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  • 1.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Novak, Judit
    Institutionen vid pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet, Härnösand.
    Skolinspektion som styrning2014In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governing by school inspection. In this article we argue that school inspection is an important and potentially influential way of governing education that deserves additional scholarly attention. This introductory article aims to situate and describe the origin, theoretical foundations and methods and materials gathered in the three research projects included in this special issue. We also briefly describe some important characteristics of the Swedish school inspection and finish off with short introductions to the six articles.

  • 2.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Now I'm Offended! New Regulations and Practices Against Bullying and Degrading Behaviour in Swedish Schools2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Clarke, John
    et al.
    Open University.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The vocabulary of inspection2015In: Governing by inspection / [ed] Sotiria Grek & Joakim Lindgren, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 137-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Diehl, Monika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Impact of Classification and Framing in Entrepreneurial Education: Field Observations in Two Lower Secondary Schools2015In: Universal Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 2332-3205, Vol. 3, no 8, p. 489-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article’s purpose is to examine, on the basis of Bernstein’s theory of classification and framing, how teachers express the concept and content of entrepreneurship in classroom practices in two Swedish lower secondary schools. The study is part of a national school improvement program aiming to better understand, develop and encourage entrepreneurial education and learning. The broad perspective of entrepreneurial education is used in Swedish compulsory school and thereby in this study. In 2011 the curriculum was reversed, which meant, in addition to introducing entrepreneurship, adding focus on learning outcomes. The data sample is based on observation and field notes. The results show differences between the schools and subjects.  The classification is strong in both schools, but the framing differs. Differences in framing are based on characteristics of individual teachers, and to some extent subjects, rather than schools. Together with other circumstances - such as teachers’ views and knowledge, school organization and subject division - the task can be perceived as challenging.

  • 5.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Joakim, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ferry, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Aktivitetskort på nätet: en studie av förändrade rutiner för verksamhetsrapportering och dess konsekvenser för föreningslivet2016Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ferry, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Aktivitetskort på nätet: barn och ungdomars deltagande i föreningsledda idrottsaktiviteter2016Report (Other academic)
  • 7. Grek, Sotiria
    et al.
    Lindgren, JoakimUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Governing by inspection2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, governing practices in education have become highly contradictory: deregulation and decentralisation are accompanied by re-regulation and increased centralisation, contributing to considerable governing tensions in and across different national systems and within the emergent European education policy space. On the one hand there is the persistence of performance monitoring through target-setting, indicators and benchmarks, and on the other, the promotion of self-evaluation and ‘light touch’ regulation that express a ‘softer’ governance turn, and promote self-regulation as the best basis for constant improvement.

    Drawing on research undertaken into three national systems, this edited volume explores the attempts to manage these tensions in Europe through the development of inspection as a governing practice. Inspectorates and inspectors offer key locations for the exploration of governing tensions, positioned as they are between the international, the national, and the local and institutional, and with responsibility for both regulation and development. All three national systems offer contrasting approaches to inspection, all of which have changed considerably in recent years.

    Governing by Inspection positions inspection in the framework of changing education policy and politics, and in a period of intensive policy development and exchange in Europe. It will be key reading for academics, researchers and postgraduate students in the fields of education, political science and social policy.

  • 8.
    Grek, Sotiria
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Introduction2014In: Governing by Inspection / [ed] Sotiria Grek & Joakim Lindgren, London: Routledge, 2014, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Grek, Sotiria
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Why inspect?: Europe, knowledge and neo-liberal narratives2015In: Governing by Inspection / [ed] Sotiria Grek & Joakim Lindgren, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 172-183Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Grek, Sotiria
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Clarke, John
    Open University.
    Inspection and emotion: the role of affective governing2014In: Governing by Inspection / [ed] Sotiria Grek & Joakim Lindgren, London: Routledge, 2014, p. 116-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Judging by the (law)book: incident reports and teachers’ professional knowledge in times of accountability2015In: Abstract book, NERA 4-6 March 2015: marketisation and differentiation in education, 2015, p. 136-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades schools’ documentation and administration have increased. In addition, schools have become increasingly governed by texts in the form of laws, curricula, goals and plans. Thus interpreting and producing text has become a new and important dimension in teacher professionalism. One new feature in this context is the obligation to report incidents concerning abusive treatment to the head teacher/preschool head and the governing body. Introduced in the new school act in 2011, this duty has produced new forms of work and considerations.

