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  • 1.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    Arbets- och miljömedicinska kliniken, Universitetssjukhuset i Örebro.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Warg, Lars-Erik
    Arbets- och miljömedicinska kliniken, Universitetssjukhuset i Örebro.
    Inomhusklimat och riskkommunikation2010Ingår i: Allergi i praksis, ISSN 0806-5462, nr 2, s. 52-58Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

     

     

  • 2.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bende, Mats
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Millqvist, Eva
    Astma and Allergy Research Group, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Attention bias and sensitization in chemical sensitivity2009Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 66, nr 5, s. 407-416Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveWe investigated whether persons with self-reported chemical sensitivity (CS) have an attention bias and enhanced sensitization to chemical exposure.MethodsChemosomatosensory, olfactory, and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 21 CS subjects and 17 controls in attend and ignore conditions. Reaction times (RTs) and magnitude estimations of perceived intensity were collected in the attend condition. ERPs were averaged over attention conditions and during the first/second part of the testing.ResultsERP patterns indicated that CS subjects did not habituate to the same extent as the controls and had difficulties ignoring the chemical exposure. CS subjects had faster overall RT, and the perceived intensities for the chemosomatosensory stimuli did not decrease with time in the CS group, which was the case for the controls.ConclusionsThese results indicating attention bias and enhanced sensitization in CS suggest alterations in central, cognitive responses to chemical exposure.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    Department of Systems Biology, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity2016Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, nr 1, s. 79-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low concentrations of the odorant n-butanol.

    Methods: We exposed 18 participants with MCS and 18 non-ill controls to a low concentration of the odorantn-butanol using an exposure chamber. The first 10 min constituted blank exposure, after which then-butanol concentration increased and reached a plateau at 11.5 mg/m3.

    Results: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses.

    Conclusions: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ledin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wisting, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The influence of health-risk perception and distress on reactions to low-level chemical exposure2013Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, s. 816-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of the current study was to investigate how perceived health risk of a chemical exposure and self-reported distress are related to perceived odor intensity and odor valence, symptoms, cognitive performance over time as well as reactions to blank exposure. Based on ratings of general distress, 20 participants constituted a relatively low distress group, and 20 other participants a relatively high distress group. Health risk perception was manipulated by providing positively and negatively biased information regarding n-butanol. Participants made repeated ratings of intensity, valence and symptoms and performed cognitive tasks while exposed to 4.7 ppm n-butanol for 60 min (first 10 min were blank exposure) inside an exposure chamber. Ratings by the positive and negative bias groups suggest that the manipulation influenced perceived health risk of the exposure. The high distress group did not habituate to the exposure in terms of intensity when receiving negative information, but did so when receiving positive information. The high distress group, compared with the low distress group, rated the exposure as significantly more unpleasant, reported greater symptoms and performed worse on a cognitively demanding task over time. The positive bias group and high distress group rated blank exposure as more intense. The main findings suggest that relatively distressed individuals are negatively affected by exposures to a greater degree than non-distressed.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Short-term olfactory sensitization involves brain networks relevant for pain, and indicates chemical intolerance2017Ingår i: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 220, nr 2, s. 503-509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance is a medically unexplained affliction that implies deleterious reactions to non-toxic everyday chemical exposure. Sensitization (i.e. increased reactivity to repeated, invariant stimulation) to odorous stimulation is an important component in theoretical explanations of chemical intolerance, but empirical evidence is scarce. We hypothesized that (1) individuals who sensitize to repeated olfactory stimulation, compared with those who habituate, would express a lower blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) response in key inhibitory areas such as the rACC, and higher signal in pain/saliency detection regions, as well as primary and/or secondary olfactory projection areas; and (2) olfactory sensitization, compared with habituation, would be associated with greater self-reported chemical intolerance. More-over, we assessed whether olfactory sensitization was paralleled by comparable trigeminal processing - in terms of perceptual ratings and BOLD responses. We grouped women from a previous functional magnetic imaging study based on intensity ratings of repeated amyl acetate exposure over time. Fourteen women sensitized to the exposure, 15 habituated, and 20 were considered "intermediate" (i.e. neither sensitizers nor habituaters). Olfactory sensitizers, compared with habituaters, displayed a BOLD-pattern in line with the hypothesis, and reported greater problems with odours in everyday life. They also expressed greater reactions to CO2 in terms of both perceived intensity and BOLD signal. The similarities with pain are discussed.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claesson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Brain responses to olfactory and trigeminal exposure in idiopathic environmental illness (IEI) attributed to smells: An fMRI study2014Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 77, nr 5, s. 401-408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) to smells is a prevalent medically unexplained illness. Sufferers attribute severe symptoms to low doses of non-toxic chemicals. Despite the label, IEI is not characterized by acute chemical senses. Theoretical models suggest that sensitized responses in the limbic system of the brain constitute an important mechanism behind the symptoms. The aim was to investigate whether and how brain reactions to low-levels of olfactory and trigeminal stimuli differ in individuals with and without IEI. METHODS: Brain responses to intranasally delivered isoamyl acetate and carbon dioxide were assessed in 25 women with IEI and 26 non-ill controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The IEI group had higher blood-oxygenated-level-dependent (BOLD) signal than controls in the thalamus and a number of, mainly, parietal areas, and lower BOLD signal in the superior frontal gyrus. The IEI group did not rate the exposures as more intense than the control group did, and there were no BOLD signal differences between groups in the piriform cortex or olfactory regions of the orbitofrontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: The IEI reactions were not characterized by hyper-responsiveness in sensory areas. The results can be interpreted as a limbic hyperreactivity and speculatively as an inability to inhibit salient extemal stimuli.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Johansson, Åke
    Millqvist, Eva
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Bende, Mats
    Prevalence and risk factors for chemical sensitivity and sensory hyperreactivity in teenagers2008Ingår i: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 211, nr 5-6, s. 690-697Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    prevalence of chemical sensitivity (CS) and sensory hyperreactivity (SHR) was assessed in a teenage population. Among a random sample of 401 teenagers, 326 (81.3%) answered questionnaires assessing sensitivity to chemicals and noise, anxiety and depression. A subgroup of 85 teenagers conducted a capsaicin inhalation test. The estimated prevalence was 15.6% for general self-reported CS, 3.7% for CS with affective and behavioral consequences, about 1% for SHR. Sensitivity variables were positively intercorrelated. Risk factors for general CS were noise sensitivity (OR: 2.1), probable anxiety (OR: 2.5) and female sex (OR: 2.0). CS problems seem to be present also in teenagers, although less so than in adults. Furthermore, CS seems to be related to other environmental sensitivities.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundberg, Catrine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Åström, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Chemosensory attention, habituation and detection in women and men2011Ingår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 79, s. 316-322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences between women and men in how chemosensory stimuli are processed. Event-related potentials from 36 participants (18 men) showed that women had larger P3 amplitudes when attending, but not when ignoring CO 2 but not for n-butanol, compared with men. The main finding was that women and men differ in cognitive measures of chemosensory processing. 

