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  • 1.
    Abd Alrahman, Chadi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Khodabakhsh, Amir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Qu, Zhechao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy of high-temperature H2O in a flame2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 13889-13895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate near-infrared cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy of water in a premixed methane/air flat flame. The detection system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser, a high finesse optical cavity containing the flame, and a fast-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). High absorption sensitivity is obtained by the combination of a high-bandwidth two-point comb-cavity lock and auto-balanced detection in the FTS. The system allows recording high-temperature water absorption spectra with a resolution of 1 GHz and a bandwidth of 50 nm in an acquisition time of 0.4 s, with absorption sensitivity of 4.2 x 10 (9) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2) per spectral element.

  • 2.
    Axner, Ove
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Schmidt, Florian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Omenetto, N.
    Winefordner, J.D.
    Reply to: A discussion about the significance of Absorbance and sample optical thickness in conventional absorption spectrometry and wavelength modulated absorption spectrometry2004In: Spectrochimica Acta B, Vol. 59, p. 390-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Axner, Ove
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Omenetto, Nicoló
    Winefordner, James D.
    Absorption spectrometry by narrowband light in optically saturated and optically pumped collision and doppler broadened gaseous media under arbitrary optical thickness conditions2006In: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530, Vol. 60, no 11, p. 1217-1240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work examines absorption spectrometry by narrowband light in gaseous media with arbitrary optical thickness when the light induces optical saturation or optical pumping. Two quantities are defined: the observed absorbance, Aobs, and the true absorbance, Atrue. The former is the absorbance that is measured under the existing conditions, whereas the latter represents the absorbance one would measure if the light acted solely as a probe of the populations of the various levels, and it is therefore directly proportional to the concentration or density of absorbers. A general integral equation for the propagation of light in media of arbitrary optical thickness in which the light influences the populations of the levels involved is derived. This expression is transcendental in the observed absorbance and cannot be solved analytically. It is shown that an analytical expression can be derived by investigating the inverse relationship, i.e., Atruef(Aobs). Inasmuch as collision and Doppler broadened media react differently to optical saturation, they are considered separately. It is shown that a nonlinear response results if the medium is optically saturated (or pumped) and not optically thin. Expressions for the error introduced if the technique of standard additions is uncritically applied to such a system are derived.

  • 4. Fatehi, Hesameddin
    et al.
    Qu, Zhechao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Bai, Xue-Song
    Effect of Volatile Reactions on the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass Particles2017In: 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLIED ENERGY (ICAE2016) / [ed] Yan, J Sun, F Chou, SK Desideri, U Li, H Campana, P Xiong, R, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, Vol. 105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical and experimental study on the conversion of a biomass particle is carried out to quantify the effect of homogeneous volatile combustion on the biomass pyrolysis. The numerical domain consists of a particle and its surrounding and the model considers detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for reaction of pyrolysis products. A detailed pyrolysis model is employed which provides the composition of pyrolysis products. The effect of gas phase reaction on the conversion time and temperature of the particle is analyzed and it was shown that the gas phase reactions results in shorter pyrolysis time. H2O mole fraction and temperature above a biomass pellet from wheat straw (WS) and stem wood (SW) were experimentally measured using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) while recording the particle mass loss. The TDLAS data were used to validate the numerical model developed for biomass conversion. The results showed that by considering the gas phase reactions a good agreement between the measurement and the model prediction for mass loss and temperature can be achieved. For H2O mole fraction on top of the particle, on the other hand, some discrepancy between the model prediction and the experimental data was observed. Nevertheless, the difference in H2O mole fraction would be much larger by neglecting the gas phase reaction at the particle boundary.

