients with TBI in the future.

  • 24.
    Koskinen, L. O.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Olivecrona, M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Rodling-Wahlstrom, M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Naredi, S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Prostacyclin treatment normalises the MCA flow velocity in nimodipine-resistant cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a pilot study2009In: Acta Neurochir (Wien), Vol. 151, no 6, p. 595-9; discussion 599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasospasm triggered by subarachnoid haemorrhage is one of the major causes of post-haemorrhage morbidity and mortality. Several treatment modalities have been proposed, and none of them are fully effective. METHODS: In this study we treated five patients with prostacyclin suffering vasospasm after a ruptured aneurysm not responding to high i.v. doses of nimodipine. All patients were severely ill, unconscious and in need of intensive care. FINDINGS: A low dose of prostacyclin i.v. infusion for 72 h reversed the vasospasm as measured by transcranial Doppler technique. The mean MCA blood flow velocity decreased from 199 +/- 31 cm/s to 92 +/- 6 cm/s within 72 h after the start of the prostacyclin infusion. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that low-dose prostacyclin treatment, an old treatment strategy, can be a treatment option in patients with vasospasm not responding to ordinary measures.

  • 25.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Sympathicotomy affects cutaneous blood flow, temperature, and sympathicus-mediated reflexes2008In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 402-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study the sympathetically mediated effects of transthoracic endoscopic sympathicotomy (TES) in the treatment of severe primary palmar hyperhidrosis.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of TES, on sympathetic ganglia at the thoracic level of 2-3, finger blood flow, temperature, and on heat and cold provocation were investigated. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocities were studied by transcranial Doppler.

    RESULTS: The finger blood flow increased by about 700% after TES and finger temperature by 7.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Several autonomic reflexes were dramatically affected. A finger pulp-shrinking test showed a major decrease after surgery. MCA mean blood flow velocities were not affected by TES.

    CONCLUSIONS: Besides the high success rate of good clinical effect of TES on palmar hyperhidrosis, major effects on local blood flow and temperature are elicited by TES. Complex autonomic reflexes are also affected. The patient should be completely informed before surgery of the side effects elicited by TES.

  • 26.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Predicting improvement after surgery for palmar hyperhidrosis2012In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 126, no 5, p. 324-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Endoscopic transthoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is a surgical procedure used to improve Quality of Life (QoL) in patients with treatment resistant palmar hyperhidrosis (PHH). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that low preoperative scores on The Everyday Life Questionnaire (EDLQ) would predict QoL improvement after surgery. Materials and methods Pre- and post-operative QoL scores from a series of 30 consecutive patients who underwent ETS at our institution were analyzed. Results Preoperative QoL scores was a significant predictor of post-operative improvement across all dimensions covered by the questionnaire. Conclusion Preoperative low QoL can be used as a guide in selecting patients with most improved QoL after ETS.

  • 27.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Grayson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    The complications and the position of the Codman MicroSensor (TM) ICP device: an analysis of 549 patients and 650 Sensors2013In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 155, no 11, p. 2141-2148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complications of and insertion depth of the Codman MicroSensor ICP monitoring device (CMS) is not well studied. To study complications and the insertion depth of the CMS in a clinical setting. We identified all patients who had their intracranial pressure (ICP) monitored using a CMS device between 2002 and 2010. The medical records and post implantation computed tomography (CT) scans were analyzed for occurrence of infection, hemorrhage and insertion depth. In all, 549 patients were monitored using 650 CMS. Mean monitoring time was 7.0 +/- 4.9 days. The mean implantation depth was 21.3 +/- 11.1 mm (0-88 mm). In 27 of the patients, a haematoma was identified; 26 of these were less than 1 ml, and one was 8 ml. No clinically significant bleeding was found. There was no statistically significant increase in the number of hemorrhages in presumed coagulopathic patients. The infection rate was 0.6 % and the calculated infection rate per 1,000 catheter days was 0.8. The risk for hemorrhagic and infectious complications when using the CMS for ICP monitoring is low. The depth of insertion varies considerably and should be taken into account if patients are treated with head elevation, since the pressure is measured at the tip of the sensor. To meet the need for ICP monitoring, an intraparenchymal ICP monitoring device should be preferred to the use of an external ventricular drainage (EVD).