    The aim of this paper is to analyse consequences of accountability-driven text based teacher duties, for changes in teachers’ professional knowledge.

    - What forms of professional knowledge are involved in practices of incident reporting?

    The concept of jurdification (Teubner 1987, Brännström 2009) is framing our understanding of this process. The paper draws on Freeman and Sturdy’s (2014) phenomenology of knowledge in policy and the forms or phases that such knowledge may take, namely as embodied, inscribed and enacted. We thus see teachers’ work and professionalism as a way of doing policy. Inspired by Freeman and Sturdy we employ the above scheme as an “observational language” for empirical research and reflection. The paper is based on a case study involving interviews with teachers, head teachers and staff working with students’ social and physical health.

    The preliminary findings suggest that the new framing of incidents and the obligation to write incident reports have produced new forms of teacher knowledge. Historically, teachers have, relying on their tacit knowledge, sought to resolve conflicts by oral dialogues with pupils and parents. Today teachers must increasingly produce and adhere to formal plans on what counts as incidents and eventually transform this into yet another written text – an incident report – where each and every word is to be balanced in order not to be misunderstood or cause future problems for individuals or organisations (schools or governing bodies). Traditional embodied knowledge about how to handle and foster students in conflict is being replaced by new competencies and sensitivities related to formal definitions, strategic language use and behaviour.

  • 12.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Med lagen som rättesnöre: kunskapsformer i lärares arbete mot kränkande behandling2016In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 73-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Judging by the (law)book: Knowledge forms in teachers’ work against degrading behavior. Interpreting and producing text has become a new and important dimension in teacher professionalism in an increasingly juridified school. In a case study, we analyse consequences of textbased teacher duties, for changes in teachers’ professional knowl-edge. Interviews were performed with teachers, head teachers and staff working with students’ social and physical health in one school after several complaints by parents followed by criticism from the Swedish Schools Inspectorate. As a consequence teachers increasingly had to adhere to formal plans and in text report student incidents to the head teacher. Traditional embodied knowledge about how to handle and foster students in conflict was being replaced by new competencies and sensitivi-ties related to formal definitions, strategic language use and behaviour. Preliminary findings suggest that complaints and the obligation to write incident reports involve a process of re-creating teacher professionalism and the development of new forms of teacher knowledge in a context characterized by risk.

  • 13. Jeffrey B., Hall
    et al.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Sowada, Moritz
    Inspectors as information-seekers2019In: Inspectors and enforcement at the front line of government / [ed] Steven Van de Walle and Nadine Raaphorst, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, 1, p. 35-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Just as in other forms of government and areas of society, the role of the inspector is adjusting to new expectations and shifting accountability mechanisms. Acting as 'street-level bureaucrats' and enforcers of the law, inspectors collaborate with and depend on others in their quest to assemble information from multiple, complex sources. Their work is characterized by discretionary power where inspectors are entrusted to enact policy that is based on the principle of best judgment in addition to the demands put forward by legal norms and regulations. In sum, this information-seeking activity is utilized to collectively produce various documents, such as inspection reports. Furthermore, information seeking is considered a vital step in the development of their knowledge in order to make qualified judgments. Using 'visible' maps, e.g. inspection frameworks, and 'invisible' maps, e.g. inspectors' professional experiences, to navigate and execute discretionary tasks, school inspectors sometimes struggle to develop an adequate knowledge base that makes sense of the 'inspectees' worlds'. Drawing on the concepts of visible and invisible maps, this chapter examines the information-seeking practices of school inspectors based on previous comprehensive research on supervision systems in Germany (Lower Saxony), Norway and Sweden. This chapter addresses the following key questions: What type of information do inspectors look for?, How and where do they look for information?, How do inspectors handle different kinds of information, e.g., statistics, documents, and interview, observation- and survey data, and how do they decide what information is credible and useful? By studying inspectors as information-seekers, and more closely, school inspectors, this chapter demonstrates how these representatives of the state incorporate multiple visible and invisible maps, and how they make sense of the schools they are mandated to scrutinize using limited resources.