  • 9.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Millqvist, E
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital Asthma and Allergy Research Group Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bende, M
    Central Hospital Department of Otorhinolaryngology Skövde Sweden.
    On the relation between capsaicin sensitivity and responsiveness to CO2: detection sensitivity and event-related brain potentials2009Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 82, nr 3, s. 285-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensory hyperreactivity (SHR) with predominantly airway symptoms is a subgroup of chemical intolerance to various environmental substances with pungent/odorous properties. The hallmark of SHR is sensitivity to capsaicin inhalation, resulting in extensive coughing likely to be mediated by a C-fiber hyperreactivity of the airway sensory neurons. However, it is not clear whether capsaicin sensitivity implies a greater sensitivity to chemosomatosensory substances in general. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis of an association between capsaicin cough sensitivity and sensitivity to CO2 with respect to detection sensitivity and electrophysiological brain response.

    Methods A correlational study was employed to investigate the relation between capsaicin cough sensitivity and detection thresholds and chemosomatosensory event-related potentials (ERPs) for CO2 presented in the nasal cavity in 35 persons varying in capsaicin cough sensitivity.

    Results Number of coughs were found to correlate negatively with CO2 threshold and tended to correlate negatively also with N1 and P2 latencies of the chemosomatosensory ERP for CO2. No tendencies of correlations were found between number of coughs and latencies for olfactory and auditory ERPs, recorded for comparison, but, unexpectedly, were found between number of coughs and auditory N1 amplitude.

    Conclusions The results imply that capsaicin cough sensitivity, such as in SHR, is related to higher detection sensitivity, and tends to be related to faster cortical processing of other chemosomatosensory substances, at least of CO2.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Box 7629, SE-90712 Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses2018Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 129-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Maria J. E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bende, Mats
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Millqvist, Eva
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The idiopathic environmental intolerance symptom inventory: development, evaluation, and application2009Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 51, nr 7, s. 838-847Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To develop, evaluate, and apply a questionnaire-based instrument for investigation of specific symptoms in idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), called the Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Symptom Inventory (IEISI).

    Methods: Participants with IEI to chemicals responded to 82 candidate symptoms and to three subscales of the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI) at a test (n = 207) and retest (n = 193) occasion.

    Results: The 27 most commonly reported symptoms were selected and grouped into five symptom categories. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity were found to be satisfying. Cluster analysis identified two subgroups of IEI to chemicals.

    Conclusions: The results provide support for the IEISI being a reliable, valid, and fast tool for the study of specific symptom prevalence in IEI and encourage further study of subgroups.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Maria JE
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tannå, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Self-image in adolescents with deliberate self-harm behavior2013Ingår i: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 209-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested the hypothesis of a positive relation between deliberate self-harm and poor self-image in adolescents and investigated the relation between substance abuse (drugs, cigarettes, and alcohol) and deliberate self-harm. One-hundred thirteen highschool students, aged predominantly 16–18 years, responded to the 16-item version of the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, the 36-item Structural Analysis of Social Behavior, and single questions about use of drugs, cigarettes, and alcohol. The results showed a positiverelation between deliberate self-harm and poor self-image, and between deliberate self-harm and cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.These results imply that poor self-image and a large extent of substance use may be markers for identifying adolescents at risk for deliberate self-harm.

  • 13.
    Bengtsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carlbring, Per
    Therapists' Experiences of Conducting Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Online vis-a-vis Face-to-Face2015Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 44, nr 6, s. 470-479Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has explored therapists' experiences of conducting cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) online and face-to-face. Eleven therapists partook in semi-structured interviews, which were thematically analysed using an abductive approach. The results indicate that the therapists viewed face-to-face therapy as a stronger experience than Internet-based CBT (ICBT), and the latter as being more manualised, but providing more work-time control. Several participants also thought that working alliance may be achieved faster and more easily in face-to-face therapy, and might worsen with fewer modalities of communication. Clinical implications in need of investigation are whether working with ICBT might buffer therapist exhaustion, and whether this therapy form can be improved by becoming less manual dependant in order to be easier to individualise.

  • 14.
    Broman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gilbert, Paul
    Murphy, Claire
    Olfactory event-related potentials from varying stimulus duration in young and elderly adultsManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Broman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Mats
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lateralization of olfactory cognitive functions: effects of rhinal side of stimulation2001Ingår i: Chemical senses, ISSN 0379-864X, Vol. 26, nr 9, s. 1187-1192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Brooman, Daniel S
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Food aversions, food neophobia, and disgust: interrelations and gender differences2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Brämerson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Johansson, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Ek, Lars
    Central Hospital, Skövde.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bende, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Prevalence of olfactory dysfunction: The Skövde population-based study2004Ingår i: The Laryngoscope, ISSN 0023-852X, E-ISSN 1531-4995, Vol. 114, nr 4, s. 733-737Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives/Hypothesis: Patients with olfactory dysfunction appear repeatedly in ear, nose, and throat practices, but the prevalence of such problems in the general adult population is not known. Therefore, the objectives were to investigate the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in an adult Swedish population and to relate dysfunction to age, gender, diabetes mellitus, nasal polyps, and smoking habits.