  • 5. Fatehi, Hesameddin
    et al.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Bai, Xue-Song
    Gas phase combustion in the vicinity of a biomass particle during devolatilization: model development and experimental verification2018In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 196, p. 351-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical and experimental study on the devolatilization of a large biomass particle is carried out to quantify the effect of homogeneous volatile combustion on the conversion of the particle and on the temperature and species distribution at the particle vicinity. A global chemical kinetic mechanism and a detailed reaction mechanism are considered in a one dimensional numerical model that takes into account preferential diffusivity and a detailed composition of tar species. An adaptive moving mesh is employed to capture the changes in the domain due to particle shrinkage. The effect of gas phase reactions on pyrolysis time, temperature and species distribution close to the particle is studied and compared to experiments. Online in situ measurements of average H2O mole fraction and gas temperature above a softwood pellet are conducted in a reactor using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) while recording the particle mass loss. The results show that the volatile combustion plays an important role in the prediction of biomass conversion during the devolatilization stage. It is shown that the global reaction mechanism predicts a thin flame front in the vicinity of the particle deviating from the measured temperature and H2O distribution over different heights above the particle. A better agreement between numerical and experimental results is obtained using the detailed reaction mechanism, which predicts a wider reaction zone.

  • 6.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ma, Weiguang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions2008In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1156-1165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of optical saturation on noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) signals from purely Doppler-broadened transitions is investigated experimentally. It is shown that the shape and the strength of the dispersion signal are virtually unaffected by optical saturation, whereas the strength of the absorption signal decreases as (1+G+-1)-1/2, where G+-1 is the degree of saturation induced by the sideband of the frequency modulated triplet, in agreement with theoretical predictions. This implies, first of all, that Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS is affected less by optical saturation than other cavity enhanced techniques but also that it exhibits nonlinearities in the power and pressure dependence for all detection phases except pure dispersion. A methodology for assessments of the degree of saturation and the saturation power of a transition from Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS signals is given. The implications of optical saturation for practical trace species detection by Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS are discussed.

  • 7.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ma, Weiguang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Schmidt, Florian M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wavelength modulated noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signal line shapes in the Doppler limit2009In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 1384-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thorough analysis of the shape and strength of Doppler-broadened wavelength modulated noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signals is presented and their dependence on modulation frequency, modulation amplitude and detection phase is investigated in detail. The conditions that maximize the on-resonance signal are identified. The analysis is based on the standard frequency modulation spectroscopy formalism and the Fourier description of wavelength modulation spectroscopy and verified by fits to experimental signals from C2H2 and CO2 measured at 1531 nm. In addition, the line strengths of two CO2 transitions in the v2→3v1+v2+v3 hot band [Pe(7) and Pe(9)] were found to differ by ~20% from those given in the HITRAN database.

  • 8.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry from optically pumped collision broadened atoms and molecules2007In: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 108, no 2, p. 220-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical investigation of the influence of optical pumping on wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry (WMAS) signals from collision broadened atoms and molecules is presented. General expressions for the nf-WMAS signal from atomic and molecular systems, modeled as three-level systems that can accommodate both optical saturation and optical pumping, are derived by the use of a previously developed Fourier series-based formalism in combination with rate equations solved under steady-state conditions. The expressions are similar to those describing the nf-WMAS signal from two-level systems that can accommodate optical saturation [Schmidt FM, Foltynowicz A, Gustafsson J, Axner O, WMAS from optically saturated collision-broadened transitions. JQSRT 2005;94:225–54], the difference being the value of the saturation flux, wherefore the general parametric dependence of WMAS signals from optically pumped systems is the same as that from optically saturated systems. The additional effect of optical pumping on the WMAS signal is investigated for three typical cases: molecules or atoms in an ordinary atmosphere, atoms in an inert atmosphere, and atoms or molecules possessing metastable states. The possibility to describe any of these systems with a two-level model is investigated.

  • 9.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Schmidt, Florian M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ma, Weiguang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: Current status and future potential2008In: Applied physics. B, Lasers and optics (Print), ISSN 0946-2171, E-ISSN 1432-0649, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 313-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of a combination of an external cavity and modulation techniques, noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) is one of the most sensitive absorption techniques, capable of reaching close-to-shot-noise sensitivities, down to 5×10-13 fractional absorption at 1 s averaging. Due to its ability to provide sub-Doppler signals from weak molecular overtone transitions, the technique was first developed for frequency standard applications. It has since then also found use in fields of molecular spectroscopy of weak overtone transitions and trace gas detection. This paper describes the principles and the unique properties of NICE-OHMS. The historical background, the contributions of various groups, as well as the performance and present status of the technique are reviewed. Recent progress is highlighted and the future potential of the technique for trace species detection is discussed.

