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  • 1. Adrian, L.
    et al.
    Svanes, C.
    Johannessen, A.
    Lodge, C.
    Bertelsen, R.
    Dratva, J.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gislason, T.
    Benedikstdottir, B.
    Holm, M.
    Jogi, R.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Norback, D.
    Omenaas, E.
    Real, F.
    Schlunssen, V
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Skorge, T.
    Timm, S.
    Wieslander, G.
    Janson, C.
    Dharmage, S.
    Early life parental exposure to cats and dogs reduces the risk of allergic disease in their children: possible intergenerational effect2014Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 69, nr Supplement: 99, s. 577-578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Heavy vehicle traffic is related to wheeze among schoolchildren: a population-based study in an area with low traffic flows2011Ingår i: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 10, nr 91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An association between traffic air pollution and respiratory symptoms among children has been reported. However, the effects of traffic air pollution on asthma and wheeze have been very sparsely studied in areas with low traffic intensity in cold climate with poor dispersion. We evaluated the impact of vehicle traffic on childhood asthma and wheeze by objective exposure assessment.

    Methods: As a part of the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a questionnaire was sent to the families of all children attending first or second grade in Luleå (72,000 inhabitants) in Northern Sweden in 2006. The age of the children was 7-8 years and the participation rate was 98% (n = 1357). Skin prick tests were performed in 1224 (89%) children. The home addresses were given geographical coordinates and traffic counts were obtained from the local traffic authorities. A proximity model of average daily traffic and average daily heavy vehicle traffic within 200 meters from each participant's home address was used. The associations between traffic exposure and asthma and wheeze, respectively, were analysed in an adjusted multiple logistic regression model.

    Results: Exposure to high traffic flows was uncommon in the study area; only 15% of the children lived within 200 meters from a road with a traffic flow of ≥8000 vehicles per day. Living closer than 200 meters from a road with ≥500 heavy vehicles daily was associated with current wheeze, odds ratio 1.7 (confidence interval 1.0-2.7). A dose-response relation was indicated. An increased risk of asthma was also seen, however not significant, odds ratio 1.5 (confidence interval 0.8-2.9). Stratified analyses revealed that the effect of traffic exposure was restricted to the non-sensitized phenotype of asthma and wheeze. The agreement between self-reported traffic exposure and objective measurements of exposure was moderate.

    Conclusions: This study showed that already at low levels of exposure, vehicle traffic is related to an increased risk of wheeze among children. Thus, the global burden of traffic air pollution may be underestimated.

  • 3. Beelen, Rob
    et al.
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Fischer, Paul
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Vineis, Paolo
    Xun, Wei W
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Havulinna, Aki S
    Lanki, Timo
    Turunen, Anu
    Oftedal, Bente
    Nystad, Wenche
    Nafstad, Per
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Ostenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Penell, Johanna
    Korek, Michal
    Pershagen, Göran
    Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup
    Overvad, Kim
    Ellermann, Thomas
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Peeters, Petra H
    Meliefste, Kees
    Wang, Meng
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Sugiri, Dorothea
    Krämer, Ursula
    Heinrich, Joachim
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Key, Timothy
    Peters, Annette
    Hampel, Regina
    Concin, Hans
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ineichen, Alex
    Schaffner, Emmanuel
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Künzli, Nino
    Schindler, Christian
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Adam, Martin
    Phuleria, Harish
    Vilier, Alice
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Declercq, Christophe
    Grioni, Sara
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Galassi, Claudia
    Migliore, Enrica
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Tamayo, Ibon
    Amiano, Pilar
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Katsoulis, Michail
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project2014Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 383, nr 9919, s. 785-795Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air pollutants.

    METHODS: We used data from 22 European cohort studies, which created a total study population of 367 251 participants. All cohorts were general population samples, although some were restricted to one sex only. With a strictly standardised protocol, we assessed residential exposure to air pollutants as annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with diameters of less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5), less than 10 μm (PM10), and between 10 μm and 2·5 μm (PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, and annual average concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx), with land use regression models. We also investigated two traffic intensity variables-traffic intensity on the nearest road (vehicles per day) and total traffic load on all major roads within a 100 m buffer. We did cohort-specific statistical analyses using confounder models with increasing adjustment for confounder variables, and Cox proportional hazards models with a common protocol. We obtained pooled effect estimates through a random-effects meta-analysis.

    FINDINGS: The total study population consisted of 367 251 participants who contributed 5 118 039 person-years at risk (average follow-up 13·9 years), of whom 29 076 died from a natural cause during follow-up. A significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) for PM2·5 of 1·07 (95% CI 1·02-1·13) per 5 μg/m(3) was recorded. No heterogeneity was noted between individual cohort effect estimates (I(2) p value=0·95). HRs for PM2·5 remained significantly raised even when we included only participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the European annual mean limit value of 25 μg/m(3) (HR 1·06, 95% CI 1·00-1·12) or below 20 μg/m(3) (1·07, 1·01-1·13).

    INTERPRETATION: Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution was associated with natural-cause mortality, even within concentration ranges well below the present European annual mean limit value.

    FUNDING: European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2011).

  • 4.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Univ Iceland, Engn & Nat Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland; Univ Gothenburg, Inst Med, Sect Occupat & Environm Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med,Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bäck, E.
    Eneroth, K.
    Gislason, T.
    Holm, M.
    Janson, C.
    Jensen, S. S.
    Johannessen, A.
    Kaasik, M.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Segersson, D.
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Olsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Univ Tartu, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth, Tartu, Estonia.
    Indicators of residential traffic exposure: Modelled NOX, traffic proximity, and self-reported exposure in RHINE III2017Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, Vol. 167, s. 416-425Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have investigated associations between self-reported and modelled exposure to traffic pollution. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between self-reported traffic exposure and modelled (a) NOx and (b) traffic proximity in seven different northern European cities; Aarhus (Denmark), Bergen (Norway), Gothenburg, Ulna and Uppsala (Sweden), Reykjavik (Iceland), and Tartu (Estonia). We analysed data from the RHINE III (Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, www.rhine.nu) cohorts of the seven study cities. Traffic proximity (distance to the nearest road with >10,000 vehicles per day) was calculated and vehicle exhaust (NOx) was modelled using dispersion models and land-use regression (LUR) data from 2011. Participants were asked a question about self-reported traffic intensity near bedroom window and another about traffic noise exposure at the residence. The data were analysed using rank correlation (Kendall's tau) and inter-rater agreement (Cohen's Kappa) between tertiles of modelled NOx and traffic proximity tertile and traffic proximity categories (0-150 metres (m), 150 -200 m, >300 m) in each centre. Data on variables of interest were available for 50-99% of study participants per each cohort. Mean modelled NOx levels were between 6.5 and 16.0 mu g/m(3); median traffic intensity was between 303 and 10,750 m in each centre. In each centre, 7.7-18.7% of respondents reported exposure to high traffic intensity and 3.6-16.3% of respondents reported high exposure to traffic noise. Self-reported residential traffic exposure had low or no correlation with modelled exposure and traffic proximity in all centres, although results were statistically significant (tau = 0.057-0.305). Self reported residential traffic noise correlated weakly (tau = 0.090-0.255), with modelled exposure in all centres except Reykjavik. Modelled NOx\] had the highest correlations between self-reported and modelled traffic exposure in five of seven centres, traffic noise exposure had the highest correlation with traffic proximity in tertiles in three centres. Self-reported exposure to high traffic intensity and traffic noise at each participant's residence had low or weak although statistically significant correlations with modelled vehicle exhaust pollution levels and traffic proximity.

  • 5.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Levinsson, Anna
    Kim, Jeong-Lim
    Toren, Kjell
    Nyberg, Fredrik
    Olin, Anna-Carin
    Exposure to traffic and lung function in adults: a general population cohort study2015Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, nr 6, artikel-id e007624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the association between living near dense traffic and lung function in a cohort of adults from a single urban region. Design: Cross-sectional results from a cohort study. Setting: The adult-onset asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (ADONIX) cohort, sampled during 2001-2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Exposure was expressed as the distance from participants' residential address to the nearest road with dense traffic (>10 000 vehicles per day) or very dense traffic (>30 000 vehicles per day). The exposure categories were: low (>500 m; reference), medium (75-500 m) or high (<75 m). Participants: The source population was a population-based cohort of adults (n=6153). The study population included 5441 participants of European descent with good quality spirometry and information about all outcomes and covariates. Outcome measures: Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were measured at a clinical examination. The association with exposure was examined using linear regression adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status and education in all participants and stratified by sex, smoking status and respiratory health status. Results: We identified a significant dose-response trend between exposure category and FEV1 (p=0.03) and borderline significant trend for FVC (p=0.06) after adjusting for covariates. High exposure was associated with lower FEV1 (-1.0%, 95% CI -2.5% to 0.5%) and lower FVC (-0.9%, 95% CI -2.2% to 0.4%). The effect appeared to be stronger in women. In highly exposed individuals with current asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FVC was lower (-4.5%, 95% CI -8.8% to -0.1%). Conclusions: High traffic exposure at the residential address was associated with lower than predicted FEV1 and FVC lung function compared with living further away in a large general population cohort. There were particular effects on women and individuals with obstructive disease.