  • 28.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Zakelis, Rolandas
    Bartusis, Laimonas
    Ragauskas, Arminas
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Can intracranial pressure be measured non-invasively bedside using a two-depth Doppler-technique?2017In: Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, ISSN 1387-1307, E-ISSN 1573-2614, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 459-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is necessary in many neurological and neurosurgical diseases. To avoid lumbar puncture or intracranial ICP probes, non-invasive ICP techniques are becoming popular. A recently developed technology uses two-depth Doppler to compare arterial pulsations in the intra- and extra-cranial segments of the ophthalmic artery for non-invasive estimation of ICP. The aim of this study was to investigate how well non-invasively-measured ICP and invasively-measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure correlate. We performed multiple measurements over a wide ICP span in eighteen elderly patients with communicating hydrocephalus. As a reference, an automatic CSF infusion apparatus was connected to the lumbar space. Ringer's solution was used to create elevation to pre-defined ICP levels. Bench tests of the infusion apparatus showed a random error (95 % CI) of less than ±0.9 mmHg and a systematic error of less than ±0.5 mmHg. Reliable Doppler signals were obtained in 13 (72 %) patients. An infusion test could not be performed in one patient. Thus, twelve patients and a total of 61 paired data points were studied. The correlation between invasive and non-invasive ICP measurements was good (R = 0.74), and the 95 % limits of agreements were -1.4 ± 8.8 mmHg. The within-patient correlation varied between 0.47 and 1.00. This non-invasive technique is promising, and these results encourage further development and evaluation before the method can be recommended for use in clinical practice.

  • 29.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Intracranial pressure monitoring using the Codman MicroSensor2010In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 221-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Runnerstam, Magnus
    Koch, Mona
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, SE-901 82 Umeå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Britt M.
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, SE-901 82 Umeå, Sweden.
    Cerebral microvascular effects of nimodipine in combination with soman2012In: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, ISSN 1382-6689, E-ISSN 1872-7077, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 905-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nimodipine, a calcium antagonist, has been shown to increase the detoxification of soman. In this study the cerebral microcirculatory effects of nimodipine and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor soman was studied. Anaesthetised rats were administered nimodipine, 10 mg kg(-1) or vehicle intra-peritoneally, and 1 h later exposed to 45 mu g kg(-1) soman intravenously. The regional blood flows were measured using the microsphere method. Nimodipine and soman markedly increased the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduced the vascular resistance. Total CBF increased by 146% after nimodipine and by 105% after soman administration. Combined administration of nimodipine and soman caused additional but not fully additive effects on CBF and vascular resistance, indicating possible different mechanisms of the two agents. A part of the nimodipine induced increased detoxification after AChE-inhibition may be associated with this cerebral vasodilation. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Sundström, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Hägglund, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    The relation between brain interstitial clycerol and pressure reactivity in TBI is prostacyclin dependent2018In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 35, no 16, p. A185-A185Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Koskinen, Lars-owe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Ten-year follow-up of patients in a double blinded randomized study on prostacyclin treatment in severe traumatic brain injury2017In: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, Vol. 31, no 6-7, p. 770-771Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Grande, P. O.
    Department of Clinical Science in Lund, Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Lund University, Sweden.
    Severe traumatic brain injury management and clinical outcome using the Lund concept2014In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 283, p. 245-255Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review covers the main principles of the Lund concept for treatment of severe traumatic brain injury. This is followed by a description of results of clinical studies in which this therapy or a modified version of the therapy has been used. Unlike other guidelines, which are based on meta-analytical approaches, important components of the Lund concept are based on physiological mechanisms for regulation of brain volume and brain perfusion and to reduce transcapillary plasma leakage and the need for plasma volume expanders. There have been nine non-randomized and two randomized outcome studies with the Lund concept or modified versions of the concept. The non-randomized studies indicated that the Lund concept is beneficial for outcome. The two randomized studies were small but showed better outcome in the groups of patients treated according to the modified principles of the Lund concept than in the groups given a more conventional treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Brain compensation. For good?. (C) 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Sundstrom, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF).
    Brorsson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Olivecrona, M.
    SECONDARY PEAK OF S-100B IS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMPRESSIVE HEMICRANIECTOMY2016In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 33, no 3, p. A27-A27Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    S-100B is a tissue biomarker for brain injury and secondary peak of S-100B (SP) is associated with outcome. Little is known whether SP is associated with decompressive hemicraniectomy (DC).

