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  • 1.
    Aguirre Salcedo, Citlali
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ceccon, Eliane
    Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Seed trait differentiation and plant growth among Mimosa luisana populationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The arid and semi-arid vegetation zones of the world often harbour high species diversity and significant endemism. They also face elevated levels of environmental pressures due to high human settlement densities and weak institutional systems. This necessitates adequate conservation and ecological restoration efforts, which in turn demand physiological and ecological knowledge of the species involved. Seed traits can be important for plant establishment success and growth, especially at early life stages, when seedlings also are most sensitive. We studied the role of seed traits for early establishment of the woody Fabaceae species Mimosa luisana, a candidate species for use in ecological restoration within the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (TCV), Mexico. We assessed the relationship between seed traits and biomass production, biomass allocation and relative growth rate (RGR) up to 200 days after germination, in a common garden experiment using three populations that represented the lower, central and upper limit of M. luisana geographical distribution. M. luisana seeds were 1.9-3.9 mm long, 1.7-3.3 mm wide, 1.2-2.9 mm thick, and weighed from 3 to 19 mg. We found the seeds from the lower limit to be lighter, thinner and less spherical than the central and upper populations. Across all populations, 41% of the total biomass consisted of leaves, followed by shoots (33%) and roots (27%). The biomass production and allocation showed no significant difference among populations during the initial harvests; however, discernible differences emerged over time. Seed weight initially had a significant effect on biomass production, but this effect was lost with time. Seed weight alone explained only 0.82% of the total variance of biomass production, while harvest age explained 40.05%, and seed provenance 3.08%. The correlation between seed weight and RGR was slightly negative but not significant. These results have implications for efforts to ecologically restore dry forests in the region as well as how to implement climate change adaptation and conservation translocation actions, as these might imply sowing and establishing M. luisana at new sites. Given the small variance in biomass accumulation explained by seed traits and provenance, efforts to protect M. luisana during germination and establishment are likely to be more important for management success than the seed source used.

  • 2.
    Aguirre Salcedo, Citlali
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ceccon, Eliane
    Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Trait differentiation and local adaptation of a local endemic shrub along a tropical dry forest gradient: a reciprocal transplant experimentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid climate change imperils a multitude of species, demanding either swift adaptation or a strategic migration to new areas to safeguard their existence. Species confined to spatially limited habitats face heightened vulnerability as ecological conditions may undergo dramatic shifts across their range. In this study, we delve into the processes shaping the geographic distribution of Mimosa luisana, a species endemic to the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley in Mexico, having high potential for use in ecological restoration. We aimed to forecast the response of M. luisana to climate change and to formulate strategic management guidelines in the face of global change. We conducted a reciprocal translocation and a common garden experiment with three provenances of M. luisana. We used populations originating from the lower, central and upper range-limit of the altitudinal and latitudinal distribution of the species. We found significant differences in the relative growth rate, leaf biomass change and specific leaf area among the three provenances during their early establishment, but found little evidence of local adaptation among the studied populations. Instead, all provenances did best at the central part of the species range. We suggest that cold temperatures might be delimiting the upper limit of M. luisana within the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, whereas tolerance to drought may set lower limits. M. luisana might respond to climate change not by upward shifts of each locally adapted population distributed along the elevational gradient, but by conditions improving at the high-elevation edge in response to warming. A management implication from our results is that ensuring genetic diversity of the seed batches may be more important than only using local seed sources of M. luisana in ecological restoration actions.

  • 3.
    Aguirre Salcedo, Citlali
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    To move or not to move: assessing the viability of translocating Mimosa luisana for climate adaptation in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, MexicoManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is threatening range-restricted species world-wide, but assessments of vulnerability is lacking in many areas, especially in tropical mountain regions. We assessed the vulnerability of the tropical dry forest species Mimosa luisana, an important nurse plant facilitating the establishment of other species, and provider of ecosystem services to local communities. We projected changes in the geographic distribution and extent of the climatic envelope of M. luisana for the periods 2021-2040, 2041-2060, 2061-2080, using the Maximun Entropy species distribution model (MaxEnt). We also tested the response of local provenances of M. luisana to different climate change scenarios by transplanting them to new elevations. 

    We found that new areas at higher elevation will become climatically suitable for M. luisana in the future, without losing its current geographic range, so that its geographic range may expand by between 50% and 313%. Transplantation showed that M. luisana can grow and survive in a wide range of conditions. Moreover, M. luisana was able to survive when translocated 700 m upwards, to areas above its current elevational limit. 

    We conclude that M. luisana is not in need of assisted migration to escape climate-related extinction, but translocation to areas that become climatically suitable may be beneficial to its conservation. The species may be used in ecological restoration projects in a wide range of conditions, including beyond its present range, increasing the likelihood of success in present and future ecological restoration actions. However, we acknowledge the need for assessing the climate-change effects on reproduction and the dispersal capacity of the species. 

  • 4.
    Aguirre Salcedo, Citlali
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Montaño-Arias, Susana Adriana
    2Departamento de Biología, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de La Salud, Universidad Autónoma MetropolitanaIztapalapa, Ciudad de México, México.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Restoration implications of the germination ecology of six dry-forest woody Fabaceae species in MexicoManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Germination kickstarts plant recruitment. Hence, acknowledging this process is a prerequisite for restoration of ecosystems. In dry forests, where opportunities for plant establishment occur in a narrow window of opportunity, seeds must respond to cues to germinate when conditions for growth are suitable. Understanding the strategies and adaptations of seeds to the seasonal dry-forest ecosystems is needed to guide restoration and management actions in the face of climate change. We investigated the effects of scarification, temperature and light in germination percentage, germination time and synchrony of six woody Fabaceae species. The species have ecological potential for restoration and are of cultural and economic importance for the local people in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico. We carried out a multifactorial germination experiment with five temperatures, two light regimes and two scarification conditions for Mimosa luisana, M. polyantha, M. adenantheroides, M. lactiflua, Acaciella angustissima and Vachellia constricta. Responses differed among the species, but they all germinated in a wide range of temperatures (10°C to 40°C). Mechanical scarification highly increased the germination percentage of all species. Higher temperature increased and speeded up germination in dark conditions for most of the species. We found more heterogeneous responses in germination synchrony among species. Despite that the studied species had high germination percentages in warm temperatures, their recruitment in nature might be negatively affected by warmer and drier conditions, and by the loss of shade and seed dispersers due to deforestation and changes in land use. It is crucial to study not just germination percentage and time but also other aspects of the germination process such as the germination synchrony, since it might reveal useful information for management actions.

  • 5.
    Alimpić, Filip
    et al.
    Singidunum University - Environment and Sustainable Development, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Milovanović, Jelena
    Singidunum University - Environment and Sustainable Development, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Pielech, Remigiusz
    Department of Forest Biodiversity, Faculty of Forestry, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Kraków, Poland.
    Hinkov, Georgi
    Forest Research Institute at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dufour, Simon
    Université Rennes 2/UMR LETG, Rennes, France.
    Beza, Marcin
    The Kostrzyca Forest Gene Bank, Miłków, Poland.
    Bilir, Nebi
    Isparta University of Applied Sciences, Isparta, Turkey.
    del Blanco, Luis Santos
    CSIC-INIA-CIFOR, Madrid, Spain.
    Božič, Gregor
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bruno, Daniel
    Pyrenean Institute of Ecology (Spanish National Research Council; IPE-CSIC), Zaragoza, Spain.
    Chiarabaglio, Pier Mario
    CREA - Research Centre for Forestry and Wood, Casale Monferrato AL, Italy.
    Doncheva, Neli
    WWF Bulgaria, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Gültekin, Yaşar Selman
    Forest Economics Department, Düzce University, Faculty of Forest, Düzce, Turkey.
    Ivanković, Mladen
    Croatian Forest Research Institute, Jastrebarsko, Croatia.
    Kelly-Quinn, Mary
    School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    La Porta, Nicola
    Edmund Mach Foundation, Trento, Italy.
    Nonić, Marina
    University of Belgrade - Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Notivol, Eduardo
    CITA (Agricultural Research Centre), Aragon, Spain.
    Papastergiadou, Eva
    School of Natural Sciences - University of Patras, Rio, Greece.
    Šijačić-Nikolić, Mirjana
    University of Belgrade - Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Vietto, Lorenzo
    CREA - Research Centre for Forestry and Wood, Casale Monferrato AL, Italy.
    Villar, Marc
    INRAE-ONF-BioForA, Orléans, France.
    Zhelev, Petar
    University of Forestry, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Rodríguez-González, Patricia María
    Forest Research Centre - School of Agriculture - University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    The status and role of genetic diversity of trees for the conservation and management of riparian ecosystems: A European experts' perspective2022In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 59, no 10, p. 2476-2485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Riparian vegetation supports high biodiversity providing many services and is, therefore, an important landscape element. Riparian ecosystems are subject to numerous pressures leading to population decline and genetic erosion of riparian plants. This may have cascading effects at various ecosystem levels, including decreasing ecosystem services, so identifying the current status of genetic diversity of riparian tree species is vital to improve the effectiveness of restoration efforts.

    We aimed to elicit expert views on the status and importance of genetic diversity of tree species, and conservation needs across European riparian ecosystems. Sharing of such information among researchers, managers and policymakers has the potential to enhance ecological restoration and management of riparian ecosystems.

    We identified experts in riparian genetic resources conservation and management across Europe. These included stakeholders with different perspectives, ranging from researchers to practitioners. We designed a set of questionnaires where our identified experts were asked to answer questions related to the status and conservation of genetic diversity of riparian tree species in their respective countries. Specifically, we asked about societal awareness, legislative tools, good practices and conservation or restoration projects accounting for intraspecific genetic diversity and differentiation of tree species in riparian ecosystems. Questionnaire responses were analysed and discussed in light of the scientific literature to define needs and priorities related to the management and conservation of genetic diversity of riparian tree species.

    The experts recognized that a combination of in situ and ex situ measures and/or integrative conservation of riparian ecosystems is the most appropriate option for conserving the genetic diversity of riparian tree species. Simultaneous application of conservation measures at the level of priority species, identified by experts, and protection of riparian areas are required.