  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Guerra, Rui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Double modulation diode laser absorption spectrometry by simultaneous wavelength modulation and optically induced population modulation: application to trace element detection in window-equipped graphite furnaces2004In: Spectrochimica Acta Part B - Atomic Spectroscopy, ISSN 0584-8547, E-ISSN 1873-3565, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 67-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new diode laser-based double modulation absorption spectrometry (DMAS) technique for detection of species in trace amounts/concentrations is presented. The new technique makes use of a simultaneous modulation of the wavelength and population in order to reduce the background signals from multiple reflections in optical components (so-called etalon effects) that normally appear in ordinary wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry (WMAS). The simultaneous wavelength and population modulation are achieved by splitting the light from a wavelength-modulated diode laser into two beams—one strong pump beam and one weak probe beam—that subsequently are overlapped in an interaction region inside a sample compartment. The objective of the pump beam is to periodically transfer population from the state with which the probe beam interacts. The modulation of the population is achieved by modulating the pump beam with a chopper. The transmission of the probe beam is detected and demodulated at a frequency that is a combination of various harmonics of the wavelength modulation and chopping frequencies. The purely optical modulation makes the new technique more generally applicable than other DMAS techniques. The new DMAS technique is thoroughly described by a Fourier series-based theoretical description that previously has shown to be powerful for description of WMAS. The theoretical description is general in the sense that it considers DMAS for a variety of modes of operation and for any sample compartment providing homogeneously broadened transitions. The experiments were carried out on the 780-nm transition in Rb in a window-equipped graphite furnace (GF) used as an atomizer for aqueous solutions of Rb in ppt concentrations. The limit of detection obtained for the DMAS technique applied to a window-equipped GF was more than an order of magnitude better than that for the ordinary WMAS technique applied to the same type of window-equipped GF, and similar to that from an ordinary WMAS instrumentation coupled to a window-less GF, i.e. approximately 10 fg. Since the analytical DMAS signal was found to be approximately one order of magnitude smaller than the corresponding WMAS signal, it could be concluded that the noise from the background signal from the DMAS technique applied to a window-equipped GF was likewise about one order of magnitude smaller than the noise from ordinary WMAS applied to an open GF system. This implies in turn that the results so far published from the ordinary GF–WMAS technique are not shot noise limited and should therefore in principle also be improvable.

  • 11.
    Khodabakhsh, Amir
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Qu, Zhechao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Abd Alrahman, Chadi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Johansson, Alexandra C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Rutkowski, Lucile
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Cavity-Enhanced Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of High-Temperature Water in a Flame2015In: 2015 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate detection of broadband high-temperature water spectra in a laminar, premixed methane/air flat flame using high-resolution near-infrared cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy incorporating a fast-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer.

  • 12. Metsälä, Markus
    et al.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    University of Helsinki.
    Skytta, Mirva
    Vaittinen, Olavi
    Halonen, Lauri
    Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking2010In: Journal of Breath Research, ISSN 1752-7155, E-ISSN 1752-7163, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 046003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured the acetylene concentration in the exhaled breath of 40 volunteers (31 non-smokers, nine smokers) using near-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The acetylene levels were found to be the same as in ambient air for non-smokers, whereas elevated levels were observed for smokers. Real-time measurements with sub-second time resolution have been applied to measure the elimination kinetics of acetylene in breath after exposure to tobacco smoke. Three exponential time constants can be distinguished from the data and these can be used to define the residence times for different compartments, according to the multi-compartment model of the human body.