  • 35.
    Lehtipalo, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Koskinen, Lars Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Kolmodin, Jane
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Biber, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Continuous interscalene brachial plexus block for postoperative analgesia following shoulder surgery1999In: Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 258-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Severe postoperative pain is a well-known problem following shoulder surgery. This study evaluates the clinical efficacy of continuous interscalene brachial plexus block, patient-controlled analgesia, and morphine (i.v. and i.m.) for postoperative analgesia in this setting. METHODS: Thirty patients, scheduled for acromioplasty during general anesthesia, were randomly allocated to one of three different postoperative pain management groups. Group MO received morphine (5 mg i.m. and 2 mg i.v.) when visual analogue pain score (VAS) > 3, group PL received a continuous interscalene brachial plexus block with bupivacaine (1.25 mg kg-1 + 0.25 mg kg-1 h-1) and group PCA received patient-controlled analgesia with morphine (bolus 1 mg). Postoperative pain relief was assessed (24 h) by VAS, circulatory and respiratory stress parameters (heart rate, systemic arterial pressure and respiratory rate) and stress metabolites (glucose, lactate, glycerol by abdominal subcutaneous microdialysis). RESULTS: Pain relief in the PL group was effective (VAS < 3) and significantly more potent than in groups MO and PCA, except at 16 and 20 h. Lactate was significantly increased in the PL group, glucose was significantly increased in all groups, while glycerol showed a variable pattern. There were no significant stress metabolite differences among groups. VAS showed no statistical correlation with microdialysate, respiratory or circulatory data. CONCLUSION: Successful continuous interscalene brachial plexus block provides very good pain relief following shoulder surgery and is superior to the other methods studied. However, we were unable to demonstrate a correlation between VAS pain scores and stress indicators in metabolic, circulatory and respiratory parameters.

  • 36.
    Lehtipalo, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Biber, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Cutaneous sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes for the evaluation of interscalene brachial plexus block2000In: Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 946-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although signs of sympathetic blockade following interscalene brachial plexus block include Horner's syndrome, increased skin temperature and vasodilatation, the degree of sympathetic blockade is not easily determined. The aim of this study was, therefore, to use activation of cutaneous finger pad vasoconstrictor reflexes for description and quantification of the degree of sympathetic blockade following unilateral interscalene brachial plexus block. METHODS: Eight patients scheduled for acromioplasty under general anesthesia were studied. An interscalene plexus catheter was inserted preoperatively on the side to be operated upon and used postoperatively for administration of bupivacaine, given as a bolus (1.25 mg kg(-1)) followed by a continuous infusion (0.25 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). Skin blood flow (SBF) in the pad of the index finger was assessed by the laser Doppler technique, and regional skin vascular resistance (RVR) was calculated. The inspiratory gasp test (apnea at end-inspiration) or a local heat provocation were used as provocations of the cutaneous microcirculation. RESULTS: Interscalene brachial plexus block increased SBF and decreased RVR at rest, and produced satisfactory sensory and motor block. The inspiratory gasp test decreased SBF and increased RVR in the unblocked arm, while the opposite, increased SBF and decreased RVR, were observed during local heat provocation. In the blocked arm, these gasp-induced cutaneous vasoconstrictor and heat-induced vasodilator responses were attenuated. CONCLUSIONS: Interscalene brachial plexus block reduces regional sympathetic nervous activity, illustrated by increases in skin blood flow, skin temperature and attenuated vasoconstrictor responses to an inspiratory gasp. The inspiratory gasp vasoconstrictive response is a powerful and sensitive indicator for monitoring the sympathetic blockade following interscalene brachial plexus block.

  • 37.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Dahlqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindvall, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Cortisol levels are influenced by sedation in the acute phase after subarachnoid haemorrhage2013In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 452-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening condition that may be aggravated by acute pituitary damage and cortisol insufficiency. Robust diagnostic criteria for critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of CIRCI in the acute phase (0-240 h) after SAH and to evaluate associations between cortisol levels and clinical parameters (sedation, circulatory failure, gender, age, severity of disease, treatment). CIRCI was defined as a single morning serum cortisol (mSC) < 200 nmol/L. The lower limit for calculated free cortisol (cFC) was set at < 22 nmol/L, and for saliva cortisol at < 7.7 nmol/L.