    Study Design: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study.

    Methods: A random sample of 1900 adult inhabitants, who were stratified for age and gender, was drawn from the municipal population register of Skövde, Sweden. Subjects were called to clinical visits that included questions about olfaction, diabetes, and smoking habits. Examination was performed with a smell identification test and nasal endoscopy.

    Results: In all, 1387 volunteers (73% of the sample) were investigated. The overall prevalence of olfactory dysfunction was 19.1%, composed of 13.3% with hyposmia and 5.8% with anosmia. A logistic regression analysis showed a significant relationship between impaired olfaction and aging, male gender, and nasal polyps, but not diabetes or smoking. In an analysis of a group composed entirely of individuals with anosmia, diabetes mellitus and nasal polyps were found to be risk factors, and gender and smoking were not.

    Conclusion: The sample size of the population-based study was adequate, with a good fit to the entire population, which suggests that it was representative for the Swedish population. Prevalence data for various types of olfactory dysfunction could be given with reasonable precision, and suggested risk factors analyzed. The lack of a statistically significant relationship between olfactory dysfunction and smoking may be controversial.

  • 18. Brämerson, Annika
    et al.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Bende, Mats
    Clinical experience with patients with olfactory complaints, and their quality of life2007Ingår i: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, nr 127, s. 167-174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Brämerson, Annika
    et al.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nyman, Jan
    Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bende, Mats
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Olfactory loss after head and neck cancer radiation therapy2013Ingår i: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 206-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A reduced sense of smell may be one explanation for why patients with cancer in the ear, nose and throat (ENT) region who are treated with radiation therapy lose weight. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether radiation therapy has a negative effect on olfactory function and, if so, whether this effect is dose-related.

    METHODOLOGY: Seventy-one patients were tested using odour-detection sensitivity and olfactory identification tests before radiation therapy and 20 months after it.

    RESULTS: Patients who received radiation close to the olfactory organ showed a reduced sense of smell, in both tests. A multiple regression analysis showed that the radiation dose was related to decline in the olfactory function, while age, sex, chemotherapy and interactions between these variables were not.

    CONCLUSION: Radiation therapy can damage olfactory cells.

  • 20. Cain, William S.
    et al.
    de Wijk, René A.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Independence of odor Quality and Absolute Sensitivity in a Study of Aging2008Ingår i: Chemosensory Perception, ISSN 1936-5802, E-ISSN 1936-5810, Vol. 1, s. 24-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Young, middle-aged, and senior subjects performed tasks designed to examine whether odor quality discrimination varies independently of sensitivity. One task entailed detection of 2-heptanone and the others AB-X discrimination of quality for sets of 2-heptanone and homologues or 2-heptanone and non-ketones. Subjects sought to discriminate either at intensity-matched concentrations far above threshold, but fixed across subjects, or at levels adjusted to neutralize differences in sensitivity. The young and middle-aged groups manifested the same absolute sensitivity, but the senior group poorer sensitivity. Performance in quality discrimination, however, declined progressively. Performance lacked an association with absolute sensitivity, no matter how examined. These data, in conjunction with converging findings from patients with neurological damage, studies of brain imaging, and the relation between concentration and quality discrimination in younger persons, suggest largely independent processing of odor quality and intensity.

  • 21.
    Carlehed, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Katz, Jakob
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Somatic symptoms of anxiety and depression: a population-based study2017Ingår i: Mental Health & Prevention, ISSN 2212-6570, Vol. 6, s. 57-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wikdahl, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Comorbidity of Airway Inflammatory Diseases in Chemical and Building-Related Intolerance2018Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 60, nr 4, s. 295-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study investigated comorbidity in chemical intolerance (CI) and building- related intolerance (BRI) with (i) chronic sinusitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allergic and nonallergic asthma and allergic rhinitis, and (ii) airway inflammatory symptoms. Methods: Data from two population-based questionnaire surveys, the Västerbotten and Österbotten Environmental Health Studies, were used. The participants were categorized as CI or BRI and referents, and binary logistic regression analysis was applied. Results: Prevalence rates for the case groups were 7.2% to 40.0% for diseases and 24.3% to 68.9% for symptoms, whereas adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 3.4 to 26.1 for diseases and 3.3 to 17.0 for symptoms, all being significantly higher than unity. Prevalence rates and ORs were in general higher in BRI than in CI. Conclusion: Inflammatory airway diseases and symptoms are associated with CI and BRI, which encourages further research regarding underlying mechanisms and treatments.

  • 23.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lidén, Edvard
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The role of perceived pollution and health risk perception in annoyance and health symptoms: a population-based study of odorous air pollution2013Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 86, nr 3, s. 367-374Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Health effects associated with air pollution at exposure levels below toxicity may not be directly related to level of exposure, but rather mediated by perception of the air pollution and by top-down processing (e.g., beliefs that the exposure is hazardous). The aim of the study was to test a model that describes interrelations between odorous air pollution at non-toxic exposure levels, perceived pollution, health risk perception, annoyance and health symptoms.

    METHODS: A population-based questionnaire study was conducted in a Swedish community of residents living near a biofuel facility that emitted odorous substances. Individuals aged 18-75 years were selected at random for participation (n = 1,118); 722 (65 %) agreed to participate. Path analyses were performed to test the validity of the model.

    RESULTS: The data support a model proposing that exposure level does not directly influence annoyance and symptoms, and that these relations instead are mediated by perceived pollution and health risk perception.

    CONCLUSIONS: Perceived pollution and health risk perception play important roles in understanding and predicting environmentally induced annoyance and health symptoms in odorous environments at non-toxic levels of exposure.