  • 6. Chen, Chih-Mei
    et al.
    Thiering, Elisabeth
    Zock, Jan-Paul
    Villani, Simona
    Olivieri, Mario
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Norbaeck, Dan
    Verlato, Giuseppe
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Is There a Threshold Concentration of Cat Allergen Exposure on Respiratory Symptoms in Adults?2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 6, artikel-id e0127457Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective Cat allergen concentrations higher than 8 mu g/g in settled house dust, have been suggested to provoke exacerbation of allergic respiratory symptoms. However, whether the 8 mu g/g of indoor cat allergen concentration is indeed the minimal exposure required for triggering the asthma related respiratory symptoms or the development of sensitization has not yet been confirmed. We studied the associations between domestic cat allergen concentrations and allergic symptoms in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II, with the aim of confirming this suggested threshold. Methods Cat allergen concentrations were measured in the mattress dust of 3003 participants from 22 study centres. Levels of specific immunoglobulin E to cat allergens were measured in serum samples using an immunoassay. Information on allergic symptoms, medication use, home environment and smoking was obtained from a face-to-face interview. Results Domestic cat allergen concentrations were not associated with allergic/asthmatic symptoms in the entire study population, nor in the subset sensitized to cat allergen. We also found no association among individuals exposed to concentrations higher than 8 mu g/g. However, exposure to medium cat allergen concentrations (0.24-0.63 mu g/g) was positively associated with reported asthmatic respiratory symptoms in subjects who have experienced allergic symptoms when near animals. Conclusions The proposed 8 mu g/g threshold of cat allergen concentrations for the exacerbation of allergic/respiratory symptoms was not confirmed in a general European adult population. Potential biases attributable to avoidance behaviours and an imprecise exposure assessment cannot be excluded.

  • 7. Cyrys, Josef
    et al.
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Ampe, Christophe
    Armengaud, Alexandre
    Beelen, Rob
    Bellander, Tom
    Beregszaszi, Timea
    Birk, Matthias
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Cirach, Marta
    de Hoogh, Kees
    De Nazelle, Audrey
    de Vocht, Frank
    Declercq, Christophe
    Dėdelė, Audrius
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Eriksen, Kirsten
    Galassi, Claudia
    Gra˛ulevičienėo, Regina
    Grivas, Georgios
    Gruzieva, Olena
    Hagenbjörk Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Iakovides, Minas
    Ineichen, Alex
    Krämer, Ursula
    Lanki, Timo
    Lozano, Patricia
    Madsena, Christian
    Meliefste, Kees
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Mölter, Anna
    Mosler, Gioia
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Nonnemachera, Michael
    Oldenwening, Marieke
    Peters, Annette
    Ponteta, Sabrina
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Quassa, Ulrich
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Ranzia, Andrea
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Stephanou, Euripides G.
    Taimisto, Pekka
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Vaskövi, Éva
    Villania, Simona
    Wang, Meng
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study2012Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 62, s. 374-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe.

    In all study areas NO2 and NOx were measured using standardized methods between October 2008 and April 2011. On average, 41 sites were selected per study area, including regional and urban background as well as street sites. The measurements were conducted in three different seasons, using Ogawa badges. Average concentrations for each site were calculated after adjustment for temporal variation using data obtained from a routine monitor background site.

    Substantial spatial variability was found in NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within study areas; 40% of the overall NO2 variance was attributable to the variability between study areas and 60% to variability within study areas. The corresponding values for NOx were 30% and 70%. The within-area spatial variability was mostly determined by differences between street and urban background concentrations. The street/urban background concentration ratio for NO2 varied between 1.09 and 3.16 across areas. The highest median concentrations were observed in Southern Europe, the lowest in Northern Europe.

    In conclusion, we found significant contrasts in annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations between and especially within 36 study areas across Europe. Epidemiological long-term studies should therefore consider different approaches for better characterization of the intra-urban contrasts, either by increasing of the number of monitors or by modelling.

  • 8. Dahgam, Santosh
    et al.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Naluai, Asa Torinsson
    Olin, Anna-Carin
    Nyberg, Fredrik
    Haplotypes of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene are strongly associated with exhaled nitric oxide levels in adults: a population-based study2014Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics, ISSN 0022-2593, E-ISSN 1468-6244, Vol. 51, nr 7, s. 449-454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Previous genetic association studies have reported evidence for association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NOS2 gene, encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), to variation in levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in children and adults. In this study, we evaluated 10 SNPs in the region of chromosome 17 from 26.07Mb to 26.13Mb to further understand the contribution of NOS2 to variation in levels of FENO. Methods In a cohort of 5912 adults 25-75years of age, we investigated the relationship between NOS2 haplotypes and FENO, and effect modification by asthma. Results Seven common (frequency 5%) haplotypes (H1-H7) were inferred from all possible haplotype combinations. One haplotype (H3) was significantly associated with lower levels of FENO: -5.8% (95% CI -9.8 to -1.7; p=0.006) compared with the most common baseline haplotype H1. Two haplotypes (H5 and H6) were significantly associated with higher levels of FENO: +10.7% (95% CI 5.0 to 16.7; p=0.0002) and +14.9% (95% CI 10.6 to 19.3; p=7.8x10(-13)), respectively. The effect of haplotype H3 was mainly seen in subjects with asthma (-21.6% (95% CI -33.5 to -5.9)) and was not significant in subjects without asthma (-4.2% (95% CI -8.4 to 0.2)). The p value for interaction between H3 and asthma status was 0.004. Conclusions Our findings suggest that several common haplotypes in the NOS2 gene contribute to variation in FENO in adults. We also saw some evidence of effect modification by asthma status on haplotype H3.

  • 9. Dahgam, Santosh
    et al.
    Nyberg, Fredrik
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Naluai, Åsa Torinsson
    Olin, Anna-Carin
    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NOS2 and NOS3 genes are associated with exhaled nitric oxide2012Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics, ISSN 0022-2593, E-ISSN 1468-6244, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 200-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase genes (NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3) have been suggested to have a major impact on fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), a biomarker of airway inflammation. However, the genetic contribution of NOS polymorphisms to FENO is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate comprehensively the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all three NOS genes and FENO in an adult population, and to assess whether such associations are modified by asthma or atopy.

    Method In 1737 adults from a Swedish general population sample, FENO was measured and genetic variation in the NOS genes was assessed using 49 SNPs. The genetic effect of NOS polymorphisms on FENO, asthma, and atopy was estimated using multiple regression methods.

    Results In a multi-SNP model based on stepwise regression analysis, two SNPs in NOS2 and one in NOS3 showed independent associations with levels of FENO. For NOS2 SNP rs9901734, subjects had 5.3% (95% CI 1.0% to 9.7%) higher levels of FENO per G allele, and for rs3729508, subjects with CC or CT genotypes had 9.4% (95% CI 3.1% to 15.2%) higher levels compared with TT. For NOS3 SNP rs7830, subjects with GT or TT had 5.6% (95% CI 0.4% to 11.1%) higher levels than GG; the genetic effect of this SNP was stronger in asthmatics (21.9%, 95% CI 4.6% to 42.0%).

    Conclusion These results suggest that NOS2 is the major NOS gene determining variability in exhaled nitric oxide in the healthy adult population, while NOS3 may play a more important role in asthmatic adults.

  • 10. de Hoogh, Kees
    et al.
    Korek, Michal
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Keuken, Menno
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Beelen, Rob
    Bolignano, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Pradas, Marta Cirach
    Cyrys, Josef
    Douros, John
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Fuks, Kateryna
    Gehring, Ulrike
    Gryparis, Alexandros
    Gulliver, John
    Hansell, Anna L
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Johansson, Christer
    Jonkers, Sander
    Kangas, Leena
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Künzli, Nino
    Lanki, Timo
    Memmesheimer, Michael
    Moussiopoulos, Nicolas
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Pershagen, Göran
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Schindler, Christian
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Teixidó, Oriol
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Bellander, Tom
    Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies2014Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, s. 382-392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models (DM) are commonly used for estimating individual air pollution exposure in population studies. Few comparisons have however been made of the performance of these methods.

    OBJECTIVES: Within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we explored the differences between LUR and DM estimates for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5.