    METHODS: Fifty patients were included. Serum/saliva cortisol and corticosteroid-binding globulin were obtained every second morning. A logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis comparing cortisol levels with clinical parameters.

    RESULTS: Of the patients, 21/50 (42%) had an mSC < 200 nmol/L and 30/50 (60%) had a cFC < 22 nmol/L. In patients with continuous intravenous sedation, the odds ratio for a mSC to be < 200 nmol/L was 18 times higher (95% confidence interval 4.2-85.0, P < 0.001), and the odds ratio for a cFC to be < 22 nmol/L was 2.4 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.2-4.7, P < 0.05) compared with patients with no continuous intravenous sedation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Continuous intravenous sedation was significantly associated with cortisol values under defined limits (mSC < 200, cFC < 22 nmol/L). The possibility that sedating drugs per se may influence cortisol levels should be taken into consideration before CIRCI is diagnosed.

  • 38.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Lindvall, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Borota, Ljubisa
    Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    ADMA levels and arginine/ADMA ratios reflect severity of disease and extent of inflammation after subarachnoid hemorraghe2014In: Neurocritical Care, ISSN 1541-6933, E-ISSN 1556-0961, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 91-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by an inflammatory response that might induce endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate if ADMA and arginine/ADMA ratios after SAH (indicators of endothelial dysfunction) are related to clinical parameters, inflammatory response, and outcome.

    Methods: Prospective observational study. ADMA, arginine, C-reactive protein (CRP), and cytokines were obtained 0–240 h (h) after SAH. Definition of severe clinical condition was Hunt&Hess (H&H) 3–5 and less severe clinical condition H&H 1–2. Impaired cerebral circulation was assessed by clinical examination, transcranial doppler, CT-scan, and angiography. Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) evaluated the outcome.

    Results: Compared to admission, 0–48 h after SAH, the following was observed 49–240 h after SAH; (a) ADMA was significantly increased at 97–240 h (highest 217–240 h), (b) CRP was significantly increased at 49–240 h (highest 73–96 h), (c) interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly lower at 97–240 h (highest 49–96 h), p < 0.05. ADMA, CRP, and IL-6 were significantly lower and peak arginine/ADMA ratio was significantly higher in patients with H&H 1–2 compared to patients with H&H 3–5, p < 0.05. The peak ADMA or the nadir arginine/ADMA ratio did not differ significantly between patients with (55 %) or without (45 %) signs of impaired cerebral circulation. The peak ADMA or the nadir arginine/ADMA ratio did not differ significantly between patients with GOS 1–3 and patients with GOS 4–5.

    Conclusions: ADMA increased significantly after SAH, and the increase in ADMA started after the pro-inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6) had peaked. This might indicate that endothelial dysfunction, with ADMA as a marker, is induced by a systemic inflammation.

  • 39.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Edvardsson, Ludwig
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Göteborgs universitet.
    Long term survivors of subarachnoid haemorrhage have an increased risk of death due to cerebrovascular causesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Ssozi, Rashida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Cerebrospinal fluid lactate and neurological outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage2019In: Journal of clinical neuroscience, ISSN 0967-5868, E-ISSN 1532-2653, Vol. 60, p. 63-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Increased lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been regarded as a marker for cerebral ischemia and damage in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate if CSF-lactate was associated with; impaired cerebral circulation, outcome, sex, age, clinical condition or treatment after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).

    METHODS: This study consists of 33 patients (22 females, 11 males) with aneurysmal SAH treated at Umeå university hospital 2008-2009. Samples were obtained from external ventricular catheters 0-240 h after SAH. Normal CFS-lactate was defined as 1.2-2-1 mmol/L. Hunt & Hess scale assessed clinical condition. Impaired cerebral circulation was evaluated by clinical examination, transcranial doppler, CT-scan, and cerebral angiography. Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) evaluated outcome.

    RESULTS: Seventy-nine CSF-lactate samples were analysed. CSF-lactate >2.1 mmol/L was found in 25/33 (76%) patients and in 50/79 (63%) samples. No difference in CSF-lactate levels was found over time. No association was found between patients with CSF-lactate >2.1 mmol/L and; sex, severity of clinical condition, impaired cerebral circulation or outcome. CSF-lactate >2.1 mmol/L was more common in patients ≥61 years of age (p = 0.04) and in patients treated with endovascular coiling compared to surgical clipping (p = 0.0001).

