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  • 1.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Social proximity and firm performance: the importance of family member ties in workplaces2016In: Regional Studies, Regional Science, ISSN 0080-0694, E-ISSN 2168-1376, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study empirically assesses the role of social proximity, defined as the concentration of family members (FM) in firms, on firm performance. Based on longitudinal micro-data for the period 1995–2010 connecting information on workers and their workplaces in the Swedish labour market, the effects of FM (parents, children, siblings and grandparents) on per capita productivity in 15,359 firms were analysed. The results indicate that FM positively affect firm performance. In particular, the results suggest that in specialized regions (mainly small regions) FM have a positive influence on performance and can thus compensate for relative shortage of regional agglomeration economies.

  • 2.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Familial relationships and firm performance: the impact of entrepreneurial family relationships2019In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 31, no 5-6, p. 357-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the family may serve as a resource for entrepreneurs, it has been studied separately in different disciplines. In this paper, we combine the arguments on familial relationships (family firm literature) and skill variety (regional learning literature) to analyse how different forms of entrepreneurial family relationships (co-occurrences) facilitate firm performance, and how familial relationships moderate the effects of skill variety on firm performance. Using longitudinal data (2002-2012) on a sample of privately owned firms with up to 50 employees with matched information on all employees, our results show that entrepreneur children relationship is the dominant dyad familial relationship in family firms. The fixed effects estimates demonstrate that entrepreneurial family relationships do affect firm performance but that this is dependent on the type of familial relationship. Children and spouses show a positive relationship with firm performance while siblings of the entrepreneur show no significant relationship with performance. The estimates further indicate that familial relationships involving spouses abate the negative effects of having too similar or too different types of skills. The paper thus contributes to new knowledge regarding not only whether family relationships matter for performance, but also in what way they matter.

  • 3.
    Adjei Korang, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Skogen som resurs in Region Västernorrland: näringslivsnalys 2002-20152019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i perspektivet att ekonomisk utveckling i grund och botten är betingat på de kompetenser som används i produktionen av varor och tjänster, har denna rapport analyserat skogsnäringarnas utveckling i Västernorrland 2002-2015 med avseende på sysselsättning, antal arbetsgivare och arbetsinkomster. Särskilt fokus ligger på hur Västernorrlands skogsindustri är kopplad till övriga delar av näringslivet i form av det humankapital som de delar med varandra. Detta görs empiriskt genom analyser av regionens skill-relatedness, det vill säga flöden av arbetskraft mellan sektorer i regionen, för att grafiskt visa i vilken grad olika sektorer är relaterade till varandra. Utifrån argumentet att humankapital är en central resurs för regional utveckling låter vi data visa hur regionens skogsnäringar är kopplade till övriga näringslivet, och därigenom belysa branschöverskridande relationer bortom gängse föreställningar om kopplingar drivna av det officiella industriklassificeringssystemet. 

    Även om inkomstutvecklingen och andelen kvinnor i Västernorrland följer riksgenomsnittet har både antalet företag och sysselsatta utvecklats betydligt sämre i Västernorrland. Generella utbildningsnivån har ökat både i riket och i regionen, men Västernorrland har generellt en lägre utbildningsnivå. Skogsnäringarna i Västernorrland bryter delvis mot detta generella regionala mönster. Både antalet sysselsatta och antalet arbetsställen inom skogsnäringarna har kraftigt minskat i antal och tvärtemot regionens generella utveckling har också andelen högutbildade (med minst treårig universitetsexamen) minskat liksom andelen kvinnor. Trots dessa kraftiga rationaliseringar på personalsidan är utvecklingen för skogsnäringarna inom Västernorrland betydligt mindre negativ än för riket i övrigt. Det gäller framförallt inkomstnivåerna bland de anställda. Inkomstnivåerna i Sveriges skogsnäring har sjunkit i relativa termer men ökat med drygt 20% i Västernorrland och ligger 2015 på en något högre nivå än övriga näringar i regionen. Det kan i sin tur tyda på en positiv omvandling mot mer kvalificerade arbetstillfällen, även om det också inneburit kraftiga rationaliseringar. 

    För att belysa hur skogsnäringarna är inbäddade i regionens struktur av kompetenser har vi kartlagt graden av specialisering (hur representerad en industri är i regionen relativ i riket), graden av relatedness(hur väl en industri är kopplad till andra industrier genom personalflöden), och graden av inbäddning (förekomsten av andra industrier i regionen som delar liknande kompetensresurser). När det gäller den relativa närvaron av skogsnäringar i regionen utifrån antalet sysselsatta finner vi att ingen av skogsnäringarna har en betydande relativ specialisering i Västernorrland. Det är endast tillverkning av wellpapp och pappers- och pappförpackningar som har en specialiseringsgrad över 1 (dvs högre än riksgenomsnittet). Det innebär med andra ord att trots ett relativt högt bidrag till regionalt förädlingsvärde och skatter är näringarna underrepresenterade på regionens arbetsmarknad. Det återspeglas bland annat i den relativt kraftiga minskningen av sysselsatta och arbetsställen vi identifierat (och som pågått långt innan den period denna rapport analyserar) men också den relativt kraftiga ökningen av inkomster (högre än riksgenomsnittet för skogsnäringarna och i paritet med regionen i övrigt). Skogsnäringarna har med andra ord genomfört produktivitetshöjande rationaliseringar vilket i sig kan gynna regionen.

    Utifrån vårt analytiska ramverk är det dock aningen mer problematiskt att de relativt få arbetsgivarna inom skogsnäringarna också är relativt isolerade i regionen utifrån ett kompetensresursperspektiv. Det är endast tillverkning av andra byggnads- och inredningssnickerier, skogsförvaltning, drivning och pappers- och papptillverkning som har en genomsnittlig koppling till andra näringar i regionen över gränsvärdet för en kompetensrelaterad verksamhet. Detta återspeglas också i hur inbäddad skogsnäringen är utifrån den relativa koncentrationen av kompetensrelaterade verksamheter. Det är endast ovan nämnda fyra näringar som är tydligt inbäddade i regionens näringslivsstruktur, och endast två (pappers- och papptillverkning och tillverkning av byggnads- och inredningssnickerier) som har ett inbäddningsindex över regionens medelvärde. Det innebär att skogsnäringarna generellt är relativt perifera när vi pratar om vilka kompetensresurser skogsnäringen delar med övriga regionen. Dock är teknisk konsultverksamhet direkt eller indirekt relaterat till flertalet skogsnäringar, vilket kan peka på ökade tekniknivåer och ökat behov av tekniska specialistkunskaper. Även om företag kan kompensera för en svag regional inbäddning genom utomregionala nätverk, innebär framförallt en svag inbäddning att det kan vara svårare för arbetskraften att finna nya produktiva uttryck för sina kompetenser i regionen vid framtida rationaliseringar. Det i sin tur kan driva på utflyttning till andra regioner.