  • 24.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gender differences in nasal chemesthesis: a studyof detection and perceived intensity2011Ingår i: Chemosensory Perception, ISSN 1936-5802 (Print) 1936-5810 (Online), Vol. 4, nr 1/2, s. 25-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Women are generally more intolerant than men to ambient substances, for which sensory irritation plays an important role. The aim of the present study was to compare women and men with respect to response bias and sensitivity in irritation detection and to irritation intensity. Twelve women and 12 men were exposed to six concentrations of amyl acetate generated by a dynamic olfactometer. Each concentration was presented eight times in randomized order. Clean-air presentations were interrandomized among the series of amyl acetate stimuli to assess and control for response bias. Ratings of irritation intensity were performed with a Borg CR-100 scale. No gender difference in overall irritation detection sensitivity was found, but a significantly steeper psychometric detection function for women implies keener detectability at relatively high concentrations and poorer detectability at low concentrations. A higher false-alarm rate and higher intensity ratings for blank stimuli for women compared to men did almost reach statistical significance. The data showed no overall gender difference in irritation intensity, but a less steep power function for irritation intensity for women, with relatively weak concentrations being perceived as stronger by women than by men. The results suggest no overall gender difference in irritation detectability, but a larger increase in detectability among women across the stimulus span. The tendency of gender differences in response bias implies differences in strategies when detecting possible health hazards. These strategies together with weak concentrations being perceived as stronger may contribute to women being more intolerant than men to ambient substances.

  • 25.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Effects on perceived air quality and symptoms of exposure to microbially produced metabolites and compounds emitted from damp building materials2009Ingår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 102-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigated perceived air quality and health effects fromexposure to low to high levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emittedfrom damp building materials and a mixture of molds growing on the materials.A mixture of Wallemia sebi, Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium chrysogenum,Ulocladium botrytis, and Aspergillus versicolor was inoculated on pine wood andparticle board. In Study 1, each of 27 participants took part in two exposureconditions, one with air from molds growing on building materials (low levels ofemissions from the building materials and the mold mixture) and one with blankair, both conditions during 60 min. In Study 2, each of 24 participants wasexposed (10 min) four times in a 2 · 2 design randomly to air from moldybuilding materials (high levels) and blank, with and without nose-clip. Theparticipants rated air quality and symptoms before, during, and after eachexposure. Self-reported tear-film break-up time and attention and processingspeed (Study 1) was also measured. Exposure to high VOC levels increased thereports of perceived poor air quality, and in the condition without nose-clipenhanced skin symptoms were also noted. No such outcome was observed whenexposing the participants to low VOC levels.

  • 26.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Symptom-trigger factors other than allergens in asthma and allergy2016Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, ISSN 0960-3123, E-ISSN 1369-1619, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 448-457Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several environmental exposures of particular relevance for indoor air quality, such as exposure to odorants, may be associated with asthma and allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate attribution of symptoms and behavioral disruptions to various chemical and physical environmental sources in persons with self-reported asthma and allergy. Data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study, were used to compare persons with asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, multiple diagnoses of asthma/allergy and no asthma or allergy. Persons with asthma and multiple diagnoses reported odorous/pungent and buildingrelated environmental factors to trigger symptoms to a larger extent than did the reference group, mainly due to perfume and odors from flowers. They also reported behavioral disruptions and affective reactions to odorous/ pungent environments. These findings increase the understanding of the role of odorants in symptom development and thereby the prevention of health problems in asthma and allergy in indoor air.

  • 27.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Physical and chemical trigger factors in environmental intolerance2018Ingår i: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 221, nr 3, s. 586-592Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Individuals with environmental intolerance (EI) react to exposure from different environmental sources at levels tolerated by most people and that are below established toxicological and hazardous thresholds. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attributing symptoms to chemical and physical sources in the environment among individuals with different forms of self-reported EI and in referents.

    Methods: Cross-sectional data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 3406), were used and individuals with self-reported EI to chemicals, buildings, electromagnetic fields and sounds as well as a group with multiple EIs were identified. The Environmental-Symptom Attribution Scale was used to quantify degree to which health symptoms are attributed to 40 specific environmental exposures and sources, with subscales referring to the four types of EI.

    Results: All EI groups, except the group with building related intolerance (BRI), reported more symptoms from the expected sources compared to the referents. In addition, individuals with chemical and sound intolerance reported symptoms from building related trigger factors, and individuals with electromagnetic hypersensitivity reported symptoms from chemical trigger factors.

    Conclusions: The study suggests that individuals with BRI react to fewer and more specific trigger factors than do individuals with other EIs, and that it is important to ask about different sources since three of the EI groups attribute their symptoms to a wide variety of sources in addition to the sources to which their EI implicates.

  • 28.
    Croy, Ilona
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Gothenburg University, Göteborg, Sweden and Smell & Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Dresden, Germany.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Smell & Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Dresden, Germany.
    Hummel, Thomas
    Smell & Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Germany.
    Olfactory Disorders and Quality of Life-An Updated Review2014Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 185-194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory disorders are common and affect about one-fifth of the general population. The main causes of olfactory loss are post viral upper respiratory infection, nasal/sinus disease, and head trauma and are therefore very frequent among patients in ear, nose, and throat clinics. We have systematically reviewed the impact of quantitative, qualitative, and congenital olfactory disorders on daily life domains as well as on general quality of life and depression. From the extensive body of literature, it can be concluded that loss of the sense of smell leads to disturbances in important areas, mainly in food enjoyment, detecting harmful food and smoke, and to some extent in social situations and working life. Most patients seem to deal well and manage those restrictions. However, a smaller proportion has considerable problems and expresses a noticeable reduction in general quality of life and enhanced depression. The impact of coping strategies is discussed.

  • 29. Dantoft, Thomas M.
    et al.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Engkilde, Kaare
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hellgren, Lars I.
    Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session2017Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 2, artikel-id e013879Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants. The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom=-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n=-butanol exposure.

    Design: Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure.

    Settings: Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper.

    Participants: 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls.

    Outcome measures: 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels.

    Results: MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls.

    Conclusions: MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure.