    CONCLUSION: In patients with SAH, no association was found between increased CSF-lactate (>2.1 mmol/L) and severe clinical condition, impaired cerebral circulation or unfavourable outcome. Endovascular coiling and age ≥61 years was associated with CSF-lactate above >2.1 mmol/L.

  • 41.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Leptin levels after subarachnoid haemorrhage are gender dependent2016In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 5, article id 667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurological disease where the majority of the patients are critically ill. The adipokine leptin has in cerebral emergencies been related to severity of disease and to adverse outcome. The aim of this study was to examine leptin levels over time after SAH and associations to gender, age, body mass index, severity of disease, parenteral lipids, systemic organ failure and outcome.

    Methods: Prospective observational study in 56 patients. Leptin was obtained 0-240 h after SAH, in 48 h intervals. Severity of disease was assessed with the Hunt and Hess score, organ failure with the sequential organ failure assessment score, and outcome with Glasgow outcome scale. Leptin levels in the SAH group were compared with controls from the same geographical area.

    Results: At admission, Leptin was significantly higher in SAH patients compared to controls, both in female (28.6 +/- 25.6 vs 13.0 +/- 2.3 ng/mL, p = 0.001) and male patients (13.3 +/- 8.4 vs 4.3 +/- 0.7 ng/mL, p = 0.001). Leptin levels remained stable over time. Female patients had significantly higher leptin levels than male patients, and deceased female patients had higher leptin levels than female survivors (85.5 +/- 20.5 vs 50.5 +/- 34.6, n = 4/35, p < 0.05). Leptin levels did not differ between male survivors and non-survivors. Leptin levels were not associated with severity of disease, organ failure or parenteral lipids.

    Conclusion: Leptin levels were significantly higher in both male and female patients compared to controls. Higher leptin levels were related to outcome and organ failure in women but not in men. When analysing leptin levels gender-related differences should be considered.

  • 42.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Edvardsson, L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Naredi, S,
    Anestesiologi, Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborg.
    Long-term subarachnoid haemorrhage survivors still die due to cerebrovascular causes2015In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 132, no 6, p. 410-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is associated with sympathetic nervous activation and inflammation. SAH could therefore theoretically be a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term (>/=1 year) SAH survivors had an increased risk of death due to cardiovascular causes. MATERIAL & METHODS: SAH patients >/=18 years treated at Umea University Hospital between 1986 and 2006 were eligible for inclusion. Deceased patients were identified in the Swedish population register. Death certificates from long-term SAH survivors and causes of death in the general population were obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden. The prevalence of comorbidities at the time of SAH was compared with the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in the northern Sweden MONICA (Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) health survey. Analyses were stratified for age and sex. RESULTS: In the SAH patients, the median year of SAH was 1992 and the median year of death was 2001. The MONICA survey in 1994 and the distribution of deaths in the general population in 2001 were used for comparison. Long-term SAH survivors had, compared to the general population, a significantly increased risk for death due to cerebrovascular disease (P < 0.0001), but not for death due to cardiovascular disease. Hypertension was more common in SAH patients compared to survey participants (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Cerebrovascular causes of death were significantly more common in long-term survivors after SAH compared to the general population.

  • 43.
    Lindvall, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Ericsson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Gothefors, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Reducing intracranial pressure may increase survival among patients with bacterial meningitis2004In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1058-4838, E-ISSN 1537-6591, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 384-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We reported findings concerning continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) measurements and mortality in patients with severe bacterial meningitis treated on the basis of an ICP-targeted approach. Eighteen patients with severe bacterial meningitis were admitted for neurointensive care at Umeå University Hospital (Umeå, Sweden). In 15 patients, ICP was measured continuously through an ICP measuring device. During care, all patients but one developed intracranial hypertension with an ICP of ⩾15 mm Hg (14 [93%] of 15 patients). Ten (67%) of 15 patients survived and were discharged, and 5 patients (33%) died. Mean ICP was significantly higher and CPP was markedly decreased in nonsurvivors, compared with survivors. Among the survivors, ICP was gradually reduced. Treatment of patients with severe bacterial meningitis should include neurointensive care and continuous ICP measurement. Increased ICP may be reduced by using the ICP-targeted therapy that closely resembles the “Lund concept.”

