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  • 1.
    Darehed, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Blom, M.
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Norrving, B.
    Eriksson, M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Acute stroke patients are subject to seasonal variation in quality of care and survival: a Swedish nationwide registry-based study2018In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 13, p. 177-177Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Darehed, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Blom, Mathias
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Norrving, Bo
    Bray, Benjamin D.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Diurnal variations in the quality of stroke care in Sweden2019In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 140, no 2, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: A recent study of acute stroke patients in England and Wales revealed several patterns of temporal variation in quality of care. We hypothesized that similar patterns would be present in Sweden and aimed to describe these patterns. Additionally, we aimed to investigate whether hospital type conferred resilience against temporal variation.

    MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted this nationwide registry-based study using data from the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke) including all adult patients registered with acute stroke between 2011 and 2015. Outcomes included process measures and survival. We modeled time of presentation as on/off hours, shifts, day of week, 4h and 12 h time blocks. We studied hospital resilience by comparing outcomes across hospital types.

    RESULTS: 113862 stroke events in 72 hospitals were included. The process indicators and survival all showed significant temporal variation. Door-to-needle (DTN) time within 30 minutes was less likely during nighttime than daytime (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41-0.60). Patients admitted during off-hours had lower odds of direct stroke unit (SU) admission (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.70-0.75). 30-day survival was lower in nighttime versus daytime presentations (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.96). The effects of temporal variation differed significantly between hospital types for DTN time within 30 minutes and direct SU admission where university hospitals were more resilient than specialized non-university hospitals.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that variation in quality of care and survival is present throughout the whole week. We also found that university hospitals were more resilient to temporal variation than specialized non-university hospitals.

  • 3.
    Jonsson, Per
    et al.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Ulf
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stegmayr, Bernd G.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Electrical current leakage during hemodialysis may increase blood-membrane interaction2001In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 136-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During hemodialysis blood - membrane interaction causes complement activation. During dialysis there may be an electrical current leakage to the dialyzer, especially if there is a broken ground or a defect in another electrical device coupled to the patient.

    This study investigated whether an electric current of 1.5 mA DC could alter blood membrane interaction as measured by changes in C3d in the blood. Such a high current leakage could occur because there is no protection in the dialysis machine (Class 1B) against auxiliary current leakage. Such a current could come from a defective external device in contact with the patient during hemodialysis.

    Materials: A dialysis machine (Fresenius 2008C) with a filled blood-line system containing about 350 ml whole blood from each of 8 different donors was used in vitro. Each of the eight test-runs also contained 1000 U added heparin. The dialysis procedure was performed using hemophan membranes (GFS +12, Gambro) with bicarbonate and potassium 3.0 (D210, Gambro) as dialysate. Two electric poles were placed in the blood line, before and after the dialyzer (connected in parallel) and the ground was placed at entry and exit of the dialysate fluid coming from the machine to the dialysis filter. C3d was measured before the start of “dialysis” and at 15, 30, 45 and 60 min, during dialysis. Thereafter the 1.5 mA current was switched on and additional samples were drawn at 75 and 90 min. The mean C3d values were calculated. Paired non-parametric statistical analyses were performed.

    Results: There was a significant and continuous increase in C3d as compared to the “predialysis” level. The increase during 0 to 30 minutes was greater than that from 30 to 60 minutes (p=0.018); the increase in C3d during 60 to 90 min, was greater than that from 30 to 60 min (p=0.018) and there was no difference between the 0 to 30 and the 60 to 90 min increases.

    Conclusions: A current, used in this study, was able to induce a blood membrane interaction during in vitro dialysis. Even a weaker current leakage might have such adverse effects and similar interactions seem possible during regular dialysis depending on the extent of the leakage.

  • 4.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Morale in very old people: With focus on stroke, depression and survival2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Morale is a multidimensional concept, often defined as a future-oriented optimism or pessimism regarding the problems and opportunities associated with ageing. Very old people, older than 80 years, constitute an age group that is expected to increase in Europe from 4.7% of the general population today to 12.0% in the year 2060 in Europe. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore morale among very old people.

    Method: The Umeå 85+/GErontological Regional Database study (GERDA) is a population-based study carried out in parts of northern Sweden and western Finland in which every second 85 year old, every 90 year old and everyone aged 95 years and older were invited to participate. The study started the year 2000 and every five years re-invites previous participants and invites new individuals to participate in the study. The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), which is widely used to measure morale in old people, has been translated into many languages.