    Synthesis and applications. This study revealed the importance of recognizing the ecological processes that shape the genetic diversity of riparian tree species in hydrographic networks (dendritic spatial configuration, specific patterns of gene flow among riparian populations, fragmentation of river by dams) but also the need to overcome socio-economic barriers, such as lack of policy priority, deficiency in funding and weak legislation framework.

  • 6.
    Bejarano, Maria D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The effects of hydropeaking on riverine plants: a review2018In: Biological Reviews, ISSN 1464-7931, E-ISSN 1469-185X, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 658-673Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropeaking refers to frequent, rapid and short-term fluctuations in water flow and water levels downstream and upstream of hydropower stations. Such fluctuations are becoming increasingly common worldwide and are known to have far-reaching effects on riverine vegetation. Novel hydrology caused by hydropeaking has no natural correspondence in freshwater systems, and hence few species have adaptations to all its aspects. Here, we review the literature on hydropeaking effects on riverine plants and define the state of the information on this human alteration of riverine ecosystems. We focus on riparian plants, but also draw on information from aquatic plant species, which exhibit a wide variety of adaptations to inundation and associated processes. Riparian plants face both physiological and physical constraints because of the shifts between submergence and drainage, and erosion of substrates. At the population level, hydropeaking may favour dispersal within, but not between, reservoirs, but may hamper germination, establishment, growth and reproduction. At the community level, strong filtering towards easily dispersed, flexible, flood-tolerant and amphibious plants is expected, although few species share these traits. Hence, most riparian plant species are expected to disappear or be pushed towards the upper boundaries of the regulated river margin. Future research should examine more closely global variation in hydropeaking effects, including other taxonomic groups of species and the diversity of hydropeaking regimes. There is also a need for studies focusing on identifying the boundaries within which hydropeaking could operate without impairing plant life.

  • 7.
    Bejarano, Maria D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Natural Systems and Resources, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Sordo-Ward, Alvaro
    Alonso, Carlos
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hydropeaking affects germination and establishment of riverbank vegetation2020In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e02076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropeaking, defined as frequent and rapid variation in flow in regulated rivers with hydropower plants over a short period of time, usually sub-daily to weekly, alters hydraulic parameters such as water levels or flow velocity and exerts strong impacts on fluvial ecosystems. We evaluated the effects of hydropeaking on riverbank vegetation, specifically assessing the germination and establishment of seedlings and cuttings of plant species representing a variation in traits. We used seeds and seedlings and cuttings varying in size as phytometers, and transplanted them to riverbanks both above and below dams used for hydropower production in northern Sweden, selected to represent a gradient in hydropeaking intensity, and along a free-flowing reach. We also analyzed sub-daily water-level variables modified by hydropeaking to identify variables key in explaining the observed vegetation patterns. We found that plant responses to hydropeaking varied with species, with flood-intolerant species being the most strongly affected, as early as the germination stage. In contrast, seeds of flood-tolerant species managed to germinate and survive the early establishment phase, although strong erosive processes triggered by hydropeaking eventually caused most of them to fail. The fate of flood-intolerant species identifies germination as the most critical life-history stage. The depth and frequency of the inundation were the leading variables explaining plant responses, while the duration of shallow inundation explained little of the variation. The rise and fall rates of water levels were key in explaining variation in germination success. Based on the results, we propose restoration measures to enhance establishment of riparian plant communities while minimizing the impact on hydropower electricity production. Given the strong decrease in the germination of species intolerant to prolonged flooding with hydropeaking, planting of seedlings, preferably of large sizes, together with restrictions in the operation of the power plant during the establishment phase to enhance survival would be the best restoration option. Given the high probability of plant uprooting with hydropeaking, bank protection measures have the potential to increase riparian plant survival of all species, including flooding-tolerant species.

  • 8.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Milbau, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Root phenology unresponsive to earlier snowmelt despite advanced aboveground phenology in two subarctic plant communitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier snowmelt at high latitudes advances aboveground plant phenology, thereby affecting water, nutrient and carbon cycles. Despite the key role of fine roots in these ecosystem processes, phenological responses to earlier snowmelt have never been assessed belowground. We experimentally advanced snowmelt in two contrasting plant community types (heath and meadow) in northern Sweden and measured above- and belowground phenology (leaf-out, flowering and fine root growth). We expected earlier snowmelt to advance both above- and belowground phenology, and shrub-dominated heath to be more responsive than meadow. Snow melted on average nine days earlier in the manipulated plots than in controls, and soil temperatures were on average 0.9 °C higher during the snowmelt period of three weeks. This resulted in small advances in aboveground phenology, but contrary to our expectations, root phenology was unresponsive, with root growth generally starting before leaf-out. Both plant community types responded similarly to the snowmelt treatment, despite strong differences in dominating plant functional types, and root properties, such as root length and turnover. The lack of a response in root phenology, despite warmer soil temperatures and aboveground phenological advances, adds evidence that aboveground plant responses might not be directly translated to belowground plant responses, and that our understanding of factors driving belowground phenology is still limited, although of major importance for water, nutrient and carbon cycling.

  • 9.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Milbau, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Biodiversity and Natural Environment, Research Institute for Nature and Forest INBO, Kliniekstraat 25,1070 Brussels, Belgium.
    Root phenology unresponsive to earlier snowmelt despite advanced above-ground phenology in two subarctic plant communities2017In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 1493-1502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Earlier snowmelt at high latitudes advances above-ground plant phenology, thereby affecting water, nutrient and carbon cycles. Despite the key role of fine roots in these ecosystem processes, phenological responses to earlier snowmelt have never been assessed below-ground. 2. We experimentally advanced snowmelt in two contrasting plant community types (heath and meadow) in northern Sweden and measured above- and below-ground phenology (leaf-out, flowering and fine root growth). We expected earlier snowmelt to advance both above- and below-ground phenology, and shrub-dominated heath to be more responsive than meadow. 3. Snow melted on average 9 days earlier in the manipulated plots than in controls, and soil temperatures were on average 0.9 degrees C higher during the snowmelt period of 3 weeks. This resulted in small advances in above-ground phenology, but contrary to our expectations, root phenology was unresponsive, with root growth generally starting before leaf-out. These responses to the snowmelt treatment were similar in both plant community types, despite strong differences in dominating plant functional types and root properties, such as root length and turnover. 4. The lack of a response in root phenology, despite warmer soil temperatures and above-ground phenological advances, adds evidence that above-ground plant responses might not be directly translated to below-ground plant responses, and that our understanding of factors driving below-ground phenology is still limited, although of major importance for water, nutrient and carbon cycling.

  • 10. Catford, Jane A.
    et al.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Drowned, buried and carried away: effects of plant traits on the distribution of native and alien species in riparian ecosystems2014In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 19-36Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Riparian vegetation is exposed to stress from inundation and hydraulic disturbance, and is often rich in native and alien plant species. We describe 35 traits that enable plants to cope with riparian conditions. These include traits for tolerating or avoiding anoxia and enabling underwater photosynthesis, traits that confer resistance and resilience to hydraulic disturbance, and attributes that facilitate dispersal, such as floating propagules. This diversity of life-history strategies illustrates that there are many ways of sustaining life in riparian zones, which helps to explain high riparian biodiversity. Using community assembly theory, we examine how adaptations to inundation, disturbance and dispersal shape plant community composition along key environmental gradients, and how human actions have modified communities. Dispersal-related processes seem to explain many patterns, highlighting the influence of regional processes on local species assemblages. Using alien plant invasions like an (uncontrolled) experiment in community assembly, we use an Australian and a global dataset to examine possible causes of high degrees of riparian invasion. We found that high proportions of alien species in the regional species pools have invaded riparian zones, despite not being riparian specialists, and that riparian invaders disperse in more ways, including by water and humans, than species invading other ecosystems.

  • 11.
    Catford, Jane A.
    et al.
    Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Reducing redundancy in invasion ecology by integrating hypotheses into a single theoretical framework2009In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 22-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Invasion ecology includes many hypotheses. Empirical evidence suggests that most of these can explain the success of some invaders to some degree in some circumstances. If they all are correct, what does this tell us about invasion? We illustrate the major themes in invasion ecology, and provide an overarching framework that helps organize research and foster links among subfields of invasion ecology and ecology more generally.

    Location: Global.

    Methods: We review and synthesize 29 leading hypotheses in plant invasion ecology. Structured around propagule pressure (P), abiotic characteristics (A) and biotic characteristics (B), with the additional influence of humans (H) on P, A and B (hereon PAB), we show how these hypotheses fit into one paradigm. P is based on the size and frequency of introductions, A incorporates ecosystem invasibility based on physical conditions, and B includes the characteristics of invading species (invasiveness), the recipient community and their interactions. Having justified the PAB framework, we propose a way in which invasion research could progress.

    Results: By highlighting the common ground among hypotheses, we show that invasion ecology is encumbered by theoretical redundancy that can be removed through integration. Using both holistic and incremental approaches, we show how the PAB framework can guide research and quantify the relative importance of different invasion mechanisms.