  • 30.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Chemical Intolerance2015Ingår i: Current Rheumatology Reviews, ISSN 1573-3971, E-ISSN 1875-6360, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 167-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI are available, the presence of the condition can only be established in accordance to criteria definitions. Numerous modes of action have been suggested to explain CI, with the most commonly discussed theories involving the immune system, central nervous system, olfactory and respiratory systems as well as altered metabolic capacity, behavioral conditioning and emotional regulation. However, in spite of more than 50 years of research, there is still a great deal of uncertainties regarding the event(s) and underlying mechanism( s) behind symptom elicitation. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed or offered health care solutions with limited or no effect, and they experience being met with mistrust and doubt by health care professionals, the social care system and by friends and relatives. Evidence-based treatment options are currently unavailable, however, a person-centered care model based on a multidisciplinary treatment approach and individualized care plans have shown promising results. With this in mind, further research studies and health care solutions should be based on a multifactorial and interdisciplinary approach.

  • 31. Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    et al.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Brix, Susanne
    Inflammatory Mediator Profiling of n-butanol Exposed Upper Airways in Individuals with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikel-id e0143534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine baseline and low dose n-butanol-induced upper airway inflammatory response profiles in MCS subjects versus healthy controls. Method Eighteen participants with MCS and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Epithelial lining fluid was collected from the nasal cavity at three time points: baseline, within 15 minutes after being exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol in an exposure chamber and four hours after exposure termination. A total of 19 cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Furthermore, at baseline and during the exposure session, participants rated the perceived intensity, valence and levels of symptoms and autonomic recordings were obtained. Results The physiological and psychophysical measurements during the n-butanol exposure session verified a specific response in MCS individuals only. However, MCS subjects and healthy controls displayed similar upper airway inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05) at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences. Conclusion We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom-eliciting exposure to low dose n-butanol, implying that upper airways of MCS subjects are functionally intact at the level of cytokine and chemokine production and secretory capacity. This suggests that previous findings of increased cytokine plasma levels in MCS are unlikely to be caused by systemic priming via excessive upper airway inflammatory processes.

  • 32. Ekström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Larsson, Maria
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Subjective olfactory loss in older adults concurs with long-term odor identification decline2019Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 105-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory impairments may provide early indications of future health outcomes in older adults. Thus, an important question concerns whether these impairments can be self-assessed. Previous findings of cross-sectional studies indicate low correlations between self-reported olfactory function and objective olfactory performance. On the other hand, subjective olfactory impairments predict future dementia and mortality in longitudinal settings. No previous study has assessed the relationship between subjectively and objectively measured decline in olfaction over time. Based on data for 903 older adults derived from the Betula Study, a Swedish population-based prospective study, we tested whether rate-of-change in odor identification could be predicted from subjective olfactory decline over a time span of 10 years during which subjective and objective odor functions were assessed on 2 or 3 test occasions. Indeed, we found that participants who experienced subjective olfactory decline over the study period also had significantly steeper rates of decline in odor identification, even after adjusting for demographic, cognitive, and genetic factors that previously have been associated with performance in odor identification. This association was, however, not present in a subsample with baseline cognitive impairment. We interpret these results as evidence that when asked about whether they have an olfactory impairment or not, older persons are assessing intraindividual olfactory changes, rather than interindividual differences. Our results indicate that subjective olfactory loss reflects objective olfactory decline in cognitively intact older adults. This association might be harnessed to predict health outcomes and highlights the need to develop effective olfactory self-assessments.

  • 33. Ekström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Sjölund, Sara
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Larsson, Maria
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Smell Loss Predicts Mortality Risk Regardless of Dementia Conversion2017Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 65, nr 6, s. 1238-1243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To determine whether dementia could explain the association between poor olfactory performance and mortality risk within a decade-long follow-up period. Design: Prospective cohort study. SettingBetula Study, Umea, Sweden. ParticipantsA population-based sample of adult participants without dementia at baseline aged 40 to 90 (N = 1,774). Measurements: Olfactory performance using the Scandinavian Odor-Identification Test (SOIT) and self-reported olfactory function; several social, cognitive, and medical risk factors at baseline; and incident dementia during the following decade. Results: Within the 10-year follow-up, 411 of 1,774 (23.2%) participants had died. In a Cox model, the association between higher SOIT score and lower mortality was significant (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74 per point interval, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.77, P < .001). The effect was attenuated, but remained significant, after controlling for age, sex, education, and health-related and cognitive variables (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). The association between SOIT score and mortality was retained after controlling for dementia conversion before death (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). Similar results were obtained for self-reported olfactory dysfunction. Conclusion: Poor odor identification and poor self-reported olfactory function are associated with greater likelihood of future mortality. Dementia does not attenuate the association between olfactory loss and mortality, suggesting that olfactory loss might mark deteriorating health, irrespective of dementia.

  • 34.
    Ericsson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rudolfsson, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sandström, Görel
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Is the P600/affected by the richness of semantic content?: a linguistic ERP study in Swedish2008Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 49, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated whether the P600/SPS component is sensitive to the richness of semantic content in sentences. ERPs were recorded while 30 native Swedish speakers read sentences, of which half were syntactically correct and half contained a syntactic violation. Both kinds of sentences came in one of three types of descending semantic completeness: semantically coherent sentences, sentences which were incoherent due to violations of selectional restrictions, or sentences of pseudo words, hence void of lexical content. In the semantically coherent sentences a P600/SPS was found for the syntactic violation. A less salient positivity was found for the violation in the semantically incoherent sentences. No P600/SPS was found for the syntactic violation in the pseudo word sentences and no LAN component in any sentence type. The results are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that the P600/SPS component reflects a semantically based reanalysis process.