  • 13.
    Qu, Zhechao
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Fagerström, Jonathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Steinvall, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Florian, Schmidt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Real-time In-Situ Detection of Potassium Release during Combustion of Pelletized Biomass using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy2014In: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production October 26 –31, 2014, Snowbird, Utah, USA, 2014, p. 1-14Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used for quantitative in-situ detection of gaseous elemental potassium (K) at distances 2-11 mm above biomass pellets combusted in a macro-thermogravimetric analyzer (macro-TGA). Single pellets of energy wood (EW) and wheat straw (WS) were converted in air at a furnace temperature of 850 °C and a carrier flow rate of 15 liters per minute. A second TDLAS system measured water vapor concentration and temperature above the pellets. In addition, semi-time-resolved K release data was obtained from conventional ICP-MS/AES analysis of fuel/ash residues collected at several occasions during devolatilization and char combustion. It was found that the fuels differ with respect to relative K-release and temporal release histories. Significant concentrations of K(g) were detected with TDLAS above the pellets during devolatilization, but no K(g) was observed during char combustion, independent of the fuel type. The amount of K(g)tot measured above the pellets during devolatilization was larger for EW than for WS, even though the total K content of WS was a factor of 60 higher. By combining TDLAS and ICP data, and supported by equilibrium calculations, these results indicate that, during devocalization, K is mainly released as KCl from wheat straw, whereas both KCl and KOH are released from energy wood.

  • 14.
    Qu, Zhechao
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ghorbani, Ramin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Valiev, Damir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Schmidt, Florian M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Calibration-free scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy – application to H2O and temperature sensing in flames2015In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 16492-16499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A calibration-free scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy scheme requiring minimal laser characterization is presented. Species concentration and temperature are retrieved simultaneously from a single fit to a group of 2f/1f-WMS lineshapes acquired in one laser scan. The fitting algorithm includes a novel method to obtain the phase shift between laser intensity and wavelength modulation, and allows for a wavelengthdependent modulation amplitude. The scheme is demonstrated by detection of H2O concentration and temperature in atmospheric, premixed CH4/air flat flames using a sensor operating near 1.4 μm. The detection sensitivity for H2O at 2000 K was 4 × 10−5 cm−1 Hz-1/2, and temperature was determined with a precision of 10 K and absolute accuracy of ~50 K. A parametric study of the dependence of H2O and temperature on distance to the burner and total fuel mass flow rate shows good agreement with 1D simulations.

  • 15.
    Qu, Zhechao
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy applications from combustion to medical science2014In: OSA Meeting: Light, Energy and the Environment Congress, December 1-6, 2014, Canberra, Australia, Canberra Australia: Optics Info Base, Optical Society of America, 2014, , p. EW4A.5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy was employed for measuring temperature and H2O concentration in combustion environments with a near-infrared DFB-laser, and for detection of CO in human breath using a quantum cascade laser.

  • 16.
    Qu, Zhechao
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    In situ H2O and temperature detection close to burning biomass pellets using calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy2015In: Applied physics. B, Lasers and optics (Print), ISSN 0946-2171, E-ISSN 1432-0649, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and application of an H2O/temperature sensor based on scanned calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy (CF-WMS) and a single tunable diode laser at 1.4 μm is presented. The sensor probes two H2O absorption peaks in a single scan and simultaneously retrieves H2O concentration and temperature by least-squares fitting simulated 1f-normalized 2f-WMS spectra to measured 2f/1f-WMS signals, with temperature, concentration and nonlinear modulation amplitude as fitting parameters. Given a minimum detectable absorbance of 1.7×10-5 cm-1 Hz-1/2, the system is applicable down to an H2O concentration of 0.1 % at 1000 K and 20 cm path length (200 ppm·m). The temperature in a water-seeded lab-scale reactor (670-1220 K at 4 % H2O) was determined within an accuracy of 1 % by comparison with the reactor thermocouple. The CF-WMS sensor was applied to real- time in situ measurements of H2O concentration and temperature time histories (0.25 s time resolution) in the hot gases 2 to 11 mm above biomass pellets during atmospheric combustion in the reactor. Temperatures between 1200 and 1600 K and H2O concentrations up to 40 % were detected above the biofuels. 