    Main conclusions: If the prime aim is to identify the main cause of invasion success, we contend that a top-down approach that focuses on PAB maximizes research efficiency. This approach identifies the most influential factors first, and subsequently narrows the number of potential causal mechanisms. By viewing invasion as a multifaceted process that can be partitioned into major drivers and broken down into a series of sequential steps, invasion theory can be rigorously tested, understanding improved and effective weed management techniques identified.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Catford et al_DD2009
  • 12. Dawson, Michael N.
    et al.
    Algar, Adam C.
    Antonelli, Alexandre
    Dávalos, Liliana M.
    Davis, Edward
    Early, Regan
    Guisan, Antoine
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lessard, Jean-Philippe
    Marske, Katharine A.
    McGuire, Jenny L.
    Stigall, Alycia L.
    Swenson, Nathan G.
    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.
    Gavin, Daniel G.
    An horizon scan of biogeography2013In: Frontiers of Biogeography, ISSN 1948-6596, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 130-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The opportunity to reflect broadly on the accomplishments, prospects, and reach of a field may present itself relatively infrequently.  Each biennial meeting of the International Biogeography Society showcases ideas solicited and developed largely during the preceding year, by individuals or teams from across the breadth of the discipline.  Here, we highlight challenges, developments, and opportunities in biogeography that were summarized at or emerge from that biennial synthesis. We note the realized and potential impact of rapid data accumulation in several fields, a Renaissance for inter-disciplinary research, the importance of recognizing the evolution-ecology continuum across spatial and temporal scales and at different taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional levels, and re-exploration of classical assumptions and hypotheses using new tools. However, advances are taxonomically and geographically biased, key theoretical frameworks await development of tools for handling, or strategies for simplifying, the biological complexity seen in empirical systems. Current threats to biodiversity require unprecedented integration of knowledge and development of predictive capacity that may enable biogeography to unite its descriptive and hypothetico-deductive arms and establish a greater role within and outside academia.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Dawson, Michael N.
    et al.
    School of Natural Sciences, University of California, 5200 North Lake Road, CA, Merced, United States.
    Axmacher, Jan C.
    UCL Department of Geography, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Beierkuhnlein, Carl
    Biogeography, Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER), University of Bayreuth, Universitätstr. 30, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Blois, Jessica
    School of Natural Sciences, University of California, 5200 North Lake Road, CA, Merced, United States.
    Bradley, Bethany A.
    Department of Environmental Conservation, University of Massachusetts, MA, Amherst, United States.
    Cord, Anna F.
    Department of Computational Landscape Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, Leipzig, Germany.
    Dengler, Jürgen
    Plant Ecology, Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER), University of Bayreuth, Universitätstr. 30, Bayreuth, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena- Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, Leipzig, Germany.
    He, Kate S.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Murray State University, KY, Murray, United States.
    Heaney, Lawrence R.
    Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 S Lake Shore Drive, IL, Chicago, United States.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mahecha, Miguel D.
    Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Myers, Corinne
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, 1 Northrop Hall, NM, Albuquerque, United States.
    Nogués-Bravo, David
    Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    Papadopoulou, Anna
    Integrative Ecology Group, Estación Biológica de Doñana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (EBD-CSIC), Avenida Américo Vespucio s/n, Sevilla, Spain.
    Reu, Björn
    Institute of Biology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco
    Integrative Ecology Group, Estación Biológica de Doñana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (EBD-CSIC), Avenida Américo Vespucio s/n, Sevilla, Spain.
    Steinbauer, Manuel J.
    Section Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Stigall, Alycia
    Ohio University, Department of Geological Sciences, OHIO Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Studies, 316 Clippinger Laboratories, OH, Athens, United States.
    Tuanmu, Mao-Ning
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, 165 Prospect Street, CT, New Haven, United States; Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Gavin, Daniel G.
    Department of Geography, University of Oregon, OR, Eugene, United States.
    A second horizon scan of biogeography: Golden ages, Midas touches, and the Red Queen2016In: Frontiers of Biogeography, E-ISSN 1948-6596, Vol. 8, no 4, article id e29770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are we entering a new 'Golden Age' of biogeography, with continued development of infrastructure and ideas? We highlight recent developments, and the challenges and opportunities they bring, in light of the snapshot provided by the 7th biennial meeting of the International Biogeography Society (IBS 2015). We summarize themes in and across 15 symposia using narrative analysis and word clouds, which we complement with recent publication trends and 'research fronts'. We find that biogeography is still strongly defined by core sub-disciplines that reflect its origins in botanical, zoological (particularly bird and mammal), and geographic (e.g., island, montane) studies of the 1800s. That core is being enriched by large datasets (e.g. of environmental variables, 'omics', species' occurrences, traits) and new techniques (e.g., advances in genetics, remote sensing, modeling) that promote studies with increasing detail and at increasing scales; disciplinary breadth is being diversified (e.g., by developments in paleobiogeography and microbiology) and integrated through the transfer of approaches and sharing of theory (e.g., spatial modeling and phylogenetics in evolutionary-ecological contexts). Yet some subdisciplines remain on the fringe (e.g., marine biogeography, deep-time paleobiogeography), new horizons and new theory may be overshadowed by popular techniques (e.g., species distribution modelling), and hypotheses, data, and analyses may each be wanting. Trends in publication suggest a shift away from traditional biogeography journals to multidisciplinary or open access journals. Thus, there are currently many opportunities and challenges as biogeography increasingly addresses human impacts on, and stewardship of, the planet (e.g., Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services). As in the past, biogeographers doubtless will continue to be engaged by new data and methods in exploring the nexus between biology and geography for decades into the future. But golden ages come and go, and they need not touch every domain in a discipline nor affect subdisciplines at the same time; moreover, what appears to be a Golden Age may sometimes have an undesirable 'Midas touch'. Contexts within and outwith biogeography-e.g., methods, knowledge, climate, biodiversity, politics-are continually changing, and at times it can be challenging to establish or maintain relevance. In so many races with the Red Queen, we suggest that biogeography will enjoy greatest success if we also increasingly engage with the epistemology of our discipline.

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    fulltext
  • 14.
    Dietrich, Anna L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    A phytometer study evaluating the effects of stream restoration on riparian vegetation2016In: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 646-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Channelization of streams and rivers to facilitate timber floating has cut off riparian zones from the channel, covered them with coarse sediment and resulted in less flooding. Restoration measures aiming to counteract these impacts are expected to create a higher, more natural hydrological variability and enhance site quality for riparian plants. In a long-term field experiment, we evaluated the effect of flooding regime on riparian plant performance by measuring survival and biomass increment of two transplanted phytometer species, a grass (Molinia caerulea) and a forb (Filipendula ulmaria). We also analysed the number and duration of flooding events in channelized and restored stream and river reaches with an indirect method using diurnal temperature oscillation. We found that flow duration was higher, with significantly more flood events at restored compared with channelized sites in medium-sized and large watercourses, particularly during the summer months. Phytometer performance was better at restored sites, and it was positively correlated with duration and frequency of summer flooding, indicating that more but less intense floods after restoration improved site conditions for phytometer growth. This may not only result from an increased heterogeneity in channel morphology caused by the return of boulders but can probably also be attributed to a reduced current velocity at restored sites. Flood variables were more often correlated with other abiotic variables at restored than at channelized sites, which points to an increased land-water connectivity as a result of restoration. 

  • 15.
    Dietrich, Anna L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Restoration effects on germination and survival of plants in the riparian zone: a phytometer study2015In: Plant Ecology, ISSN 1385-0237, E-ISSN 1573-5052, Vol. 216, no 3, p. 465-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many streams that were channelized to facilitate timber floating in northern Sweden, have in recent years been restored by returning coarse sediment (cobbles and boulders) to the channel and reconnecting riparian with instream habitats. We asked if such restoration measures affect germination and survival of plants in the riparian zone, and if such potential effects depend on location in the catchment. We used a paired site approach, comparing the performance of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) phytometers (seeds and seedlings) in the riparian zone in channelized versus restored river reaches along climate and stream size gradients in the Vindel River catchment in northern Sweden. Phytometer survival, substrate availability, and soil nutrient content in large streams were enhanced by restoration, but overall, phytometer performance was negatively related to the length of the growing season, i.e. phytometers grew best at high altitudes and short growing seasons. This result may have been caused by less competition from the shorter and sparser neighbouring vegetation at these sites or to more frequent flooding events, enhancing retention of organic matter. Soil nutrient levels were lowest close to the coast and in large streams, probably due to deposition of mineral sediment. The higher availability of riparian habitat at restored than at channelized sites suggests that plant species richness and abundance may potentially increase after restoration. Seedling transplantation seems to be a preferable revegetation measure, because phytometer seedlings established better than seeds and survival was significantly higher at restored sites. The good plant performance at sites with short growing seasons and high altitudes suggests that, with limited resources, restoration measures should first be located to such sites.

  • 16.
    Dietrich, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The Use of Phytometers for Evaluating Restoration Effects on Riparian Soil Fertility2014In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1916-1925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological restoration of streams in Sweden has become increasingly important to counteract effects of past timber floating. In this study, we focused on the effect on riparian soil properties after returning coarse sediment (cobbles and boulders) to the channel and reconnecting riparian with instream habitats. Restoration increases habitat availability for riparian plants, but its effects on soil quality are unknown. We also analyzed whether the restoration effect differs with variation in climate and stream size. We used standardized plant species to measure the performance of a grass (Phleum pratense L.) and a forb (Centaurea cyanus L.) in soils sampled in the riparian zones of channelized and restored streams and rivers. Furthermore, we analyzed the mass fractions of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) along with the proportions of the stable isotopes C-13 and N-15 in the soil, as well as its grain size composition. We found a positive effect of restoration on biomass of phytometers grown in riparian soils from small streams, indicating that restoration enhanced the soil properties favoring plant performance. We suggest that changed flooding with more frequent but less severe floods and slower flows, enhancing retention, could explain the observed patterns. This positive effect suggests that it may be advantageous to initiate restoration efforts in small streams, which make up the highest proportion of the stream network in a catchment. Restoration responses in headwater streams may then be transmitted downstream to facilitate recovery of restored larger rivers. If the larger rivers were restored first, a slower reaction would be expected.

  • 17.
    Dietrich, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    A long-term phytometer study to evaluate stream restoration along climate and discharge gradientsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Simplified channel morphology caused by the channelization of rivers to facilitatetimber floating resulted in a less variable flow regime with faster flows in the mainchannel. Restoration measures aiming to counteract these impacts, such as the returnof boulders to the channel and the reconnection of the riparian zone with instreamhabitats, are expected to create a higher, more natural hydrological variability andenhance riparian site quality. In this study, we analysed the number and duration offlooding events at channelized and restored river reaches with an indirect methodusing diurnal temperature oscillation. In a long-term field experiment, we evaluatedthe effect of flooding regime on riparian plant performance by measuring survival andbiomass increment of two transplanted phytometer species, a grass (Molinia caerulea)and a forb (Filipendula ulmaria). We found that flow variability was significantlyhigher at restored compared to channelized sites in medium-sized and large streams,particularly during summer months. Phytometer performance was better at restoredsites and positively correlated with summer flooding, indicating that a more variableflow after restoration improved site conditions for phytometer growth. This may notonly result from the higher heterogeneity in channel morphology caused by thereturned boulders, but can probably also be attributed to a lower flow velocity atrestored sites. Flood variables were more often correlated with other abiotic variablesat restored than at channelized sites, which points to an increased land-waterconnectivity as a result of restoration.