  • 35. Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Blissing, Björn
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Performance and presence with head-movement produced motion parallax in simulated driving2015Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 34, s. 54-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulator studies can reveal relevant and valid aspects of driving behavior, but underestimation of distance and speed can negatively affect the driver's performance, such as in performance of overtaking. One possible explanation for the underestimation of distance and speed is that two-dimensional projection of the visual scene disrupts the monocular-based illusory depth because of conflicting binocular and monocular information of depth. A possible solution might involve the strengthening of the monocular information so that the binocular information becomes less potent. In the present study, we used an advanced high-fidelity driving simulator to investigate whether adding the visual depth information of motion parallax from head movement affects sense of presence, judgment of distance and speed, and performance measures coupled with overtaking. The simulations included two types of driving scenario in which one was urban and the other was rural. The main results show no effect of this head-movement produced motion parallax on sense of presence, head movement, time to collision, distance judgment, or speed judgment. However, the results show an effect on lateral positioning. When initiating the overtaking maneuver there is a lateral positioning farther away from the road center as effect of the motion parallax in both types of scenario, which can be interpreted as indicating use of naturally occurring information that change behavior at overtaking. Nevertheless, only showing tendencies of effects, absent is any clear additional impact of this motion parallax in the simulated driving.

  • 36. Glader, A
    et al.
    Claesson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Glas, B
    Liljelind, I
    Eriksson, K
    Nyback, M-H
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Byggnadsrelaterad ohälsa : Kompetensutveckling inom hälsovården2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett stort behov av utbildning om inomhusmiljö och byggnadsrelaterad ohälsa, både inom ramen för grundläggande yrkesutbildningar och som fortbildningskurser för yrkesverksamma. Hälsoproblem som beror på dålig inomhusluft på arbetsplatsen utreds av företagshälsovården. Dock har de som jobbar inom företagshälsovård idag inte alltid tillräcklig kunskap om inomhusmiljö och byggnadsrelaterad ohälsa och saknar ofta beredskap att som sakkunniga delta i utredningar på arbetsplatser. För att förbättra vården bör personalen utbildas om bl.a. riskfaktorer för dålig inomhusluft, vanliga hälsobesvär och inverkan på arbetsförmåga och produktivitet, de psykosociala faktorernas betydelse samt ansvarsfrågor och hälsoekonomiska konsekvenser. Öppna digitala lärresurser (OER) och kurser på nätet (MOOCs) kan med fördel användas vid fortbildning av vårdpersonal. Nätbaserad utbildning underlättar för vårdpersonalen att själv kunna välja tidpunkt och målsättning. Därtill utgör OER även ett hjälpmedel för att utveckla kunskapsöverföringen mellan Sverige och Finland.

  • 37.
    Grassini, Simone
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Comorbidity in Migraine with Functional Somatic Syndromes, Psychiatric Disorders and Inflammatory Diseases: A Matter of Central Sensitization?2017Ingår i: Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 0896-4289, E-ISSN 1940-4026, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 91-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To approach the questions as to why migraine appears to be associated with functional somatic syndromes (FSSs) and whether central sensitization may be an underlying mechanism, the present study investigated (a) comorbidity with diagnoses of three FSSs, three psychiatric disorders, and three inflammatory diseases, (b) degree of mental health problems (stress, burnout, anxiety, depression and somatization), and (c) prevalence of ten cognitive/affective and nine airway symptoms in persons with migraine in the general population. From a randomized and stratified Swedish adult sample, questionnaire data were analyzed from 151 individuals with a diagnosis of migraine and 3,255 without migraine. The results showed (a) significant comorbidity in migraine with all FSSs, psychiatric disorders and inflammatory diseases, (b) significantly elevated scores on stress, burnout, anxiety, depression, and somatization, and (c) relatively high prevalence rates on almost all symptoms. Taken together, the results motivate future study of central sensitization as a mechanism underlying migraine.

  • 38.
    Gruber, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Characteristics of perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the general population2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 422-427Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Health problems evoked in the presence of electrical equipment is a concern, calling for better understanding for characteristics of electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in the general population. The present study investigated demographics, lifestyle factors, frequency and duration, coping strategies, proportion meeting clinical criteria for intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated persons with self-reported (n=91) EHS in comparison to referents (n=3,250). Middle age, female sex and poor perceived health was found to be associated with EHS. More than 50% in the EHS group reported having EMF-related symptoms more often than once a week, and the mean number of years experiencing EHS was 10.5. More than half of the EHS group reported that their symptoms started after a high-dose or long-term EMF exposure, that they actively tried to avoid EMF sources and that they mostly could affect the EMF environment. A minority of the EHS group had sought medical attention, been diagnosed by a physician or received treatment. Exhaustion syndrome, anxiety disorder, back/joint/muscle disorder, depression, functional somatic syndrome and migraine were comorbid with EHS. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of EHS and or consequences of EHS.

  • 39. Hedén Blomqvist, Ebba
    et al.
    Brämerson, Annika
    Stjärne, Pär
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, USA.
    Consequences of olfactory loss and adopted coping strategies2004Ingår i: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 189-194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of loss of smell as regards the quality of life and the coping strategies used. Methods: Seventy-two patients with anosmia (46%) or hyposmia (54%) filled in the validated Multi-Clinic Smell and Taste Questionnaire, the validated General Well-being Schedule (GWBS), and answered other questions shown to be of good validity. Results: Several kinds of negative effects, risks associated with the loss, interference with daily routines and deteriorations in well-being were common. Physical health, financial security, profession, partnership, friendship, emotional stability and leisure were also deemed to be negatively affected and GWBS scores show compromised psychological well-being. The importance of olfaction seemed to be more noticeable after the loss of smell, and several kinds of problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies were adopted by these patients. Conclusions: We found that the loss of smell had substantial adverse affects on the quality of life and that high priority should be given to its diagnosis and treatment and to further research in this field. Furthermore, a combination of problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies may be suggested to patients who have recently lost the sense of smell.