  • 44.
    Lindvall, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents and the risk of development and recurrence of chronic subdural haematomas2009In: Journal of clinical neuroscience, ISSN 0967-5868, E-ISSN 1532-2653, Vol. 16, no 10, p. 1287-1290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seventy-one patients from northern Sweden were diagnosed with chronic subdural haematomas (CSDH) and treated at the Department of Neurosurgery at Umeå University Hospital over 12 months. Fifty-four patients with CSDH had a history of head trauma (trauma group), while 17 patients had no previous head trauma (non-trauma group). In the non-trauma group 71% of patients were treated with anticoagulants or antiplatelet aggregation agents (AAA) compared to 18% in the trauma group. Considering only AAA, 59% of the non-trauma patients were treated with these drugs versus 17% of patients in the trauma group. The recurrence rate for all patients was 17%. These findings confirm that the use of anticoagulants and AAA is over-represented in patients with non-traumatic CSDH. In our study, recurrence was not associated with previous use of anticoagulants or AAA.

  • 45.
    Lindvall, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Runnerstam, Magnus
    Birgander, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    The Fisher grading correlated to outcome in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage2009In: British Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0268-8697, E-ISSN 1360-046X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 188-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cerebral vasospasm is the major cause of delayed ischemia in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The Fisher grading scale has been used to predict patients in risk of developing vasospasm. Improved radiological techniques and treatment may have changed the relevance of the Fisher scale. We have now evaluated the Fisher scale, Hunt and Hess and age in relation to outcome in patients with SAH. Eighty- three patients were admitted with SAH during two years, and 84 aneurysms were treated in 78 patients. The Glasgow outcome score (GOS) within 3 months were as follows; GOS 1 (19%), GOS 2 (2%), GOS 3 (11%), GOS 4 (9%), GOS 5 (59%). There was a significant correlation between both the Fisher grading scale, Hunt and Hess scale and outcome. Age was not correlated to the Fisher grading scale or the Hunt and Hess scale. Age was also not correlated to outcome in our patients. Despite the correlation to outcome both Hunt and Hess and the Fisher grading scale had a limited predictive value of outcome due to a low specificity and/or sensitivity.

  • 46.
    Lundkvist, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Birgander, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and long-term survival of the Strata(®) valve in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.2011In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective -  Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and long-term shunt survival of the Strata(®) CSF shunt were evaluated in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). Subjects and methods -  Seventy-two patients with INPH received a Strata(®) valve. A CSF infusion test, neuroimaging and video recording of gait were performed at baseline and at 6 months (n = 68) after surgery. Long-term shunt survivals were obtained from patient records. Results -  The shunt survival at 1 year was 94% and at 3 years 92.5%. Forty-nine patients (72%) had an improved gait. Two patients were improved despite non-functioning shunts, indicating a possible placebo response. Nineteen patients were not improved at the 6-month follow-up. The shunt tests revealed a functioning shunt in 12; thus, unnecessary shunt revisions could be avoided. Seventeen patients showed a siphoning effect. Shunt revisions were made in six patients. Eight hygromas/subdural hematomas were found. Conclusions -  The long-term survival of the Strata(®) valves was good, and a concern of complications is not a reason to exclude elderly with INPH from shunt surgery. Studies are needed to evaluate pros and cons of the anti-siphon device. Using a CSF shunt test, unnecessary shunt revisions may be avoided.

  • 47.
    Malm, J.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Bergenheim, A. T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Enblad, P.
    Department of Neuroscience/Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hårdemark, H.-G.
    Department of Neuroscience/Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Koskinen, L-O D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Nordström, C.-H.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Norrving, B.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Uhlin, J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Lindgren, A.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    The Swedish Malignant Middle cerebral artery Infarction Study: long-term results from a prospective study of hemicraniectomy combined with standardized neurointensive care2006In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Hemicraniectomy in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery (mMCA) infarct may be life-saving. The long-term prognosis is unknown.