    METHODS: The ESCAPE study developed LUR models for outdoor air pollution levels based on a harmonised monitoring campaign. In thirteen ESCAPE study areas we further applied dispersion models. We compared LUR and DM estimates at the residential addresses of participants in 13 cohorts for NO2; 7 for PM10 and 4 for PM2.5. Additionally, we compared the DM estimates with measured concentrations at the 20-40 ESCAPE monitoring sites in each area.

    RESULTS: The median Pearson R (range) correlation coefficients between LUR and DM estimates for the annual average concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.75 (0.19-0.89), 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.29 (0.22-0.81) for 112,971 (13 study areas), 69,591 (7) and 28,519 (4) addresses respectively. The median Pearson R correlation coefficients (range) between DM estimates and ESCAPE measurements were of 0.74 (0.09-0.86) for NO2; 0.58 (0.36-0.88) for PM10 and 0.58 (0.39-0.66) for PM2.5.

    CONCLUSIONS: LUR and dispersion model estimates correlated on average well for NO2 but only moderately for PM10 and PM2.5, with large variability across areas. DM predicted a moderate to large proportion of the measured variation for NO2 but less for PM10 and PM2.5.

  • 11. Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    et al.
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Beelen, Rob
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Fischer, Paul
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Vineis, Paolo
    Xun, Wei
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Jousilahti, Pekka
    Lanki, Timo
    Turunen, Anu
    Oftedal, Bente
    Nafstad, Per
    Schwarze, Per E
    Penell, Johanna
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Andersson, Niklas
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Korek, Michal
    De Faire, Ulf
    Thorup Eriksen, Kirsten
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Becker, Thomas
    Wang, Meng
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Peeters, Petra H
    Meliefste, Kees
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Krämer, Ursula
    Kuhlbusch, Thomas Aj
    Vossoughi, Mohammad
    Key, Timothy
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Hampel, Regina
    Peters, Annette
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Concin, Hans
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ineichen, Alex
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Vilier, Alice
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Pedeli, Xanthi
    Katsoulis, Michalis
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Air Pollution and Non-Malignant Respiratory Mortality in 16 Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project2014Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 189, nr 6, s. 684-696Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale: Prospective cohort studies have shown that chronic exposure to particulate matter and traffic related air pollution is associated with reduced survival. However, the effects on non-malignant respiratory mortality are less studied and those reported are less consistent.

    Objectives: We have investigated the relationship of long-term exposure to air pollution and non-malignant respiratory mortality in 16 cohorts with individual level data within the multi center European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).

    Methods: Data from 16 ongoing cohort studies from Europe were used. The total number of subjects was 307,553. There were 1,559 respiratory deaths during follow-up.

    Measurements: Air pollution exposure was estimated by land use regression models at the baseline residential addresses of study participants and traffic-proximity variables were derived from geographical databases, following a standardized procedure within ESCAPE study. Cohort-specific hazard ratios obtained by Cox proportional hazard models from standardized individual cohort analyses were combined using meta-analyses. Main Results: We found no significant associations between air pollution exposure and non-malignant respiratory mortality. Most hazard ratios were slightly below unity, with the exception of the traffic-proximity indicators.

    Conclusions: In this study of 16 cohorts there was no association between air pollution exposure and non malignant respiratory mortality.

  • 12. Forsberg, Bertil
    et al.
    Modig, Lars
    Segerstedt, Bo
    Hälsokonsekvenser av partikulära luftföroreningar i 26 europeiska städer Svenska resultat från APHEIS 32004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm och Göteborg ingår som svenska städer bland de 26 europeiska städer som ingår i APHEIS. Beräkningarna inom APHEIS 3 visar att en sänkning av den urbana bakgrundshalten av partiklar med 5 mikrogram per kubikmeter mätt som PM10 (eller 3,5 ?g/m3 av dess finare fraktion PM2.5) på sikt bedöms minska antalet dödsfall med ungefär 2 %. Detta innebär per år cirka 80 dödsfall färre i Göteborg och cirka 220 i Stockholm. Mer än ¾ av dessa för tidiga dödsfall sker i hjärt-och lungsjukdomar, medan lungcancer svarar för en liten andel. Drygt ¼ av de tidigarelagda dödsfallen bedöms vara relaterade till partikelhalten under de senaste 40 dygnen, och skulle därför kunna påverkas tämligen omgående om partikelhalten minskades. Ungefär vart 7:e av dessa dödsfall beror av halten samma dag eller dagen innan. Tre fjärdedelar av dödsfallen som är tidigarelagda på grund av luften, tycks dock sammanhänga med längre tids exponering och kan huvudsakligen påverkas först på många års sikt. Luftföroreningarna får naturligtvis olika personers hälsa och livslängd att påverkas mer eller mindre, men de förtida dödsfall i Stockholm och Göteborg som skulle undvikas med 5 ?g/m3 lägre långtidshalt av PM10 (eller 3,5 ?g/m3 av PM2.5) beräknas motsvara en livslängdsförlust med i genomsnitt cirka 2,5 månader för städernas invånare. En haltminskning av diskuterad storlek kan åstadkommas såväl genom minskade utsläpp i vår omvärld, som genom lokala åtgärder mot främst trafikens avgaser, slitagepartiklar och damm. Storleken på de förväntade hälsovinsterna beror troligtvis även på hur partikelhalten minskas. Det är sannolikt så att en sänkt halt av avgaspartiklar har större betydelse räknat per ?g/m3 än en sänkt halt på grund av andra källor. Det finns även andra luftföroreningar i städerna som är av betydelse bl.a. för dödligheten och som inte täcks av dessa beräkningar baserade på den urbana bakgrundshalten av PM10 och PM2.5. Inom APHEIS har även beräknats hur antalet akuta inläggningar på sjukhus skulle minska med sänkta partikelhalter. Dessa beräkningar har klara begränsningar. Här finns kunskap bara om hur antalet vårdfall beror av halterna de senaste två dagarna, vilket troligen leder till en stor underskattning av hur luftföroreningarna totalt påverkar antalet fall. Dessutom har de faktiska analyserna inom APHEIS 3 visat att den genomsnittliga effekt som partikelhalten i konsekvensberäkningarna för alla 26 städer antas ha på inläggningar för andningsorganens sjukdomar är mycket lägre än den verkliga effekt vi nu funnit i Stockholm och Göteborg. Detta är sannolikt inte ett slumpbetingat resultat, utan kan motivera att vi antar starkare effekter per haltökning vid beräkningar för svenska städer. Förklaringen kan finnas i såväl befolkningens känslighet och möjlighet att få vård, som i partiklarnas sammansättning och toxiska egenskaper.

  • 13.
    Hagenbjörk, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Malmqvist, E
    Mattisson, K
    Sommar, Nilsson J.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    The spatial variation of O3, NO, NO2 and NOx and the relation between them in two Swedish cities2017Ingår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 189, nr 4, artikel-id UNSP 161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozone and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are air pollutants with known associations to adverse health effects on humans. Few studies have simultaneously measured ozone and nitrogen oxides with high spatial resolution. The main aim of this paper was to assess the levels and variation of ground-level ozone, NO2 and NO x in two Swedish cities. An additional aim was to describe the levels of these pollutants within and between three different types of measurement sites (regional background, urban background and traffic sites) and within and between different measurement periods of the year. Three weekly sampling campaigns of NO x and ozone were conducted simultaneously at 20 sites in two Swedish regions using Ogawa badges. Ozone was measured at 20 additional sites in each area. The median ozone concentration for all measurements was statistically significantly higher in Malmö (67 μg/m(3)) compared to Umeå (56 μg/m(3)), and in both cities, ozone levels were highest in April. Measurement period was a more important factor for describing the variation in ozone concentrations than the type of measurement site. The levels of NO2 and NO x were statistically significantly higher in the Malmö area (8.1 and 12 μg/m(3)) compared to the Umeå area (4.5 and 8.9 μg/m(3)). The levels were generally highest at the sites categorized as traffic, while the variability between different seasons was sparse.

  • 14.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustavsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hälsorelaterad miljöövervakning. Cancerframkallande ämnen i tätortsluft: personlig exponering och bakgrundsmätningar i Umeå 20132014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen kartlägger allmänbefolkningens exponering via luften för vissa cancerframkallande ämnen (bensen, 1,3-butadien, formaldehyd) och kvävedioxid. Undersökningen genomfördes i centrala Umeå under hösten 2013, och inkluderade totalt 40 slumpvis utvalda personer i åldrarna 20-50 år.