  • 14.
    Johnsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    “Great location, beautiful surroundings!”: Making sense of information materials intended as guidance for school choice2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 173-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following international trends during the last decades of the 20th century mechanisms of marketization, freedom of choice, and competition were introduced into the Swedish compulsory school system, thereby transforming it into one of the most de-regularized in the world. The overall aim of the pilot study presented here is to shed light on a phenomenon that has occurred as an effect of the shift in policy—namely on the information or marketing material which is directed from schools to families as guidance for school choice. The primary aim is to generate a conceptual basis for further research into the choice-related communication between schools and families. The information material analyzed consists of three annual volumes of a brochure, produced by the local education office in a middle-sized Swedish city area. Aside from picturing the content in terms of 145 symbolic expressions, sorted into 10 thematic categories, the results show how the material can be understood as made up of emotional imageries that give little guidance but that carry salvation stories on education and learning that have a transformative potential, as it opens up a new space for the governing of institutions and individuals.

  • 15.
    Johnsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Marketing Public Education, 1990-2007: Changes in Strategies and Imageries2008In: The 36th Nordic Conference on Educational Research, Copenhagen, Denmark, 6-8 March 2008: Network 20: Politics of Education and Education Policy, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, PO Box 2109, S 750 02 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Zackari, Gunilla
    Swedish Ministry of Education and Science, SE 103 33 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Educating for the New Sweden?2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 283-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we focus on Sweden as an advanced welfare state with a centralised educational system stressing modernisation and democratisation that was rapidly restructured into a deregulated, decentralised system based on vouchers and parental choice. The design was based on the collection of different kinds of data: policy texts, public statistics, in depth interviews with policy makers and administrators at different levels (n = 12) and teachers and headteachers (n = 42), surveys of students in Grade 9 in comprehensive schools (n = 413) in different contexts. In the interviews we found different recurrent themes in the narratives dealing with changes in education governance and on the subjects, students and teachers, in the system. By means of this we could portray a field of different conceptions of relations between education governance and social inclusion and exclusion among actors in different positions in Swedish education. The study showed large differences in the context of schools in terms of social and cultural backgrounds among students. We also found distinct differences between students in different cultural contexts. Those in contexts dominated by students of 'foreign background' were more loyal to traditional schooling cultures compared to more sceptical students from other contexts. In sum, our studies show a transition in the education culture in Sweden. This was conceptualised as a change in hegemony in the former welfare state where no alternatives are present in the current discourse on restructuring. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 17.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Balancing ideology and utopia: Education Governance, diasporic youth and social inclusion and exclusion2008In: The 36th Nordic Conference on Educational Research, Copenhagen, Denmark, 6-8 March 2008: Network 20: Politics of Education and Education Policy, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Between Wellfare and Institutionally fabricated Exclusion2003In: Adolescent facing the educational politics of the 21st century: Comparative survey on five national cases and three welfare models, Finnish Educational Reserch Association, Turku , 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Biography as Education Governance2007In: Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, ISSN 0159-6306, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 467-483Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Den neoliberale John Dewey - en reformpedagog för vår tid?2007In: Filosofidagarna Umeå, 8-10 juni, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Diaspora biographies balancing ideology and utopia: On future orientations of immigrant youth in a segregated Sweden2010In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 177-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a paper on the utopian life projects of immigrant youth in a disadvantaged Swedishcommunity. These projects are analysed through the concept of utopian diaspora biographywhich describes a process whereby a high level of aspiration concerning education and labouris accumulated as a consequence of the social, temporal and spatial dynamic of the biography.Utopian diaspora biographies, it is suggested, are fragile projects that reproduce politicalnotions of meritocratic social mobility and individual agency. However, they may alsoexplore individual possibilities and thereby challenge hierarchies in a segregated educationandlabour market. The risks and potentials associated with these modernist projects areanalysed through Ricoeur’s (1986) thoughts on ideology and utopia. It is suggested that thediaspora condition implies a movement between different internal systems of ideology andutopia – between a modern, Fordist system and a late modern, post-Fordist version. The paperis based on life history interviews.