    Utifrån en smart specialiseringsagenda drar vi slutsatsen att policyinsatser bör verka för att öka graden av inbäddning för regionens nyckelindustrier då det kan underlätta en framgångsrik omvandling som bygger på regionens redan existerande kompetensresurser. 

  • 4.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandro
    Arenagruppen, Arenaide, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Refugee immigration and the growth of low-wage work in the EU152019In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 7, no 39, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper focuses on current trends in refugee migration and job polarization. In so doing, we assess the role of refugee migration in relation to institutional, technological and globalization factors in an effort to trace the factors underlying the growth of low-paying occupations in EU 15 between 1995 and 2017. Our empirical findings suggest that refugee migration has a small but positive and statistically significant impact on the growth of low-wage occupations in the EU 15 as a whole. However, the effect is attributed to Southern Europe and the UK and Irish economies. Despite hosting relatively large numbers of refugee migrants, the effects in the Nordic countries and Continental Europe are negligible, if present, and non-existent in the long run (5 years). When including all migrant workers, we find a limited impact on the growth of low-wage work in general, while the impact of immigrant workers from low-income third party countries becomes positive for the UK and Irish economy, but less for other European macro-regions. This suggests that institutional settings can play an important role in how the economy adjusts to migration. It also suggests that traditional fiscal cost calculations in relation to migration are often overestimated, as they implicitly build on the assumption that refugees and general immigration have great impacts on the growth of low-wage occupations.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Profits, dividends and industry restructuring: the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 19772016In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 278-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of profit distribution in the restructuring of the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 1977. In addressing this issue, we will draw on the life-cycle theory and market imperfection arguments to examine whether the less profitable firms shared more of their profits as dividends, or remained on the market longer by reinvesting the majority of the profits. Our study shows that an increasing share of the profits was distributed to owners over time, and thus less profit was reinvested in industrial renewal. We find that the observed general upward trend in dividends can be attributed to the decline in profit and firm legacy, as firms in the Swedish pulp and paper industry kept dividends up while reducing reinvestment as their profit margins decreased over time. Our study shows that the market imperfections related to capital taxation and investment funds increased rather than decreased dividends.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Danley, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Workers’ participation in regional economic change following establishment closure2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses if and when workers affected by economic destruction in the form of establishment closures move to more productive or newly started establishments in the region, become self-employed, leave the region or become displaced. Results from multinominal probit models show that the majority of these workers face destructive employment outcomes from a Schumpeterian point of view compared to a matched sample of workers not subject to a closure. However, we do find indications of a creative destruction as a small, albeit significant, share become employed in young establishments. Different types of human capital influence the likelihood of triggering positive or negative regional outcomes. While higher education significantly decreases the risk for unemployment, high-income earners more often become engaged in creative outcomes. Firm tenure increases the likelihood of becoming employed in younger establishments. There are significant spatial differences where metropolitan regions excel as loci of creative change, whereas smaller and peripheral regions face far less creative outcomes of economic transformation.

  • 7.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Human capital, skills and uneven intra-urban employment growth: The case of Göteborg, Sweden 1990-20082014In: Urban Studies Research, ISSN 2090-4185, E-ISSN 2090-4193, Vol. 2014, article id 260813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has elucidated the role of talents to explain urban growth differences but it remains to be shown whether urban dynamics, such as human capital and a mixed local population, can be linked to intra-urban employment growth. By use of a unique longitudinal database, we track the economic development through the lens of intra-urban employment growth of a number of primary urban areas (PUA) in Göteborg, Sweden. Regarding factors influencing employment growth we find that relative concentrations of human capital protect areas from rising unemployment during severe recession (1990-1993) and recovery (1990-2000) while the composition of skills is beneficial during recovery (1990-2000) and long-term growth (1990-2008). Our findings suggest that neither too high concentrations of creative occupations, nor too low, is beneficial. Thus, human capital drives much of the employment changes in relation to the recession and early transition from manufacturing to service but composition of skills is more relevant for explaining long-term intra-urban employment growth.

  • 8.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Knowledge flows in high-impact firms: how does relatedness influence survival, acquisition and exit?2016In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 637-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the impact on regional renewal and employment ascribed to rapidly growing firms (high-impactfirms, HIFs), this paper argues that little is still known in economic geography and business studies todayregarding the mechanisms influencing growth of such firms and, hence, the potential impact on regionalemployment. The aim of this paper is thus to explore how the qualitative content of skills (i.e. the degree ofsimilarity, relatedness and unrelatedness) recruited to a firm during a period of fast growth influences itsfuture success. Our findings, based on a sample of 1,589 HIFs in the Swedish economy, suggest that it is notonly the number of people employed that matters in aiding the understanding of the future destiny of the firms– but also, more importantly, it is the scope of the skills recruited and their proximity to related industries.

  • 9.
    Boschma, Ron
    et al.
    Department of Economic Geography, Utrecht University, NL-3508 TC, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    How does labour mobility affect the performance of plants?: The importance of relatedness and geographical proximity2009In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 169-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the impact of skill portfolios and labour mobility on plantperformance by means of a unique database that connects attributes of individuals to features of plants for the whole Swedish economy. We found that a portfolio of related competences at the plant level increases significantly productivity growth of plants, in contrast to plant portfolios consisting of either similar or unrelated competences. Based on the analysis of 101,093 job moves, we found that inflows of skills that are related to the existing knowledge base of the plant had a positive effect on plant performance, while the inflow of new employees with skills that are already present in the plant had a negative impact. Our analyses also show that geographical proximityinfluences the effect of different skill inflows. Inflows of unrelated skills only contribute positively to plant performance when these are recruited in the same region. Labour mobility across regions only has a positive effect on productivity growth of plants when this concerns new employees with related skills.

