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  • 1.
    Ekberg, Sofie
    et al.
    UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Morseth, Bente
    UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Larsén, Karin B.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Does the menstrual cycle influence aerobic capacity in endurance-trained women?2023Ingår i: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, ISSN 0270-1367, E-ISSN 2168-3824Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to study if aerobic capacity varies during different phases of the menstrual cycle (MC) in endurance-trained female athletes.

    Methods: Ten endurance-trained eumenorrheic women performed a submaximal test followed by an incremental test until exhaustion three times during one MC, early follicular phase (EFP), late follicular phase (LFP), and midluteal phase (MLP). During the submaximal test, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and utilization of fat and carbohydrates were analyzed; and, during the incremental test, VO2 peak, maximal heart rate, utilization of fat and carbohydrates, and RER were analyzed. Lactate levels were analyzed at rest, during the submaximal test, and after the incremental test. The anaerobic threshold was determined at RER = 1.

    Results: No significant differences (p <.05) between the MC phases were seen in a maximal heart rate or VO2peak. Similarly, VO2, heart rate, RER, fatty acid oxidation, and carbohydrate oxidation at 70, 80, 90, and 100% of VO2peak did not differ significantly between MC phases. There were no significant differences between these phases in resting lactate before the test or during the submaximal tests, though there was a significant difference in lactate concentration 3 minutes after the incremental test between the EFP and the LFP (p =.043).

    Conclusion: This study did not display variations in physiological parameters between EFP, LFP, and MLP, indicating similar aerobic capacity despite hormonal variations. This knowledge may be useful when planning for competition in aerobic events.

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  • 2. Hedberg, Gudrun E
    et al.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Janlert, Urban
    Comparison between two programmes for reducing the levels of risk indicators of heart diseases among male professional drivers.1998Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 55, nr 8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To compare two programmes for reducing the levels of risk indicators of heart diseases among professional drivers. The programmes were focused on changes of lifestyle. The aim of the programmes was to initiate and motivate a process of change within the driver, which in the long term should lead to permanent and sound health habits. One programme was based on health profile assessment and the other was a health examination.

    METHODS: Altogether, 102 subjects were investigated (51 allocated to an intervention group and 51 to a reference group). The programme in the intervention group (health profile assessment) was based on revelatory communication, adjusted to the driver and contained individual and group activities. The reference group went through a health examination. In both groups blood pressure, serum lipid concentrations, body mass index, and estimated maximal oxygen uptake were measured and the lifestyle habits were surveyed by questionnaires at the start and at follow ups of 6 and 18 months.

    RESULTS: The results showed that in the intervention group the maximal oxygen uptake increased, as did exercise habits and the intention to practice good dietary habits. Variable working hours was the most common obstacle to change a health habit. In the reference group the maximal oxygen uptake increased and the concentration of serum total cholesterol and the number of people who perceived stress and loneliness decreased.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both the health profile assessment and the health examination had an effect on the levels of some risk indicators of heart diseases. Both programmes turned out to be useful because of high participation during the entire period and a generally positive attitude among the subjects.

  • 3.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effektivare styrketräning i menstruationscykelns början2016Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tips och träningsråd speciellt för kvinnor2018Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 5.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Training and hormones in physically active women: with and without oral contraceptive use2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of women participating in sports has increased dramatically, though research in sports are often performed on men. Physical exercise is known to increase physical performance and improve well-being. Although exercise has beneficial health effects for most of the women, it is known that strenuous exercise may also have negative health consequences. Common are menstrual dysfunctions and the medical effects of a long-standing amenorrhea are serious. Moreover, strenuous exercise without adequate recovery may lead to overreaching (OR) /overtraining syndrome (OTS). An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects are essential. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the effects on strength and power of high frequency periodised leg resistance training to evaluate a training regime and moreover to investigate if the training was well accepted and without potential exercise-related negative consequences. Moreover, to provide normative data on oxytocin and cortisol to elucidate if these hormones could be one diagnostic marker in combination with others to monitor and diagnose female athletes that may be at risk to develop OR/OTS.