  • 22.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Diaspora biographies balancing ideology and utopia: on future orientations of immigrant youth in a segregated Sweden: preamble: optics, young people’s life trajectories and the school crisis2016In: Skola, lärare, samhälle: vänbok till Sverker Lindblad / [ed] Gun-Britt Wärvik, Caroline Runesdotter, Eva Forsberg, Biörn Hasselgren och Fritjof Sahlström, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet , 2016, p. 131-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Education Governance and Social Integration and Exclusion: A Mixed Method Approach to Biographical Difference among Swedish Adolescents2005In: ECER Dublin 7-10 sept. 2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Grund grund för bedömning?: Dilemman i "inspektionsträsket"2014In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 57-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow ground for judgement? Dilemmas in the “inspection swamp”. This article seeks to analyse school inspectors’ work in the Swedish school inspectorate’s regular supervision. The research problem revolves around tensions between, on the one hand, juridical and standardised scripts for action and tacit and embodied professional knowledge on the other. The inspectorate’s prevalent search for ‘equivalent judgements’ and the high stakes nature of inspectors’ judgement making give rise to complicated professional dilemmas and what Peter Dahler-Larsen labels constitutive effects. Inspectors struggle with their judgements and seek to merge programmatic and technical elements within the current model of regular supervision with their accumulated professional experience. The article draws particular attention to the inspectorate’s urge to make the implicit explicit. Inspectors’ oblige inspectees to provide detailed descriptions of their work; i e to be inspectable. Their stress on transparency and accountability is supposed to produce democratic accountability and improvement.The constitutive effects might, however, be counterproductive and enforceless responsible and knowledgeable school actors.

  • 25.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Judgment or evidence?: Knowledge in Swedish Schools inspection2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides results from a study of the complex and hidden processes of consensus formation about evidence and facts that precede and make possible arrays of official judgments and decisions of The Swedish Schools Inspectorate (SI).  The following research questions are put forward: What forms of knowledge does the Swedish school inspectors prioritize, and what is the relationship between professional judgment and expertise, and evidence? How is knowledge negotiated on the back stage of inspection and presented on the front stage? The paper builds on case studies of school inspections in 4 schools. Data included internal and official material from SI (interview manuals, assessment manuals, inspection reports etc), observations of inspections in schools and of internal quality assurance meetings at SI, and finally, interviews with inspectors.  The analysis is inspired by Goffman’s (1959) usage of the concepts back- and front stages (of human behaviour). The paper is also informed by literature on knowledge and systems of reason in processes of inspection (Clarke & Ozga, 2011) and other forms of governance and performance management (Dahler-Larsen, 2008; Power 1996). Preliminary results suggest that the back stage of school inspection involves rigorous technical steering in terms of indicators, formalization and legal basis for judgment. Judgments tend to be located within an on-going struggle between two parallel professional cultures: a pedagogical and a juridical.

  • 26.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Learning, coping, adjusting: making school inspections work in Swedish schools2015In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 44-54, article id 30126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School inspections involve multiple forms of governing. Inspection activities are regulative, inquisitive and meditative and correspondingly initiate different forms of ‘inspection work’ in schools and governing bodies. The aim of this paper is to explore the inspection work in Sweden carried out before, during and after inspection events. This paper is based on interviews with professionals who perform inspection work, such as head teachers and responsible key actors within municipalities and independent school chains; documentation analysis of forms and accounts sent to the Swedish schools’ inspectorate; and observations of inspection events. The results show that inspection work is rendered possible by transparent inspection schemes that govern in advance. Inspection work is geared towards internalising routine evaluative thinking and documentation. Quality assurance, or ‘systematic quality work’, has become the new panacea in the ‘evaluation society’. The inspectees turn their organisations inside out and learn to cope with inspections through adaptation or even strategic behaviour. Coping with inspections also involves the translation of bureaucratic demands and negative feedback into organisational learning.

  • 27.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Learning from, coping with: Inspection work in the evaluation society - a Swedish report2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School inspection involves multiple forms of governing. Inspection activities are regulative, inquisitive and meditative (Jacobsson 2010) and correspondingly initiate different forms of ”inspection work” in schools and governing bodies. The aim of this paper is to explore inspection work carried out before, during and after inspection events. The paper is based on document analysis of forms and accounts sent to the Swedish schools inspectorate and interviews with head teachers and responsible key actors within municipalities and independent school chains. Preliminary results show that inspection work is geared to internalisation and routinization of evaluative thinking and documentation: Quality assurance, or “systematic quality work”, has become the new panacea in the “evaluation society” (Dahler-Larsen 2012). Inspection work is rendered possible by transparent inspection schemes which govern in advance. The inspectees turn their organizations inside out and learn to cope with inspection by adaptation or even strategic behaviour. Coping with inspection also involves translation of bureaucratic demands and negative feedback into organizational learning.