  • 18.
    Dietrich, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Phytometers are underutilised for evaluating ecological restoration2013In: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 369-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological restoration increases, but evaluation of restoration efforts is inadequate because reliable performance indicators are lacking. As plants are important actors in ecological restoration, we suggest that they be used as meters, i.e. phytometers, of restoration success. Phytometer plants are transplanted to different conditions to integrate measures of the prevailing conditions. We analysed 100 studies for the use of phytometers and especially their applicability to evaluate ecological restoration. Most studies employed single species and life-stages and focused on habitat conditions and environmental impacts. Most experiments were conducted on grasslands in wet temperate regions. Growth was the dominant response variable, in long-term studies often combined with reproductive output and plant survival. Only five studies specifically evaluated ecological restoration, implying that its potential is not yet realised. We found phytometers promising in evaluating restoration outcomes given that they are easy to measure, can provide rapid results, and serve as integrative indicators of environmental conditions with the ability of covering many aspects of plant life and ecosystem processes. To evaluate restoration success with high resolution and generality, we suggest a combination of different phytometer species, life-forms and life-stages, and experimental periods >1 year to reduce effects of transplantation and between-year variation and to account for time lags in ecological processes and changes after restoration.

  • 19.
    Dynesius, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Evolutionary consequences of changes in species geographical distributions driven by Milankovitch climate oscillations2000In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 97, p. 9115-9120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We suggest Milankovitch climate oscillations as a common cause for geographical patterns in species diversity, species' range sizes, polyploidy, and the degree of specialization and dispersability of organisms. Periodical changes in the orbit of the Earth cause climatic changes termed Milankovitch oscillations, leading to large changes in the size and location of species' geographical distributions. We name these recurrent changes ‘‘orbitally forced species' range dynamics'' (ORD). The magnitude of ORD varies in space and time. ORD decreases gradual speciation (attained by gradual changes over many generations), increases range sizes and the proportions of species formed by polyploidy and other ‘‘abrupt'' mechanisms, selects against specialization, and favor dispersability. Large ORD produces species prone neither to extinction nor gradual speciation. ORD increases with latitude. This produces latitudinal patterns, among them the gradient in species diversity and species' range sizes (Rapoport's rule). Differential ORD and its evolutionary consequences call for new conservation strategies on the regional to global scale.

  • 20.
    Dynesius, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persistence of within-species lineages: a neglected control of speciation rates2014In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 923-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework distinguishing three principal controls of speciation rate: rate of splitting, level of persistence, and length of speciation duration. We contend that discussions on diversification become clearer in the light of this framework, because speciation rate variation could be attributed to any of these controls. In particular, we claim that the role of persistence of within-species lineages in controlling speciation rates has been greatly underappreciated. More emphasis on the persistence control would change expectations of the role of several biological traits and environmental factors, because they may drive speciationrate in one direction through the persistence control and in the opposite direction through the other two controls. Traits and environments have been little studied regarding their influence on speciation rate through the persistence control, with climatic fluctuations being a relatively well-studied exception. Considering the recent advances in genomic and phylogenetic analysis, we think that the time is ripe for applying the framework in empirical research. Variation among clades and areas (and thus among traits and environments) in the importance of the three rate controls could be addressed for example by dating splitting events, detecting within-species lineages, and scanning genomes for evidence of divergent selection.

  • 21.
    Dynesius, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Johansson, Mats E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Intercontinental similarities in riparian-plant diversity and sensitivity to river regulation2004In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 14, p. 173-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We asked whether assemblages of species with separate evolutionary histories differed in their response to similar human interventions. We assessed this by comparing the response of riparian plant communities to river regulation on two different continents. We compared free-flowing and regulated rivers between boreal parts of North America (Alberta and British Columbia) and Europe (Sweden), using a standardized sampling protocol and the same field staff on both continents. Although the two regions shared few species, both riparian plant-species diversity along free-flowing rivers and the response to different kinds of flow regulation were similar between the continents. The number of riparian-plant species and their amount of cover differed among types of water-level regime, but the continental affiliation of a river-margin site did not statistically explain any of the variation. Within continents, the local flora of the regulated river-margin sites was largely similar in species composition to the free-flowing ones, but the sites along storage reservoirs were more species-poor. The similarity in the response to regulation between the continents suggests that general guidelines for rehabilitation of degraded boreal rivers are a realistic goal. The number of species and genera, plant cover, and species numbers in most trait groups (classified according to growth form and life span) were similar between free-flowing river margins in Europe and North America. Moreover, the regional native species pools of northern Sweden and Alberta were similar in size and composition of species groups, despite the fact that only 27% of the species in Alberta were found in northern Sweden. This is presumably because the floras share a common Tertiary origin and because the regions have had largely similar late-Tertiary and Quaternary histories. The most pronounced difference between the continents was that we found no exotic species on the 183 Swedish river-margin sites, whereas 9% of the species found in all 24 North American plots taken together were exotics. All North American exotics found have occurred in Europe since prehistoric times, and the difference in exotic richness most likely reflects a difference in the number of species humans have transferred from one continent to another, rather than a difference in invasibility between the regions.

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    Dynesius et al_EA2004
  • 22.
    Engström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Weber, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of river ice on riparian vegetation2011In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 1095-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1.  Many rivers and streams experience pronounced ice dynamics caused by the formation of anchor and frazil ice, leading to flooding and disturbance of riparian and aquatic communities.  The effects of dynamic ice conditions on riverine biota are little known.

    2.  We studied the formation of anchor ice in natural streams over 2 years, and assessed the effects of anchor ice on riparian vegetation by comparing sites with frequent or abundant and little or no anchor ice formation. We also studied the direct impact of ice on riparian plants by experimentally creating ice in the riparian zone over three winters, and by exposing plants of different life-forms to ‑18oC cold ice in the laboratory.

    3.  Riparian species richness per 1-m2 plot was higher at sites affected by anchor ice than at sites where anchor ice was absent or rare. Dominance was lower at anchor ice sites, suggesting that ice disturbance enhanced species richness. Species composition was more homogenous among plots at anchor ice sites. Experimentally creating riparian ice corroborated the comparative results, with species richness increasing in ice-treated plots compared to controls, irrespective of whether the sites showed natural anchor ice.

    4.  Because of human alterations of running waters, the natural effects of river ice on stream hydrology, geomorphology and ecology are little known.  Global warming in northern streams will lead to more dynamic ice conditions, offering new challenges for aquatic organisms and river management.  We expect that the results discussed here can stimulate new research, contributing to a better understanding of ecosystem function during winter.

  • 23.
    Engström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of stream restoration on dispersal of plant propagules2009In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 397-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Species immigration is vital for the success of restoring degraded ecosystems, but the effectiveness of enhancing dispersal following restoration is seldom evaluated. Running water is an important vector for plant dispersal. Frequency and duration of floods and channel-network complexity are important factors influencing propagule dispersal. In Sweden, these functions have been modified by channelization to facilitate timber floating, thus hampering emigration and immigration of riparian propagules.

    2. During the last 10–20 years, affected watercourses have been restored by removing barriers and replacing boulders into channels. This is hypothesized to facilitate retention of water-dispersed propagules. We studied the efficiency of propagule retention following restoration by releasing propagule mimics and by placing propagule traps in the riparian zone.

    3. Retention of propagule mimics was highest in sites restored with boulders and large wood. Retention occurred at both high and low flows but was most efficient during low flows when mimics were trapped by boulders and wood. Waterborne propagules ending up at such sites are unlikely to establish unless they can reach the riparian zone later. At high flows, floating propagules are more likely to reach riparian areas suitable for establishment. According to propagule traps placed at various levels of the riparian zone, deposition of plant propagules and sediments did not increase in restored sites.

    4. Synthesis and applications. Our study not only demonstrates that restoration of channel complexity through replacement of boulders and wood can enhance retention of plant propagules, but also it highlights the importance of understanding how restoration effects vary with flow. Most streams are restored to function optimally during median or average flows, whereas communities often are controlled by ecological processes acting during extreme flow events. We advocate that stream restoration should be designed for optimal function during those discharges under which the ecological processes in question are most important, which in this case is, during high flow.

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    Engström et al_JAE2009
  • 24.
    Frainer, André
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    McKie, Brendan G.
    Enhanced ecosystem functioning following stream restoration: The roles of habitat heterogeneity and invertebrate species traits2018In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Habitat restoration is increasingly undertaken in degraded streams and rivers to help improve biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Follow-up assessments focused on outcomes for biodiversity have often found scant evidence for recovery, raising concerns about the efficacy of habitat restoration for improving ecological integrity. However, responses of other ecological variables, such as ecosystem process rates and the functional trait composition of biological assemblages, have been little evaluated.

    2. We assessed how the restoration of habitat heterogeneity affected multiple functional parameters in 20 boreal stream reaches encompassing both more and less extensively restored sites, as well as channelised and natural reference sites. We further assessed relationships between our functional parameters and a fluvial geomorphic measure of habitat heterogeneity.

    3. Leaf decomposition was positively related to habitat heterogeneity. This was associated with shifts in the functional composition of detritivore assemblages, with the most obligate litter consumers more prominent in reaches showing higher habitat heterogeneity. The deposition of fine particulate organic matter was consistently higher in restored than channelised sites, and was positively related to the heterogeneity gradient. Algal biomass accrual per unit area did not vary either with restoration or the heterogeneity gradient.

    4. Synthesis and applications. Our findings demonstrate that restoration of river habitat heterogeneity can enhance retention and decomposition of organic matter, key ecosystem properties underpinning ecosystem functioning and service delivery. Significantly, enhanced litter decomposition was linked with a change in the functional composition rather than diversity of detritivore assemblages. Future evaluation of the success of habitat restorations should incorporate quantification of ecosystem processes and the functional traits of biota, in addition to measures of fluvial geomorphology and more traditional biotic metrics, to facilitate a more comprehensive and mechanistic assessment of ecological responses.