  • 10.
    Boschma, Ron
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University / Utrecht University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Labour market externalities and regional growth in Sweden: the importance of labour mobility between skill-related industries2014In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1669-1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between labour market externalities and regional growth based on real labour flows. In particular, we test for the importance of labour mobility across so-called skill-related industries. We make use of a sophisticated indicator that measures the degree of skill-relatedness between all industries, and we employ actual labour flows between 435 4-digit industries within 72 Swedish functional labour market regions to estimate how labour market externalities are related to regional growth in the period 1998-2002. Both our fixed effect models and GMM-estimates demonstrate that a strong intensity of intra-regional labour flows between skill-related industries impacts positively on regional productivity growth, but less so on regional employment growth. Labour mobility between unrelated industries tends to dampen regional unemployment growth while a high degree of intra-industry labour flows is only found to be associated with rising regional unemployment.

  • 11.
    Boschma, Ron
    et al.
    Utrecht University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Labour mobility, related variety and the performance of plants: A Swedish study2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the impact of skill portfolios and labour mobility on plant performance by means of a unique database that connects attributes of individuals to features of plants for the whole Swedish economy. We found that a portfolio of related competences at the plant level increases significantly productivity growth of plants, in contrast to plant portfolios consisting of either similar or unrelated competences. Based on the analysis of 101,093 job moves, we found that inflows of skills that are related to the existing knowledge base of the plant had a positive effect on plant performance, while the inflow of new employees with skills that are already present in the plant had a negative impact. Our analyses show that inflows of unrelated skills only contribute positively to plant performance when these are recruited in the same region. Labour mobility across regions only has a positive effect on productivity growth of plants when this concerns new employees with related skills.

  • 12.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Staying Power: What Influences Micro-Firm Survival in Tourism?2013In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 125-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how previous experience and location of entrepreneurs influence the survival of new tourism firms. The paper departs from recent evolutionary economic geography advancements, highlighting the importance of routines and skills as well as location-specific knowledge for firm success. While having been well-researched for manufacturing industries characterized by high entry barriers, little knowledge is currently available on the factors influencing survival rates in service sectors with low entry barriers. A quantitative approach applies hazard models to investigate the survival rates over a seven-year period of a total of 133 new micro-tourism firms started between 1999 and 2001 in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. The geo-referenced micro-database ASTRID links information on firm features (e.g. firm births and deaths, spatial coordinates and industry codes) to characteristics of entrepreneurs (e.g. age, education, previous experience). The main finding is that entrepreneurs with previous work experience in related sectors are more likely to survive and, in this case, entrepreneurs without local experience tend to be less successful. We find no evidence that new firms operating in regions specialized in tourism have a survival advantage. Our analysis also indicates that surviving firms improve performance over time. The paper thus contributes new knowledge on the determinants of micro-firm survival in tourism.

  • 13.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Tourism Evolution: On the Synergies of Tourism Studies and Evolutionary Economic Geography2013In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 43, p. 370-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary Economic Geography (EEG) is receiving increasing interest from tourism scholars. EEG has proven to be a useful explanatory paradigm in other sectors, e.g., high-technology and creative sectors. There remains, however, a lack of theoretical discussion on evolutionary principles of economic change within relatively low-technology service sectors, of which tourism is a prime example. This paper introduces EEG to a wider tourism audience by presenting the core principles of EEG and how they relate to tourism studies. A selection of new research paths combining EEG and tourism studies is highlighted together with a number of latent research synergies which can progress both EEG and tourism studies. The paper calls for further empirical and conceptual engagement with EEG by tourism scholars.

  • 14.
    Elekes, Zoltán
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Västernorrlands styrkeområden: Detaljstudie av de funktionella arbetsmarknaderna i Örnsköldsvik, Sollefteå, Kramfors och Sundsvall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla lokala arbetsmarknader i Västernorrland har jämfört med Sverige i övrigt tydliga specialiseringar inom offentligt finansierad service (skola, vård och omsorg samt till viss del offentlig service och tjänster i alla arbetsmarknader förutom Örnsköldsvik). Två andra gemensamma karaktärsdrag är koncentrationer i skogsnäringarna även om det finns viss variation i vilka skogsnäringar respektive region är specialiserad inom (tex massa och papper i Kramfors, Örnsköldsvik och Sundsvall, sågning/hyvling i Kramfors och drivning och skogsskötsel i framförallt Sollefteå). Utöver detta delar alla av regionens lokala arbetsmarknader en tydlig profil kring maskinindustriell tillverkning. Här bör det noteras att dessa tydliga regionala specialiseringar också är märkbart könsuppdelade då de offentligt finansierade verksamheterna (framförallt vård och omsorg) domineras av kvinnor medan tillverkningsindustri och skogsnäringarna i högre utsträckning domineras av män. Denna könsfördelning är också sammankopplad med skillnader i inkomstnivåer då de mer kvinnodominerande verksamheterna har avsevärt lägre lönenivåer än de mansdominerande tillverkningssektorerna.

    Utöver dessa gemensamma karaktärsdrag finns också tydliga lokala specialiseringar som inom mer funktionella gränser kanske bättre speglar regionens näringsliv än vad den övergripande regionala strukturen gör. Örnsköldsvik är föga förvånande relativt specialiserad inom fordonstillverkning och teknisk konsultverksamhet, men har inte lika tydlig närvaro av exempelvis offentlig förvaltning, finans och försäkring eller IKT. Sollefteå å andra sidan har inte lika tydliga specialiseringar och det är framförallt offentligt finansierade verksamheter som dominerar liksom besöksnäringar, transport samt kraftförsörjning. I Kramfors och framförallt i Sundsvall återfinns de tydligaste koncentrationerna av finans och försäkring. I Kramfors återfinns också tydliga koncentrationer av offentliga tjänster samt sågning/hyvling och tillverkning av kablar och maskiner liksom besöksnäringar. Sundsvall speglar å andra sidan en mer servicebetonad del av näringslivet där förutom ett tydligt kompetensknippe kring finans och försäkring återfinns specialiseringar inom IKT och media, teknisk konsultverksamhet, detaljhandel och offentlig förvaltning.

