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  • 1.
    Abdul Kader, Hale
    et al.
    Centre for Risk and Insurance Studies, University of Nottingham, Nottingham,.
    Adams, Michael
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    The determinants of reinsurance in the Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar years, 1919–392010Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 268-284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing a framework from agency theory, we use a panel data design to examine the factors motivating the level of demand for reinsurance in the rapidly developing Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar period 1919–39. We find that as hypothesised, reinsurance enabled Swedish fire insurers to mitigate underwriting and solvency risks and thus increased their capacity to underwrite new business in uncertain economic times. This in turn helped to increase the supply of indemnity coverage for property (buildings) fire risks in the Swedish insurance market. We also find that as expected, investment earnings are inversely related to reinsurance purchases. However, contrary to what was hypothesised, reinsurance appears to be positively related to liquidity levels, suggesting that over our period of analysis, fire insurers could have been reinsuring to ‘protect’ earnings and accumulated cash reserves therefore enabling investment opportunities to be realised. Analysis of the sub-period 1919–28 further supports this contention, while our results for the economic depression years after 1929 show that reinsurance helped mitigate underwriting and insolvency risks, suggesting that the reinsurance decision of fire insurance companies could be motivated by macroeconomic factors.

  • 2. Adams, M.
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Veprauskaite, E.
    Competing models of organizational form: Risk management strategies and underwriting profitability in the Swedish fire insurance market between 1903 and 19392012Inngår i: Journal of Economic History, ISSN 0022-0507, E-ISSN 1471-6372, Vol. 72, nr 4, s. 990-1014Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual and stock insurers have coexisted and competed against each other in insurance markets for centuries. In this article, we examine the risk management strategies and underwriting profitability of the different organizational forms in Sweden's property fire insurance market between 1903 and 1939. We demonstrate that stock insurers acted as intermediaries between policyholders and reinsurers to operate effectively in the potentially high-risk segments of the fire insurance market. In contrast, nationwide mutual insurers kept larger reserves to balance fluctuations in claims experiences, while local insurance pools relied on social obligation and trust to mobilize capital after adverse fire events.

  • 3.
    Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Norway.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Commercial banking, insurance and economic growth in Sweden between 1830 and 19982009Inngår i: Accounting Business and Financial History, ISSN 0958-5206, E-ISSN 1466-4275, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 21-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine empirically the dynamic historical relation between commercial bank lending, insurance and economic (income) growth in Sweden using time-series data from 1830 to 1998 and performing tests for Granger causality. Because of the non-stationary nature of the time series examined the procedure of Toda andYamamoto (1995) is used. Our results, which have accounted for possible regime changes due to different exchange rate mechanisms over time, indicate that insurance has Granger-caused economic growth and bank lending. Therefore, we conclude that insurance is an important prerequisite for stimulating economic growth and that this could have important implications for contemporary developing economies.

  • 4. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Veprauskaite, Elena
    Managing policy lapse risk in Sweden's life insurance market between 1915 and 19472020Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. 222-239Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the challenges that Swedish life insurers faced in managing the lapse risk of policies written on the lives of the industrial urban working class between 1915 and 1947. We observe that with the threat of State socialisation of insurance in the 1930s, industrial life insurers modified their business practices to better control policy lapses. Using firm-level data, we also analyse the effect of socio-economic changes, such as rising real wages, interest rate fluctuations and unemployment on life insurance policy lapses. Our results support contemporary tests of the emergency fund and interest rate explanations for the voluntary premature termination of life insurance policies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Yihui Jia, Joy
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Mutuality as a control for information asymmetry: a historical analysis of the claims experience of mutual and stock fire insur ance companies in Sweden, 1889 to 19392011Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 53, nr 7, s. 1074-1091Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We test two competing arguments regarding the influence of organisational form onunderwritingperformance usingdatafromtheSwedish fireinsuranceindustry for the years 1889 to 1939 – a period of both economic growth and stagnation. Since mutuality is a response to information asymmetry problems, mutual insurers are expected to report lower annual claims relative to premiums than stock insurance companies. However, an alternative view is that stock insurers seek to reduce information asymmetry problems by issuing non-participatory rights insurance contracts with high deductibles that induce risk-sharing between the insurer’s shareholders and policyholders. This implies that stock insurers are likely to report lower annual claims than mutual insurers. Our results show that organisational form is an important determinant of the claims experience of Swedish fire insurers, suggesting that mutuality acts as an effective control for information asymmetries in the market.

