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  • 1.
    Fagerström, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Steinvall, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Alkali transformation during single pellet combustion of soft wood and wheat straw2016Ingår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 143, s. 204-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling slag and deposit formation during thermochemical fuel conversion requires a fundamental understanding about ash transformation. In this work, a macro-TGA reactor was used to determine the release of ash forming elements during devolatilization and char combustion of single pellets. Soft wood and wheat straw were combusted at two temperatures (700 °C and 1000 °C) and the residual ashes were collected and analyzed for morphology, elemental and phase composition. The results showed that the single pellet combustion exhibit similar release character as in grate boilers. The temporal release was found to be both temperature and fuel dependent. For wood, the release of potassium occurred mostly during char combustion regardless of furnace temperature. Similar results were found for straw at 700 °C, but the temperature increase to 1000 °C implied that the release occurred already during devolatilization. The differences are presumably explained by different fuel phase compositions. The residual ash were composed of three different categories of phases; crystalline compounds, molten ash (glass) and char, and the work concludes that K was captured by crystalline K/Ca-carbonates as well as in amorphous glassy silicates for wood, and by almost fully molten ash of glassy silicates for straw. The fuel conversion processes occurring on a grate influence the fuel combustibility in terms of e.g. burnout, slag formation and release of fine particle and deposit forming matter, and the present work has given novel insights into the specific alkali behavior during biomass fuel conversion.

  • 2.
    Qu, Zhechao
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Fagerström, Jonathan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Steinvall, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Florian, Schmidt
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Real-time In-Situ Detection of Potassium Release during Combustion of Pelletized Biomass using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy2014Ingår i: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production October 26 –31, 2014, Snowbird, Utah, USA, 2014, s. 1-14Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used for quantitative in-situ detection of gaseous elemental potassium (K) at distances 2-11 mm above biomass pellets combusted in a macro-thermogravimetric analyzer (macro-TGA). Single pellets of energy wood (EW) and wheat straw (WS) were converted in air at a furnace temperature of 850 °C and a carrier flow rate of 15 liters per minute. A second TDLAS system measured water vapor concentration and temperature above the pellets. In addition, semi-time-resolved K release data was obtained from conventional ICP-MS/AES analysis of fuel/ash residues collected at several occasions during devolatilization and char combustion. It was found that the fuels differ with respect to relative K-release and temporal release histories. Significant concentrations of K(g) were detected with TDLAS above the pellets during devolatilization, but no K(g) was observed during char combustion, independent of the fuel type. The amount of K(g)tot measured above the pellets during devolatilization was larger for EW than for WS, even though the total K content of WS was a factor of 60 higher. By combining TDLAS and ICP data, and supported by equilibrium calculations, these results indicate that, during devocalization, K is mainly released as KCl from wheat straw, whereas both KCl and KOH are released from energy wood.

  • 3.
    Qu, Zhechao
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Steinvall, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ghorbani, Ramin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Tunable Diode Laser Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for Detection of Potassium under Optically Thick Conditions2016Ingår i: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 88, nr 7, s. 3754-3760Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Potassium (K) is an important element related to ash and fine-particle formation in biomass combustion processes. In situ measurements of gaseous atomic potassium, K(g), using robust optical absorption techniques can provide valuable insight into the K chemistry. However, for typical parts per billion K(g) concentrations in biomass flames and reactor gases, the product of atomic line strength and absorption path length can give rise to such high absorbance that the sample becomes opaque around the transition line center. We present a tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (TDLAAS) methodology that enables accurate, calibration-free species quantification even under optically thick conditions, given that Beer−Lambert’s law is valid. Analyte concentration and collisional line shape broadening are simultaneously determined by a least-squares fit of simulated to measured absorption profiles. Method validation measurements of K(g) concentrations in saturated potassium hydroxide vapor in the temperature range 950−1200 K showed excellent agreement with equilibrium calculations, and a dynamic range from 40 pptv cm to 40 ppmv cm. The applicability of the compact TDLAAS sensor is demonstrated by real-time detection of K(g) concentrations close to biomass pellets during atmospheric combustion in a laboratory reactor. 

  • 4.
    Rebbling, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Fagerström, Jonathan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Steinvall, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Energy Engineering, Division of Energy Science, Department of Engineering Sciences & Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Reduction of Alkali Release by Two Fuel Additives at Different Bed Temperatures during Grate Combustion of Woody Biomass2019Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 33, nr 11, s. 11041-11048Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of small- and medium-scale combustion of biomass for energy utilization is expected to grow in the coming decades. To meet standards and legislation regarding particle emissions and to reduce corrosion and deposit formation, it is crucial to reduce the release of alkali species from the fuel. This can be achieved by capturing the volatile alkali in the residual bottom ash as more thermally stable compounds. In this work, we investigate the combination of primary measures, i.e., process parameters and fuel additives, for reduction of the release of K and Na from the fuel bed during fixed bed combustion. In addition, the influence of these combined measures on fine particle emissions was explored. The results showed a clear influence of the process parameters, herein bed temperature, and that a significant reduction of the alkali release and PM1 emissions can be achieved by correct settings. Furthermore, the application of additives (kaolin and diammonium sulfate) reduced both K and Na release even further. The observed effects on the release behavior was mainly explained by the formation of KAlSiO4 and K2SO4 during addition of kaolin and diammonium sulfate, respectively. This work therefore emphasizes the importance of good control over the fuel bed conditions, especially temperature, when these additives are applied. To reduce the potential deactivation (for kaolinite) and melting (for K2SO4), the control of bed temperature is vital. Thus, it was concluded that the release of volatile alkali species and related fine particle emissions in small- and medium-scale biomass heat and power plants using wood fuels could be significantly reduced by a correct combination of controlling the combustion parameters and the use of fuel additives.

  • 5.
    Valiev, Damir
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Qu, Zhechao
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Steinvall, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Schmidt, Florian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Measurement and simulation of atomic potassium in the plume above potassium hydroxide in a methane-air flat flame2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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