    Den övergripande slutsatsen vi kan dra av detta fokus på de funktionella arbetsmarknaderna är att en generell regional utvecklingsstrategi för hela regionen också måste ta hänsyn till de lokala variationerna då respektive arbetsmarknad består av olika kompetensresurser och därmed också har olika förutsättningar för framtida specialiseringar. Utöver skogsnäringarna återfinns inte någon av regionens identifierade styrkeområden i alla fyra av regionens arbetsmarknader. Istället är det mer lokala specialiseringar som karaktäriserar sammansättningen av regionens näringsliv. Det innebär i princip två olika vägar för framtida regionala utvecklingsstrategier. Antingen kan dessa skillnader bejakas och utveckla respektive delarbetsmarknad utifrån vad som finns där idag då det kan gynna hela regionens utveckling, eller verka för att regionens styrkeområden bättre ska representeras i hela regionen. För en mer hållbar utveckling som bygger på befintliga lokala resurser bör dessa lokala särdrag bejakas då det underlättar bildandet av nya framtida specialiseringar (Elekes & Eriksson 2019a). Det är också främst inom den funktionella arbetsmarknaden där den lokala kompetensstrukturen reproduceras genom att det möjliggör jobbyten utan att nödvändigtvis behöva byta bostadsort.

    Slutligen bör framtida strategier tydligt verka för att öka mångfalden inom respektive del av arbetsmarknaden. En tydlig utmaning ligger i att exempelvis öka andelen kvinnor i de mer tillverkningsorienterade specialiseringarna. Framtida studier bör därför särskilt betona hur strukturomvandlingen (skapandet av nya och försvinnandet av gamla specialiseringar) påverkar män respektive kvinnor. Ytterligare studier på yrkesstrukturers förändring kan också tydligare fånga förändrade kompetensbehov inom sektorer, huruvida det påverkar könsfördelningen i näringslivet, och om det skiljer sig mellan de lokala arbetsmarknaderna

  • 15.
    Elekes, Zoltán
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Västernorrlands styrkeområden: Detaljstudie av skogsnäringarna, fordonsindustrin, IKT, bank/försäkring samt teknisk konsultverksamhet ur ett kompetensperspektiv2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport analyserar några av Region Västernorrlands styrkeområden (skogsnäringarna, fordonsindustrin, IKT, bank/finans och teknisk konsultverksamhet) genom att lyfta fram det industriella system de tillhör utifrån de kompetenser de delar, och sätta det i relation till specialiseringsgrad och inkomstnivåer.

    Rapporten visar att styrkeområdena i stort tillhör både de mest inbäddade och högavlönade sektorerna i regionen. De olika styrkeområdena skiljer sig dock i avseende med vilka sektorer de är kopplade till ur ett kompetensperspektiv. Skogsnäringarna är generellt väl inbäddade, men i huvudsak med andra skogs- och jordbruksrelaterade verksamheter. Fordonsindustrin är visserligen starkt inbäddade, men endast med ett fåtal sektorer som alla har avsevärt lägre inkomstnivåer. Det pekar dels mot ett tydligt fordonsindustriellt system, men att det är väldigt beroende av Militära fordon. IKT och Finans har relativt hög inbäddning, men samtidigt en relativt låg specialiseringsgrad. Mest noterbart är dessa styrkeområdens ömsesidiga kompetensstrukturer. Då graden av relaterade verksamheter kan härledas till kompetensförsörjningsfrågor (många relaterade sektorer ökar sannolikheten att kunna rekrytera kompetent arbetskraft) bör fokus också riktas mot dessa typer av verksamheter i strävan att diversifiera näringslivet genom att skapa nya specialiseringar.

  • 16.
    Elekes, Zoltán
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Västernorrlands styrkeområden: översikt av näringslivets styrkeområden och relationer till varandra ur ett kompetensperspektiv2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i perspektivet att ekonomisk utveckling i grund och botten är betingat på de kompetenser som används i produktionen av varor och tjänster, har föreliggande rapport gjort en översiktlig analys av Västernorrlands näringslivsstruktur. Detta gjordes genom att teckna ett så kallat industry-spacesom visar vilka sektorer som är starkt närvarande i regionen, men också i vilken utsträckning sektorerna är kopplade till varandra genom att vara beroende av liknande kompetenser. 

     

    I korthet pekar rapporten på att av de 15 sektorer med högst specialiseringsgrad i regionen så utgör endast pappers och massatillverkning (2,7%) samt försäkring (1,7)% någon av de 15 sysselsättningsrikaste sektorerna. De 15 mest specialiserade sektorerna utgör sammanlagt endast 12% av regionens totala sysselsättning 2016 vilket går att jämföra med de 15 största sektorerna som tillsammans utgör nästan hälften av den totala sysselsättningen. Med andra ord ligger regionens ekonomiska tyngdpunkt på andra ställen i näringslivet än i de relativt sett mest närvarande sektorerna. Det kan i sin tur medföra att en regionalpolitik som fokuserar på existerande starkt regionalt koncentrerade sektorer riskerar att exkludera stora delar av den regionala ekonomin. Exempelvis kan skillnader i mans- respektive kvinnodominerande yrken förstärkas. 

     

    När det kommer till etableringen av nya specialiseringar (och försvinnandet av existerande) finner vi en tydlig korrelation till hur inbäddad sektorn är i regionens kompetensstruktur. Kraftigt inbäddade sektorer (som delar liknande humankapital som många andra sektorer i regionen) har högre sannolikhet att etablera nya specialiseringar (eller öka sin relativa närvaro) medan mindre inbäddade sektorer har högre sannolikhet att minska sin relativa regionala närvaro. Då detta kan härledas till kompetensförsörjningsfrågor (många relaterade sektorer ökar sannolikheten att kunna rekrytera kompetent arbetskraft) bör fokus också riktas mot dessa typer av verksamheter i strävan att diversifiera näringslivet genom att skapa nya specialiseringar. 