  • 6. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Hardwick, Philip
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Firm size and growth in Sweden's life insurance market between 1855 and 1947: A test of Gibrat's law2014Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 956-974Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data for the period from 1855 to 1947 and the two sub-periods, 1855-1902 and 1903-47, the article examines whether the organic growth rates of 38 Swedish life insurance firms are independent of size, as predicted by Gibrat's (1931) Law of Proportionate Effects. Using panel unit root tests and panel Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) regression, the article finds a significant difference between the growth rates of small and large Swedish life insurance firms (with smaller firms tending to grow faster than larger firms), a result that clearly contradicts Gibrat's Law as a long-run tendency in the Swedish life insurance sector. significant influences were also found on firm growth from profitability, organisational form, reinsurance, the real rate of interest and the Swedish regulatory environment.

  • 7.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandra
    Regional labour market effects of immigration on low-skilled workers: the case of Sweden 1990–20032021Inngår i: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 456-476Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of immigration on the labour market outcomes of low-educated natives (i.e. residents without a university diploma). Using the labour market competition theory, which argues that the labour market effects of natives depend on the skill set of immigrants, the paper addresses whether immigrants are complementary to or substitutes for native workers.

    Design/methodology/approach: Longitudinal matched employer–employee data on Sweden are used to estimate how low-educated natives, in regions experiencing the greatest influx of refugees from the Balkan wars, responded to this supply shock with regard to real wages, employment and job mobility between 1990 and 2003.

    Findings: First, the analysis shows that low-educated native workers respond to the arrival of immigrants with an increase in real wages. Second, although employment prospects in general worsened for low-skilled workers in most regions, this is not attributable to the regions experiencing the largest supply shock. Third, there are indications that low-skilled natives in immigration-rich regions are more likely to change workplace, particularly in combination with moving upwards in the wage distribution.