    Methods: Fifty-nine women, participated in the four month intervention study. Two groups performed high frequency leg resistance training for two weeks of each menstrual/oral contraceptive (OC) cycle. The remaining part of the cycle they performed the leg training once a week. Group 1, trained with high frequency (5 times·w-1) during the first two weeks of each cycle, and group 2, during the last two weeks of each cycle. A control group performed regular (3 times·w-1) leg resistance training. Another 33 women participated in the observational study. The OC users and non-users, were followed over a nine-month period with monthly blood sampling of oxytocin and cortisol, and the Profile of Mood State (POMS) as a subjective measure of OR/OTS.

    Results: The women who performed high frequency leg resistance training, 5 times·w-1, during the first two weeks of each cycle showed significant increase in jump height, peak torque values in hamstrings, increased lean body mass of the legs, and their experiences of the training were positive. These results were not found when the periodised training was performed during the last two weeks of each cycle. In the control group an increase in jump height, and peak torque (left hamstring) was observed. There were no evident differences in the training effects between women with or without OC use. Moreover, no exercise-related negative consequences were detected in any of the three groups. The women in the observational study showed seasonal variations in oxytocin and cortisol, with different pattern in OC users to non-users. No convincing relationships to POMS were found. 

    Conclusions: The high frequency periodised leg resistance training during the first two weeks of the cycle is more beneficial to optimize resistance training, than the last two weeks. The high frequency periodised leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences and was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle. Due to seasonality and impact of OC use, oxytocin and cortisol are not suggested to be optimal, diagnostic markers alone/in combination with others, to detect OR/OTS in physically active women.

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  • 6.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Träning och hormoner hos idrottande kvinnor2017Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 15-18s. 15-18Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Boraxbekk, Carl Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effects on power, strength and lean body mass of menstrual/oral contraceptive cycle based resistance training2017Ingår i: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 57, nr 1-2, s. 43-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of menstrual and oral contraceptive cycle on a high frequency periodized leg resistance training in trained women. METHODS: Two groups performed high frequency leg resistance training for two weeks of each menstrual/oral contraceptive cycle for four months. The remaining part of the cycle they performed the leg training once a week. Group 1 (N.=19) trained with high frequency (5 times-w-') during the first two weeks of each cycle, and group 2 (N.=19) during the last two weeks of each cycle. A control group (N.=21) performed regurlar (3 times.w(-1)) leg resistance training for four months. RESULTS: Significant increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque values in hamstrings for group 1 were observed, but not in group 2. In the control group an increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque (only left hamstring) was also observed. There was also a significant increase in lean body mass of the legs in group 1 only. There were no evident differences in the training effects between women with or without oral contraceptive. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency periodized leg resistance training during the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle is more beneficial to optimize training than in the last two weeks. Resistance training during the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle even resulted in a larger gain of lean body mass than regular training.

  • 8.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Increasing training load without risking the female athlete triad: menstrual cycle based periodized training may be an answer?2017Ingår i: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 57, nr 11, s. 1519-1525Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects that may lead to the female athlete triad are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential negative effects of high frequency periodized menstrual/OC cycle based leg resistance training on components in the female athlete triad.

    METHODS: Fifty-nine women, with experience of resistance training and with regular menstrual/OC cycles were included in the analyses. The participants were randomly assigned a training program consisted of high frequency leg resistance training, periodized to the first two weeks (group 1) or the last two weeks (group 2) of each cycle, or to a control group performing regular training, during four consecutive menstrual/OC cycles. The main analysis was the pre-to-post change of sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass, bone mineral density in the spine. We further examined the participants’ own experience of the training programs.

    RESULTS: No significant negative impact on sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass and bone mineral density in the spine, was detected in any of the groups. Moreover, the women in group 1 experienced their training program as positive.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency periodized leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences on components in the female athlete triad. Moreover, the training was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle.