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Staden på kartan2014In: Provins, ISSN 0280-9974, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 37-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    För Umeå har utmärkelsen till kulturhuvudstad 2014 till stor del handlat om att bygga vidare på ett redan vitalt kulturliv, att försöka bli ännu bättre. Staden har genomgått snabba förändringar inför detta år, på ytan utan såväl som på djupet. Vad innebär dessa förändringar? Vad ska ett kulturhuvudstadsår vara och för vem? Kulturgeograferna Madeleine Eriksson och Rikard Eriksson skriver om Kulturhuvudstaden Umeå och om vad den kulturdrivna entreprenörsandan vill skapa för slags samhälle. 

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Labour mobility and plant performance: The influence of proximity, relatedness and agglomeration 2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to shed new light on the theorizations discussing the economic benefits of geographical clustering in a space economy increasingly characterized by globalization processes. This is made possible through the employment of a plant-perspective and a focus on how the relative fixity and mobility of labour influence plant performance throughout the entire Swedish economy. 

    By means of the longitudinal micro database ASTRID, connecting attributes of individuals to features of plants and localities for the whole Swedish economy, the empirical findings indicate that both localization and urbanization economies produce significant labour market externalities and that such inter-plant linkages positively affect plant performance as compared to the partial effects of relative regional specialization and diversification. Moreover, it is also demonstrated that it is necessary both to distinguish how well the external skills retrieved via labour mobility match the existing knowledge base of plants and to determine the geographical dimension of such flows to verify the relative effect of labour market-induced externalities. Finally, it is demonstrated that whereas general urbanization is beneficial within close distance to the plant, the composition of economic activities is more influential at greater distances. In such cases the geographical dimension influences whether plants benefit from being located in similar or different local settings. 

    In conclusion, it is argued that the circulation of labour skills, created and reproduced through the place-specific industrial setup, is crucial for understanding the mechanisms creating geographical variations in plant performance as compared to other regional conditions often proxied as relative specialization or diversification. This is because the relative fixity of labour tends to create place- and sector-specific skills which by means of their mobility in space are likely to facilitate the recombination of local skills, make the acquirement of non-local skills possible and secure sufficient affinity between economic actors by strengthening other dimensions of proximity – all aspects regarded as crucial to facilitate interactive learning processes and contribute to sustained regional growth.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Localized spillovers and knowledge flows: How does proximity influence the performance of plants?2011In: Economic Geography, ISSN 0013-0095, E-ISSN 1944-8287, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 127-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of a unique longitudinal database with information on all plants and employees in the Swedish economy, this paper analyzes how geographical proximity influences the impact of localized spillovers and knowledge flows on the productivity growth of plants. Concerning the effects of spillovers, we show that the density of economic activities as such mainly contributes to plant performance within a very short distance from the plant and that the composition of economic activities is more influential further away. Regarding the influence of local industrial setup, proximity increases the need to be located near different, but related, industries whereas in-creased distance implies a greater effect of intra-industry spillovers. The analyses also demonstrate that knowledge flows via the mobility of skilled labor is primarily a sub-regional phenomenon. Only inflows of skills that are related to the existing knowledge base of plants and come from less than 50 kilometers away have a positive effect on plant performance. Concerning outflows of skills, the results indicate that it is less harmful for a dispatching plant if a former employee remains within the local economy as compared to leaving for a job in another part of the national economy.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Regionala och individuella effekter av ekonomiska kriser och företagsnedläggningar2017In: Thule: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundets årsbok / [ed] Roger Jacobsson, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundet , 2017, p. 99-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the destruction of economic activities on the one hand can be regarded as a necessary component of the creation of new activities that also tend to have positive long-term macro-economic effects, it is, on the other hand, more than obvious that the regional ability to accommodate such changes varies considerably both across and within countries. This paper discusses under which conditions economic crises indeed may trigger processes that may lead to a renewal of regional skills and industries, and when (and where) this is less likely to happen. It does so by presenting recent conceptual advances in the field of Evolutionary Economic Geography together with ongoing research from a project using Swedish longitudinal micro-data. Preliminary findings suggest that regions with economic endowments that are complementary to each other (i.e., related) are better in accommodating chocks since that allow the workforce to more easily find new employment without being subject to skill destruction. A relative absence of related activities, however, increases the risk of unemployment, income losses and outmigration. Hence, related activities not only reduce the individual adjustment costs in relation to redundancies, it also enhances regional resilience by allowing a successful economic diversification

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Umeå utvecklas om fler bor kvar2011In: Västerbottens-Kuriren, ISSN 1104-0246Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Work–life advantage: Sustaining regional learning and innovation2018In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 52, no 9, p. 1306-1307Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Forslund, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    How do universities contribute to employment growth?: The role of human capital and knowledge bases2014In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 2584-2604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyze whether employment growth is faster in regions housing a university compared to non-university regions. We argue that universities per se are less likely to trigger externalities that facilitate employment growth. Instead we propose that it depends on the concentration of different skills in that particular region. This is analyzed by running a number of OLS regressions, based on official data on municipal level from Statistics Sweden, on how concentrations of human capital, analytic-, synthetic- and symbolic- knowledge bases in Swedish university regions influence employment growth 2002-2008. The results indicate that presence of universities per se do not influence employment growth. However, the findings suggest that university regions with high concentrations of human capital and, in particular, with employees characterized by the synthetic knowledge base, show higher growth rates. This implies that the influence of universities on employment is greatest in regions with high concentrations of skills able to apply the knowledge created in universities. Consequently, the regional composition of skills needs to match the knowledge produced by universities for significant university-induced spillovers to occur. 