    Originality/value: Rather than seeing an emergence of the commonly perceived displacement mechanism when an economy is subject to a supply shock, the regional findings suggest that high inflows of immigrants tend to induce a mechanism that pulls native workers upwards in the wage distribution. This is important, as the proportion of immigrants is seldom evenly distributed within a nation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Bilateral shipping and trade: Swedish-Finnish experiences in the post-war period2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the bilateral shipping and trade between Finland and Sweden during the post-war period. It comprises five articles and one introductory chapter for which the common point of departure is the growth and transformation of bilateral trade and shipping. The first two articles analyse the structural change of bilateral trade from a national and regional perspective. The three following articles provide an overview and analysis of the ferry shipping. By integrating the perspective in these articles in the introductory chapter and by providing a long historical record, the change of economic relations between Finland and Sweden in the post-war period is discerned. This thesis applies an economic historical approach and is founded on various fields of social science. The issue of trade is analysed within the framework of conventional and new trade theory, and the analysis of ferry shipping is governed by economic and geographic theories. The studies on trade shows that the transformation of production seen in Finland and Sweden meant that the trade increasingly became dependent on an exchange of products arising from matching industries. In turn the foreign trade arising from the Northern part of Finland and Sweden was still dominated by so called inter-industry trade. In addition to these results, the studies of ferry services shows that the growth of vehicles and passengers conveyance, together with the expanded onboard services, also intensified the commercial exchange. Due of the multi-output structure, the ferry service efficiently met the growing demand of travel and trade. The main conclusion of this thesis is that the convergence of incomes and economic structure had a significant impact on bilateral trade and ferry shipping. In addition the process of economic integration, technological advances together with specific policies issued on shipping also contributed to strengthen the economic ties between Finland and Sweden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Convergence and structure of trade: The Swedish-Finnish case2004Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 27-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Economic efficiency of multiproduct structure: Evidence from the Baltic ferry industryManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier, Östersund.
    Företagsdynamik och tillväxt: En kartläggning och analys av företagsdynamikoch arbetsproduktivitetstillväxt i Sverige2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the dynamic relation between firm demography and aggregate productivity growth in Sweden during the period 1997-2003. By using enterprise demography data, the interaction between micro dynamics and aggregate productivity growth is discerned. The result shows that the contribution of entry and exit of firms on aggregate productivity growth is small but still positive for the total economy, suggesting that entering firms are more productive than exiting firms. The book shows that the productivity growth within the continuing firms is the key factor of the aggregated productivity growth.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Järnvägen omistlig del av Umeåregionens utveckling2013Inngår i: Umeå 1314-2014: 100 berättelser om 700 år / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Olsson, Susanne Haugen; Lars-Erik Edlund och Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Skellefteå: Artos & Norma bokförlag, 2013, s. 142-143Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Mutual insurance 1550-2015: from guild welfare and friendly societies to contemporary micro-insurers2018Inngår i: Continuity and Change, ISSN 0268-4160, E-ISSN 1469-218X, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 447-449Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier, Östersund.
    Näringslivets tillstånd 2007: Företagsstrukturen och dess betydelse för produktivitet och tillväxt2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    ITPS kartläggning och analys visar att det från den ökning av andelen småföretag som skett sedan 1970-talet kommit ett ganska blygsamt bidrag till tillväxten. Det är i stället de stora företagen som fortsatt står för det största bidraget till tillväxten i BNP och den största andelen av sysselsättningen. En kategori företag som under perioden 2002–2004 haft stor betydelse för tillväxt i både förädlingsvärde och sysselsättning är de snabbväxande företagen. De mest snabbväxande företagen har mellan 2002 och 2004 bidragit med en ökning av förädlingsvärdet på cirka 160 miljarder kronor och en sysselsättningsökning på mer än 120 000 personer samtidigt som övriga företags bidrag varit negativt. En studie av huruvida en del av förklaringen till de små företagens låga bidrag till produktivitetstillväxten beror på att det i stället är de stora företagen som exploaterar de små företagens idéer och innovationer ger inte stöd för denna hypotes. Denna studie pekar liksom tidigare studier på att det oavsett företagsstorlek, är det ambitiösa entreprenörskapet som är av avgörande betydelse för den långsiktiga tillväxten.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier, Östersund.
    Näringslivets tillstånd 2008: Tjänsteparadox skapar tillväxt2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    ITPS identifierar en tjänsteparadox som innebär att samhället utifrån ett arbetsmarknadsperspektiv förvisso är ett tjänstesamhälle, men utifrån  ett konsumtionsperspektiv fortfarande är ett prylsamhälle, det vill säga ett samhälle som i allt högre grad präglas av materiell konsumtion. Analysen visar på de underliggande drivkrafterna bakom denna ekonomiska utveckling och att det som vid en första anblick kan tyckas vara paradoxalt är konsistent och logiskt. Huvudförklaringen är grundläggande skillnader mellan olika typer av tjänster och snabbt fallande priser på varor. De personliga tjänsterna är en knapp och dyr resurs, vilket korrekt återspeglas på marknaden. De icke personliga tjänsterna däremot har stor ekonomisk potential och det är också dessa som växer. ITPS analys visar att ”tjänstesamhället”, rätt hanterat, inte är ett hot mot tillväxten. Tvärtom visar analysen att de som förutspådde att den ökade sysselsättningen inom tjänstesektorn skulle leda till avtagande tillväxt har haft fel.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 16.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Samma skatt – samma välfärd?: Effektivitet, service och skatter i kommuner och landsting2011Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT
  • 17.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    The determinats of ferry traffic flows: A gravity equation approachManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    The Swedish-Finnish ferry shipping market: An economic historical perspectiveManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Utrikeshandeln i norra Sverige och Finland2003Inngår i: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 69-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    I artikeln studeras sammansättningen av utrikeshandel i Botniaområdet, de svenska länen Västerbotten och Västernorrland och de finländska f.d. Vasa län. I studien används Heckscher-Ohlinteorin för att analysera förhållandet mellan utrikeshandels sammansättning, faktorintensitet och faktortillgångar. Den empiriska analysen stödjer teorin. Botniaområdet har en omfattande nettoexport av produkter från industrier som har hög naturintensitet och energiintensitet. Slutsatsen är att de komparativa fördelarna baseras på de i området relativt rika faktortillgångarna.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Varför grunda en stad?: Umeå i den tidigmoderna handels- och näringspolitiken2022Inngår i: Västerbotten förr & nu, E-ISSN 2003-6698Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2022 firar Umeå 400 år. Granskar vi dokumenten finner vi att staden fick nya privilegier år 1622. Det vill säga, de som var borgare och medlemmar i staden fick rätt att bedriva handel och att sköta vissa gemensamma angelägenheter. I gengäld tänkte sig kungen och mer allmänt det styrande rådet i Stockholm att det skulle bli enklare att få in skatten. Men först efter hand lyckades borgarna få sådan fart på verksamheten, att staden kunde börja växa. 