  • 17.
    Qu, Zhechao
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Low-cost TDLAS sensor for real-time in-situ temperature and H2O measurements in biomass combustion applications2014In: Field Laser Applications in Industry and Research, May 5-9, 2014, Florence, Italy, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Qu, Zhechao
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Quantitative in-situ detection of potassium (K) atoms released from burning biomass particles using a real-time TDLAS sensor2014In: Field Laser Applications in Industry and Research, May 5-9, 2014, Florence, Italy, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Qu, Zhechao
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Steinvall, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ghorbani, Ramin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Tunable Diode Laser Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for Detection of Potassium under Optically Thick Conditions2016In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 88, no 7, p. 3754-3760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potassium (K) is an important element related to ash and fine-particle formation in biomass combustion processes. In situ measurements of gaseous atomic potassium, K(g), using robust optical absorption techniques can provide valuable insight into the K chemistry. However, for typical parts per billion K(g) concentrations in biomass flames and reactor gases, the product of atomic line strength and absorption path length can give rise to such high absorbance that the sample becomes opaque around the transition line center. We present a tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (TDLAAS) methodology that enables accurate, calibration-free species quantification even under optically thick conditions, given that Beer−Lambert’s law is valid. Analyte concentration and collisional line shape broadening are simultaneously determined by a least-squares fit of simulated to measured absorption profiles. Method validation measurements of K(g) concentrations in saturated potassium hydroxide vapor in the temperature range 950−1200 K showed excellent agreement with equilibrium calculations, and a dynamic range from 40 pptv cm to 40 ppmv cm. The applicability of the compact TDLAAS sensor is demonstrated by real-time detection of K(g) concentrations close to biomass pellets during atmospheric combustion in a laboratory reactor. 

  • 20.
    Rutkowski, Lucile
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Khodabakhsh, Amir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Johansson, Alexandra C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Valiev, Damir M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Lodi, Lorenzo
    Qu, Zhechao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ghorbani, Ramin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Polyansky, Oleg L.
    Jin, Yuwei
    Tennyson, Jonathan
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Measurement of H2O and OH in a Flame by Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy2016In: Proceedings Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We measure broadband H2O and OH spectra in a flame using near-infrared cavity-enhanced Fourier transform optical frequency comb spectroscopy, we retrieve temperature and OH concentration, and compare water spectra to an improved line list.

  • 21.
    Schmidt, Florian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Laser-based absorption spectrometry: development of NICE-OHMS towards ultra-sensitive trace species detection2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser-based absorption spectroscopy (AS) is a powerful technique for qualitative and quantitative studies of atoms and molecules. An important field of use of AS is the detection of species in trace concentrations, which has applications not only in physics and chemistry but also in biology and medicine, encompassing environmental monitoring, regulation of industrial processes and breath analysis. Although a large number of molecular species can successfully be detected with established AS techniques, there are some applications that require higher sensitivity, selectivity and accuracy, yet robust and compact instrumentation.

    Various approaches have been made during the years to improve on the performance of AS, usually based on modulation spectrometry or external cavities. The most sensitive absorption technique of today is, however, noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS). This technique elegantly combines several approaches: external cavities (for optical path length enhancement), modulation techniques (for noise reduction) and saturation spectroscopy (for enhanced selectivity). However, due to its complexity, the technique has so far not been applied to practical trace species detection.

    This thesis provides the background for an understanding of NICE-OHMS and describes the construction of a first compact NICE-OHMS spectrometer based on a narrowband fiber laser. Moreover, it gives theoretical expressions for NICE-OHMS signal lineshapes, measured in various modes of detection, which can be fitted to the experimental data and thereby facilitate the assessment of species concentration. The sensitivity of the instrumentation is demonstrated by detection of acetylene (C2H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the 1.5 μm region. A fractional absorption sensitivity of 3*10-9 (integrated absorption of 5*10-11 cm-1), could be achieved using a cavity with a finesse of 4800 and an acquisition time of 0.7 s. This results in a detection limit for C2H2 of 4.5 ppt (4.5*10-12 atm).