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    How do regional economies respond to crises?: The geography of job creation and destruction in Sweden (1990–2010)2017In: European Urban and Regional Studies, ISSN 0969-7764, E-ISSN 1461-7145, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 87-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of Swedish longitudinal micro-data, the aim of this paper is to analyse how regional economies respond to crises. This is made possible by linking gross employment flows to the notion of regional resilience. Our findings indicate that despite a steady national employment growth, only the three metropolitan regions have fully recovered from the recession of 1990. Further, we can show evidence of high levels of job creation and destruction in both declining and expanding regions and sectors, and that the creation of jobs is mainly attributable to employment growth in incumbent firms, while job destruction is primarily due to exits and micro-plants. Although the geography of resistance to crises and the ability of adaptability in the aftermath vary, our findings suggest that cohesive (i.e., with many skill-related industries) and diverse (i.e., with a high degree of unrelated variety) regions are more resilient over time. We also find that resistance to future shocks (e.g., the 2008 recession) is highly dependent on the resistance to previous crises. In all, this suggests that the long-term evolution of regional economies also influences their future resilience.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Sectoral and geographical mobility of workers after large establishment cutbacks or closures2018In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 1071-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies redundant workers’ industrial and geographical mobility, and the consequences of post-redundancy mobility for regional policy strategies. This is accomplished by means of a database covering all workers who became redundant in major shutdowns or cutbacks in Sweden between 1990 and 2005. Frequencies of industrial and geographical mobility are described over time, and the influence of some important characteristics that make workers more likely to be subject to particular forms of mobilities are assessed. We find that re-employment rates vary extensively across industries and time. Whereas going back to the same or related industries is the most common re-employment strategy among workers who find a new job in the first year, workers who do not benefit from quick re-employment are increasingly squeezed out to new job fields and regions. Older workers and workers with high vested interest in their original industries usually employ a “same-industry/same-region” strategy. This most frequent, and perhaps often most attractive, same-industry strategy comes at a cost, however. Individuals who instead pursue other mobility strategies have a lower risk of suffering from another major redundancy in the future. Thus, in terms of regional policy, strategies promoting diversification to related industries after major redundancies seem to be much more important than trying to retain workers in their old industry. In this case the route via education (university or vocational training) is important, as it increases the likelihood of successfully changing industry at time of re-employment. 

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hansen, Högni
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Geography Section, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Winther, Lars
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Geography Section, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Employment growth and regional development: industrial change and contextual differences between Denmark and Sweden2017In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 1756-1778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential drivers behind uneven regional development in the context of employment growth in Denmark and Sweden. In particular, we are interested in the roles of urbanization, industrial change and the rise of the new economy as manifested in the growth of the two economies in 2002–2007. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to analyse the impact of a number of key industrial sectors on regional employment growth in the two countries. The empirical analysis is based on longitudinal matched employer–employee data retrieved from official registers in each economy from 2002 to 2007, a period of strong national growth following the crisis of early 2000. Our findings indicate that the two economies follow a similar pattern in addressing total employment growth; but looking at changes in employment levels across the national borders of these two relatively similar open economies, we find that, although in general these economies react relatively similarly to changes, embarking on a narrower analysis of the individual sectors reveals marked national differences. This indicates that context matters in the analysis of regional economic dynamics in terms of structure, system and policy. 

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø
    Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen.
    Industries, skills and human capital: how does regional size affect uneven development?2013In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 593-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses how the composition of industry structures, skills and human capital is related to regional development in peripheral and central locations. We do this by means of OLS models to analyse the relationship between purchase power growth and employment growth between 2001 and 2008 as well as a selection of variables constructed via register data of the total population in Sweden. The analysis demonstrates an evident spatial division of post-industrial development that larger regions benefit relatively more from than smaller regions do. The empirical findings indicate that a transition towards more knowledge intensive sectors and a higher educated labour force has the strongest impact on development in the largest Swedish regions, while a transition from manual skills towards more creative skills shows only a positive relationship with development in medium size regions. Consequently, the paper argues that the recent appraisal of the knowledge based economy mainly benefits the largest urban regions, meaning that regional size is an important parameter when discussing trajectories of regional development and the adaption to contemporary economic development paths.

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø
    Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    The importance of business climate and people climate on regional performance2014In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1135-1155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creativity and talent are considered key-factors in regional development due to the connection between growth, city regions and human capital. To come to a deeper understanding on the relevance of recent amenity-driven theories and how they are related to employment and GRP at regional level, this paper analyses the influence of business-climate (business friendly assets) and people-climate (amenities). Based on panel-data regressions, we show that both business- and people-climate is related to regional performance. The exact nature of these relationships is however dependent on how both regional performance and business- or people climate is defined.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Henning, Martin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Otto, Anne
    Institute of Employment Research (IAB).
    Industrial and geographical mobility of workers during industry decline: the Swedish and German shipbuilding industries 1970–20002016In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 75, p. 87-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article follows the industry employment histories of all individuals who at some point have been affiliated with the declining German or the dismantling Swedish shipbuilding industry during 1970–2000. We analyse the situation of the individual workers leaving shipbuilding, investigating the extent to which they were employed at all, tended to move to related sectors within or outside the region, and whether such moves were beneficial for the individuals. Combining insights from labour geography and redundancy studies with evolutionary economic geography, we find remarkably similar results for the West German and Swedish cases. Our findings indicate a notable impact of the regional industry structure on the labour market outcomes for workers leaving shipbuilding. This suggests that more attention should be devoted to the specific structures of the absorptive capacity of regional labour markets. The findings are discussed within the context of a mature industry.

  • 30.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Henning, Martin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Otto, Anne
    Institute for employment research (IAB), Saarbrucken .
    Regional and industrial mobility of workers leaving mature industries: A study of individuals who exit the Swedish shipbuilding industry 1970-20002014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper follows the industry employment histories of all individuals at some point affiliated with the dismantling Swedish shipbuilding industry 1970-2000. We analyse the situation of the individual workers leaving shipbuilding through investigating to what extent they were employed at all, tended to move to related sectors inside or outside the region, and whether such moves were beneficial for the individuals. By cross-using German and Swedish data, our findings indicate a notable impact of regional industrial structure on the movement and success of individuals, and that individuals moving from shipbuilding to related sectors benefit more from moving than others. 

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lengyel, Balazs
    Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    Co-worker networks and agglomeration externalities2019In: Economic Geography, ISSN 0013-0095, E-ISSN 1944-8287, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 65-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article provides an initial systematic analysis of how social networks influence productivity in regional agglomerations. This is accomplished by means of matched employer–employee data for the entire Swedish economy for the period 1990–2008, allowing us to construct a weighted co-worker network with aggregated tie weights on the plant level. We find evidence that increasing density of the plant-level network has a positive effect on productivity, particularly in large regional industry-clusters with high degrees of specialization. Triadic closure of ties is, however, negatively linked to productivity, suggesting the importance of nonredundant knowledge. Moreover, we find only limited support for the notion that the diversity of linkages within or across regions as such is beneficial for productivity. Instead, we show that the degree of specialization conditions the extent to which both linkages to related industries in the region and nonlocal ties are beneficial. Our results thus suggest that having dense social networks is a crucial feature of high-performing agglomerations, and that interindustry, as well as interregional, linkages are compensatory in cases when sufficient industry specialization is absent.