  • 21.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Life insurance and income growth: the case of Sweden 1830-19502010Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 203-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide an analysis of the life insurance market in Sweden from the early 19th century to the mid 20th century. We consider determinants put forward in the financial history literature to explain the growth of life insurance. The paper shows that income elasticity of demand gives a fairly good approximation of the development in the twentieth century, while the development of risk and insurance innovation among other things need to be taken into account to explain the growth of life insurance in nineteenth century. The price of life insurance, measured as the overhead-to-premium-income-ratio, remained fairly constant during the second half of the 19th century, while the risk, as indicated in terms of crude mortality rates and its volatility did decline.  This probably improved the return on life-insurance savings and further helped the entry of new firms. The average premium size was reduced to enable the diffusion of life insurance to workers.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandro
    Arenagruppen, Arenaide, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Refugee immigration and the growth of low-wage work in the EU152019Inngår i: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 7, nr 39, s. 1-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper focuses on current trends in refugee migration and job polarization. In so doing, we assess the role of refugee migration in relation to institutional, technological and globalization factors in an effort to trace the factors underlying the growth of low-paying occupations in EU 15 between 1995 and 2017. Our empirical findings suggest that refugee migration has a small but positive and statistically significant impact on the growth of low-wage occupations in the EU 15 as a whole. However, the effect is attributed to Southern Europe and the UK and Irish economies. Despite hosting relatively large numbers of refugee migrants, the effects in the Nordic countries and Continental Europe are negligible, if present, and non-existent in the long run (5 years). When including all migrant workers, we find a limited impact on the growth of low-wage work in general, while the impact of immigrant workers from low-income third party countries becomes positive for the UK and Irish economy, but less for other European macro-regions. This suggests that institutional settings can play an important role in how the economy adjusts to migration. It also suggests that traditional fiscal cost calculations in relation to migration are often overestimated, as they implicitly build on the assumption that refugees and general immigration have great impacts on the growth of low-wage occupations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Insurance models and climate risk assessments in a historical context2016Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 219-243Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to the consequences of climate change has developed as a growing field of concern in the insurance business. However, climate related risks is not entirely a new field in insurance. Historically, a large number of insurance organizational choices and strategies have been used to mitigate the financial impacts of extreme events and uncertainties associated with climate change. Taking the case of forest in Sweden, this paper reviews the ways in which climate related risks such as storm/wind and fire risks have been assured. The study shows that climate related risks generally has increased over time and that major hazard events have been decisive for the strategy and organization choices. The 20th century development shows that corporate insurance coverage increased by higher anticipated risk, while self-insurance and public insurance was reduced. However, in more recent time the expansion of corporate insurance has stagnated. Raised premiums and tighten terms following historically extreme weather events has led government and forest owners to assume more climate risks.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Is Structural Change Speeding Up?: The Case of Sweden, 1850-20002008Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 1750-2837 (electronic) 0358-5522 (paper), Vol. 56, nr 3, s. 192-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the importance of structural change on productivity growth and conditions in the labour market. From a productivity perspective, a positive relation is found between structural change and productivity growth from the industrial breakthrough until the first oil crisis. From the early 1970s, this positive relation weakened and eventually became negative as labour moved from high to low productive industries. From a labour market perspective, it is found that extent of sectoral reallocation of labour has become more intense over the twentieth century. The extent of job gains and losses seems to have been more intense during the postwar period than during the industrialization phase.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Unintentional climate policy: Swedish experiences of carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth 1950-20052010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the development of carbon dioxide emissions in Sweden, especially with a focus on the absolute reductions during the post-war period, during the 1970s and 1980s. The paper shows that the largest reductions were achieved before the introduction of an active climate policy in 1991. This was in turn the result of significant improvements in energy efficiency and energy conversion, while structural changes were considerably less important. One reason behind this decoupling process may be that the active energy policy put pressure on households and industries to conserve energy and to substitute from oil to electricity and biofuels. The process was substantially reinforced by the development of world oil prices in combination with the development of domestic electricity prices, where nuclear power seems to have played an important role.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 26.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Välfärden, skatterna, baumoleffekten och högerpopulismens framväxt2018Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 7, s. 33-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi ser i dag en förtroendekris för de politiska krafter som under hela efterkrigstiden har fört en kamp kring avvägningen mellan skatter och offentligt finansierad välfärd under förutsättning att den makroekonomiska jämvikten inteäventyras. Utmanare är högerpopulismen som vunnit mark genom utpekandetav invandring som en allmän förklaring till höga skatter och upplevda brister ivälfärden. Men lika lite som invandringen egentligen kan förklara långsiktigtstigande skatter, lika bortglömd tycks Baumoleffekten vara. Bristen på strukturellekonomisk-historisk analys för att förstå utmaningarna för välfärdsfinansieringär uppenbara