    Mätningarna upprepades på 20 personer. Utöver de personburna mätningarna genomfördes även stationära mätningar på två platser utomhus, samt för partiklar även inomhus hos 20 deltagare. Deltagarfrekvensen var 66% och medelåldern var 35 år. Den personliga medianhalten för bensen och 1,3-butadien var 1,4 μg/m3 respektive 0,2 μg/m3 vilket är något lägre än halterna år 2001. Bensenhalten överskrider lågrisknivån (1,3 μg/m3), medan halten 1,3-butadien ligger i nedre kanten av lågriskintervallet. Det fanns en signifikant korrelation mellan den personliga exponeringen för bensen och 1,3-butadien (rs=0.50, p=<0.01). Medianhalten för formaldehyd var 12 μg/m3, och halterna var högre bland de som bodde i villa jämfört med lägenhet. Medianhalten kvävedioxid var 12 μg/m3. PM2.5 mättes utomhus i urban bakgrund samt hemma hos deltagare under två dygn. Medianvärdet för inomhusmätningarna av PM2.5 var högre än motsvarande halt vid mätningarna 2007 (1,9 μg/m3). PM2,5 filtren analyserades även på sitt innehåll av polycykliska kolväten och halterna inomhus var lägre jämfört med halterna utomhus, och var klart lägre än den fastställda lågrisknivån.

  • 15. Hazenkamp-Von Arx, M.E.
    et al.
    Gotschi, T.
    Ackermann-Liebrich, U.
    Bono, R.
    Burney, P.
    Cyrys, J.
    Jarvis, D.
    Lillienberg, L.
    Luczynska, C.
    Maldonado, J.A.
    Jaen, A.
    De Marco, R.
    Mi, Y.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bayer-Oglesby, L.
    Payo, F
    Soon, A.
    Sunyer, J.
    Villani, S.
    Weyler, J.
    Kunzli, N.
    PM2.5 and NO2 assessment in 21 European study centres of ECRHS II: annual means and seasonal differences2004Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 38, nr 13, s. 1943-1953Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The follow-up of cohorts of adults from more than 20 European centres of the former ECRHS I (1989-1992) investigates long-term effects of exposure to ambient air pollution on respiratory health, in particular asthma and change of pulmonary function. Since PM2.5 is not routinely monitored in Europe, we measured PM2.5 concentrations in 21 participating centres to estimate 'background' exposure in these cities. Winter (November-February), summer (May-August) and annual mean (all months) values of PM2.5 were determined from measuring periods between June 2000 and November 2001. Sampling was conducted for 7 days per month for a year. Annual and winter mean concentrations of PM2.5 vary substantially being lowest in Iceland and highest in centres in Northern Italy. Annual mean concentrations ranged from 3.7 to 44.9 mug m(-3), winter mean concentrations from 4.8 to 69.2 mug m(-3), and summer mean concentrations from 3.3 to 23.1 mugm(-3). Seasonal variability occurred but did not follow the same pattern across all centres. Therefore, ranking of centres varied from summer to winter. Simultaneously, NO2 concentrations were measured using passive sampling tubes. Annual mean NO2 concentrations range from 4.9 to 72.1 mug m(-3) with similar seasonal variations across centres and constant ranking of centres between seasons. The correlation between annual NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations is fair (Spearman correlation coefficient r(s) = 0.75), but when considered as monthly means the correlation is far less consistent and varies substantially between centres. The range of PM2.5 mass concentrations obtained in ECRHS II is larger than in other current cohort studies on long-term effects of air pollution. This substantial variation in PM2.5 exposure will improve statistical power in future multilevel health analyses and to some degree may compensate for the lack of information on within-city variability. Seasonal means may be used to indicate potential differences in the toxicity across the year. Across ECRHS cities annual NO2 might serve as a surrogate for PM2.5, especially for past exposure assessment, when PM2.5 is not available.

  • 16. Jacquemin, Benedicte
    et al.
    Siroux, Valerie
    Sanchez, Margaux
    Carsin, Anne-Elie
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Adam, Martin
    Bellisario, Valeria
    Buschka, Anna
    Bono, Roberto
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Cai, Yutong
    Cirach, Marta
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Declercq, Christophe
    de Marco, Roberto
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Ducret-Stich, Regina E.
    Ferretti, Virginia Valeria
    Gerbase, Margaret W.
    Hardy, Rebecca
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Janson, Christer
    Jarvis, Deborah
    al Kanaani, Zaina
    Keidel, Dirk
    Kuh, Diana
    Le Moual, Nicole
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Pin, Isabelle
    Rochat, Thierry
    Schindler, Christian
    Sugiri, Dorothea
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Temam, Sofia
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Varraso, Raphaelle
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Vierkoetter, Andrea
    Hansell, Anna L.
    Kraemer, Ursula
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Kauffmann, Francine
    Ambient Air Pollution and Adult Asthma Incidence in Six European horts ESCAPE)2015Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 123, nr 6, s. 613-621Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Short-term exposure to air pollution has adverse effects among patients with asthma, but whether long-term exposure to air pollution is a cause of adult-onset asthma is unclear. Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between air pollution and adult onset asthma. Methods: Asthma incidence was prospectively assessed in six European cohorts. Exposures studied were annual average concentrations at home addresses for nitrogen oxides assessed for 23,704 participants (including 1,257 incident cases) and particulate matter (PM) assessed for 17,909 participants through ESCAPE land-use regression models and traffic exposure indicators. Meta-analyses of cohort-specific logistic regression on asthma incidence were performed. Models were adjusted for age, sex, overweight, education, and smoking and included city/area within each cohort as a random effect. Results: In this longitudinal analysis, asthma incidence was positively, but not significantly, associated with all exposure metrics, except for PMcoarse. Positive associations of borderline significance were observed for nitrogen dioxide [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.21 per 10 μg/m3; p = 0.10] and nitrogen oxides (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.08 per 20 μg/m3; p = 0.08). Nonsignificant positive associations were estimated for PM10 (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23 per 10 μg/m3), PM2.5 (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23 per 5 μg/m3), PM2.5absorbance (adjusted OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.19 per 10–5/m), traffic load (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30 per 4 million vehicles × meters/day on major roads in a 100-m buffer), and traffic intensity (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30 per 5,000 vehicles/day on the nearest road). A nonsignificant negative association was estimated for PMcoarse (adjusted OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.14 per 5 μg/m3). Conclusions: Results suggest a deleterious effect of ambient air pollution on asthma incidence in adults. Further research with improved personal-level exposure assessment (vs. residential exposure assessment only) and phenotypic characterization is needed.

  • 17. Levinsson, Anna
    et al.
    Olin, Anna-Carin
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Dahgam, Santosh
    Björck, Lena
    Rosengren, Annika
    Nyberg, Fredrik
    Interaction effects of long-term air pollution exposure and variants in the GSTP1, GSTT1 and GSTCD genes on risk of acute myocardial infarction and hypertension: a case-control study2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. e99043-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Experimental and epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure, in particular related to vehicle exhaust, and cardiovascular disease. A potential pathophysiological pathway is pollution-induced pulmonary oxidative stress, with secondary systemic inflammation. Genetic polymorphisms in genes implicated in oxidative stress, such as GSTP1, GSTT1 and GSTCD, may contribute to determining individual susceptibility to air pollution as a promoter of coronary vulnerability.

    AIMS: We aimed to investigate effects of long-term traffic-related air pollution exposure, as well as variants in GSTP1, GSTT1 and GSTCD, on risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and hypertension. In addition, we studied whether air pollution effects were modified by the investigated genetic variants.

    METHODS: Genotype data at 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GSTP1 gene, and one in each of the GSTT1 and GSTCD genes, as well as air pollution exposure estimates, were available for 119 AMI cases and 1310 randomly selected population controls. Population control individuals with systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or on daily antihypertensive medication were defined as hypertensive (n = 468). Individual air pollution exposure levels were modeled as annual means of NO₂ (marker of vehicle exhaust pollutants) using central monitoring data and dispersion models, linking to participants' home addresses.

    RESULTS: Air pollution was significantly associated with risk of AMI: OR 1.78 (95%CI 1.04-3.03) per 10 µg/m³ of long-term NO₂ exposure. Three GSTP1 SNPs were significantly associated with hypertension. The effect of air pollution on risk of AMI varied by genotype strata, although the suggested interaction was not significant. We saw no obvious interaction between genetic variants in the GST genes and air pollution exposure for hypertension.

    CONCLUSION: Air pollution exposure entails an increased risk of AMI, and this risk differed over genotype strata for variants in the GSTP1, GSTT1 and GSTCD genes, albeit not statistically-significantly.