  • 32.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Agglomeration och ekonomisk utveckling: Betydelsen av arbetskraftsrörlighet för lärande och innovation2011In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 87-93Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Localized mobility clusters: Impacts of labour market externalities on firm performance2009In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 33-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the impact of labour market-induced externalities on firm performance by using a unique database that connects attributes of individuals to workplaces for the entire Swedish economy. Based on the analysis of 256,985 workplaces, our results show that firms belonging to networks of local job mobility (i.e. ‘localized mobility clusters’) significantly outperform other similar firms within the local labour market. The results also indicate that concentrations of similar and related firms do not explain any considerable part of the variations in firm competitiveness. Labour market externalitiesderived via local job mobility produce significantly more powerful effects for the involved firms as compared to the degree of co-location, diversity and scale.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    What about people in evolutionary economic geography?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years an increasing interest has been directed towards evolutionary processes of economic change following the notion that history matters for future development. These studies put special emphasis on how the spatial structures of the economy emerge from the micro-behaviours of economic agents (often firms). It this paper we argue that while such an approach indeed may provide new and novel insights on the uneven process of economic change, one important aspect of the economy tend to be neglected, namely the spatial behavior and restrictions of people. In this paper, we therefore outline the ideas to a theoretical framework which more thorough integrates evolutionary economic geography with the time-geographical contribution provided by Torsten Hägerstrand and his adherents in order to provide a synthesis between the interdependent dynamic processes occurring in and between place-specific institutions, firms and people. The paper is structured as followed: First, a critical appraisal of recent evolutionary contributions is presented. This is followed by a discussion on the developments made in time-geography the last couple of decades. The paper ends with a concluding section and an empirical example showing that modern micro-simulation techniques may provide useful insights to the evolutionary processes shaping economic change. The empirical example is framed in recent studies analyzing knowledge flows via the job mobility of skilled individuals within and between local labour markets in Sweden.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Agglomeration mobility: Effects of localisation, urbanisation, and scale on job changes2008In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 40, p. 2419-2434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following increased attention being paid to the importance of labour-market processes in relation to knowledge diffusion and learning, this study addresses the influence of agglomeration economies (localisation, urbanisation, and scale) on the propensity to change jobs between and within local labour markets. From the use of longitudinal individual data (1990 ^ 2002), controlling for factors such as age, sex, income, and social relations, the results show that the composition of regional economies influences labour-market dynamism. We identify two cases of intraregional agglomeration mobility, that is, positive effects on job mobility, due to the concentration of similar activities (localisation economies) and the size of the labour market (urbanisation economies). The results also show that localisation economies compensate for regional structural disadvantages connected to small population numbers, as localisation effects in small regions have a significantlypositive effect on intraregional job-mobility rates, even compared with localisation effects in large and diversified metropolitan areas. The results indicate that the concentration of similar activities may be useful for small regions, if high levels of job mobility are crucial for the transfer of knowledge and the performance of firms.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Rataj, Marcin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    The geography of starts-ups in Sweden: The role of human capital, social capital and agglomeration2019In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In academia as well as in policy circles, entrepreneurial activities are placed at the focal point for regional development. However, geographical factors such as urbanization and peripherality are often neglected in this strand of research despite the increasing need for place-specific policies. The aim of this paper is therefore to analyse how start-up rates vary across municipalities in Sweden 2002–2012 by focussing on spatial differences of human capital, social capital, entrepreneurial culture and industrial specialization. Our multilevel models show how the degree of rurality and peripherality, respectively, moderates the role of different regional resources. The paper concludes by suggesting the formulation of separate policies considering urban, rural and more peripheral regions.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Rodriguez-Posé, Andrés
    Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics, London, UK.
    Job-related mobility and plant performance in Sweden2017In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 83, p. 39-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a Swedish micro-dataset containing 2,696,909 hires during the period 2002-2006 to assess the impact of job-related mobility on plant-level performance. The analysis classifies new recruits according to their work experience and level of formal qualification, as well as by the region of origin and of destination. New hires are divided into graduates and experienced workers and between high- and low-educated. The results point towards the importance of acknowledging both the experience and the skills of new recruits. The greatest benefits are related to hiring new workers from outside the region where the plant is located. The analysis also stresses the importance of geography, with plants in metropolitan regions gaining the most from labour mobility, while the benefits of mobility for plants in smaller, more peripheral regions are more diverse and dependent on both the type and origin of new workers.

  • 38.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Returning to work: regional determinants of re-employment after major redundancies2018In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 768-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using matched employer-employee data on roughly 429,000 workers made redundant from large plant closures or major downsizing in Sweden between 1990-2005, this paper analyses the role of the regional industry mix (specialization, related and unrelated variety) in the likelihood of returning to work. Our results show that a high presence of same or related industries speeds up the re-employment process, while high concentrations of unrelated activities do not. The role of related activities is particularly evident in the short run and in regions with high unemployment. Consequently, the prospect of successful diversification is enhanced in regions with related industries.

  • 39.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holme, Kirsten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Transfereringar och arbete2004Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Korang Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Kompetensförsörjning i Skellefteå: Studie av yrkesstruktur och flyttmönster2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten syftar till att analysera Skellefteå kommuns kompetensstruktur under perioden 2002-2013 samt de övergripande strukturerna i flyttmönster till och från Skellefteå.