  • 28.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    När olikhet föder likhet: Hur ämnesövergripande kunskapsområden formas och tar plats i skolans praktik2005In: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning, ISSN 1404-7659, no 4, p. 107-113Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Perspektiv på skolans värdegrund: Värdegrundscentrums intervjuserie ”Möte med forskare”2004Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Recension av: Den värdefulla praktiken. Yrkesetik i pedagogers vardag, av Kennert Orlenius & Airi Bigsten2007In: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning, ISSN 1404-7659, no 3, p. 104-107Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Seeing Like an Inspector: High Modernism and Mētis in Swedish School Inspection2014In: Sisyphus - Journal of Education, ISSN 2182-8474 (Print), 2182-9640 (Online), Vol. 2, no 1, p. 62-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, John C. Scott (1998)’s ideas are used in order to discuss how the Swedish state sees education, as it relies upon its technical and juridical rationality. Drawing on cross-case study data from inspection processes, it is suggested that inspectors’ work involves a dual optic. On the one hand, regular supervision is explicitly conformed to a regulatory evidence-based model derived from ambitions to develop universal, objective, and neutral judgements. On the other hand, the concrete work of inspectors does entail modification, adaptation, and mediation of rules, templates, schemes, and standard procedures. Hence, the evidence-based design denotes inspectors’ practical wisdom or mētis.

  • 32.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skolinspektörers synliga och osynliga kartor2016In: Bedömning i och av skolan: praktik, principer, politik / [ed] Christian Lundahl och Maria Folke-Fichtelius, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 2:1, p. 265-286Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Spaces, mobilities and youth biographies in the New Sweden: Studies on education governance and social inclusion and exclusion2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main theme of this thesis is the relation between education governance and social inclusion and exclusion. Overall the thesis is based on a life history approach were biographical interviews with young people are complemented with other contextual data such as survey data, longitudinal statistics, interviews with local politicians and school actors and local reports. Data were generated in three Swedish areas: a rural area in the North, an advantaged segregated area, and a disadvantaged segregated area in the South. The thesis consists of four articles that use the concepts of biography, space, and mobility. Article 1. examines the increasing usage of biographical registers in school. It suggests that biography as a form of education governance serves to construct the students as both objects for assessment and as a relay for continuous self-assessment. As such, this is a socio-political technology that is important to acknowledge in order to understand processes of social inclusion and exclusion. Article 2. addresses the following empirically generated question: How is it possible to understand the fact that disadvantaged students from a segregated area have such optimistic future orientations in relation to further education and work? Building on life history interviews with a small sample of refugee youth from a disadvantaged segregated area the paper presents a concept labelled Utopian diaspora biography (UDB). UDB describes a process whereby a high level of aspiration concerning education and labour is accumulated as a consequence of the social, temporal and spatial dynamic of the biography. Article 3. is an attempt to develop new understandings about local production of social inclusion and exclusion in a decentralised, individualised and segregated school landscape. Using a wide range of data the article suggests that local differences concerning schooling and the outcomes of schooling – both in terms of statistical patterns and the identities produced – are interrelated and are based on an amalgamation of local policy implementation, material conditions and spatially guided representations. Article 4. deploys the concept of mobility in order to explore how space and class become related to education and social inclusion and exclusion in the three chosen areas as young people are spatially situated but move, want to move, dream about moving, try to move, and fail to move through, in and out of different forms of communities. This paper shows that the possibilities of moving to desired places on the education- and labour market are unequally distributed between young people and between places. The analysis also seeks to move beyond schematic typologies such as those of ‘immobile working class’ and ‘mobile middle class’ by exploring how mobility is made meaningful and how notions about mobility are structured and enable action. In summary, the thesis contributes to the discussion on processes of inclusion and exclusion in contemporary society. These processes are understood as inter-disciplinary problematics that include the social production of spatiality, historicality, and sociality at both the societal level and on the level of identity. Crucial aspects concern aestheticisation and performativity in education which imply an increasing focus on discursive, or textual, dimensions of identity formation and the competitive strategies developed by students in order to secure social inclusion through the marketing of oneself. Under these circumstances, new identities and new forms of social inclusion and exclusion are produced.