  • 27.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Mike B., Adams
    Jonas, Andersson
    The Historical Relation between Banking, Insurance and Economic Growth in Sweden: 1830 to 19982005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Household risk strategies during a pandemic – experiences from the 1918 influenza pandemic2023Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 71, nr 1, s. 36-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2020, The COVID-19 crisis has put great pressure on the economy worldwide. Only time can tell whether the COVID-19 crisis will have permanent effects on corporate and household behaviour and how it will affect society at large. This article examines historical experiences of how households managed the financial consequences of rising mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic. We find that the previous pandemic led to an immediate and major increase in primarily small-sum industrial life insurance policies designed for blue-collar workers. The increase in new policies did not, however, have a lasting effect. By the time the pandemic had faded, the number of policies had dropped to below pre-pandemic conditions. This historical experience underlines the fact that there are limits to the extent to which even a major shock, such as a pandemic, can lead to behavioural change among households as currently being predicted in relation to COVID-19.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Household risk strategies during a pandemic: Experiences from the 1918 influenza pandemic2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The corona crisis has during the year 2020 put large pressure on the economy. Only time can tell whether the corona crisis will have permanent effects on corporate and household behaviour and how it will affect society at large. This article examines historical experiences of how households managed the financial consequences of the rising mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic. We find that the pandemic led to an immediate and major increase in primarily industrial life insurance policies on small sums designed for blue-collar workers. The increase in new policies did however not have a lasting effect. When the pandemic had faded over, the number of policies had dropped to bellow pre-pandemic conditions. This historical experience underlines that there are limits to the extent to which even a major shock, such as a pandemic, can lead to the kinds of behavioural change on which recent policies have been predicated.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Hushållens riskstrategier under en pandemi – erfarenheter från spanska sjukan2020Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 48, nr 8, s. 73-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi befinner oss i en pandemi som befaras få stora konsekvenser för samhällsekonomin. I denna artikel undersöker vi historiska erfarenheter av hur hushåll hanterade finansiella risker orsakade av influensa-epidemin spanska sjukan, 1918–20. Spanska sjukan ökade livförsäkringstagandet under de år som sjukdomen härjade, men fick inga bestående effekter på hushållens riskstrategier.  Erfarenheterna från spanska sjukan inger begränsade förhoppningar för den ökade invididualiseringen av krisansvaret vi sett under senare år, exempelvis har ansvaret för beredskapslager delvis lyfts över mot hushållen. För att vi ska vara rustade för nya pandemier krävs politisk konsensus kring att pandemiberedskap bör vara ett långsiktigt, samhälleligt åtagande. 