    När det gäller den befintliga kompetensstrukturen, definierat som de yrken som finns i regionen idag, återfinns de tydligaste yrkesspecialiseringarna inom de huvudsakliga kategorierna anläggning och maskinoperatör (8) samt bygg och konstruktion (7). Jämfört med övriga regioner i Sverige är det alltså inom ett relativt tydligt industriellt kompetensområde som Skellefteå har en hög specialisering. Storleksmässigt (utan hänsyn till sammansättningen i övriga regioner) är det dock inom restaurang och handel som både många arbetar samt där många inflyttare har sina kompetenser. Dock är det tydligt att en relativt hög andel av inflyttarna till Skellefteå sedan 2002 jämfört med den befintliga arbetskraften antingen har yrken som inte kräver någon specialistkompetens, eller består av tjänstemän och personaladministration. De yrken regionen i huvudsak är specialiserad inom verkar inte utgöra ett typiskt yrke bland inflyttare. Med andra ord har den kompetensförsörjningen en tydligt lokal dimension.

    Vad gäller inflyttare kommer en klar majoritet från övriga norra Sverige, framförallt från övriga Västerbotten. Utöver detta skiljer sig också inflyttarna utifrån vilka yrkesgrupper som kommer från olika regioner. Personer med yrken som kräver universitetsexamen (inklusive chefer) kommer framförallt från Stockholmsregionen. Detta är särskilt tydligt vad gäller tjänstemän och olika former av administratörer. Mer industriellt kopplade yrken (tex anläggning-, process- och maskinoperatörer) kommer i högre utsträckning från norra Sverige. Detta är särskilt tydligt bland hemvändare som i högre utsträckning har mer industriellt kopplade yrken, särskilt om de kommer från norra Sverige. Från södra Sverige (framförallt Stockholm och Västsverige) dominerar hemvändare som jobbat inom service och handel. Beroende på vilka kompetenser som eftersöks kan därmed olika områden vara lämpliga källor för ny kompetens och det är en viss variation mellan inflyttare generellt och hemvändare.

    När vi slutligen följt utflyttare från Skellefteå sedan början av 1990-talet finner vi att ungefär en fjärdedel flyttar ut från Skellefteå och sedan blir kvar i den regionen de flyttat till under kommande 10 år. Det gäller framförallt personer som flyttat till övriga Västerbotten, men också Stockholm, övriga övre Norrland samt Västsverige och östra Mellansverige. Det går inte att se några tydliga skillnader mellan mäns och kvinnors fortsatta flyttmönster. Däremot är det tydligt att högutbildade och utlandsfödda i mindre utsträckning återvänder till Skellefteå när de väl flyttat. Drygt en tredjedel av de som flyttat från Skellefteå återvänder någon gång under kommande tioårsperiod. Det gäller främst personer som flyttat till övriga Västerbotten eller till Västsverige. Dock är graden av återkommande flytt bland dessa personer relativt hög (ungefär en tredjedel) och av de som stannar kvar i Skellefteå efter att ha flyttat tillbaka är det framförallt personer som bott i övriga Västerbotten men också i övriga övre Norrland eller Stockholm (totalt 69% av alla återvändande stannare). Det är en marginell överrepresentation av kvinnor, svenskfödda och personer under 35 år bland de återvändande stannarna även om andelen män ökar kraftigt under de senaste åren. Bland återvändarna som igen lämnar för en annan region, sjunker andelen migranter till övriga Västerbotten och det är framförallt storstadsregionerna (främst Stockholm) som ökar sin mottagarandel.

  • 41.
    Lengyel, Balazs
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Hungarian Academy of Sciences ; International Business School Budapest ; .
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Co-worker networks, labour mobility, and productivity growth in regions2017In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 17, p. 635-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mobility of workers is an important source of regional dynamics, but the effect of mobility on regional productivity growth is not straightforward, as some firms tend to win while others lose from mobility. In the present paper, we argue that the co-worker networks across plants that are established by labour moves are important for both local learning opportunities and job matching quality and should hence facilitate regional growth. We therefore propose a new homophily-biased perspective on co-worker network creation and show that it suits geographical analyses better than random networks do. Moreover, panel vector autoregression (pVAR) models provide systematic evidence that an increase in co-worker network density is positively related to regional productivity growth. This is found to be important even when only ties across plants that are not directly linked by labour mobility are included.

  • 42.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Timmermans, Bram
    Is there an end to the concentration of businesses and people?2017In: Globalisation and change in forest ownership and forest use: natural resource management in transition / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 139-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is extensive literature describing the mechanisms of economic growth, which has tended to occur in big cities. The emergence of knowledge economies has enhanced the importance of human capital - the success of companies is increasingly dependent on employees' ability to transform their knowledge and skills into new products that can satisfy rapidly changing demand from all over the world. This transformation of the economy creates major challenges for regions that do not have large, well-educated populations. Will rural areas stand a chance against the centripetal forces of agglomeration economies? This issue is addressed by focusing attention on a number of successful, forest-related companies running their operations far from metropolitan Sweden. This presentation is accompanied by a theoretical discussion that challenges the urban assumption.

  • 43.
    Östbring, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Labor mobility and organizational proximity: routines as supporting mechanisms for variety, skill integration and productivity2017In: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 775-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to introduce an organisational dimension to the discussion of knowledge flows and relatedness. We hypothesise that not only the degree of technological relatedness influence the extent of skill integration in a firm but also that familiarity with firm routines (intra-organisational proximity) should smoothen absorption. Longitudinal micro-data are used in pooled ordinary least square- and fixed effect models to estimate the impact on plant productivity growth of 18,051 labour flows within, and to, four large Swedish firms between 2003 and 2006. Our findings suggest that intra-regional related flows are economically beneficial. Their link to localised capabilities and community creates a weaker but more productive link between individuals than do organisational proximity, which generate too much similarity to allow for cognitively related inflows to impact productivity growth. Also, we find a positive relationship between unrelated flows and plant performance.

  • 44.
    Östbring, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Relatedness through experience: on the importance of collected worker experiences for plant performance2018In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 501-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that multiple cognitive dimensions exist between employees in knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) and that these dimensions interact in their influence on plant performance. Knowledge and cognitive distance are measured as formal knowledge and industry experience. Pooled OLS regressions with year, industry, and region-fixed effects are used to estimate the impact on plant performance. The results suggest that the commonly found negative impact of similarity in formal knowledge on plant performance may be reduced by high human capital ratios or high levels of similarity in experience. Moreover, the organizational structures associated with single-plant and multi-plant firms, generate different plant performance outcomes of knowledge variety.

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