  • 34.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Spaces of social inclusion and exclusion: A spatial approach to education restructuring and identity in Sweden2010In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 75-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decentralised Swedish school system has become increasingly directed to the construction of self-governing and responsible pedagogic identities that are supposed to enable integration and participation. Drawing on the work of the geographer Edward W. Soja, I acknowledge how material and symbolic spatialisation intersect with the local production of included and excluded identities in the context of restructuring education. The paper is based on a study in two areas in a segregated Swedish city; one disadvantaged and one advantaged area. I use a wide range of data such as policy documents, questionnaire data, longitudinal statistics, interviews with local politicians, school actors and former students. The findings show that former students from the disadvantaged area were more often excluded from further education and were dependent on social welfare to a higher extent. Moreover, they faced low expectations and were simultaneously excluded from new educational processes that explicitly aim at social inclusion. In the paper I discuss how ethical ideals of decentralisation and participation, and the evaluation of such policies in terms of access to further education and work, conceal the local production of excluded identities. This production, I argue, is based on an amalgamation of material conditions and spatial representations.

  • 35.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The front and back stages of Swedish school inspection: opening the black box of judgment2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 58-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides results from a study of the hidden processes of consensus formation that precede and make possible official judgments and decisions of the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (SI). The research question for the study was: How is knowledge negotiated on the back stage of school inspection and presented on the front stage? The article builds on in-depth case studies of school inspection in four schools. Data include internal and official material from SI, on-site observations of inspection in schools and internal quality assurance meetings at SI, and interviews with inspectors. The analysis is inspired by Goffman's usage of the concepts “front stage” and “back stage.” The results suggest that the SI front stage borrows legitimacy from an evidence-based model aiming at objective and “equivalent” judgments, while the back stage displays a complex mix of rigorous formalized guidance and uncertainty that requires inspectors’ brokering and deliberation.

  • 36.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Värdegrund i skola och forskning 20012003Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    ”Värdelöst” värdegrundsarbete?: Demokratifostran i svenska skolor2002In: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning, ISSN 1404-7659, no 3, p. 39-52Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Cultivating the juridified self?: Regulation, socialisation and new forms of work against degrading treatment in schools2019In: NERA 2019 Abstract Book 2019-03-06, 2019, p. 826-827Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A popular contemporary narrative asserts that Sweden has become “the society of easily offended victims” (Eberhard, 2009; see also Berensten, 2014; Dahlstrand, 2012; Heberlein, 2005; Zaremba, 2008). Official statistics show how defamation of character claims have increased dramatically over time (The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, 2018). Such observations relates to developments in the school system where the number of complaints regarding degrading treatment (DT) have also increased (The Swedish Schools Inspectorate, 2018). Overall, schools’ work against DT is framed by increasing awareness of the role of formal obligations, trials, evidence, damages, individual rights and childrens’ subjective experiences of being offended. Plans, preventions, expanding forms of investigations and documentation are enacted in order to provide guarantees that DT do not occur; that is, that students are not exposed to any behaviour that violates their “dignity” (The Swedish Education Act SFS 2010:800, §6).

    The increasing legal framing when it comes to schools’ work with problems of DT has been discussed in terms of juridification (Lindgren, Carlbaum, Hult & Segerholm, in press). The overall aim of this study is to explore how new judicial forms of work against DT in Swedish schools affect young people’s socialisation and identity. In a previous study, based on interviews with students, we could not confirm any radically new patterns of socialisation (Lindgren, Hult, Carlbaum & Segerholm, 2018). The present study then, is an attempt to validate these results by including the perspective of experienced school actors who have a different overview and relation to the issues at hand. We thus analyse interviews with both school actors and students from grade five and grade eight when reasoning about problems of DT and how such problems are understood and acted on in schools.

    Our theoretical framework establishes a direct link between juridification and socialisation through Habermas’ ideas on the colonisation of the lifeworld by the instrumental rationality of bureaucracies and market-forces (Habermas, 1987). Juridification thus describe how intuitive forms of everyday communication, norms and values becomes reified by legal logic (Habermas, 1987). Drawing on these ideas Honneth (2014) has offered examples of social pathologies that significantly impairs the ability to take part in important forms of social cooperation.

    We interviewed students, teachers, head teachers, school staff and responsible officials at the municipality level at five schools in two municipalities. Both students and school staff talk about the juridified significance of DT, that it is decided by the offended person, but have ambiguous ideas ofthe juridified way that the school handle incidents. Both school staff and students claim that the word DT (kränkning) mostly is used by students jokingly, e.g. when reprimanded. Students hesitate in informing teachers of incidents because it sets in motion disproportionate investigations, e.g. informing parents. Thus, students want the teachers to see and know of incidents, but not necessarily to act upon them according to formal standards. Overall, such preliminary results indicate that increasing regulation in school may cultivate juridified selves by stressing subjective feelings and formal investigations while muting dialogue.