  • 31.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Sickness absence in compulsory and voluntary health insurance: the case of Sweden at the turn of the twentieth century2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 65, nr 1, s. 6-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the twentieth century, Swedish health insurance was organised according to the Western European models of both voluntary, `fraternal´ principles and compulsory, `factory scheme´ principles. In this paper, we trace the characteristics of both organisational forms, and compare the sickness absence by considering the role of risk selection and mitigation across a large panel of voluntary and compulsory health insurance societies operating in Sweden between 1900 and 1910. We find that voluntary societies used a wide set of rules and practices in order to select and monitor members in order to keep down the number of sick cases. Compulsory societies applied shorter waiting periods and offered more medical treatment, leading to more frequent but shorter sickness absences.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Harris, Bernard
    Social Work and Social Policy, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Did statutory insurance improve the welfare of Swedish workers?: The statutory workplace accident insurance act of 19162022Inngår i: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702, Vol. 63, s. 210-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare researchers have regarded statutory accident insurance in 1916 as a starting point for the exceptional expansion of the Swedish welfare state. However, rather less attention has been paid to the roles played by mutual insurance societies and employer compensation schemes in offering voluntary welfare protection. We argue that voluntary welfare protection was an integral part of the early-twentieth century welfare system and played a crucial role in protecting workers in the case of sickness and accident. We also examine the limitations of these arrangements and explore the ways in which the design of the statutory scheme ensured that there was a continuing role for voluntary provision after the new Act came into operation. We also explore the impact of the scheme on wage levels, and show how its introduction eroded the wage premiums which had previously been earned by workers in high-risk industries.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Harris, Bernard
    Social Work and Social Policy, University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Morbidity among working class men and women in early twentieth century Sweden2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates gendered morbidity patterns by employing micro data derived from sickness records and membership ledgers on working class men and women in the early 20th century Sweden. We find that the main reason for gendered morbidity differences - that woman faced fewer, but longer sickness episodes than men – reflects gendered productive and reproductive activities. Men suffered from the large number of work-place accidents as workers in the production sector, while women faced major risks due to pregnancy, childbearing and related sickness. Women also suffered more from for diseases of the blood, diseases of the digestive & metabolic system and diseases the genitourinary than men. Both men and women faced shorter, but longer, sickness episodes in urban areas attributed to the underlying differences in morbidity causes during the epidemiological transition.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Lilljegren, Josef
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Adverse selection in mutual benefit societies: an longitudinal approach2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual benefit societies evolved as the major provider for illness, accident and burialinsurance in the late 19 th and early 20 th century in the Western world. One of themajor problems facing the insurers was the risk for adverse selection; that unhealthyindividuals had more incentive then healthy to insure when priced for the averagerisk. By empirically examine if the longevity among insured in mutual benefit societieswas different from uninsured, we seek to identify the presence of adverse section. Wefind no compelling evidence that unhealthy individuals was more likely to insure, orreasons to believe that adverse selection was behind the decline of mutual benefitsocieties in the twentieth century.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Lilljegren, Josef
    Faculty of Economics and Business, Groningen University, the Netherland.
    Pre-welfare state provision and adverse selection: enrolment in a Swedish nationwide health insurance society2023Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 74-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual benefit societies evolved as the major provider for sickness, accident and life insurance in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries on both sides of the Atlantic. One of the major problems facing insurers was the risk of adverse selection, i.e. that unhealthy individuals had more incentives than healthy individuals to insure when priced for the average risk. By empirically examining whether longevity among insured individuals in a nationwide mutual health society was different from a matched sample of uninsured individuals, we seek to identify the presence of adverse selection. We find no compelling evidence showing that unhealthy individuals were more likely to insure, or reasons to believe that problems related to adverse selection would have been a major reason for government intervention in the health insurance market in Sweden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Nystedt, Paul
    Dept. of Economics, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University.
    Workplace accidents and workers solidarity: mutual health insurance in early twentieth-century Sweden2022Inngår i: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 75, nr 1, s. 203-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the industrialization period, the rate of workplace-related accidents increased. Because of the lack of public insurance, mutual health insurance societies became the main providers of workplace accident insurance among workers. Due to large differences in accident risk, health insurance societies were potentially exposed to the risk of adverse selection, since they employed equal pricing for all members regardless of risk profile. This article investigates the impact of workplace accident risk on health insurance selection and outcomes. We employ household budget surveys encompassing urban workers in Sweden during the early twentieth century. We find evidence for a redistribution from low- to high-risk-exposed workers, as workplace accident risk had a significant and positive impact on receiving health insurance benefits, also when controlling for a variety of factors. Workers exposed to greater risks in the workplace were more likely to have health insurance but did not pay higher premiums. The redistribution from low- to high-risk-exposed workers was largely accepted and viewed as an act of solidarity between workers. Given that health insurance societies were aware of this redistribution, we argue for the presence of informed, rather than adverse, selection.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Prado, Svante
    Ekonomisk historia, Göteborgs universitet.
    Tillväxt och strukturomvandling2020Inngår i: Vad är ekonomisk historia? / [ed] Lena Andersson-Skog, Oskar Broberg, Rodney Edvinsson, Kerstin Enflo, Kristina Lilja, Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, s. 117-152Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Profits, dividends and industry restructuring: the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 19772016Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, nr 3, s. 278-296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of profit distribution in the restructuring of the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 1977. In addressing this issue, we will draw on the life-cycle theory and market imperfection arguments to examine whether the less profitable firms shared more of their profits as dividends, or remained on the market longer by reinvesting the majority of the profits. Our study shows that an increasing share of the profits was distributed to owners over time, and thus less profit was reinvested in industrial renewal. We find that the observed general upward trend in dividends can be attributed to the decline in profit and firm legacy, as firms in the Swedish pulp and paper industry kept dividends up while reducing reinvestment as their profit margins decreased over time. Our study shows that the market imperfections related to capital taxation and investment funds increased rather than decreased dividends.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Danley, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Workers’ participation in regional economic change following establishment closure2020Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 54, nr 2, s. 589-604Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses if and when workers affected by economic destruction in the form of establishment closures move to more productive or newly started establishments in the region, become self-employed, leave the region or become displaced. Results from multinominal probit models show that the majority of these workers face destructive employment outcomes from a Schumpeterian point of view compared to a matched sample of workers not subject to a closure. However, we do find indications of a creative destruction as a small, albeit significant, share become employed in young establishments. Different types of human capital influence the likelihood of triggering positive or negative regional outcomes. While higher education significantly decreases the risk for unemployment, high-income earners more often become engaged in creative outcomes. Firm tenure increases the likelihood of becoming employed in younger establishments. There are significant spatial differences where metropolitan regions excel as loci of creative change, whereas smaller and peripheral regions face far less creative outcomes of economic transformation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Exclusion of women and organizational characteristics: Swedish mutual health insurance 1901-19102019Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 1352-1378Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual societies have been recognised for their ability to mitigate information asymmetry. Although successful in reducing sickness claims, the exclusion of women was common. Health insurance societies argued the exclusion was a means to reduce adverse selection and moral hazard since women were regarded as higher risk. In this paper, we explore differences in organisational characteristics between societies that excluded and societies that did not exclude women as members between 1901 to 1910. Based on panel data, the study shows that societies that excluded women were less successful in keeping down sickness claims, in relation to benefits, than gendermixed societies

