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  • 1.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Barnes, Philippa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Department of Government, Uppsala University and Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen .
    Varieties of peace: presentation of a research program2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Varieties of Peace research program aims to analyze long-term effects of peace processes in conflicts that ended in the 1990s. The central research questions are: What characterizes peace after the peace processes initiated in the 1990s and how does it vary? How can this variation be described and explained? Peace processes have been studied using short time perspectives, usually in ”lessons-learned” evaluations five years after conflict termination, and usually with theories of conflict as a starting point. The Varieties of Peace research program is an ambitious initiative, which starts from a theoretical understanding of peace, its quality and character, and views peace and peace processes as dynamic and transformative. It will investigate and evaluate different types of peace processes from a comparative perspective and 25–30 years after they started, with the ambition of producing generalizable knowledge about peace, what it is and how it can be achieved. As a starting point, the program studies explanatory factors in five areas: 1) the actions, capacity and resilience of civil society, 2) the interests and strategies of the elites, 3) the aims and character of the agreements, 4) the societies’ institutions and resilience, and 5) international involvement. These issues will be studies in at least ten projects, with the ambition to capture and explain variation, internal dynamics and ultimately the results and effects of peace processes, studied over a longer period of time. The Varieties of Peace program is funded by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond: the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences, 2017-2024. For more info, please visit our webpage at www.varietiesofpeace.net.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Add Women and What?: Peacebuilding, Feminism and the Analysis of Successful Peace Processes2006In: 47th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association (ISA), San Diego, 22-25 mars, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. University of Otago.
    Building Resilient Peace in Liberia2015In: Africa: Diversity and Development: 37th AFSAAP Conference Proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-war peacebuilding is a delicate undertaking, and even the most promising process will face challenges and setbacks, purposeful as well as accidental. Examples include residual violence, coups d’états, terrorist attacks, delays of implementation, disagreement over what has been agreed, etc. Sometimes these challenges derail a peacebuilding process, but in other cases they are overcome allowing the process to continue more or less unaffected. The ability to withstand challenges should be an important indicator of the quality of peace and the success of post-war peacebuilding, and is now entering the conceptualization of peace and peacebuilding in the form of “resilience. This paper starts from the need for a conceptualization of peace between negative and positive peace, and argues that resilience would be a useful concept. It then traces the argument back again, from adaptive cycle theory, via resilience, to peacebuilding. The tentative conclusions are very general, but I have not yet had the time to actually conduct a case study of Liberia.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Displaced persons as symbols of grievance: collective identity, individual rights, and durable solutions2019In: Refugees' roles in resolving displacement and building peace: beyond beneficiaries / [ed] Megan Bradley, James Milner, Blair Peruniak, Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2019, p. 132-149Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Equivocal Resolve?: Toward a Definition of Chapter VII Resolutions2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Security Council has become significantly more active since the end of the Cold War. Nowhere is this more evident than in the increased resort to Chapter VII of the Charter, under which the Council can make decisions that are binding on member States. Despite the authority vested in the Security Council through Chapter VII, there is occasional disagreement over whether specific resolutions are indeed adopted under Chapter VII or not. Drawing on such disagreements, this paper develops a definition of Chapter VII resolutions. On the basis of this definition, the paper goes on to present an overview of the use of Chapter VII for the period 1946-2007, and relates it to world wide conflict patterns. It illustrates and explores the increased use of Chapter VII in the post-Cold War era, as well as the distribution of Chapter VII resolutions across conflicts and issues on the Council’s agenda. The paper concludes by raising a few questions about possible consequences of the extensive use of Chapter VII for, most importantly, the legitimacy and the effectiveness of the Security Council.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Flyktingar och återvändande2012In: Om krig och fred: En introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam & Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, p. 241-255Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Flyktingar och återvändande2017In: Om krig och fred: en introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam & Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 2, p. 273-287Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    FN förändrar ej palestinska vardagen2011In: Västerbottens-KurirenArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hit, men inte länge: Den internationella flyktingregimen och andra sätt att hantera ofrivillig migration2016In: Krig/fred: RJ:s årsbok 2016/2017 / [ed] Jenny Björkman & Arne Jarrik, Göteborg & Stockholm: Makadam Förlag, 2016, p. 39-53Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kan ickevåldsmotstånd mot Ryssland fungera?2015In: Mänsklig säkerhetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Konfliktmönster i MENA-regionen 1980-19971999Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Magstarkt att misstänkliggöra hela fredsrörelsen2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Otago.
    Nurturing adaptive peace: resilience thinking for peacebuilders2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few years, the concept of resilience has entered the field of peace and conflict research, and is now being used by academics as well as practitioners of peacebuilding. However, as has been the case in other social sciences earlier, the use of the concept draws more upon engineering resilience than ecological resilience, thereby failing to appreciate the broader implications of resilience thinking, including such central notions as threshold effects and adaptive cycles. This limits the usefulness of resilience both as a tool of analysis and as a guide for policy making.