  • 39.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Professional responsibility and accountability?: Balancing institutional logics in the enactment of new regulations and practices against bullying and degrading treatment in Swedish schools2018In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 368-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports an investigation of new forms of work against degrading treatment in Swedish compulsory school. It focuses particularly on how four schools in one municipality enact the far-reaching reporting obligation. The study is theoretically informed by institutional theory and theories on teacher professionalism, and is empirically based on interviews with teachers, head teachers, school health staff, and municipal officials, as well as analysis of policy documents and local statistics. The results show that legal regulation produces institutional complexity that creates tensions between the logic of accountability and the logic of professional responsibility, balanced by school actors in their everyday work.

  • 40.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    To see or not to see: challenges in teachers’ enactment of policies on degrading treatment in Sweden2018In: Abstract book NERA, 8-10 March 2018: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: 95, University of Oslo , 2018, p. 94-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of many challenges that teachers face on a daily basis is related to problems with degrading treatment. Teachers work in order to establish a working environment where children can learn; both knowledge and norms and values, i.e how to live together and to understand, care for and respect each other in line with the “fundamental values” in the curriculum (The Swedish National Agency for Education, 2011). All schools are regulated by a policy of zero tolerance towards degrading treatment (The Child and School Student Representative, 2017). The challenge, however, is immense, if not abysmal: hundreds of children obligated to spend year after year in a cramped facility without ever troubling each other with derogatoriness, rumours, ridicule or shoving. Teachers take on this difficult challenge with a broad repertoire of pedagogical tools based on research, theory, experience and tacit knowledge. They deal with chaos and unpredictability in contexts where no single method, plan or manual apply (Cardell, 2017: 226).In this paper we draw attention to how this challenge has been transformed by recent legal regulation of teachers’ work. The School Act has expanded the regulations on degrading treatment and teachers and school staff are today responsible to report any degrading treatment to the principal who in turn has an obligation to report it further to the governing body. This regulation is added to the obligation to quickly investigate and take necessary measures to counteract such treatment (Prop. 2009/10:165; SFS 2010:800).Based on 35 interviews with municipal officials, school directors, school leaders, teachers and other school staff (n 60) in seven schools in two municipalities we describe and analyse how teachers handle issues related to degrading treatment as the pedagogical challenge has been converted into, or complemented by, a judicial challenge primarily oriented towards objective representation of past events. For instance, teachers have to determine, at every incident occurring during the school day, if it should be reported as degrading treatment or not. Reporting has certain consequences, for example time consuming activities of documentation including administration of evolving digital reporting systems, discussions with colleagues and students and communication with parents demanding careful balance and precision. Not reporting has other consequences, e.g. it involves risk taking in terms of accountability since every incident has the potential to later become part of a complaint on degrading treatment issued to The Swedish Schools Inspectorate or The Child and School Student Representative. Thus, to see or not to see incidents is not only a question of teachers’ attention and immediate subsequential action or mindful awaiting – it is a choice that involves a range of strategic and defensive considerations that in a profound way alters teachers’ professional gaze, understanding and practice.The paper is theoretically informed by ideas on policy enactment (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012) that provide an overall understanding of issues of policy implementation in times of juridification. In order to qualify the analysis of teachers’ challenges and conflicts between different logics we draw on theories on teacher professionalism (e.g. Englund & Solbrekke, 2015; Solbrekke & Englund, 2011).

  • 41.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Clarke, John
    The (C)SI effect: school inspection as crime scene investigation2014In: Shaping of European education: interdisciplinary approaches / [ed] Martin Lawn and Romuald Normand, Routledge, 2014, 1, p. 131-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ferry, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Aktivitetskort på nätet: En studie av förändrade rutiner för verksamhetsrapportering och dess konsekvenser för kommunal styrning av föreningsverksamhet2016Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet, Härnösand.
    Mediating school inspection: key dimensions and keywords in official Swedish discourse 2003-20102011In: Network 23: Policy Studies and Politics of Education / [ed] European Educational Research Association (EERA), Berlin: ECER , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports on an analysis of texts published by the Swedish school inspection authorities describing the aims, directions and procedures of school inspection.The analysis serves to advance our understanding of the Swedish inspection regime. Inspection, or more precisely the mediation of inspection, is understood as part of contemporary education governing.