  • 18.
    Malmqvist, E.
    et al.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Mattisson, K.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Stroh, E.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Rylander, L.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Hoek, G.
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Tinnerberg, H.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Assessing ozone exposure for epidemiological studies in Malmö and Umeå, Sweden2014Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 94, s. 241-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground level ozone [ozone] is considered a harmful air pollutant but there is a knowledge gap regarding its long term health effects. The main aim of this study is to develop local Land Use Regression [LUR] models that can be used to study long term health effects of ozone. The specific aim is to develop spatial LUR models for two Swedish cities, Umea and Malmo, as well as a temporal model for Malmo in order to assess ozone exposure for long term epidemiological studies. For the spatial model we measured ozone, using Ogawa passive samplers, as weekly averages at 40 sites in each study area, during three seasons. This data was then inserted in the LUR-model with data on traffic, land use, population density and altitude to develop explanatory models of ozone variation. To develop the temporal model for Malmo, hourly ozone data was aggregated into daily means for two measurement stations in Malmo and one in a rural area outside Malmo. Using regression analyses we inserted meteorological variables into different temporal models and the one that performed best for all three stations was chosen. For Malmo the LUR-model had an adjusted model R-2 of 0.40 and cross validation R-2 of 0.17. For Umea the model had an adjusted model R-2 of 0.67 and cross validation adjusted R-2 of 0.48. When restricting the model to only including measuring sites from urban areas, the Malmo model had adjusted model R-2 of 0.51 (cross validation adjusted R-2 0.33) and the Umea model had adjusted model R-2 of 0.81 (validation adjusted R-2 of 0.73). The temporal model had adjusted model R-2 0.54 and 0.61 for the two Malmo sites, the cross validation adjusted R-2 was 0.42. In conclusion, we can with moderate accuracy, at least for Umea, predict the spatial variability, and in Malmo the temporal variability in ozone variation. 

  • 19.
    Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Dahgam, Santosh
    Olsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nyberg, Fredrik
    Wass, Kristina
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Olin, Anna-Carin
    Short-Term Exposure to Ozone and Levels of Exhaled Nitric Oxide2014Ingår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 79-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adverse effects of air pollution include respiratory inflammation. A few epidemiologic studies have shown elevations in the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, a marker of airway inflammation, after exposure to traffic-related pollutants. Methods: We examined whether short-term exposures to ozone (O-3), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), or particulate matter <10 m (PM10) were associated with proximal and distal airway inflammation. The study included 5841 randomly selected Swedish adults from 25 to 75 years of age. Fraction of exhaled nitrogen was measured at two flow rates: 50 ml/s representing the proximal airways and 270 ml/s representing the distal airways. Air pollution data were obtained from an urban monitoring site. We applied linear regression to estimate short-term associations of O-3, NOx, and PM10 with fractions of exhaled NO at 50 and 270 ml/s. Results: An interquartile range increase in 120-hour average O-3 levels was associated with a 5.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.7% to 8.5%) higher level of fraction of exhaled NO at 270 ml/s and 3.6% (-0.4% to 3.4%) higher level of the fraction of exhaled NO at 50 ml/s. For NOx, a small effect was seen for the 24-hour average on the fraction of exhaled NO at 270 ml/s, while for PM10 no clear effects were seen. There was a tendency for a weaker effect of ozone and a stronger effect of NOx in subjects with asthma. Conclusions: Exposure to O-3 was associated with a marker of distal airway inflammation, while the association was less obvious for inflammation of the proximal airways.

  • 20.
    Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Perceived annoyance and asthmatic symptoms in relation to vehicle exhaust levels outside home: a cross-sectional study2007Ingår i: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 6, s. 29-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exhaust emissions from vehicles is a well known problem with both epidemiological and experimental studies showing increasing adverse health effects with elevating levels. Many of the studies concerning vehicle exhausts and health are focused on health outcomes where the proportion attributed to exhaust is low, while there is less information on early and more frequent subjective indicators of adverse effects.

    METHODS: The primary aim of this study was to study perceived annoyance in relation to vehicle exhaust concentrations using modelled levels of nitrogen dioxide outside the home as an indicator with high spatial resolution. Almost 2800 persons in a random sample from three Swedish cities (Umea, Uppsala and Gothenburg) responded to our questionnaire. Questions were asked to determine the degree of annoyance related to vehicle exhausts and also the prevalence of irritating and asthmatic symptoms. Exposure was described for each participants home address by meteorological dispersion models with a 50 meter resolution.

    RESULTS: We found a significant increase of peoples' self-assessed annoyance with rising levels of NO2. The odds of being very annoyed by vehicle exhausts increased by 14% per 1 microg/m3 increase of the NO2 level (odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-1.18), and the odds of reporting the air as daily or almost daily irritating increased by 9% (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05-1.13). Also the odds of reporting asthmatic symptoms increased significantly with elevated NO2 levels (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07).

    CONCLUSION: This study found the degree of annoyance related to vehicle exhaust and irritating and asthmatic symptoms to be significantly dependent on the levels of traffic related pollutants outside the home. The detailed exposure assessment lowers the degree of misclassification as compared to between-city analyses, which makes the results more accurate and applicable on the local scale.

  • 21. Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Lindahl, Roger
    Rhén, Margaret
    Segerstedt, Bo
    Sundgren, Margit
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    Brorström-Lunden, Eva
    Cancerframkallande ämnen i tätortsluft Exponering och halter i Umeå 20012002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Exponeringen för ett antal cancerframkallande ämnen undersöktes i ett slumpmässigt urval av allmänbefolkningen i Umeå, 2001. Den huvudsakliga studien genomfördes från slutet av september till mitten av oktober som personburna 7-dygns mätningar på totalt 60 personer, medan några av mätningarna genomfördes i januari 2002. Parallellt med de personburna mätningarna genomfördes även mätningar vid två stationära platser i Umeå, bibliotekstaket och E4:an. Mätningarna omfattade bensen, 1,3-butadien, formaldehyd, acetaldehyd, PAH (polyaromatiska kolväten) samt kvävedioxid (NO2). Mätningarna genomfördes med passiva provtagare med undantag för PAH där provtagningen genomfördes med hjälp av en pump. Resultatet från de personburna provtagningarna av bensen gav medianvärdet 1,5 ?g/m3, vilket kan jämföras med resultatet från fjolårets studie i Göteborg (1?g/m3) och den av Institutet för miljömedicin (IMM) föreslagna lågrisknivån 1,3?g/m3. Exponeringen för bensen var signifikant associerad till tiden som deltagarna vistats inomhus, utomhus på arbetsplatsen, i rum med rökning samt om de var rökare. Det var marginell skillnad mellan medianhalten uppmätt vid E4:an och den personburna halten (1,6 ?g/m3 och 1,5 ?g/m3) medan halten på bibliotekstaket låg lägre (1,0 ?g/m3). Medianvärdet för butadien var 0,4 ?g/m3, vilket är samma som halten uppmätt vid E4:an men högre jämfört med halten på bibliotekstaket (0,12 ?g/m3). Det var signifikant skillnad mellan rökare och icke-rökare (p=0,007), och tid som tillbringats i rum med rökning var signifikant förknippat med ökad exponering för butadien. Mätningar genomfördes för både formaldehyd och acetaldehyd, dock redovisas enbart resultaten för formaldehyd på grund av problem med provtagningen av acetaldehyd. Bland mätningarna som genomfördes personburet var medianhalten formaldehyd 15 ?g/m3 vilket kan jämföras med resultaten från samma studie i Göteborg förra året (19 ?g/m3). Resultatet ligger inom det intervall som angivit som lågrisknivå (IMM, 12-60 ?g/m3). Halterna som uppmättes vid E4:an och Biblioteket var nästintill lika (3,5 ?g/m3 och 3,0 ?g/m3), dock var de betydligt lägre jämfört med den halt som uppmättes personburet. Bostadstyp (villa alt lägenhet), framstod som den enda variabeln som var signifikant associerad till den personburna halten formaldehyd. PAH-mätningarna genomfördes stationärt hemma hos 10 deltagare ur befolkningsurvalet, samt personburet och stationärt på 10 personer i anknytning till forskargruppen. Mediankoncentrationen av bens(a)pyren, mätt personburet, var 0,08 ng/m3 vilket är i nivå med resultaten från Göteborg. Halterna hemma hos personerna från befolkningsurvalet samt de med anknytning till kliniken var 0,17 respektive 0,07 ng/m3. De stationära utomhusmätningarna visade att halten vid E4:an var betydligt högre jämfört med halten på Bibliotekstaket (0,3 respektive 0,1 ng/m3). Kvävedioxid (NO2) mättes som ett lokalt tillägg i syfte att undersöka samband mellan NO2, som trafikindikator, och övriga ämnen. Median halten för mätningarna som gjordes personburet var 8 ?g/m3 medan resultaten från de stationära mätningarna var betydligt högre. NO2 uppvisade ingen signifikant korrelation till övriga ämnen mätta personburet. Vidare sågs inga samband till vistelse i specifika miljöer.