    In addition, the thesis revives the idea of using an accurate (frequency) measurement of the free-spectral-range (FSR) of an external cavity for sensitive and calibration-free concentration assessment. A theoretical description of the expected signal lineshapes is given, and in a first experimental demonstration the FSR could be measured with a resolution of 5 Hz, resulting in a fractional absorption sensitivity of 1*10-7, and subsequently in a detection limit for C2H2 of 180 ppt (12.5 s acquisition time).

    The thesis, finally, also contributes to the continuously ongoing development of conventional AS and wavelength modulated AS by addressing concepts related to when the light optically saturates the transition.

  • 22.
    Schmidt, Florian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry from optically saturated collision-broadened transitions2005In: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 225-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical investigation of the influence of optical saturation on wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry (WMAS) signals from collision-broadened transitions is presented. Expressions are derived for the nth Fourier coefficient of the analytical detector signal, and thereby also for the nth harmonic signal from a WMAS instrumentation (i.e. the nf-WMAS signal), from a wavelength modulated collision-broadened transition exposed to optical saturation. The flux- (or irradiance-) and modulation-amplitude dependences of the nf-WMAS signal on resonance are scrutinized in detail. It is shown that the nth Fourier coefficient of the wavelength modulated analytical detector signal from an optically saturated collision-broadened transition can be written as a product of a flux-dependent (φ) bleaching function, given by (1+φ/φsat)-1 and identical to that appearing for ordinary, unmodulated absorption spectrometry (AS), and a flux-, detuning-, and modulation-amplitude-dependent wavelength modulated peak-normalized saturation-broadened Lorentzian lineshape function, specific for the WMAS technique. It is found that the nf-WMAS signal on resonance decreases faster than an ordinary AS signal as a function of laser flux when smaller-than-optimum modulation amplitudes are used, but slower when larger-than-optimum modulation amplitudes are used. When optimum (or close-to-optimum) modulation amplitudes are being used, on the other hand, the flux dependence of the WMAS signal resembles to a large degree that of ordinary AS. The conditions for when WMAS from collision-broadened transitions has the same flux dependence as ordinary AS are identified.

  • 23.
    Schmidt, Florian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Foltynowicz-Matyba, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ma, Weiguang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Lock, Tomas
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Doppler-broadened fiber-laser-based NICE-OHMS: improved detectability2007In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 15, no 17, p. 10822-10831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) has been improved by elimination of the technical constraints that limited its first demonstration. Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 and CO2 at ~1531 nm is demonstrated using a cavity with a finesse of 4800. Frequency and wavelength modulated detection at absorption and dispersion phase are compared and the optimum mode of detection is discussed. A minimum detectable absorption of 8 × 10-11 cm-1, which corresponds to a detection limit of 4.5 ppt (2 ppt·m) for C2H2, was obtained for an acquisition time of 0.7 s by lineshape fitting. The linearity of the pressure dependence of the signal strengths is investigated for both C2H2 and CO2.

  • 24.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ma, Weiguang
    Axner, Ove
    Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 in the parts per trillion range2007In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 1392-1405Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ma, Weiguang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Highly sensitive dispersion spectroscopy by probing the free spectral range of an optical cavity using dual-frequency modulation2010In: Applied physics. B, Lasers and optics (Print), ISSN 0946-2171, E-ISSN 1432-0649, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 497-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual-frequency modulation (DFM) has been used to continuously track the frequency shifts of optical cavity modes in the vicinity of an optical transition of a gas inside the cavity for assessment of the gas concentration. A theoretical description of the size and lineshape of the DFM dispersion spectroscopy (DFM-DS) signal is given. Since the signal is measured in terms of a radio frequency the technique is insensitive to laser intensity fluctuations. The signal strength, which can accurately be obtained by curve fitting, only depends on fundamental parameters (including the line strength), thus enabling quantitative detection without calibration procedure. In a first demonstration, using a compact setup based on a narrowband fiber laser, the change in free spectral range around a value of 379.9 MHz due to an acetylene transition near 1531 nm was measured with a resolution of 6 Hz (i.e. with an accuracy of 1.5 parts in 10(8)) in 12.5 s acquisition time, which corresponds to a minimum detectable integrated absorption (SNR=3) of 3x10(-9) cm(-1)