    The current academic debate on peacebuilding is largely focused on critique of what has become known as “the liberal peacebuilding paradigm,” which, briefly, aims at turning war-torn states into liberal democracies. Critics argue that this has led to templet-style peace implementation, more concerned with stable institutions than with viable relations or processes, and they call for more inclusive and contextualized ambitions.

    Resilience is now making its way into those ambitions. So far, however, the use of the concept in the context of peacebuilding has primarily concerned the everyday lives of people affected by conflict, the argument being that it is their capacity to bounce back from challenges and setbacks that needs strengthening. In other words, it is once again taking the form of engineering resilience. While the everyday lives of people is certainly important for long-term peace, the wider implications of resilience thinking are not yet appreciated within peace and conflict studies, where they could, I believe, be very relevant and useful.

    In this paper, I therefore develop resilience thinking for a peacebuilding context by discussing the notions of expecting change rather than stability, of understanding social development in terms of adaptive cycles, and of relating resilience to thresholds between alternative regimes rather than to return to a global equilibrium. With the help of empirical examples, I illustrate how various analytical tools of resilience thinking can be understood and employed in the analysis and development of peace and peacebuilding, both in the short and the long term.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    On Repatriation and Peace: Operationalizing Repatriation as a Necessary Condition2006In: the Annual Conference of the Swedish Network of Peace, Conflict and Development Research, Uppsala, 6-8 November, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Peace by repatriation: Concepts, cases, and conditions2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is the assumption that the return of refugees is a necessary condition for the establishment of sustainable peace after armed conflict. This assumption is often made in the peacebuilding literature as well as by policy makers, but it has rarely been the object of systematic analysis. The purpose of the study, therefore, is to test this assumption, which I label the “peace-by-repatriation thesis.”

    I adopt a two-step approach to analyzing the peace-by-repatriation thesis. The first step is to formulate an analytical framework. The second step is to use the framework to test the peace-by-repatriation thesis on a medium number of cases. The formulation of the analytical framework starts with an examination of previous research. I trace the theoretical foundations of the peace-by-repatriation thesis in research on peacebuilding, forced migration, and partition. The analytical framework is further informed by case studies of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Nagorno-Karabakh, two cases that represent opposing perceptions of repatriation as a condition for peace.

    I adopt a set-theoretic approach to test the peace-by-repatriation thesis. I describe in some detail how the key concepts of the analytical framework are operationalized. I select and code forty-three cases—terminated conflicts that caused large-scale displacement—and use fuzzy-set analysis to test the peace-by-repatriation thesis. The analysis shows that repatriation is not a necessary condition for sustainable peace. Instead, ending displacement—irrespective of how this is done—turns out to be an important condition for peace. This result is consistent across tests of different combinations of cases and tests using alternative operationalizations of key concepts.