  • 22. Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Lindahl, Roger
    Rhén, Margaret
    Segerstedt, Bo
    Sundgren, Margit
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    Brorström-Lunden, Eva
    Cancerframkallande ämnentätortsluft - Umeå 20012002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Exponeringen för ett antal cancerframkallande ämnen undersöktes i ett slumpmässigturval av allmänbefolkningen i Umeå, 2001. Den huvudsakliga studien genomfördesfrån slutet av september till mitten av oktober som personburna 7-dygns mätningar påtotalt 60 personer, medan några av mätningarna genomfördes i januari 2002. Parallelltmed de personburna mätningarna genomfördes även mätningar vid två stationäraplatser i Umeå, bibliotekstaket och E4:an. Mätningarna omfattade bensen, 1,3-butadien, formaldehyd, acetaldehyd, PAH (polyaromatiska kolväten) samtkvävedioxid (NO2). Mätningarna genomfördes med passiva provtagare med undantagför PAH där provtagningen genomfördes med hjälp av en pump.Resultatet från de personburna provtagningarna av bensen gav medianvärdet1,5 ?g/m3, vilket kan jämföras med resultatet från fjolårets studie i Göteborg (1?g/m3)och den av Institutet för miljömedicin (IMM) föreslagna lågrisknivån 1,3?g/m3.Exponeringen för bensen var signifikant associerad till tiden som deltagarna vistatsinomhus, utomhus på arbetsplatsen, i rum med rökning samt om de var rökare. Detvar marginell skillnad mellan medianhalten uppmätt vid E4:an och den personburnahalten (1,6 ?g/m3 och 1,5 ?g/m3) medan halten på bibliotekstaket låg lägre (1,0?g/m3).Medianvärdet för butadien var 0,4 ?g/m3, vilket är samma som halten uppmätt vidE4:an men högre jämfört med halten på bibliotekstaket (0,12 ?g/m3). Det varsignifikant skillnad mellan rökare och icke-rökare (p=0,007), och tid som tillbringats irum med rökning var signifikant förknippat med ökad exponering för butadien.Mätningar genomfördes för både formaldehyd och acetaldehyd, dock redovisas enbartresultaten för formaldehyd på grund av problem med provtagningen av acetaldehyd.Bland mätningarna som genomfördes personburet var medianhalten formaldehyd15 ?g/m3 vilket kan jämföras med resultaten från samma studie i Göteborg förra året(19 ?g/m3). Resultatet ligger inom det intervall som angivit som lågrisknivå (IMM,12-60 ?g/m3). Halterna som uppmättes vid E4:an och Biblioteket var nästintill lika(3,5 ?g/m3 och 3,0 ?g/m3), dock var de betydligt lägre jämfört med den halt somuppmättes personburet. Bostadstyp (villa alt lägenhet), framstod som den endavariabeln som var signifikant associerad till den personburna halten formaldehyd.PAH-mätningarna genomfördes stationärt hemma hos 10 deltagare urbefolkningsurvalet, samt personburet och stationärt på 10 personer i anknytning tillforskargruppen. Mediankoncentrationen av bens(a)pyren, mätt personburet, var 0,08ng/m3 vilket är i nivå med resultaten från Göteborg. Halterna hemma hos personernafrån befolkningsurvalet samt de med anknytning till kliniken var 0,17 respektive 0,07ng/m3. De stationära utomhusmätningarna visade att halten vid E4:an var betydligthögre jämfört med halten på Bibliotekstaket (0,3 respektive 0,1 ng/m3).Kvävedioxid (NO2) mättes som ett lokalt tillägg i syfte att undersöka samband mellanNO2, som trafikindikator, och övriga ämnen. Median halten för mätningarna somgjordes personburet var 8 ?g/m3 medan resultaten från de stationära mätningarna varbetydligt högre. NO2 uppvisade ingen signifikant korrelation till övriga ämnen mättapersonburet. Vidare sågs inga samband till vistelse i specifika miljöer.

  • 23.
    Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Jonsson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Olsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Modell för beräkning av bensen- och 1,3-butadienhalter i omgivningsluft utifrån geografisk information om bland annat biobränsleeldning och trafik2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Luftföroreningar är ett känt folkhälsoproblem i tätorter där trafiken oftast är den största enskilda emissionskällan. Det finns dock andra källor som lokalt kan ge upphov till höga luftföroreningshalter och en sådan är småskalig biobränsleeldning. För att begränsa hälsoeffekterna av luftföroreningar finns normvärden reglerade i lagstiftning, och övervakningen av dessa kan ske via mätningar eller olika typer av beräkningar.

    Syftet med projekt har varit att tillämpa en typ av statistisk beräkningsmodell, ”Land Use Regression (LUR)”, för att predicera halterna av luftföroreningarna bensen och 1,3-butadien i ett antal tätorter med hög andel småskalig biobränsleeldning i och omkring Umeå.

    Principen för en LUR-modell är att först förklara variationen i luftföroreningshalter mellan ett begränsat antal mätpunkter med skillnader i geografiska variabler, som t.ex. populationsdensitet och trafikflöde inom olika radier runt respektive mätplats. Sedan kan modellen användas för att beräkna halten i många fler punkter. I denna studie har bensen och 1,3-butadien mätts vid tre tillfällen på 39 olika mätpunkter. Geografisk information har samlats in för respektive mätpunkt, och innefattar bland annat trafikvariabler men även uppgifter om biobränsleeldning baserat på uppgifter från sotarregister. LUR-modellen har byggts upp i enlighet med den procedur som finns beskrivet inom ett stort europeiskt forskningsprojekt, ESCAPE.

    Rapporten visar att det är möjligt utifrån geografiska variabler att predicera halten bensen och 1,3-butadien i en given punkt med acceptabel precision. Resultaten visar också att befolkningstäthet tillsammans med småskalig biobränsleeldning och trafik är de variabler som gemensamt är viktigast för årsmedelhalten bensen och 1,3-butadien.

    Denna typ av modell är således tillämpbar för att kartlägga och predicera halter av bensen och 1,3-butadien i områden med småskalig biobränsleeldning. Modellen kan även användas för att studera betydelsen av nyetablering av småskalig biobränsleeldning för halten bensen och 1,3-butadien inom t.ex. ett bostadsområde.

  • 24.
    Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönnmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nyström, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Lundbäck, B
    Andersson, C
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Vehicle exhaust exposure in an incident case-control study of adult asthma2006Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 75-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this case–control study was to evaluate whether traffic-related air pollution exposure at home increases the risk of asthma in adults and to compare two commonly used exposure variables and differences between urban and rural living. Incident cases of asthma and matched controls of subjects aged 20–60 yrs were recruited in Luleå, Sweden. In total 203 cases and 203 controls were enrolled in the study. Exposure was estimated by traffic flow and measured levels of outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the surrounding environment of each home, respectively. The relationship between measured levels of NO2 and traffic flow was studied using linear regression. The results indicated a nonsignificant tendency between living in a home close to a high traffic flow and an increased risk of asthma. The association between asthma and measured NO2 was weak and not significant, but the skin-prick test result acted as an effect modifier with a borderline significant association among positives. The correlation between traffic flow and outdoor NO2 was low. The results suggest that living close to high traffic flows might increase the asthma incidence in adults, while the tendency for nitrogen dioxide was only seen among atopics. Traffic flow and nitrogen dioxide had a lower than expected correlation.

  • 25.
    Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Meister, Kadri
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Jonsson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Betydelsen av förändring i befolkningens geografiska utbredning över tid för resultaten i en hälsokonsekvensbedömning för ett större vägprojekt: Slutrapport2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26. Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Segerstedt, Bo
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Akuta luftvägsbesvär bland vuxna astmatiker i förhållande till tidsmässiga variationer i luftföroreningshalter - en studie inom den hälsorelaterade miljöövervakningen 20052006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna dagboksstudie utgör en del i Naturvårdsverkets hälsorelaterade miljöövervakning, ochsyftar till att studera om och hur symtom och besvär bland astmatiker samvarierar medkorttidsvariationer i luftföroreningshalter i utomhusluften.Studien bygger på tre paneler med totalt 64 vuxna astmatiker (16-70 år) fördelade på städernaUmeå, Uppsala och Göteborg. Deltagarna identifierades via en bredare miljöenkät där de somsvarade ja på frågan om läkardiagnostiserad astma inbjöds att delta i dagboksstudien.Deltagarna besvarade dagligen under 11 veckor ett dagboksblad bestående av 15 frågorrörande astmarelaterade symtom, astmamedicinering, upplevda besvär osv. Halten avluftföroreningar beskrivs som dygnsmedelhalterna av kvävedioxid (NO2) och partiklar mättsom PM10 i urban bakgrundsluft och har inhämtats från respektive kommun.Resultaten visar då samtliga städer inkluderades i analysen på ett statistiskt säkerställtsamband mellan NO2-halten samma dag (lag 0) och att man behövt stanna hemma på grundav luftvägsbesvär samt att man haft pip i bröstet. Motsvarande resultat sågs även då NO2-halten beskrevs som medelvärdet av dagens och gårdagens halt (lag 01). I de separataanalyserna för respektive stad sågs också ett säkerställt samband mellan NO2-halten (lag01)och risken att få stanna hemma på grund av luftvägsbesvär samt att ha pip i bröstet i Umeå,men inte i de två övriga städerna. För PM10 sågs inga säkerställda samband.