  • 25.
    Frainer, André
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Polvi, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    McKie, Brendan
    SLU Uppsala.
    Is ecosystem functioning enhanced when habitat complexity increases?: River restoration and the functioning of algal and detrital food websManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stream restoration is a multi-million dollar business that aims at rehabilitating systems impacted by hydrogeomorphological modifications, such as channelization, and ameliorating physical or ecological degradation caused by catchment-scale impacts, such as agriculture or urbanization. Despite extensive programs aimed at restoring habitat complexity in channelized streams, there is little evidence for a recovery of biological diversity, and functional responses have been little assessed. Notably large-scale habitat restorations have recently been undertaken in a river catchment in northern Sweden, including rehabilitation of large habitat structures (massive boulders, large woody debris) originally removed to facilitate timber floating. Based on a hydrogeomorphological measure of habitat complexity, we characterised variability in habitat complexity across 20 stream reaches in the catchment, including reference, channelised and restored sites. We assessed whether increased habitat complexity following restoration affected retention of organic matter (FPOM), the functional diversity and organisation of the detritivore feeding guild, and two ecosystem processes: algal productivity and litter decomposition. Deposition of FPOM increased along the complexity gradient, as did leaf litter decomposition mediated by invertebrates. The increase in invertebrate-mediated decomposition was associated with shifts in the functional composition of detritivore assemblages, with feeding traits associated with more efficient decomposition more prominent in the restored reaches. There was no change in algal productivity at local scales, but increases in shallow, well- lit habitats favourable for algal growth indicate a possible increase in algal productivity at the stream reach scale. Increases in habitat complexity enhanced functioning within the detritital foodweb at local scales, without any changes in the biodiversity of detritivores. Our findings indicate that aspects of functional diversity and ecosystem functioning may be better than measures of community structure for assessing stream restoration projects.

  • 26.
    Fuentes-Hurtado, Marcelo
    et al.
    Departamento de Ecosistemas y Medio Ambiente, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Hof, Anouschka R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Paleodistribution modeling suggests glacial refugia in Scandinavia and out-of-Tibet range expansion of the Arctic fox2016In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quaternary glacial cycles have shaped the geographic distributions and evolution of numerous species in the Arctic. Ancient DNA suggests that the Arctic fox went extinct in Europe at the end of the Pleistocene and that Scandinavia was subsequently recolonized from Siberia, indicating inability to track its habitat through space as climate changed. Using ecological niche modeling, we found that climatically suitable conditions for Arctic fox were found in Scandinavia both during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the mid-Holocene. Our results are supported by fossil occurrences from the last glacial. Furthermore, the model projection for the LGM, validated with fossil records, suggested an approximate distance of 2000 km between suitable Arctic conditions and the Tibetan Plateau well within the dispersal distance of the species, supporting the recently proposed hypothesis of range expansion from an origin on the Tibetan Plateau to the rest of Eurasia. The fact that the Arctic fox disappeared from Scandinavia despite suitable conditions suggests that extant populations may be more sensitive to climate change than previously thought.

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  • 27.
    Gomes Marques, Inês
    et al.
    Forest Research Centre, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Faria, Carla
    Forest Research Centre, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Conceição, Sofia Isabel Rodrigues
    Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food (LEAF), School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Corcobado, Tamara
    Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Vienna, Austria; Phytophthora Research Centre, Mendel University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Milanović, Slobodan
    Faculty of Forestry, University of Belgrade, Kneza Višeslava 1, Belgrade, Serbia; Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University, Zemědělská 3, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Laurent, Yann
    Ecology and Ecosystem Health, National Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment (INRAE), Institut Agro, Agrocampus Ouest, UMR 985 ESE, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc, Rennes Cedex, France.
    Bernez, Ivan
    Ecology and Ecosystem Health, National Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment (INRAE), Institut Agro, Agrocampus Ouest, UMR 985 ESE, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc, Rennes Cedex, France.
    Dufour, Simon
    Université Rennes 2, CNRS, UMR LETG, Rennes Cedex, France.
    Mandák, Bohumil
    Institute of Botany, Czech Academy of Sciences, Zámek 1, Pruhonice, Czech Republic; Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Praha-Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Ennouni, Hassan
    Bio-Agrodiversity Team, Applied Botany Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, BP 2062, Tétouan, Morocco.
    Sahli, Abdelouahab
    Bio-Agrodiversity Team, Applied Botany Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, BP 2062, Tétouan, Morocco.
    Ater, Mohammed
    Bio-Agrodiversity Team, Applied Botany Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, BP 2062, Tétouan, Morocco.
    Dorado, Francisco Javier
    Faculty of Forestry, Institute for Dehesa Research (Indehesa), University of Extremadura, Avenida Virgen del Puerto 2, Plasencia, Spain.
    Caperta, Ana Delaunay
    Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food (LEAF), School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    David, Teresa Soares
    Forest Research Centre, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal; National Institute of Agricultural and Veterinary Research (INIAV), Av. da República, Quinta do Marquês, Oeiras, Portugal.
    Solla, Alejandro
    Faculty of Forestry, Institute for Dehesa Research (Indehesa), University of Extremadura, Avenida Virgen del Puerto 2, Plasencia, Spain.
    Rodríguez-González, Patricia María
    Forest Research Centre, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Germination and seed traits in common alder (Alnus spp.): the potential contribution of rear-edge populations to ecological restoration success2022In: Restoration Ecology, ISSN 1061-2971, E-ISSN 1526-100X, Vol. 30, no 3, article id e13517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The degradation of riparian ecosystems occurring throughout the past decades has motivated efforts aimed at the restoration of these ecosystems. The success of active revegetation approaches to restoration requires appropriate selection of reproductive material, which in turn requires knowledge of seed traits and germination. Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. (common alder) is a key riparian tree widely used in restoration projects, and has recently been classified as comprising three species: A. glutinosa; A. lusitanica Vít, Douda, & Mandák; and A. rohlenae Vít, Douda, & Mandák. To help guide restoration species selection, we assessed differences among populations of these species by (1) investigating seed weight, morphology, and germination success from a large population set and (2) modeling germination success in each species in relation to morphological traits and environmental conditions. Seeds were collected from 12 populations encompassing the latitudinal extremes of the species complex, and were then characterized and germinated. Ploidy levels and species were distinguished using cytometric analysis. Site-level climatic data and seed morphology data were used to model germination success for each species. All seed traits differed between populations and one morphological-trait (seed weight-to-area ratio) differed significantly between the three species. Germination modeling showed that the southwestern species, A. lusitanica, responded positively to high temperature extremes, suggesting tolerance to the climate changes projected for southern Europe. Populations of A. lusitanica located at the latitudinal rear edge of common alder's distribution appear to show establishment-facilitating adaptations, and therefore may contribute to ecological restoration efforts under a range of environmental conditions.

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  • 28.
    Gomes Marques, Inês
    et al.
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal; cE3c - Center for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Change & CHANGE - Global Change and Sustainability Institute, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Vieites-Blanco, Cristina
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Rodríguez-González, Patricia M.
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Segurado, Pedro
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Marques, Marlene
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barrento, Maria J.
    Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária I.P., Av. da República, Quinta do Marquês, Oeiras, Portugal.
    Fernandes, Maria R.
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Cupertino, Arthur
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Almeida, Helena
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Biurrun, Idoia
    Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Bilbao, Spain.
    Corcobado, Tamara
    Austrian Research Centre for Forests (BFW), Vienna, Austria; Phytophthora Research Centre, Mendel University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Costa e Silva, Filipe
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Díez, Julio J.
    iuFOR- Sustainable Forest Management, Research Institute, University of Valladolid, Palencia, Spain.
    Dufour, Simon
    Université Rennes 2, CNRS, UMR LETG, CA, Rennes Cedex, France.
    Faria, Carla
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Ferreira, Maria T.
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Ferreira, Verónica
    MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ARNET – Aquatic Research Network, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Calçada Martim de Freitas, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Machado, Helena
    Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária I.P., Av. da República, Quinta do Marquês, Oeiras, Portugal.
    Marçais, Benoit
    Université de Lorraine, INRAE, UMR Interactions arbres/microorganismes, Nancy, France.
    Moreira, Ana C.
    Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária I.P., Quinta do Marquês, Oeiras, Portugal.
    Oliva, Jonàs
    Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences and Engineering, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain; Joint Research Unit CTFC–AGROTECNIO–CERCA, Lleida, Spain.
    Pielech, Remigiusz
    Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland.
    Rodrigues, Ana P.
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal.
    David, Teresa S.
    Forest Research Centre, Associate Laboratory TERRA, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal; Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária I.P., Quinta do Marquês, Oeiras, Portugal.
    Solla, Alejandro
    Faculty of Forestry, Institute for Dehesa Research (INDEHESA), Universidad de Extremadura, Plasencia, Spain.
    Jung, Thomas
    Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Forest Protection and Wildlife Management, Phytophthora Research Centre, Brno, Czech Republic; Phytophthora Research and Consultancy, Nussdorf, Germany.
    The ADnet Bayesian belief network for alder decline: integrating empirical data and expert knowledge2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 947, article id 173619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The globalization in plant material trading has caused the emergence of invasive pests in many ecosystems, such as the alder pathogen Phytophthora ×alni in European riparian forests. Due to the ecological importance of alder to the functioning of rivers and the increasing incidence of P. ×alni-induced alder decline, effective and accessible decision tools are required to help managers and stakeholders control the disease. This study proposes a Bayesian belief network methodology to integrate diverse information on the factors affecting the survival and infection ability of P. ×alni in riparian habitats to help predict and manage disease incidence. The resulting Alder Decline Network (ADnet) management tool integrates information about alder decline from scientific literature, expert knowledge and empirical data. Expert knowledge was gathered through elicitation techniques that included 19 experts from 12 institutions and 8 countries. An original dataset was created covering 1189 European locations, from which P. ×alni occurrence was modeled based on bioclimatic variables. ADnet uncertainty was evaluated through its sensitivity to changes in states and three scenario analyses. The ADnet tool indicated that mild temperatures and high precipitation are key factors favoring pathogen survival. Flood timing, water velocity, and soil type have the strongest influence on disease incidence. ADnet can support ecosystem management decisions and knowledge transfer to address P. ×alni-induced alder decline at local or regional levels across Europe. Management actions such as avoiding the planting of potentially infected trees or removing man-made structures that increase the flooding period in disease-affected sites could decrease the incidence of alder disease in riparian forests and limit its spread. The coverage of the ADnet tool can be expanded by updating data on the pathogen's occurrence, particularly from its distributional limits. Research on the role of genetic variability in alder susceptibility and pathogen virulence may also help improve future ADnet versions.