    Methods: Patients with mMCA infarct treated with hemicraniectomy between 1998 and 2002 at three hospitals were included. The criterion for surgical intervention was if the patients deteriorated from awake to being responding to painful stimuli only. All patients were followed for at least 1 year. Outcome was defined as alive/dead, walkers/non-walkers or modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤2.

    Results: Thirty patients were included (median age at stroke onset 49 years, range 17–67 years). Fourteen patients had mMCA infarct on the left side and 16 patients on the right side. Fourteen patients had pupil dilatation before surgery. Hemicraniectomy was performed at a median of 52 h (range 13–235 h) after stroke onset. Nine patients died within 1 month after surgery because of cerebral herniation (n = 6), myocardial infarction (n = 1) or intensive care complications (n = 2). No further deaths occurred during follow-up, which was at median 3.4 years after surgery. Status for the 21 survivors at the last follow-up was: mRS 2 or less (n = 6) and mRS 3–5 (n = 15). The oldest patient with mRS 2 or less was 53 years at stroke onset. Thirteen patients (43%) could walk without substantial aid.

    Conclusion:  The long-term survival after mMCA infarction treated with hemicraniectomy seems to be favourable if the patient survives the acute phase. The outcome as measured with mRS may be better among younger patients.

  • 48.
    Naredi, S.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Koskinen, L. O.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Grände, P. O.
    Nordström, C. H.
    Nellgård, B.
    Rydenhag, B.
    Vegfors, M.
    Treatment of traumatic head injury--U.S./European guidelines or the Lund concept2003In: Crit Care Med, Vol. 31, no 11, p. 2713-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Nordström, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Aspects on the Physiological and Biochemical Foundations of Neurocritical Care2017In: Frontiers in Neurology, ISSN 1664-2295, E-ISSN 1664-2295, Vol. 8, article id 274Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurocritical care (NCC) is a branch of intensive care medicine characterized by specific physiological and biochemical monitoring techniques necessary for identifying cerebral adverse events and for evaluating specific therapies. Information is primarily obtained from physiological variables related to intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and from physiological and biochemical variables related to cerebral energy metabolism. Non-surgical therapies developed for treating increased ICP are based on knowledge regarding transport of water across the intact and injured blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the regulation of CBF. Brain volume is strictly controlled as the BBB permeability to crystalloids is very low restricting net transport of water across the capillary wall. Cerebral pressure autoregulation prevents changes in intracranial blood volume and intracapillary hydrostatic pressure at variations in arterial blood pressure. Information regarding cerebral oxidative metabolism is obtained from measurements of brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) and biochemical data obtained from intracerebral microdialysis. As interstitial lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio instantaneously reflects shifts in intracellular cytoplasmatic redox state, it is an important indicator of compromised cerebral oxidative metabolism. The combined information obtained from PbtO2, LP ratio, and the pattern of biochemical variables reveals whether impaired oxidative metabolism is due to insufficient perfusion (ischemia) or mitochondrial dysfunction. Intracerebral microdialysis and PbtO2 give information from a very small volume of tissue. Accordingly, clinical interpretation of the data must be based on information of the probe location in relation to focal brain damage. Attempts to evaluate global cerebral energy state from microdialysis of intraventricular fluid and from the LP ratio of the draining venous blood have recently been presented. To be of clinical relevance, the information from all monitoring techniques should be presented bedside online. Accordingly, in the future, the chemical variables obtained from microdialysis will probably be analyzed by biochemical sensors.

  • 50.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience. Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Section for Neurosurgery, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University Hospital Orebro, SE 70185, Orebro, Sweden.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Comment on: Early CSF and serum S 100B concentrations for outcome prediction in traumatic brain injury and subarachoid haemorrhage2016In: Clinical neurology and neurosurgery (Dutch-Flemish ed. Print), ISSN 0303-8467, E-ISSN 1872-6968, Vol. 150, p. 197-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and methods

    In the letter the authors discuss the findings in Kellerman and co-worker’s paper: Early CSF and Serum S 100B Concentrations for Outcome Prediction in Traumatic Brain Injury and Subarachoid Haemorrhage published in this journal. Among the findings reported in this paper is that an initial S 100B value of more than 0.7 μg/l would strongly indicate a very poor prognosis. This finding is discussed.

    Conclusion

    That a use of S 100B as a prognostic tool for clinical decision making is very doubtful and should most probably be refrained from.

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