  • 27.
    Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sundgren, Margit
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Can NO(2) be used to indicate ambient and personal levels of benzene and 1,3-butadiene in air?2004Ingår i: J Environ Monit, ISSN 1464-0325, Vol. 6, nr 12, s. 957-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Torén, K
    Janson, C
    Jarvholm, B
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, B
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Vehicle exhaust outside the home and onset of asthma among adults2009Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 1261-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between vehicle exhaust and new onset of asthma among adults. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between the cumulative incidence of asthma and onset asthma among adults and vehicle exhaust concentrations at home.Participants from three Swedish cities included in the RHINE (Respiratory Health in Northern Europe) Cohort constituted the study population. Exposure at each participant's home was calculated using dispersion models. We also used less than 50 meter distance to nearest major road as a more simple indicator of exposure. The adjusted model included 3609 participants of which 107 were classified as onset cases and 55 as true incident cases of asthma.There was a positive association between asthma onset (Odds Ratio, OR per 10 microg.m(-3) = 1.46, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.07-1.99) and incident asthma (OR per 10 microg.m(-3) = 1.54, 95% CI 1.00-2.36) and the levels of NO2 which remained statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders. The relationship between asthma and NO2 was not significantly modified by sex, hay fever or wheeze.This study suggests that elevated levels of vehicle exhaust outside the home increase the risk of onset and incident asthma among adults.

  • 29. Mostafavi, Nahid
    et al.
    Vlaanderen, Jelle
    Chadeau-Hyam, Marc
    Beelen, Rob
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Palli, Domenico
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Hoek, Gerard
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution2015Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 81, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on blood markers of systemic inflammation. We measured a panel of 28 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 587 individuals that were biobanked as part of a prospective study. Participants were from Varese and Turin (Italy) and Umea (Sweden). Long-term air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were available from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to assess the association between NOx and the markers of inflammation. Long-term exposure to NO was associated with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in Italy, but not in Sweden. NOx exposure levels were considerably lower in Sweden than in Italy (Sweden: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 6.65 mu g/m(3) (4.8, 19.7); Italy: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 94.2 mu g/m(3) (7.8, 124.5)). Combining data from Italy and Sweden we only observed a significant association between long-term exposure to NOx and decreased levels of circulating IL-8. We observed some indication for perturbations in the inflammatory markers due to long-term exposure to NOx. Effects were stronger in Italy than in Sweden, potentially reflecting the difference in air pollution levels between the two cohorts.

  • 30. Mostafavi, Nahid
    et al.
    Vlaanderen, Jelle
    Portengen, Lutzen
    Chadeau-Hyam, Marc
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Palli, Domenico
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Vineis, Paolo
    Hebels, Dennie G A J
    Kleinjans, Jos C S
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Hoek, Gerard
    Georgiadis, Panagiotis
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Associations between genome-wide gene expression and ambient nitrogen oxides (NOx)2017Ingår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 320-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that biological perturbations due to exposure to ambient air pollution are reflected in gene-expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    METHODS: We assessed the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and genome-wide gene-expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from 550 healthy subjects participating in cohorts from Italy and Sweden. Annual air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at time of blood collection (1990 to 2006) were available from the ESCAPE study. In addition to univariate analysis and two variable selection methods to investigate the association between expression and exposure to NOx, we applied gene set enrichment analysis to assess overlap between our most perturbed genes and gene sets hypothesized to be related to air pollution and cigarette smoking. Finally, we assessed associations between NOx and CpG island methylation at the identified genes.

    RESULTS: Annual average NOx exposure in the Italian and Swedish cohorts was 94.2 µg/m3, and 6.7 µg/m3, respectively. Long-term exposure to NOx was associated with seven probes in the Italian cohort and one probe in the Swedish (and combined) cohorts. For genes AHCYL2 and MTMR2 changes were also seen in the methylome. Genes hypothesized to be downregulated due to cigarette smoking were enriched among the most strongly downregulated genes from our study.

    CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of subtle changes in gene expression related to exposure to long-term NOx. On a global level the observed changes in the transcriptome may indicate similarities between air pollution and tobacco induced changes in the transcriptome.

  • 31.
    Oudin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Aging research centre, Karolinska Institutet.
    Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern Sweden: A Longitudinal Study2016Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 124, nr 3, s. 306-312Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia.

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden.

    METHODS: Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed with a Land Use Regression Model with a spatial resolution of 50 m x 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) was used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution.

    RESULTS: Out of 1806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the highest exposure group were more likely to be diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia), with a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.43 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 2.05 for the highest versus lowest quartile). The estimates were similar for Alzheimer's disease (HR 1.38) and vascular dementia (HR 1.47). The HR for dementia associated for the third quartile versus the lowest quartile was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.11). A sub-analysis that excluded a younger sample that had been re-tested after only 5 years of follow-up suggested stronger associations with exposure than in the full cohort (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73 for the highest versus lowest quartile).

    CONCLUSIONS: If the associations we observed are causal, then air pollution from traffic might be an important risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  • 32.
    Oudin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Beelen, Rob
    Utrecht University, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Impact of residential mobility on exposure assessment in longitudinal air pollution studies: A sensitivity analysis within the ESCAPE project2012Ingår i: Scientific World Journal, ISSN 1537-744X, E-ISSN 1537-744X, Vol. 2012, s. 125818-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure misclassification in longitudinal studies of air pollution exposure and health effects can occur due to residential mobility in a study population over follow-up. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent residential mobility during follow-up can be expected to cause exposure misclassification in such studies, where exposure at the baseline address is used as the main exposure assessment. The addresses for each participant in a large population-based study (N>25,000) were obtained via national registers. We used a Land Use Regression model to estimate the NOx-concentration for each participant’s all addresses during the entire follow up period (in average 14.6 years) and calculated an average concentration during follow up. The Land Use Regression model explained 83% of the variation in measured levels. In summary, the NOx concentration at the inclusion address was similar to the average concentration over follow-up with a correlation coefficient of 0.80, indicating that air pollution concentration at study inclusion address could be used as indicator of average air pollution concentrations over follow-up. The differences between an individual´s inclusion and average follow-up mean concentration was small, and seemed to be non-differential with respects to a large range of factors and disease statuses, implying that bias due to residential mobility was small.

  • 33. Pindus, Mihkel
    et al.
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Close proximity to busy roads increases the prevalence and onset of cardiac disease: results from RHINE Tartu2015Ingår i: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 129, nr 10, s. 1398-1405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze whether living close to a busy road would increase the risk of having cardiac disease and hypertension.

    STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cross-sectional study.

    METHODS: We used cross-sectional longitudinal questionnaire data from the RHINE study for Tartu in 2000/2001 and 2011/2012. Home addresses of the respondents were geocoded and traffic data obtained from annually conducted traffic counts in Tartu. Relationships between proximity to a busy road and self-reported cardiac disease and hypertension were analyzed with multiple logistic regression.

    RESULTS: In terms of total traffic (≥10,000 vehicles per day) within a 150-m zone of a busy road, the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of cardiac disease was significant in 2000/2001 (1.91, 95% CI 1.15-3.16) and 2011/2012 (1.58, 95% CI 1.01-2.47). Prevalence of hypertension was significant only in 2011/2012 (1.61, 95% CI 1.08-2.39). In terms of heavy duty vehicle traffic (≥500 vehicles per day) within a 150-m zone in 2000/2001, the OR was 1.52 (95% CI 1.04-2.24) and 1.49 (95% CI 1.02-2.17) respectively for the prevalence of cardiac disease and hypertension. In 2011/2012 no significant relationship between heavy duty vehicle traffic and cardiac disease or hypertension was found. We also saw a significant relationship between total traffic and the onset of cardiac disease (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.07-3.87).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that living closer than 150 m to a busy road can increase the odds of having cardiac disease and hypertension, which should be taken into account in city planning.