  • 9.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Avdelningen för idrottsmedicin.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Larsén, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Effekter av konditionsträning periodiserad utifrån menstruationscykeln hos idrottande kvinnor2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Senaste decennierna har det skett en kraftig ökning av kvinnors deltagande inom motions- och elitidrott och det har medfört en jämnare könsfördelning av idrottare. Trots det är kvinnliga deltagare inom idrottsforskning underrepresenterade. Orsaken anses bland annat vara att variationen av könshormoner under menstruationscykeln försvårar standardiseringen vid forskning om träningsupplägg och testning. Det saknas därför vetenskapliga studier kring ytterligare utveckling av träningsmodeller specifikt för kvinnliga idrottare utifrån den kvinnliga fysiologin.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka effekter av konditionsträning periodiserad utifrån menstruationscykeln hos idrottande kvinnor för att öka kunskapen om mer specifika träningsupplägg för kvinnor.

    Totalt genomförde 31 kvinnor mellan 18 och 35 år hela studien. Kvinnorna fördelades slumpmässigt i två grupper med varierande träningsfrekvens i relation till sin menstruationscykel. En tredje grupp (kontrollgrupp) fortsatte att träna kondition regelbundet enligt sitt tidigare träningsschema. Kvinnorna tränade under fyra på varandra följande menstruationscykler och deltog i ett test före träningsperioden och ett test efter träningsperioden. Av de två grupper som varierade träningsfrekvens utifrån sin menstruationscykel tränade den ena gruppen kondition fem gånger per vecka under de två första veckorna av menstruationscykeln och kondition en gång per vecka under de sista två veckorna av sin menstruationscykel. Den andra gruppen tränade istället kondition en gång per vecka under de två första veckorna av menstruationscykeln och utförde sedan konditionsträning fem gånger per vecka under de sista två veckorna av sin menstruationscykel. Kontrollgruppen konditionstränade hela tiden tre pass per vecka. Detta resulterade i att varje grupp planerades träna 48 konditionsträningspass under den tid som studien pågick. Deras träning bestod av distanspass samt långa och korta intervallpass. Dessutom bibehöll de sin övriga träning i form av styrketräning, rörlighetsträning och eventuell teknikträning inom sina idrotter. Vid testerna före och efter träningsperioden genomfördes blodprovstagning för allmän hälsokontroll samt för hormonanalys. Båda testerna genomfördes under samma fas av menstruationscykeln. Vid de två testerna genomfördes ett ramptest till utmattning på cykel med kontinuerlig mätning av syreupptag och provtagning av laktat i blod före, under och efter cykeltest. Dessutom fyllde kvinnorna i ett frågeformulär om upplevelsen av träningen samt ett frågeformulär om allmänna måendet för både analys av Profile of Mood States (POMS) och skattning av träningsbelastning.

    Som resultatparametrar från de två cykeltesterna användes det högst uppnådda syreupptaget respektive syreupptaget då försökspersonen hade 2 och 4 mmol/l laktat i blodet. Dessutom mättes laktatnivåerna tre minuter efter arbete. Från POMS-frågeformuläret användes det sammanfattande värdet global POMS.

    Resultaten visade att konditionsträningens upplägg förbättrade deltagarnas aeroba kapacitet (mätt som maximalt uppnådd VO2peak ml/kg/min och VO2 ml/kg/min vid 2 och 4 mmol laktat i blodet) i alla tre träningsgrupperna, men någon skillnad mellan grupperna vad gäller storleken på denna ökning hittades inte. Inga signifikanta förändringar av global POMS eller av laktatnivåer tre minuter efter arbete fanns mellan de två testerna före och efter träningsperioden.

    Slutsatsen av studien är att konditionsträning periodiserad utifrån menstruationscykeln, det vill säga koncentrerad konditionsträning de första två veckorna respektive de sista två veckorna av menstruationscykeln, inte ger extra positiva träningseffekter jämfört med regelbunden konditionsträning som utfördes under hela menstruationscykeln (kontrollgruppen). 