  • 40. Hummel, T
    et al.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Olfactory disorders and their consequences for quality of life2005Ingår i: ACTA OTO-LARYNGOLOGICA, ISSN 0001-6489, Vol. 125, nr 2, s. 116-121Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 41. Johansson, A
    et al.
    Bramerson, A
    Millqvist, E
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Bende, M
    Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported odour intolerance: the Skovde population-based study2005Ingår i: INTERNATIONAL ARCHIVES OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, ISSN 0340-0131, Vol. 78, nr 7, s. 559-564Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 42. Johansson, A
    et al.
    Millqvist, E
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Bende, M
    Relationship between self-reported odor intolerance and sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin - Proposed definition of airway sensory hyperreactivity and estimation of its prevalence2006Ingår i: CHEST, ISSN 0012-3692, Vol. 129, nr 6, s. 1623-1628Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Johansson, Amanda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Heiden, Marina
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle.
    Sandström, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Symptoms, personality traits, and stress in people with mobile phone-related symptoms and electromagnetic hypersensitivity2010Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 37-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some people report symptoms that they associate with electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. These symptoms may be related to specific EMF sources or to electrical equipment in general (perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity, EHS). Research and clinical observations suggest a difference between mobile phone (MP)-related symptoms and EHS with respect to symptom prevalence, psychological factors, and health prognosis. This study assessed prevalence of EMF-related and EMF-nonrelated symptoms, anxiety, depression, somatization, exhaustion, and stress in people with MP-related symptoms or EHS versus a population-based sample and a control sample without EMF-related symptoms.

  • 44. Johansson, Ewa-Lena
    et al.
    Millqvist, Eva
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ternesten-Hasseus, Ewa
    Doftöverkänslighet: sensorisk hyperreaktivitet i luftvägarna2016Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kemisk överkänslighet innebär att man får hälsobesvär av vissa dofter och kemikalier. Utlösande faktorer kan till exempel vara parfym, blomdoft, rök eller rengöringsprodukter. De drabbade reagerar betydligt kraftigare än vad som är normalt redan vid låga doser som inte anses skadliga eller toxiska.

    Det finns en särskild grupp av personer som får luftvägsbesvär av dofter och kemikalier. I dagligt tal kallar vi det doftöverkänslighet. Inom vården används begreppet sensorisk hyperreaktivitet, SHR, för detta tillstånd. Ungefär sex procent av befolkningen uppfyller kriterierna för diagnos.

    I den här kunskapssammanställningen belyses epidemiologi, trolig patofysiologi, utredning och behandlingsmöjligheter av SHR ur olika aspekter. Den är främst ämnad för dig som i din yrkesroll kommer i kontakt med patienter med SHR, men rekommenderas till alla med särskilt intresse för området.

  • 45.
    Josefsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Larsson, Maria
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    APOE-ɛ4 effects on longitudinal decline in olfactory and non-olfactory cognitive abilities in middle-aged and old adults2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 1286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterizing aging-related decline trajectories in mental abilities, and relationships of the ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein gene, helps to identify individuals at high risk for dementia. However, longitudinal changes in olfactory and non-olfactory cognitive abilities have not been investigated in relation to the ɛ4 allele. In the present study, participants from a large population-based study (657 middle-aged and 556 old) were tested over 10 years on their performance on an odor identification task and three non-olfactory cognitive tasks; MMSE, episodic memory, and semantic memory. Our key finding is that in middle-aged participants, odor identification declined twice as fast for ɛ4/4 homozygotes, compared to non-carriers. However, in old participants, the ɛ4/4 homozygotes showed an impaired odor identification ability, but they declined at a similar rate as the non-carriers. Furthermore, in old participants all assessments displayed aging-related declines, but exaggerated declines in ɛ4-carriers were found only in MMSE and episodic memory assessments. In sum, we present evidence that odor identification ability starts to decline already in middle-aged, and that carriers of ɛ4/4, who are at highest risk of developing dementia, decline twice as fast. Our results may have implications for use of odor identification assessment in detection of early-stage dementia.

  • 46. Karvala, Kirsi
    et al.
    Sainio, Markku
    Palmquist, Eva
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Building-Related Environmental Intolerance and Associated Health in the General Population2018Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, nr 9, artikel-id 2047Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    People frequently attribute adverse symptoms to particular buildings when exposure to pollutants is low, within nonhazardous levels. Our aim was to characterize building-related intolerance (BRI) in the general population. Data were derived from two population-based questionnaire surveys, the Vasterbotten and osterbotten Environmental Health Study. We identified cases of BRI if respondents reported symptoms emerging from residing in certain buildings, when most other people had none. The questionnaires covered lifestyle factors, perceived general health, BRI duration and symptom frequency, the emotional and behavioral impact of BRI, coping strategies, and physician-diagnosed diseases. From the total of 4941 participants, we formed two case groups, 275 (5.6%) fulfilled criteria for self-reported BRI, and 123 (2.5%) for BRI with wide-ranging symptoms. Individuals in both case groups were significantly more often female, single, and perceived their general health as poorer than the referents, i.e., those reporting no BRI symptoms. The mean duration of BRI was 12 years. In both case groups, avoidance behavior was found in over 60%, and nearly half of the sample had sought medical care. BRI with wide-ranging symptoms was associated with elevated odds for all studied comorbidities (somatic and psychiatric diseases and functional somatic syndromes). The perceived health of individuals with BRI is poorer and comorbidities are more frequent than among referents. BRI seems to be similar to other environmental intolerances and shares features with functional somatic syndromes.

  • 47. Karvala, Kirsi
    et al.
    Sainio, Markku
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prevalence of various environmental intolerances in a Swedish and Finnish general population2018Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 161, s. 220-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of various environmental intolerances (EIs), using several criteria in a Swedish and a Finnish general population. Ill-health attributed to low-level environmental exposures is a commonly encountered challenge in occupational and environmental medicine. Methods: In population-based questionnaire surveys, the Vasterbotten Environmental Health Study (Sweden) and the Osterbotten Environmental Health Study (Finland), EI was inquired by one-item questions on symptom attribution to chemicals, certain buildings, or electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and difficulties tolerating sounds. The respondents were asked whether they react with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms or have a physician-diagnosed EI attributed to the corresponding exposures. Prevalence rates were determined for different age and sex groups and the Swedish and Finnish samples in general. Results: In the Swedish sample (n = 3406), 12.2% had self-reported intolerance to chemicals, 4.8% to certain buildings, 2.7% to EMFs, and 9.2% to sounds. The prevalence rates for the Finnish sample (n = 1535) were 15.2%, 7.2%, 1.6%, and 5.4%, respectively, differing statistically significantly from the Swedish. EI to chemicals and certain buildings was more prevalent in Finland, while EI to EMFs and sounds more prevalent in Sweden. The prevalence rates for EI with CNS-symptoms were lower and physician-diagnosed EIs considerably lower than self-reported EIs. Women reported EI more often than men and the young (18-39 years) to a lesser degree than middle-aged and elderly. Conclusions: The findings reflect the heterogeneous nature of EI. The differences in EI prevalence between the countries might reflect disparities concerning which exposures people perceive harmful and focus their attention to.