  • 29. Helfield, James M
    et al.
    Capon, Samantha J
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Palm, Daniel
    Restoration of rivers used for timber floating: Effects on riparian plant diversity2007In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 840-851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluvial processes such as flooding and sediment deposition play a crucial role in structuring riparian plant communities. In rivers throughout the world, these processes have been altered by channelization and other anthropogenic stresses. Yet despite increasing awareness of the need to restore natural flow regimes for the preservation of riparian biodiversity, few studies have examined the effects of river restoration on riparian ecosystems. In this study, we examined the effects of restoration in the Ume River system, northern Sweden, where tributaries were channelized to facilitate timber floating in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Restoration at these sites involved the use of heavy machinery to replace instream boulders and remove floatway structures that had previously lined stream banks and cut off secondary channels. We compared riparian plant communities along channelized stream reaches with those along reaches that had been restored 3-10 years prior to observation. Species richness and evenness were significantly increased at restored sites, as were floodplain inundation frequencies. These findings demonstrate how river restoration and associated changes in fluvial disturbance regimes can enhance riparian biodiversity. Given that riparian ecosystems tend to support a disproportionate share of regional species pools, these findings have potentially broad implications for biodiversity conservation at regional or landscape scales.

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    Restoration of rivers used for timber floating: Effects on riparian plant diversity
  • 30.
    Helfield, James M
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225-9181 USA.
    Engström, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Michel, James T
    Department of Environmental Science, Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225-9181 USA.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of river restoration on riparian biodiversity in secondary channels of the Pite River, Sweden2012In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 130-141Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1850 and 1970, rivers throughout Sweden were channelized to facilitate timber floating.  Floatway structures were installed to streamline banks and disconnect flow to secondary channels, resulting in simplified channel morphologies and more homogenous flow regimes.  In recent years, local authorities have begun to restore channelized rivers.  In this study, we examined the effects of restoration on riparian plant communities at previously disconnected secondary channels of the Pite River.  We detected no increase in riparian diversity at restored sites relative to unrestored (i.e., disconnected) sites, but we did observe significant differences in species composition of both vascular plant and bryophyte communities.  At disconnected sites, plots closest to the stream featured greater representation of mesic-hydric floodplain species, whereas plots farthest from the stream featured greater representation of mesic-xeric species characteristic of the surrounding upland forest.  In contrast, restored sites were most strongly represented by upland species at all distances relative to the stream.  These patterns suggest that restoration has resulted in increased water levels in reconnected channels, but that the restored fluvial regime has not influenced the development of characteristic flood-adapted plant communities.  This may be due to the short time interval (ca. 5 years) since restoration.  Previous studies have demonstrated relatively quick responses to similar restoration in single-channel tributaries, but secondary channels may respond differently due to the more buffered hydrologic regimes typically seen in anabranching systems.  These findings illustrate how restoration outcomes can vary according to hydrologic, climatic and ecological factors, reinforcing the need for site-specific restoration strategies.

  • 31.
    Hof, Anouschka R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Future Climate Change Will Favour Non-Specialist Mammals in the (Sub)Arctics2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 12, p. e52574-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic and subarctic (i.e., [sub] arctic) ecosystems are predicted to be particularly susceptible to climate change. The area of tundra is expected to decrease and temperate climates will extend further north, affecting species inhabiting northern environments. Consequently, species at high latitudes should be especially susceptible to climate change, likely experiencing significant range contractions. Contrary to these expectations, our modelling of species distributions suggests that predicted climate change up to 2080 will favour most mammals presently inhabiting (sub) arctic Europe. Assuming full dispersal ability, most species will benefit from climate change, except for a few cold-climate specialists. However, most resident species will contract their ranges if they are not able to track their climatic niches, but no species is predicted to go extinct. If climate would change far beyond current predictions, however, species might disappear. The reason for the relative stability of mammalian presence might be that arctic regions have experienced large climatic shifts in the past, filtering out sensitive and range-restricted taxa. We also provide evidence that for most (sub) arctic mammals it is not climate change per se that will threaten them, but possible constraints on their dispersal ability and changes in community composition. Such impacts of future changes in species communities should receive more attention in literature.

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    Future Climate Change Will Favour Non-Specialist Mammals in the (Sub)Arctics
  • 32.
    Hof, Anouschka R
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Future of biodiversity in the Barents Region2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change may affect biodiversity to a large extent. Its effects have already caused shifts in species distributions and even species extinctions. Since especially high latitude regions are expected to be affected, this publication assesses the impact of future climate change on the biodiversity in the Barents Region (northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, and Northwest Russia). It reports on the impact of climate change on a large range of species, including amphibians, butterflies, birds, mammals, moths, plants, slugs, snails, and reptiles, of which a few were studied more in depth. It further identifies future hotspots of species diversity and gives recommendations on species that should be prioritized for conservation and on areas that should be included in the network of protected areas in future. Lastly, it provides guidance on which aspects require further study.

  • 33.
    Hof, Anouschka R
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    How biotic interactions may alter future predictions of species distributions: future threats to the persistence of the arctic fox in Fennoscandia2012In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 554-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim With climate change, reliable predictions of future species geographic distributions are becoming increasingly important for the design of appropriate conservation measures. Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to predict geographic range shifts in response to climate change. However, because species communities are likely to change with the climate, accounting for biotic interactions is imperative. A shortcoming of introducing biotic interactions in SDMs is the assumption that biotic interactions remain the same under changing climatic factors, which is disputable. We explore the performance of SDMs while including biotic interactions.

    Location Fennoscandia, Europe.

    Methods We investigate the appropriateness of the inclusion of biotic factors (predator pressure and prey availability) in assessing the future distribution of the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) in Fennoscandia by means of SDM, using the algorithm MaxEnt.

    Results Our results show that the inclusion of biotic interactions enhanced the accuracy of SDMs to predict the current arctic fox distribution, and we argue that the accuracy of future predictions might also be enhanced. While the range of the arctic fox is predicted to have decreased by 43% in 2080 because of temperature-related variables, projected increases in predator pressure and reduced prey availability are predicted to constrain the potential future geographic range of the arctic fox in Fennoscandia 13% more.

    Main conclusions The results indicate that, provided one has a good knowledge of past changes and a clear understanding of interactions in the community involved, the inclusion of biotic interactions in modelling future geographic ranges of species increases the predictive power of such models. This likely has far-reaching impacts upon the design and implementation of possible conservation and management plans. Control of competing predators and supplementary feeding are suggested as necessary management actions to preserve the Fennoscandian arctic fox population in the face of climate change.

  • 34.
    Hof, Anouschka R
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The usefulness of elevation as a predictor variable in species distribution modelling2012In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 246, p. 86-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to forecast impacts of climate change on species geographic distributions, but the reliability of predictions is scrutinized. The main limitation of SDMs lies in their assumption that species' ranges are determined mostly by climate, which is arguable. For instance, biotic interactions, habitat and elevation may affect species ranges. The inclusion of habitat-related variables as predictors in SDMs is generally accepted, but there is no consensus regarding the inclusion of elevation. A review of randomly chosen literature revealed that elevation is used as a predictor variable by just over half of the papers studied with no apparent trends as to why, except that papers predicting mammal species distributions for large regions included elevation more often than not, and that papers that predicted mammal ranges for small regions tended to exclude elevation. In addition, we compared the performance of SDMs with and without elevation as a predictor variable for the distribution of north European mammals and plants and found that the difference between their performances is statistically significant for mammals, slightly favouring exclusion of elevation. No differences were found for plants.

    (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 35.
    Hof, Anouschka R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 USA.
    Rodriguez-Castaneda, Genoveva
    Allen, Andrew M.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vulnerability of Subarctic and Arctic breeding birds2017In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 219-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research predicts that future climate change will result in substantial biodiversity loss associated with loss of habitat for species. However, the magnitude of the anticipated biodiversity impacts are less well known. Studies of species vulnerability to climate change through species distribution models are often limited to assessing the extent of species' exposure to the consequences of climate change to their local environment, neglecting species sensitivity to global change. The likelihood that species or populations will decline or go extinct due to climate change also depends on the general sensitivity and adaptive capacity of species. Hence, analyses should also obtain more accurate assessments of their vulnerability. We-addressed this by constructing a vulnerability matrix for 180 bird species currently breeding in Subarctic and Arctic Europe that integrates a climatic exposure-based vulnerability index and a natural-history trait-based vulnerability index. Species that may need extra conservation-attention based on our matrix include the Great Snipe (Gallinago media), the Rough-legged Buzzard (Buteo lagopus), the Red-throated Pipit (Anthus cervinus), the Common Swift (Apus apus), the Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), and the Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica). Our vulnerability matrix stresses the importance of looking beyond exposure to climate change when species conservation is the aim. For the species that scored high in our matrix the future in the region looks grim and targeted conservation actions, incorporating macroecological and global perspectives, may be needed to alleviate severe population declines. We further demonstrate that climate change is predicted to significantly reduce the current breeding range of species adapted to cold climates in Subarctic and Arctic Europe. The number of incubation days and whether the species was a habitat specialist or not were also among the variables most strongly related to predicted contraction or expansion of species' breeding ranges. This-approach may aid the identification of vulnerable bird species worldwide.

  • 36.
    Jansson, R
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Backx, H
    Boulton, A J
    Dixon, M
    Dudgeon, D
    Hughes, Nakamura
    Stanley, E
    Tockner, K
    Stating mechanisms and refining criteria for ecologically successful river restoration: A comment on Palmer et al. (2005)2005In: Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 42, p. 218-222Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Jansson, R
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Zinko, U
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Merritt, D M
    Nilsson, C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hydrochory increases riparian plant species richness: a comparison between a free-flowing and a regulated river2005In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 93, p. 1094-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    • 1The importance of dispersal for plant community structure is poorly understood. Previous studies have hypothesized that patterns in the distribution and genetic structure of riparian plant communities were caused by hydrochory, i.e. plant dispersal by water. We separated the relative contributions of propagules from hydrochory and other dispersal vectors by comparing colonization in pairs of plots, one subject to flooding and deposition of hydrochores and the other unflooded.
    • 2The number of colonizing individuals and the mortality rate of individuals per year did not differ significantly with flooding, but hydrochory increased the number of colonizing species per year and plot by 40–200%. The pool of colonizing species was 36–58% larger per year for flooded than for unflooded plots, indicating that hydrochory increased the diversity by facilitating long-distance dispersal. Hydrochory resulted in more diverse plant communities after 3 years of succession at both plot and reach scales, despite the fact that flooding caused plant mortality.
    • 3We found no evidence that dams reduce the abundance and diversity of water-dispersed propagules by acting as barriers for plant dispersal. The role of hydrochory for plant colonization was similar between a free-flowing and a regulated river, although in fragmented rivers propagule sources are likely to be more local (within-impoundment).
    • 4We conclude that plant dispersal by water, as well as fluvial disturbance, is important for enhancing species richness in riparian plant communities. As flowing water may carry buoyant seeds long distances, riparian plant communities may receive a comparatively large proportion of their seeds by long-distance dispersal.
  • 38.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Extinction risks from climate change: macroecological and historical insights2009In: F1000 Biology Reports , ISSN 1740-4118, Vol. 1, p. 44-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced climate change may threaten a large proportion of Earth's biota, but the uncertainties involved in projecting the future geographical distributions of species make quantitative predictions of extinction risk difficult to make. I discuss how insight from recent advances in macroecology and knowledge about species responses to past climate change can help predict extinction risks more accurately.