    Methodology: The study is a textual analysis of information materials, reports, official annual accounts and plans, and other official texts directed to the government, municipalities, schools and the public, produced by the National Agency for Education (between 2003-2008) and the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (2008-2010). The analysis concentrates on key themes and key words conveying dominant ideas of inspection and education and is structured around five dimensions based on an understanding of inspection as education governance and on characteristics of the Swedish education system.

    Conclusions: Preliminary results suggest that the rhetoric and dominant ideas in/of school inspection changed when the responsibility of inspection was transferred to the Swedish School Inspectorate in autumn 2008. Key concepts before then are more supportive to schools and municipalities, recognising local conditions. Later, a language more directed to detect shortcomings, and to support an ideology of individual rights and ?juridification? is apparent.

  • 44.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Pedagogiska institutionen, Mittuniversitetet.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Mediating school inspection: Key dimensions and keywords in agency text production 2003-20102012In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 569-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an analysis of how school inspection in Sweden – its aims, directions and procedures – is portrayed in texts produced by the responsible national authorities. The study involves a textual analysis of official annual accounts and plans (texts directed to the government,municipalities, schools and the public) produced by the National Agency for Education and the Swedish Schools Inspectorate. The analysis concentrates on key concepts conveying the dominant ideas of inspection and education. The analysis is structured around four dimensions that arebased on an understanding of inspection as education governance and on the characteristics of the Swedish education system. The results suggest that the rhetoric and dominant ideas of school inspection changed when the responsibility for inspection was transferred to the Swedish Schools Inspectorate in the autumn of 2008. Key concepts before that time are more supportive of schools and municipalities, recognising local conditions. Later, a language with the intention of detecting shortcomings and supporting an ideology of individual rights and juridification is apparent.

  • 45.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Olika men lika?2005In: Religion. Grundbok, Natur och Kultur, Stockholm , 2005, p. 152-163Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Mobilities of Swedish youth: Spatial and classed trajectories under the regime of mobility2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Mobilities of Swedish youth: spatial and classed trajectories under the regime of mobility2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Mobilities of youth: Social and spatial trajectories in a segregated Sweden2010In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 192-207Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores youth mobilities in three geographic and socioeconomic diverseSwedish contexts. The concept of mobility has become an important feature ofindividualistic discourses of responsibility relating to inclusion, lifelong learning andself-regulating entrepreneurial behaviour. This article draws attention to the fact thatgeographical mobility, as a form of human agency, is closely related to social mobilityand hence to both spacial and social ineqalities. Using life history interviews andstatistical data, the paper explores how space, class and ethnicity are related to educationand social inclusion and exclusion as young people are spatially situated yet move, desireto move, dream about moving, seek to move and fail to move, as they migrate through,in and out of social communities. The analysis displays how these mobilities are framedby local traditions and circumstances that both enable and restrict. Such mobility mightinvolve processes of personal development and learning, and be the calculatedconsequence of each individual’s chosen life-career. However, mobility might also ariseas flight from a stigmatized place. In these cases, refusal to move can also be seen as aform of resistance.

  • 49.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Knowing inspectors' knowledge: forms and transformations2017In: School inspectors: policy implementers, policy shapers in national policy contexts / [ed] Jacqueline Baxter, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 159-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the governing work of Swedish school inspectors with regards to the role and function of knowledge. As professionals, inspectors are situated as relays and brokers of policy standing in contact with both the political arena and practice arenas. School inspectors use and produce knowledge and they rely on, search for, accumulate and communicate different forms of knowledge. In this chapter, we seek to understand knowledge in the inspection context as existing in three phases, namely as embodied, inscribed and enacted (Freeman and Sturdy, 2014). The aim is to identify and discuss different phases of knowledge in inspectors' work by asking how the different forms of embodied, inscribed and enacted knowledge are manifested, incorporated and transformed in the course of inspection. The chapter illustrates how different forms of knowledge are intertwined with issues of legitimacy, accountability and control, which is argued to be importat for how inspection and the work of inspectors' are perceived and judged in different contexts and settings.

  • 50.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Mimicry in an era of autonomy?: Quality assurance policies in Swedish Universities2017Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 62
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