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  • 10.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Larsson, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Mincheva Nilsson, Lucia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Mood and oxytocin blood levels in physically active women with and without oral contraceptive use in relation to seasonal daylight variation2017Ingår i: International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2469-5718, Vol. 3, nr 3, artikel-id 058Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The aim is to provide normative data on oxytocin, and its seasonality in users and non-users of Oral Contraceptives (OC) in physically active women. Further, to elucidate the relationship between Oxytocin and Profile of Mood States (POMS) for further research to see if Oxytocin can be used as an additional diagnostic marker to detect overreaching/overtraining syndrome or other stress disorders.

    Methods

    Forty-eight women (18-35 years old), 19 with and 29 without OC use, physically active at least 3 times a week at > 13 on the Borg RPE scale. Thirty-three subjects completed the study, 15 with and 18 without OC use. The number of hours from sunrise to sunset averaged 10 h during the autumn, 6 h during the winter, and 15 h during the spring. Once a month, blood samples were taken, weight and the day of menstrual cycle was documented, the POMS questionnaire was filled out as well as a personal daily logbook recording exercise type, duration, and intensity. To evaluate seasonal variations in Oxytocin and Global POMS, repeated measures analysis of variance was used.

    Results

    A significant seasonal variation in Oxytocin levels within the groups with and without OC respectively and significant differences in Oxytocin levels between the groups at diverse seasons were found. No significant difference in seasonal variation of Global POMS within the groups and no significant differences in levels of Global POMS between the groups with and without OC were seen. Furthermore, no clear relationship between Oxytocin, Global POMS scores, and hours of daylight respectively were detected.

    Conclusions

    Due to seasonality, impact of OC use on oxytocin levels, methodological considerations, and no convincing relationship to Global POMS, oxytocin is not suggested to be an optimal, diagnostic marker alone or in combination with others to detect overreaching and overtraining syndrome in physically active women.

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  • 11.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Larsén, Karin
    Gymnastik- och Idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Periodisering av träning under menstruationscykeln2017Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 12-14s. 12-14Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kroppens variationer under menstruationscykeln är en central del av kvinnors vardag och därför behöver vi bli bättre på att ta hänsyn till detta när vi optimerar träning för idrottande kvinnor.

  • 12.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Kvinnor & träning2017Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 13.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Larsén, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Impact of Season and Oral Contraceptive use on Cortisol Levelsin Physically Active Women2016Ingår i: Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics, ISSN 2374-6904, Vol. 3, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When athletes optimize their physical performance, an imbalance could occur between the strain of training, time for recovery and the athlete’s individual tolerance of stress that could lead to overreaching and overtraining syndrome. Cortisol has been suggested to be a biological, diagnostic marker to detect overreaching and overtraining syndrome, since it is thought to indicate stress. This study aimed to provide normative data on cortisol levels, hence investigate seasonality and impact of oral contraceptive use to elucidate if cortisol could be used as a diagnostic marker to detect overreaching and overtraining syndrome in female athletes. The women, divided in two groups, oral contraceptive users (n = 15) and non-users (n = 18), were followed over a nine-month period with monthly blood sampling for cortisol testing and a Profile of Mood State questionnaire (POMS) as a subjective measure of overreaching and overtraining syndrome.Findings indicated seasonal variations in cortisol levels, with different pattern in oral contraceptive users to non-users and moreover, higher cortisol levels in users to nonusers irrespective of season. No differences in seasonal variation in Global POMS score within the groups and no differences in Global POMS score between the groups were detected. Due to seasonality, impact of oral contraceptive use on cortisol levels, methodological considerations and standardization, as well as due to no convincing relationship to Global POMS score, cortisol is not suggested to be an optimal biological, diagnostic marker to detect overreaching and overtraining syndrome in physically active women.

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