  • 26.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    et al.
    University of Helsinki.
    Metsälä, Markus
    Vaittinen, Olavi
    Halonen, Lauri
    Background levels and diurnal variations of hydrogen cyanide in breath and emitted from skin2011In: Journal of Breath Research, ISSN 1752-7163, Vol. 5, no 4, article id 046004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentration in exhaled human breath and skin gas samples collected with different sampling techniques was measured using near-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The median baseline HCN concentrations in samples provided by 19 healthy volunteers 2-4 h after the last meal depended on the employed sampling technique: 6.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) in mixed (dead space and end-tidal) mouth-exhaled breath collected to a gas sampling bag, 3.9 ppbv in end-tidal mouth-exhaled breath, 1.3 ppbv in end-tidal nose-exhaled breath, 1.0 ppbv in unwashed skin and 0.6 ppbv in washed skin samples. Diurnal measurements showed that elevated HCN levels are to be expected in mouth-exhaled breath samples after food and drink intake, which suggests HCN generation in the oral cavity. The HCN concentrations in end-tidal nose-exhaled breath and skin gas samples were correlated, and it is concluded that these concentrations best reflect systemic HCN levels.

  • 27.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    et al.
    University of Helsinki.
    Vaittinen, O.
    Metsala, M.
    Kraus, P.
    Halonen, L.
    Direct detection of acetylene in air by continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy2010In: Applied physics. B, Lasers and optics (Print), ISSN 0946-2171, E-ISSN 1432-0649, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 671-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diode laser-based continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) in the near-infrared region has been used to measure the mixing ratio of acetylene (C(2)H(2)) in ambient air. Detection limits of 120 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) for 20 min and 340 pptv for 70 s acquisition time were achieved without sample pre-concentration, measuring on a C(2)H(2) absorption line at 6565.620 cm(-1) (similar to 1523 nm). Several indoor and outdoor air samples were collected at different locations in the Helsinki metropolitan area and analyzed using static-cell measurements. In addition, flow measurements of indoor and outdoor air have been performed continuously over several days with a time resolution of down to one minute. Baseline acetylene levels in the range of 0.4 to 3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), with a maximum around midday and a minimum during the night, were measured. Sudden high mixing ratios of up to 60 ppbv were observed in outdoor air during daytime on a minute time scale. In general, the indoor mixing ratios were found to be higher than those in outdoor air. The acetylene levels correlated with the ambient CO levels and with outdoor temperature.

  • 28.
    Schmidt, Florian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Vaittinen, Olavi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Metsälä, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lehto, Markku
    Forsblom, C.
    Groop, P-H
    Halonen, Lauri
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ammonia in breath and emitted from skin2013In: Journal of Breath Research, ISSN 1752-7155, E-ISSN 1752-7163, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 017109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonia concentrations in exhaled breath (eNH(3)) and skin gas of 20 healthy subjects were measured on-line with a commercial cavity ring-down spectrometer and compared to saliva pH and plasma ammonium ion (NH4+), urea and creatinine concentrations. Special attention was given to mouth, nose and skin sampling procedures and the accurate quantification of ammonia in humid gas samples. The obtained median concentrations were 688 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) for mouth-eNH(3), 34 ppbv for nose-eNH3, and 21 ppbv for both mouth-and nose-eNH(3) after an acidic mouth wash (MW). The median ammonia emission rate from the lower forearm was 0.3 ng cm(-2) min(-1). Statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlations between the breath, skin and plasma ammonia/ammonium concentrations were not found. However, mouth-eNH(3) strongly (p < 0.001) correlated with saliva pH. This dependence was also observed in detailed measurements of the diurnal variation and the response of eNH(3) to the acidic MW. It is concluded that eNH(3) as such does not reflect plasma but saliva and airway mucus NH4+ concentrations and is affected by saliva and airway mucus pH. After normalization with saliva pH using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, mouth-eNH(3) correlated with plasma NH4+, which points to saliva and plasma NH4+ being linked via hydrolysis of salivary urea.