    Taken together, the fuzzy-set analysis and the case studies suggest that the relationship between repatriation and peace will vary from case to case and that pre-war interethnic relations is one of the circumstances that affect that relationship.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Putting peace to the vote: Displaced persons and a future referendum on Nagorno-Karabakh2009In: Refugee Survey Quarterly, ISSN 1020-4067, E-ISSN 1471-695X, Vol. 28, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Refugee Repatriation as a Necessary Condition for Peace2007In: Globalization and Challenges to Building Peace, Anthen Press, London, Chicago and New Delhi , 2007Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Resilience Thinking for Peacebuilders2018In: International Journal of Peace Studies, ISSN 1085-7494, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of resilience is currently making its way into the field of peace and conflict studies, but it is a concept with different meanings and implications. The argument advanced in this paper is that in order to make the most of resilience thinking, the field should not conceive of resilience merely as the ability to bounce back to an original state after a disturbance, a conceptualization usually referred to as “engineering resilience.” Instead, it should engage with “ecological resilience,” which refers to the amount of disturbance that a system can absorb before being pushed across a threshold from one stable state to another. I also relate these different types of resilience to another distinction between specified resilience to anticipated disturbances and general resilience to unknown ones. Finally, I consider a few other implications of resilience thinking for research on peace and conflict.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Humdrum Use of Ultimate Authority: Defining and Analysing Chapter VII Resolutions2015In: Economic Sanctions / [ed] Michael P. Malloy, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 449-482Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Humdrum Use of Ultimate Authority: Defining and Analysing Chapter VII Resolutions2009In: Nordic Journal of International Law, ISSN 0902-7351, E-ISSN 1571-8107, Vol. 78, no 3, p. 309-342Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Humdrum Use of Ultimate Authority: The Increased Resort to Chapter VII by the UN Security Council in the post-Cold War Era2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vad jag läser2014In: Respons, no 5, p. 7-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Johansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Amer, Ramses
    From Condemnation to Legitimization of Outcome: The United Nations and the Use of Force in Inter-State Relations2009In: The Democratization Project: Opportunities and Challenges / [ed] Ashok Swain, Ramses Amer & Joakim Öjendal, London, New York and Delhi: Anthem Press , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Johansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Amer, Ramses
    Stockholm University, Center for Pacific Asia Studies (CPAS).
    The United Nations Security Council and the Enduring Challenge of the Use of Force in Inter-state Relations2009In: Rule of Law Promotion: Global Perspectives, Local Applications / [ed] Per Bergling, Jenny Ederlöf and Veronica L. Taylor, Umeå: Iustus , 2009, p. 91-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Security Council has, since the end of the Cold War, become a markedly more active player on the international stage. The number of resolutions adopted – in particular those adopted under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations – the number of peacekeeping missions, and the use of mandatory sanctions have all increased considerably. The Council has also broadened its view of security, and adopted several resolutions that deal with thematic issues rather than with specific conflicts. In this study, we raise the question of whether this increased activity has been accompanied by a corresponding increase in the effectiveness of the Council. To answer this we analyse how the Council has developed its reaction to the use of force in inter-state relations. Under the United Nations Charter, prohibition of the use of force, other than in self-defence, is one of the most fundamental rules, and responsibility for upholding it rests with the Security Council. We conclude that despite the increased level of activity on the part of the Council since the end of the Cold War, its ability to react consistently and authoritatively to violations of the prohibition of the use of force has not been strengthened.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Amer, Ramses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The United Nations Security Council and the Enduring Challenge of the Use of Force in Inter-state Relations2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Security Council has, after the end of the Cold War, become a markedly more active player on the international stage. The number of resolutions adopted – in particular resolutions adopted under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations – the number of peacekeeping missions, and the number of mandatory sanctions regimes have all increased considerably. The Council has also broadened its view of security, and adopted several resolutions that deal with thematic issues rather than with specific conflicts. In this paper, we raise the question of whether this increased activity has been accompanied by a corresponding increase in the effectiveness of the Council. We do this by analysing how the Council has developed its reaction to the use of force in inter-state relations. Throughout the existence of the United Nations, the prohibition of the use of force, other than in self-defence, has been one of the most fundamental rules that the Council is assigned the responsibility to uphold. We conclude that despite the increased level of activity on the part of the Council since the end of the Cold War, its ability to react consistently and authoritatively to violations of the prohibition of the use of force has not been strengthened.

  • 26. Wallensteen, Peter
    et al.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Security Council Decisions in Perspective2004In: The UN Security Council: from the Cold War to the 21st Century, Lynne Rienner, Boulder , 2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University; Croc Institute, University of Notre Dame.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Ontago.
    The UN security council: decisions and actions2016In: The UN security council in the twenty-first century / [ed] Sebastian von Einsiedel, David M. Malone & Bruno Stagno Ugarte, Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2016, p. 27-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The United Nations Security Council in state-based armed conflicts, 2003–122014In: SIPRI Yearbook: armaments, disarmament and international security, 2014, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 56-69Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 28 of 28
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