  • 39.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Davies, T. J.
    Global variation in diversification rates of flowering plants: Energy vs. climate change2008In: Ecology Letters 2008, Vol. 11, p. 173–183-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used the largest DNA-based phylogeny of flowering plants to date to evaluate the importance of energy vs. past climate change in predicting global patterns in diversification. Relative diversification rates increased towards the equator, suggesting that differences in per-lineage net diversification may be an important component of the latitudinal diversity gradient. The amplitude of Quaternary climate oscillations experienced by families explained variation in diversification equally well compared to contemporary energy measures, and energy and climate change measures were intercorrelated, making it difficult to reject either as a causal mechanism. Many putative mechanisms linking diversification to energy availability do not apply to plants, whereas the climate change mechanism has more support. We also present the first global map of angiosperm diversification, showing that, after correcting for family range-size, tropical diversification rates were fastest for clades currently in regions with high endemic species richness outside the main lowland rainforest areas.

  • 40.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    The fate of clades in a world of recurrent climatic change - Milankovitch oscillations and evolution2002In: Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, ISSN 0066-4162, E-ISSN 2330-1902, Vol. 33, p. 741-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in Earth's orbit with periods of 10-100 thousand years (kyr) (Milankovitch oscillations) have led to recurrent and rapid climatic shifts throughout Earth's history. These cause changes in the geographical distributions of clades, which we term orbitally forced range dynamics (ORD). The magnitude of ORD varies geographically, e.g., with latitude. Climatic shifts cause extinction, splitting, and merging of gene pools and clades. They select among individuals and clades for traits enhancing the ability to survive in situ and to establish new populations. There is also nonadaptive sorting caused by the large geographical variation in ORD, as only gene pools that are in the right place when climate shifts survive. ORD lead to sorting at many levels of genealogic inclusiveness. Clades that have survived climatic shifts during at least one entire period of the longest significant Milankovitch oscillations (100 kyr), we name β-clades. The products of more recent cladogenesis are α-clades, which are always nested within a β-clade. We conclude that ORD may promote α-clade formation but curb rates of β-clade formation. In areas with little ORD, where gene pools persist without going extinct or merging, clade splits and divergence may accumulate leading to high rates of β-clade formation and β-anagenesis (evolutionary change persisting >100 kyr). High ORD should lead to low numbers of β-clades, β-clades with low levels of spatial genetic divergence, little geographical subdivision and large ranges, organisms with high vagility and low specialization, high proportions of β-clades formed by polyploidization, and little β-anagenesis. We predict global and interregional geographic patterns in these variables caused by differential ORD. Thus, ORD potentially explains a wide array of patterns, suggesting ORD as a fundamental factor in evolution. The vulnerability of biotas to many human activities should vary with the magnitude of ORD.

  • 41.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Johansson, Eva
    Augspurger, Clemens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    The importance of groundwater discharge for plant species number in riparian zones2007In: Ecology, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 131–139-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Riparian zones are hotspots of plant species richness in temperate and boreal biomes. The phenomenon is believed to be caused primarily by river-related processes, and upland influences on riparian zones have received relatively little attention. We investigated the importance of discharge of groundwater derived from uplands on riparian patterns in vascular plant species composition. We found that groundwater discharge areas in riparian zones were 36–209% more species rich than non-discharge areas, depending on spatial scale (1–50 m wide transects from annual high-water levels to summer low-water levels) and river (one free-flowing and one regulated). Higher nitrogen availability and less drought stress during low river stages are suggested as the major causes for the higher species diversity in discharge areas. Riparian zones lacking groundwater discharge lost more species following water-level regulation than did discharge areas. This indicates that groundwater discharge areas are more resistant to regulation because both individual plants and plant populations may grow larger in discharge areas. These results demonstrate that riparian zones are controlled by water and nutrient input from upland parts of catchments in ways that have been overlooked despite more than three decades of research into linkages between stream ecosystems and their valleys.

  • 42.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Applied Science, Mittuniversitetet Härnösand.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of river regulation on river-margin vegetation: a comparison of eight boreal rivers2000In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 203-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation and fragmentation by dams belong to the most widespread deliberate impacts of humans on the world's rivers, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. We evaluated the effects of hydroelectric development by comparing the flora of vascular plants in 200-m-long reaches of river margin distributed along eight entire rivers in northern Sweden. Four of these rivers were free-flowing, and four were strongly regulated for hydroelectric purposes. First, we compared species diversity per site between entire free-flowing and regulated rivers. To reduce the effects of natural, between-river variation, we compared adjacent rivers. One regulated river had lower plant species richness and cover than two adjacent free-flowing ones, whereas two other parallel rivers, one regulated and another free-flowing, did not differ significantly. Second, river-margin vegetation responded differently to different types of regulated water-level regimes. Both along run-of-river impoundments, with small but daily water-level fluctuations, and along storage reservoirs, with large fluctuations between low water levels in spring and high levels in late summer and fall, the number of species and their cover per site were lower than along the free-flowing rivers. Regulated but unimpounded reaches were most similar to free-flowing rivers, having lower plant cover per site, but similar numbers of species. For reaches with reduced discharge, evidence was mixed; some variables were lower compared to free-flowing rivers whereas others were not. However, for the last two types of regulation, statistical power was low due to small sample sizes. Third, we classified all plant species according to their dispersal mechanisms and tested whether they respond differently to different types of regulated water-level regimes. Three out of four types of regulation had higher proportions of wind-dispersed species, and two out of four had lower proportions of species without specific mechanisms for dispersal, compared to free-flowing rivers, suggesting that dispersal ability is critical for persistence following regulation. Run-of-river impoundments had higher proportions of long-floating species and species with mechanisms for vegetative dispersal, suggesting that water dispersal may still be important despite fragmentation by dams. Fourth, plant species richness and cover varied with both local factors, such as water-level regime, and regional factors, such as length of the growing season. Presence of clay and silt in the river-margin soil, preregulation position of the contemporary river margin, non-reservoir sites, low altitudes, and long growing seasons were associated with high plant species richness and cover.

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    Effects of river regulation on river-margin vegetation: a comparison of eight boreal rivers
  • 43.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Vlasova, Tatiana
    Sutinen, Marja-Liisa
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Chapin, F Stuart, III
    Bråthen, Kari Anne
    Cabeza, Mar
    Callaghan, Terry V
    van Oort, Bob
    Dannevig, Halvor
    Bay-larsen, Ingrid A
    Ims, Rolf A
    Aspholm, Paul Eric
    Future changes in the supply of goods and services from natural ecosystems: prospects for the European north2015In: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans depend on services provided by ecosystems, and how services are affected by climate change is increasingly studied. Few studies, however, address changes likely to affect services from seminatural ecosystems. We analyzed ecosystem goods and services in natural and seminatural systems, specifically how they are expected to change as a result of projected climate change during the 21st century. We selected terrestrial and freshwater systems in northernmost Europe, where climate is anticipated to change more than the global average, and identified likely changes in ecosystem services and their societal consequences. We did this by assembling experts from ecology, social science, and cultural geography in workshops, and we also performed a literature review. Results show that most ecosystem services are affected by multiple factors, often acting in opposite directions. Out of 14 services considered, 8 are expected to increase or remain relatively unchanged in supply, and 6 are expected to decrease. Although we do not predict collapse or disappearance of any of the investigated services, the effects of climate change in conjunction with potential economical and societal changes may exceed the adaptive capacity of societies. This may result in societal reorganization and changes in ways that ecosystems are used. Significant uncertainties and knowledge gaps in the forecast make specific conclusions about societal responses to safeguard human well-being questionable. Adapting to changes in ecosystem services will therefore require consideration of uncertainties and complexities in both social and ecological responses. The scenarios presented here provide a framework for future studies exploring such issues.

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  • 44.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Restoring freshwater ecosystems in riverine landscapes: the roles of connectivity and recovery processes2007In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 589-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. This paper introduces key messages from a number of papers emanating from the Second International Symposium on Riverine Landscapes held in August 2004 in Sweden, focusing on river restoration. Together these papers provide an overview of the science of river restoration, and point out future research needs.

    2. Restoration tests the feasibility of recreating complex ecosystems from more simple and degraded states, thereby presenting a major challenge to ecological science. Therefore, close cooperation between practitioners and scientists would be beneficial, but most river restoration projects are currently performed with little or no scientific involvement.

    3. Key messages emanating from this series of papers are: The scope, i.e. the maximum and minimum spatial extent and temporal duration of habitat use, of species targeted for restoration should be acknowledged, so that all relevant stages in their life cycles are considered. Species that have been lost from a stream cannot be assumed to recolonise spontaneously, calling for strategies to ensure the return of target species to be integrated into projects. Possible effects of invasive exotic species also need to be incorporated into project plans, either to minimise the impact of exotics, or to modify the expected outcome of restoration in cases where extirpation of exotics is impractical.

    4. Restoration of important ecological processes often implies improving connectivity of the stream. For example, longitudinal and lateral connectivity can be enhanced by restoring fluvial dynamics on flood-suppressed rivers and by increasing water availability in rivers subject to water diversion or withdrawal, thereby increasing habitat and species diversity. Restoring links between surface and ground water flow enhances vertical connectivity and communities associated with the hyporheic zone.