  • 29. Sepman, Alexey
    et al.
    Ögren, Yngve
    Qu, Zhechao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Umeå University.
    Real-time in situ multi-parameter TDLAS sensing in the reactor core of an entrained-flow biomass gasifier2017In: Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, ISSN 1540-7489, E-ISSN 1873-2704, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 4541-4548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used to measure several important process parameters at two different locations inside the reactor of an atmospheric, air-blown 0.1 MWth biomass gasifier. Direct TDLAS at 2298 nm was employed for carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor (H2O), calibration-free scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy at 1398 nm for H2O and gas temperature, and direct TDLAS at 770 nm for gaseous elemental potassium, K(g), under optically thick conditions. These constitute the first in situ measurements of K(g) and temperature in a reactor core and in biomass gasification, respectively. In addition, soot volume fractions were determined at all TDLAS wavelengths, and employing fixed-wavelength laser extinction at 639 nm. Issues concerning the determination of the actual optical path length, as well as temperature and species non-uniformities along the line-of-sight are addressed. During a 2-day measurement campaign, peat and stem wood powder were first combusted at an air equivalence ratio (lambda) of 1.2 and then gasified at lambdas of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.35. Compared to uncorrected thermocouple measurements in the gas stream, actual average temperatures in the reactor core were significantly higher. The CO concentrations at the lower optical access port were comparable to those obtained by gas chromatography at the exhaust. In gasification mode, similar H2O values were obtained by the two different TDLAS instruments. The measured K(g) concentrations were compared to equilibrium calculations. Overall, the reaction time was found to be faster for peat than for stem wood. All sensors showed good performance even in the presence of high soot concentrations, and real-time detection was useful in resolving fast, transient behaviors, such as changes in stoichiometry. Practical implications of in-situ TDLAS monitoring on the understanding and control of gasification processes are discussed.

  • 30. Vaittinen, Olavi
    et al.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Metsälä, Markus
    Halonen, Lauri
    Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy2013In: Current Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 1573-4110, E-ISSN 1875-6727, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 463-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological monitoring usually relies on the collection of blood and urine samples. Although being non-invasive and providing an inextinguishable sampling pool, the analysis of exhaled breath is not well established. A gas phase measurement is, however, inherently simpler than the analysis of complex biological fluids, and modern methods have identified hundreds of volatile compounds in the breath of persons exposed to normal environmental concentrations. The most commonly deployed analytical techniques in breath analysis are gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and other MS-based methods. Lately, also laser-based optical methods, such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), have emerged in the field. With such instruments, it is possible to accurately quantify the concentrations of volatiles in exhaled breath down to below part-per-billion (ppb) levels with sub-second time resolution. Laser spectroscopy thereby enables real-time investigations during and after exposure to exogenous chemicals. In general, depending on the sampling approach used, the measured levels of the breath compounds may vary significantly. It is therefore of importance to systematically study and account for the phenomena affecting the recorded concentrations, and subsequently select an appropriate sampling and measurement strategy. In Helsinki, we have used CRDS to study the background levels of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), ammonia (NH3) and acetylene (C2H2) in the exhaled breath of healthy volunteers. Different sampling techniques have been employed in an effort to standardize the breath sampling event. The realtime elimination kinetics of breath C2H2 after smoking has also been studied.

  • 31.
    Valiev, Damir
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Qu, Zhechao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Steinvall, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Schmidt, Florian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Measurement and simulation of atomic potassium in the plume above potassium hydroxide in a methane-air flat flame2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Wagner, David R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhechao, Qu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Florian, Schmidt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Validation of reacting flow models via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy2014In: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production October 26 –31, 2014, Snowbird, Utah, USA, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Carlin, Danielle J.
    Collina, Elena
    Cormier, Stephania A.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gullett, Brian K.
    Johansson, Christer
    Lucas, Donald
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ortuno, Nuria
    Sallam, Asmaa A.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 8141-8159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in UmeAyen, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

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