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    The compulsory public pension and the demand for life insurance: the case of Sweden, 1884–191412015Inngår i: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 244-263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ cost-of-living surveys, business archives, and firm data to examine the impact of the compulsory pension on the demand for life insurance in Sweden from 1884 to 1914—a period that covers the implementation of the first public compulsory old-age pension reform and the take-off of industry life insurance. As predicted on the basis of the contemporary literature on crowding-out effects, we find that the compulsory pension reduced the demand for life insurance. Our panel-data analysis of lapse rates on insurance policies shows a significant crowding-out effect of pension payments. We conclude that the introduction of the general compulsory pension had a crowding-out effect on households’ holdings of insurance policies.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Växande Regionala Obalanser2018Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 8, s. 52-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska ekonomiska geografin genomgår en snabb förändring. Allt fler tjänstejobb skapas i storstäderna. I takt med att industrijobben minskar bidrar det till färre jobb totalt sett utanför storstäderna. Det hänger samman med storstädernas ekonomiska mångfald: att tjänsterna växer fram i nära koppling till andra relaterade verksamheter. Många tjänster kräver specialkompetenser och hög utbildning, resurser som främst finns i storstäder. Därtill finns starkare efterfrågan kopplad till högre privat köpkraft och offentlig konsumtion. Då dessa processer i hög grad är självförstärkande, spelar politiken en viktig roll för att hantera omvandlingens negativa effekter.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Adams, Mike
    School of Management, University of Bath.
    Upreti, Vineet
    School of Management, University of Bath.
    The determinants of investment returns in the fire insurance industry: the case of Sweden, 1903-19392013Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 73-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Weemploy a panel data research design to examine the determinants of investmentreturns in the Swedish property fire insurance industry from 1903 to 1939 – aperiod of great economic and political uncertainty. Contrary to expectations,we find that mutual fire insurers generated systematically higher investmentreturns than stock fire insurers. Investment returns are inversely related toleverage but positively related to liquidity, showing that firms adopting amore precautionary investment strategy attain higher returns.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Di Clemente, Riccardo
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Exeter University , Exeter, EX4 EPY, GBR, United Kingdom;The Alan Turing Institute , London, NW12DB, GBR, United Kingdom.
    Lengyel, Balázs
    Agglomeration and Social Networks Lendület Research Group, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Eötvös Loránd Research Network , Budapest, 1097, HUN, Hungary;Laboratory for Networks, Technology and Innovation, Corvinus Institute for Advanced Studies, Corvinus University of Budapest , Budapest, 1093, Hungary.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Understanding european integration with bipartite networks of comparative advantage2022Inngår i: PNAS Nexus, E-ISSN 2752-6542, Vol. 1, nr 5, artikkel-id pgac262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Core objectives of European common market integration are convergence and economic growth, but these are hampered by redundancy, and value chain asymmetries. The challenge is how to harmonize labor division to reach global competitiveness, meanwhile bridging productivity differences across the EU. We develop a bipartite network approach to trace pairwise co-specialization by applying the revealed comparative advantage method within and between the EU15 and Central and Eastern European (CEE). This approach assesses redundancies and the division of labor in the EU at the level of industries and countries. We find significant co-specialization among CEE countries but a diverging specialization between EU15 and CEE. Productivity increases in those CEE industries that have co-specialized with other CEE countries after EU accession, while co-specialization across CEE and EU15 countries is less related to productivity growth. These results show that a division of sectoral specialization can lead to productivity convergence between EU15 and CEE countries.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45. Gutiérrez González, Pablo
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Managing financial constraints: undercapitalization and underwriting capacity in Spanish fire insurance2018Inngår i: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 71, nr 2, s. 567-592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinsurance is a vital financial device for enhancing underwriting capacity, ceding risks, and mitigating financial distress. By supplying financial resources and services, reinsurance can facilitate growth and expansion in the insurance business. Focusing on the insurance sector in the emerging Spanish economy and using a novel dataset on fire insurance companies, this article examines the role of fire insurance in the national capital formation, the importance of reinsurance as a vehicle for expanding the country's domestic underwriting capacity, and how the import of capital impacted on the balance of payment, from the introduction of the first comprehensive legislation regarding insurance in 1908 to the outbreak of the Civil War in 1936. Considering the situation of undercapitalization, the singularities of the insurance market, and the changes in regulatory schemes, we find that foreign reinsurance became a key financial vehicle for increasing underwriting capacity in Spain. We also show the struggle of an emerging market to find ways to keep the balance of current accounts and raise capital when financial infrastructure was underdeveloped. The diffusion of reinsurance networks from the core of industrial western countries towards emerging economies was one of the mechanisms for financial modernization on a global scale.