  • 48.
    Kjellkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life in idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields2016Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 84, s. 8-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Need for better understanding of the etiology of idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) motivated the present study of psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in person who attribute health problems to electromagnetic fields. Methods: Participants with IEI-EMF (n = 114) and a population-based sample of referents (n = 104) were investigated with six subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) to assess psychological symptoms, and with eight subscales of the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) to assess HRQoL. Results: Significantly higher scores were found on obsessive/compulsive behavior, interpersonal hypersensitivity, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid thoughts in the IEI-EMF group compared to referents, whereas only a tendency of such a difference was found for psychotism. Furthermore, poorer HRQoL in the IEI-EMF group, compared to referents, were found regarding physical and social functioning, physical and emotional role limitations, general health, vitality, bodily pain, and mental health. Significant correlation with moderate to strong effect sizes were found between several of the SCL-90 and SF-36 subscales. Conclusion: The results suggest that IEI-EMF is associated with various types of psychological symptoms and with poor HRQoL. Clinical implications include theoretical support for cognitive behavioral therapy, and, although further research is needed, that attention should be directed towards feelings of inferiority and uneasiness in relationships as well as anger, hostility and resentment towards other people.

  • 49.
    Landis, Basil N.
    et al.
    Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany .
    Scheibe, Mandy
    Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.
    Weber, Cornelia
    Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.
    Berger, Robert
    Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.
    Brämerson, Annika
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Bende, Mats
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hummel, Thomas
    Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.
    Chemosensory interaction: acquired olfactory impairment is associated with decreased taste function2010Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, ISSN 0340-5354, E-ISSN 1432-1459, Vol. 257, s. 1303-1308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfaction, taste and trigeminal function are three distinct modalities. However, in daily life they are often activated concomitantly. In health and disease, it has been shown that in two of these senses, the trigeminal and olfactory senses, modification of one sense leads to changes in the other sense and vice versa. The objective of the study was to investigate whether and (if so) how, the third modality, taste, is influenced by olfactory impairment. We tested 210 subjects with normal (n = 107) or impaired (n = 103) olfactory function for their taste identification capacities. Validated tests were used for olfactory and gustatory testing (Sniffin’ Sticks, Taste Strips). In an additional experiment, healthy volunteers underwent reversible olfactory cleft obstruction to investigate shorttime changes of gustatory function after olfactory alteration. Mean gustatory identification (taste strip score) for the subjects with impaired olfaction was 19.4 ± 0.6 points and 22.9 ± 0.5 points for those with normal olfactory function (t = 4.6, p\0.001). The frequencies of both, smell and taste impairments interacted significantly (Chi2, F = 16.4, p\0.001), and olfactory and gustatory function correlated (r210 = 0.30, p\0.001). Neither age nor olfactory impairment cause effects interfered with this olfactory–gustatory interaction. In contrast, after shortlasting induced olfactory decrease, gustatory function remained unchanged. The present study suggests that longstanding impaired olfactory function is associated with decreased gustatory function. These findings seem to extend previously described mutual chemosensory interactions also to smell and taste. It further raises the question whether chemical senses in general decrease mutually after acquired damage.

  • 50.
    Landis, Basil Nicolas
    et al.
    Départment des Neuroscience cliniques Unité de Rhinologie-Olfactologie Service dÒto-Rhino-Laryngologie, Hopitaux Universtaires de Geneève, Geneve, Switzerland.
    Welge-Leussen, Antje
    Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Brämerson, Annika
    Dept. of Otorhinolarynology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Bende, Mats
    Dept. of Otorhinolarynology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mueller, Christian Albert
    Dept. of Otorhinolarynology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hummel, Thomas
    Smell & Taste Clinic, Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Dresden, Germany.
    "Taste Strips": a rapid, lateralized, gustatory bedside identification test based on impregnated filter papers2009Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, ISSN 0340-5354, E-ISSN 1432-1459, nr 256, s. 242-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To elaborate normative values for a clinical psychophysical taste test (“Taste Strips”).

    Background The “Taste Strips” are a psychophysical chemical taste test. So far, no definitive normative data had been published and only a fairly small sample size has been investigated. In light of this shortcoming for this easy, reliable and quick taste testing device, we attempted to provide normative values suitable for the clinical use.

    Setting Normative value acquisition study, multicenter study.

    Methods The investigation involved 537 participants reporting a normal sense of smell and taste (318 female, 219 male, mean age 44 years, age range 18–87 years). The taste test was based on spoonshaped filter paper strips (“Taste Strips”) impregnated with the four (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) taste qualities in four different concentrations. The strips  were placed on the left or right side of the anterior third of the extended tongue, resulting in a total of 32 trials. With their tongue still extended, patients had to identify the taste from a list of four descriptors, i. e., sweet, sour, salty, and bitter (multiple forcedchoice). To obtain an impression of overall gustatory function, the number of correctly identified tastes was summed up for a “taste score”.

    Results Taste function decreased significantly with age. Women exhibited significantly higher taste scores than men which was true for all age groups. The taste score at the 10th percentile was selected as a cut-off value to distinguish normogeusia from hypogeusia. Results from a small series of patients with ageusia confirmed the clinical usefulness of the proposed normative values.

    Conclusion The present data provide normative values for the “Taste Strips” based on over 500 subjects tested.

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