  • 34. Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    et al.
    Andersen, Zorana J
    Beelen, Rob
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Fischer, Paul
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Xun, Wei W
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Oftedal, Bente
    Schwarze, Per E
    Nafstad, Per
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Ostenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Penell, Johanna
    Korek, Michal
    Pershagen, Göran
    Eriksen, Kirsten T
    Sørensen, Mette
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Ellermann, Thomas
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Peeters, Petra H
    Meliefste, Kees
    Wang, Meng
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Key, Timothy J
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Concin, Hans
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Vilier, Alice
    Grioni, Sara
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Galassi, Claudia
    Migliore, Enrica
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Tamayo, Ibon
    Amiano, Pilar
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Bamia, Christina
    Vineis, Paolo
    Hoek, Gerard
    Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)2013Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology, ISSN 1470-2045, E-ISSN 1474-5488, Vol. 14, nr 9, s. 813-822Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.

    METHODS: This prospective analysis of data obtained by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects used data from 17 cohort studies based in nine European countries. Baseline addresses were geocoded and we assessed air pollution by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10), less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5), and between 2·5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2·5absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses.

    FINDINGS: The 312 944 cohort members contributed 4 013 131 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 12·8 years), 2095 incident lung cancer cases were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed a statistically significant association between risk for lung cancer and PM10 (hazard ratio [HR] 1·22 [95% CI 1·03-1·45] per 10 μg/m(3)). For PM2·5 the HR was 1·18 (0·96-1·46) per 5 μg/m(3). The same increments of PM10 and PM2·5 were associated with HRs for adenocarcinomas of the lung of 1·51 (1·10-2·08) and 1·55 (1·05-2·29), respectively. An increase in road traffic of 4000 vehicle-km per day within 100 m of the residence was associated with an HR for lung cancer of 1·09 (0·99-1·21). The results showed no association between lung cancer and nitrogen oxides concentration (HR 1·01 [0·95-1·07] per 20 μg/m(3)) or traffic intensity on the nearest street (HR 1·00 [0·97-1·04] per 5000 vehicles per day).

    INTERPRETATION: Particulate matter air pollution contributes to lung cancer incidence in Europe.

    FUNDING: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme.

  • 35. Svanes, Cecilie
    et al.
    Koplin, Jennifer
    Skulstad, Svein Magne
    Johannessen, Ane
    Bertelsen, Randi Jakobsen
    Benediktsdottir, Byndis
    Bråbäck, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Elie Carsin, Anne
    Dharmage, Shyamali
    Dratva, Julia
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Holm, Mathias
    Janson, Christer
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Jögi, Rain
    Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne
    Lindberg, Eva
    Macsali, Ferenc
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Omenaas, Ernst
    Waatevik Saure, Eirunn
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Skorge, Trude Duelien
    Svanes, Øistein
    Torén, Kjell
    Torres, Carl
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Gomez Real, Francisco
    Father's environment before conception and asthma risk in his children: a multi-generation analysis of the respiratory health in northern Europe study2017Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 235-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Whereas it is generally accepted that maternal environment plays a key role in child health, emerging evidence suggests that paternal environment before conception also impacts child health. We aimed to investigate the association between children’s asthma risk and parental smoking and welding exposures prior to conception. Methods: In a longitudinal, multi-country study, parents of 24 168 offspring aged 2–51 years provided information on their life-course smoking habits, occupational exposure to welding and metal fumes, and offspring’s asthma before/after age 10 years and hay fever. Logistic regressions investigated the relevant associations controlled for age, study centre, parental characteristics (age, asthma, education) and clustering by family. Results: Non-allergic early-onset asthma (asthma without hay fever, present in 5.8%) was more common in the offspring with fathers who smoked before conception {odds ratio [OR] = 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18–2.41]}, whereas mothers’ smoking before conception did not predict offspring asthma. The risk was highest if father started smoking before age 15 years [3.24 (1.67–6.27)], even if he stopped more than 5 years before conception [2.68 (1.17–6.13)]. Fathers’ pre-conception welding was independently associated with non-allergic asthma in his offspring [1.80 (1.29–2.50)]. There was no effect if the father started welding or smoking after birth. The associations were consistent across countries. Conclusions: Environmental exposures in young men appear to influence the respiratory health of their offspring born many years later. Influences during susceptible stages of spermatocyte development might be important and needs further investigation in humans. We hypothesize that protecting young men from harmful exposures may lead to improved respiratory health in future generations.

  • 36. Temam, Sofia
    et al.
    Burte, Emilie
    Adam, Martin
    Antó, Josep M
    Basagaña, Xavier
    Bousquet, Jean
    Carsin, Anne-Elie
    Galobardes, Bruna
    Keidel, Dirk
    Künzli, Nino
    Le Moual, Nicole
    Sanchez, Margaux
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Bono, Roberto
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Heinrich, Joachim
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Jarvis, Debbie
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nadif, Rachel
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Pin, Isabelle
    Siroux, Valérie
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Socioeconomic position and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in Western Europe: a multi-city analysis2017Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 101, s. 117-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and outdoor air pollution have been reported in Europe, but methodological differences prevent any direct between-study comparison.

    OBJECTIVES: Assess and compare the association between SEP and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure as a marker of traffic exhaust, in 16 cities from eight Western European countries.

    METHODS: Three SEP indicators, two defined at individual-level (education and occupation) and one at neighborhood-level (unemployment rate) were assessed in three European multicenter cohorts. NO2 annual concentration exposure was estimated at participants' addresses with land use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE; http://www.escapeproject.eu/). Pooled and city-specific linear regressions were used to analyze associations between each SEP indicator and NO2. Heterogeneity across cities was assessed using the Higgins' I-squared test (I(2)).

    RESULTS: The study population included 5692 participants. Pooled analysis showed that participants with lower individual-SEP were less exposed to NO2. Conversely, participants living in neighborhoods with higher unemployment rate were more exposed. City-specific results exhibited strong heterogeneity (I(2)>76% for the three SEP indicators) resulting in variation of the individual- and neighborhood-SEP patterns of NO2 exposure across cities. The coefficients from a model that included both individual- and neighborhood-SEP indicators were similar to the unadjusted coefficients, suggesting independent associations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed for the first time using homogenized measures of outcome and exposure across 16 cities the important heterogeneity regarding the association between SEP and NO2 in Western Europe. Importantly, our results showed that individual- and neighborhood-SEP indicators capture different aspects of the association between SEP and exposure to air pollution, stressing the importance of considering both in air pollution health effects studies.

  • 37. Wang, Meng
    et al.
    Beelen, Rob
    Bellander, Tom
    Birk, Matthias
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Cirach, Marta
    Cyrys, Josef
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Declercq, Christophe
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Eriksen, Kirsten T.
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Galassi, Claudia
    Grivas, Georgios
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Ineichen, Alex
    Korek, Michal
    Lanki, Timo
    Lindley, Sarah
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Mölter, Anna
    Nafstad, Per
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
    Nystad, Wenche
    Olsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Ragettli, Martina
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Sugiri, Dorothea
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Udvardy, Orsolya
    Varró, Mihaly J.
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Hoek, Gerard
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Performance of multi-city land use regression models for nitrogen dioxide and fine particles2014Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 122, nr 8, s. 843-849Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Land use regression (LUR) models have been developed mostly to explain intraurban variations in air pollution based on often small local monitoring campaigns. Transferability of LUR models from city to city has been investigated, but little is known about the performance of models based on large numbers of monitoring sites covering a large area.

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop European and regional LUR models and to examine their transferability to areas not used for model development.

    METHODS: We evaluated LUR models for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM; PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance) by combining standardized measurement data from 17 (PM) and 23 (NO2) ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) study areas across 14 European countries for PM and NO2. Models were evaluated with cross-validation (CV) and hold-out validation (HV). We investigated the transferability of the models by successively excluding each study area from model building.

    RESULTS: The European model explained 56% of the concentration variability across all sites for NO2, 86% for PM2.5, and 70% for PM2.5 absorbance. The HV R2s were only slightly lower than the model R2 (NO2, 54%; PM2.5, 80%; PM2.5 absorbance, 70%). The European NO2, PM2.5, and PM2.5 absorbance models explained a median of 59%, 48%, and 70% of within-area variability in individual areas. The transferred models predicted a modest-to-large fraction of variability in areas that were excluded from model building (median R2: NO2, 59%; PM2.5, 42%; PM2.5 absorbance, 67%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Using a large data set from 23 European study areas, we were able to develop LUR models for NO2 and PM metrics that predicted measurements made at independent sites and areas reasonably well. This finding is useful for assessing exposure in health studies conducted in areas where no measurements were conducted.

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