  • 46.
    Krantz, Olle
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Tillväxt och konvergens. En jämförelse av den ekonomiska utvecklingen i Finland och Sverige under 1800- och 1900-talen: (Growth and Convergence. A Comparison between the Economic Performance in Finland and Sweden in the 19th and 20th Centuries)2006Inngår i: Från olika till jämlika : Finlands och Sveriges ekonomier på 1900-talet, Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland, Helsingfors , 2006Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 47.
    Levin, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Determinants of energy consumption: the Swedish residential sector 1920-2010Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Household energy consumption is an important aspect of mitigating climate change and the overall use of energy on a global scale. Energy consumed by households, excluding transportation uses, accounted for about 14% of delivered world energy consumption in 2008. In this paper, we examine the development of energy consumption in the Swedish residential sector during the period 1920 to 2010. We show that the growing residential building stock has contributed to higher energy consumption per household over time. Since the 1970s, however, higher real energy prices have put pressure on households to reduce their energy consumption. We find that a combination of higher market prices and taxes on energy contributed to the reduction of energy per household, causing a 10% reduction in aggregated final energy consumption.

  • 48.
    Lilljegren, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Variation in organizational form across lines of property insurance: Sweden, 1913-19392014Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 77-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the impact of organizational structure on risk taking across different lines of property insurance (fire, marine, vehicle and specialized property insurance) in Sweden from 1913 to 1939. Based on the theoretical arguments whereby the mutual organizational form has a competitive advantage in underwriting homogeneous but unknown risk distribution, while the stock organizational form is more likely to underwrite more volatile and heterogeneous risk categories, we conclude that organizational form has a significant impact on risk taking. Our empirical analysis shows that the risk taking, measured as incurred claims to anticipated losses, was on average lower among mutual insurers. When comparing across lines of insurance, the analysis shows that the mutual form was more successful in keeping down risks in fire and marine, while less so in vehicle and specialized property insurance. Stock companies mitigated the higher risk by ceding more premiums to reinsurers and by diversifying more across different lines of insurance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Politiker blundar för orsaken till välfärdens ökade kostnader2018Inngår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, , s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Förtroendekrisen för de etablerade partierna bottnar i att långsiktigt stigande kostnader för välfärden ignorerats. Talet om höga skatter för att förbättra välfärden är en skönmålning då de höga skatterna täckt upp för stigande kostnader. Och produktiviteten i välfärden har inte kunnat höjas med marknads­reformer.

  • 50.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    All fired up: the growth of fire insurance in Sweden, 1830-19502010Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 99-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we investigate supply and demand factors that have been put forward to explain the growth of fire insurance markets in Sweden during the financial revolution. We show that income growth and urbanisation fostered the demand for fire insurance. The supply of fire insurance, on the other hand, helps explain financial market development. Fire insurance assisted in mortgaging fixed assets, such as houses, through guaranteeing them as collateral. On both the upply side and the demand side, fire insurance was a key factor of the financial revolution in Sweden.

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