    5. Future restoration schemes should consider where in the catchment to locate projects to make restoration most effective, consider the cumulative effects of many small projects, and evaluate the potential to restore ecosystem processes under highly constrained conditions such as in urban areas. Moreover, restoration projects should be properly monitored to assess whether restoration has been successful, thus enabling adaptive management and learning for the future from both successful and unsuccessful restorations.

  • 45.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rodriguez-Castaneda, Genoveva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Harding, Larisa E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    What can multiple phylogenies say about the latitudinal diversity gradient?: a new look at the tropical conservatism, out of the tropics, and diversification rate hypotheses2013In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, no 6, p. 1741-1755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We reviewed published phylogenies and selected 111 phylogenetic studies representing mammals, birds, insects, and flowering plants. We then mapped the latitudinal range of all taxa to test the relative importance of the tropical conservatism, out of the tropics, and diversification rate hypotheses in generating latitudinal diversity gradients. Most clades originated in the tropics, with diversity peaking in the zone of origin. Transitions of lineages between latitudinal zones occurred at 16-22% of the tree nodes. The most common type of transition was range expansions of tropical lineages to encompass also temperate latitudes. Thus, adaptation to new climatic conditions may not represent a major obstacle for many clades. These results contradict predictions of the tropical conservatism hypothesis (i.e., few clades colonizing extratropical latitudes), but support the out-of-the-tropics model (i.e., tropical originations and subsequent latitudinal range expansions). Our results suggest no difference in diversification between tropical and temperate sister lineages; thus, diversity of tropical clades was not explained by higher diversification rates in this zone. Moreover, lineages with latitudinal stasis diversified more compared to sister lineages entering a new latitudinal zone. This preserved preexisting diversity differences between latitudinal zones and can be considered a new mechanism for why diversity tends to peak in the zone of origin.

  • 46.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Smaller future floods imply less habitat for riparian plants along a boreal river2019In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 29, no 8, article id e01977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate-change projections suggest large changes in riverine flow regime, which will likely alter riparian communities. In northern Europe, forecasts propose lower annual spring flood peaks and higher winter flows, resulting in narrower riparian zones. To estimate the impact of climate change on habitat extent of riparian plants, we developed a framework estimating the sensitivity and exposure of individual species to streamflow change, and surveyed five reaches along the free-flowing Vindel River in northern Sweden. We modeled the hydrologic niche of riparian plant species based on the probability of occurrence along gradients of flood frequency and duration and used predicted future water-level fluctuations (based on climate models and IPCC emission scenarios) to calculate changes in flow-related habitat availability of individual species. Despite projected increases in runoff, we predict most species to decrease in riparian elevational extent by on average 12-29% until the end of the century, depending on scenario. Species growing in the upper, spring-flood-controlled part of the riparian zone will likely lose most habitat, with the largest reductions in species with narrow ranges of inundation duration tolerance (decreases of up to 54%). In contrast, the elevational extent of most amphibious species is predicted to increase, but conditions creating isoetid vegetation will become rarer or disappear: isoetid vegetation is presently found in areas where ice formed in the fall settles on the riverbank during the winter as water levels subside. Higher winter flows will make these conditions rare. We argue that our framework is useful to project the effects of hydrologic change caused by climate change as well as other stressors such as flow regulation also in other regions. With few rivers remaining unaffected by dams and other human stressors, these results call for monitoring to detect species declines. Management to alleviate species losses might include mitigation of habitat degradation from land-use activities, more environmentally friendly flow schemes, and more intensive management options such as mowing riparian meadows no longer regularly maintained by recurrent floods.

  • 47.
    Karlsson Tiselius, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lundbäck, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lönnell, Niklas
    Artdatabanken, Sverige Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bryophyte community assembly on young land uplift islands: dispersal and habitat filtering assessed using species traits2019In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 2188-2202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To assess habitat filtering and dispersal limitation in spore plant community assembly using bryophytes on recently emerged land uplift islands as study system. Location Gulf of Bothnia, northern Europe. Taxa Bryophytes, including the spore plant phyla Bryophyta (mosses) and Marchantiophyta (liverworts).

    Methods: The species compositions of 20 coastal land uplift islands differing in age, area, connectivity and habitat composition were recorded in the field. In addition, we compiled a list of the regional species pool (446 species) and gathered data on species traits related to habitat affiliations (substrate, light, moisture, and pH) and dispersal capacity (regional abundance, spore size, sporophyte frequency, sexual system, vegetative propagules). For the 420 species with available trait data, we used multivariate generalized linear models to compare trait effects on species occurrence probabilities on the islands.

    Results: Occurrence probabilities depended strongly on habitat affiliations. In addition, occurrence probabilities were lower for predominantly asexual species than for sexual species and for regionally rare than for regionally abundant species. Having specialized asexual propagules increased occurrence probabilities, but compensated only partly for the reductions in asexual species. No effect of the size of sexually produced spores was detected. Comparison of trait effects across island size and connectivity gradients revealed (a) reduced habitat filtering on larger islands and (b) decreasing negative effects of being predominantly asexual with increasing island connectivity.

    Conclusions: Both habitat filtering and dispersal capacities affect the community assembly of spore plants on land uplift islands. Asexual mosses and liverworts show landscape scale (<= 10 km) dispersal limitation. The weak or absent relationships between island connectivity and the effects of dispersal traits suggest that colonization is regulated mainly by habitat availability and the abundance of each species in a "regional spore rain" from which colonists are recruited.

  • 48.
    Kuglerova, Lenka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest and ConservationSciences, University of British Columbia,Vancouver, Canada.
    Botkova, Kamila
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Responses of riparian plants to habitat changes following restoration of channelized streams2017In: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 10, no 1, article id e1798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological effects of stream restoration were evaluated by comparing riparian vegetation, flooding, and habitat properties between channelized and two types of restored streams in northern Sweden. Channelized streams were straightened and cleared of in-stream boulders and wood >50 years ago to facilitate timber floating. Basic restoration (performed 8-10 years ago) returned cleared material back to the channels, and enhanced restoration (3 years ago) added large structural elements (boulders and downed trees) to previously basic-restored streams. Riparian inundation duration increased only after enhanced restoration. Similarly, enhanced-restored reaches had the highest amount of substrate available for plant establishment compared to channelized and basic-restored streams. In contrast, soil biochemical properties (pH and C:N ratio) did not improve following either restoration effort. Riparian plant cover was higher at both restored types than channelized reaches. Plant species richness was higher at plot-scale level (0.25 m(2)) at both restored types in the most species-rich elevation levels compared to channelized reaches, whereas at the reach-scale (>700 m(2) of riparian area), species richness did not differ among stream types. Similarly, species composition segregated between channelized and restored reaches only at the plot scale. We found no significant differences in riparian vegetation between the two restored types. The lack of positive responses of vegetation to enhanced restoration and to variables that changed immediately after restoration (inundation, habitat area) implies that responses were either slower than expected or the changes in hydrology and substrate availability were not as important for riparian flora as believed.

  • 49.
    Kuglerova, Lenka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ågren, Anneli
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Malm-Renöfält, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Groundwater discharge creates hotspots of riparian plant species richness in a boreal forest stream network2014In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 715-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Riparian vegetation research has traditionally focused on channel-related processes because riparian areas are situated on the edge of aquatic ecosystems and are therefore greatly affected by the flow regime of streams and rivers. However, due to their low topographic position in the landscape, riparian areas receive significant inputs of water and nutrients from uplands. These inputs may be important for riparian vegetation, but their role for riparian plant diversity is poorly known. We studied the relationship between the influx of groundwater (GW) from upland areas and riparian plant diversity and composition along a stream size gradient, ranging from small basins lacking permanent streams to a seventh-order river in northern Sweden. We selected riparian sites with and without GW discharge using a hydrological model describing GW flow accumulation to test the hypothesis that riparian sites with GW discharge harbor plant communities with higher species richness. We further investigated several environmental factors to detect habitat differences between sites differing in GW discharge conditions. Vascular plant species richness was between 15% and 20% higher, depending on the spatial scale sampled, at riparian sites with GW discharge in comparison to non-discharge sites, a pattern that was consistent across all stream sizes. The elevated species richness was best explained by higher soil pH and higher nitrogen availability (manifested as lower soil C/N ratio), conditions which were positively correlated with GW discharge. Base cations and possibly nitrogen transported by groundwater may therefore act as a terrestrial subsidy of riparian vegetation. The stable isotopes N-15 and C-13 were depleted in soils from GW discharge compared to non-discharge sites, suggesting that GW inputs might also affect nitrogen and carbon dynamics in riparian soils. Despite the fact that many flows of water and nutrients reaching streams are filtered through riparian zones, the importance of these flows for riparian vegetation has not been appreciated. Our results demonstrated strong relationships between GW discharge, plant species richness and environmental conditions across the entire stream size gradient, suggesting that both river hydrology and upland inputs should be considered to fully understand riparian vegetation dynamics.

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  • 50.
    Kuglerová, Lenka
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, Forest Science Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada .
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Relationships between plant assemblages and water flow across a boreal forest landscape: a comparison of liverworts, mosses, and vascular plants2016In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 170-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of water across landscapes affects the diversity and composition of ecological communities, as demonstrated by studies on variation in vascular plant communities along river networks and in relation to groundwater. However, nonvascular plants have been neglected in this regard. Bryophytes are dominant components of boreal flora, performing many ecosystem functions and affecting ecosystem processes, but how their diversity and species composition vary across catchments is poorly known. We asked how terrestrial assemblages of mosses and liverworts respond to variation in (i) catchment size, going from upland-forest to riparian settings along increasingly large streams and (ii) groundwater discharge conditions. We compared the patterns found for liverworts and mosses to vascular plants in the same set of study plots. Species richness of vascular plants and mosses increased with catchment size, whereas liverworts peaked along streams of intermediate size. All three taxonomic groups responded to groundwater discharge in riparian zones by maintaining high species richness further from the stream channel. Groundwater discharge thus provided riparian-like habitat further away from the streams and also in upland-forest sites compared to the non-discharge counterparts. In addition, soil chemistry (C:N ratio, pH) and light availability were important predictors of vascular plant species richness. Mosses and liverworts responded to the availability of specific substrates (stones and topographic hollows), but were also affected by soil C: N. Overall, assemblages of mosses and vascular plants exhibited many similarities in how they responded to hydrological gradients, whereas the patterns of liverworts differed from the other two groups.

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