    Results: There were 598 individuals who answered the PGCMS in the Umeå 85+/GERDA study. Despite respondents’ advanced age 92.6% (554/598) answered 16 or 17 of the questions. The construct validity of the Swedish version of the PGCMS was tested among the 493 individuals who answered all 17 questions using confirmatory factor analysis and the analysis showed a generally a good fit. Reliability tested with Cronbach’s alpha was 0.74. Reliability was also tested in a convenience sample of 54 individuals (mean age of 84.7±6.7 years) and the IntraClass Correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.89.

    Almost 20% (91/465) of participants who could answer the PGCMS had had a stroke. Those with stroke had significantly lower PGCMS scores than those without (10.9±3.8 vs 12.1±3.0, p-value 0.008), but there were 38.5% with stroke history who had high morale. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that depression, angina pectoris and impaired hearing were independently associated with low morale among those with a stroke history.

    A logistic regression model showed that each point increase in PGCMS score lowered the risk of depressive disorders five years later (odds ratio 0.779, p<0.001, with each point increase in PGCMS). In a Cox model adjusted for several demographic, health- and function-related confounders, including age and gender, mortality was higher among participants with low morale (RR=1.36, p=0.032) than those with high morale. There was a similar but non-significant pattern towards increased mortality in participants with moderate morale compared to high morale (RR=1.21, p-value=0.136).

    Conclusion: The feasibility and psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the PGCMS seems to be satisfactory among very old people. A large proportion of very old people have had a stroke, which is associated with reduced morale. Depression, angina pectoris and impaired hearing were independently associated with low morale among those with stroke. Among very old people, a higher level of morale seems to be associated with a lower risk of suffering from depressive disorders five years later. High morale is independently associated with increased five-year survival among very old people.

  • 5.
    Niklasson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Psychometric properties and feasibility of the Swedish version of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale2015In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 2795-2805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Morale is related to psychological well-being and quality of life in older people. The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) is widely used to assess morale. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and feasibility of the Swedish version of the 17-item PGCMS among very old people.

    METHODS: The Umea 85+/GERDA study included Swedish-speaking people aged 85, 90 and 95 years and older, from Sweden and Finland. Participants were interviewed in their own homes using a predefined set of questions. In the main sample, 493 individuals answered all 17 PGCMS items (aged 89.0 +/- 4.3 years). Another 105 answered between 1 and 16 questions (aged 89.6 +/- 4.4 years). A convenience sample was also collected, and 54 individuals answered all 17 PGCMS items twice (aged 84.7 +/- 6.7 years). The same assessor restated the questions within 1 week.

    RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha was 0.74 among those who answered all 17 questions in the main sample. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the construct validity of the most widely used version of the PGCMS, with 17 items and three factors, and showed a generally good fit. Among those answering between 1 and 17 PGCMS questions, 92.6 % (554/598) answered 16 or 17. The convenience sample was used for intra-rater test-retesting, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.89. The least significant change between two assessments, with 95 % confidence interval, was 3.53 PGCMS points.

    CONCLUSION: The Swedish version of the PGCMS seems to have satisfactory psychometric properties and feasibility among very old people.

  • 6.
    Niklasson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Mental Health Promotion Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Vaasa, Finland.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    High morale is associated with increased survival in the very old2015In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 630-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: high morale is defined as future-oriented optimism. Previous research suggests that a high morale independently predicts increased survival among old people, though very old people have not been specifically studied.

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate whether high morale is associated with increased survival among very old people.

    SUBJECTS: the Umeå 85+/GErontological Regional DAtabase-study (GERDA) recruited participants aged 85 years and older in northern Sweden and western Finland during 2000-02 and 2005-07, of whom 646 were included in this study.

    METHODS: demographic, functional- and health-related data were collected in this population-based study through structured interviews and assessments carried out during home visits and from reviews of medical records. The 17-item Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to assess morale.

    RESULTS: the 5-year survival rate was 31.9% for participants with low morale, 39.4% for moderate and 55.6% for those with high morale. In an unadjusted Cox model, the relative risk (RR) of mortality was higher among participants with low morale (RR = 1.86, P < 0.001) and moderate morale (RR = 1.59, P < 0.001) compared with participants with high morale. Similar results were found after adjustment for age and gender. In a Cox model adjusted for several demographic, health- and function-related confounders, including age and gender, mortality was higher among participants with low morale (RR = 1.36, P = 0.032) than those with high morale. There was a similar but non-significant pattern towards increased mortality in participants with moderate morale (RR = 1.21, P value = 0.136).

    CONCLUSION: high morale is independently associated with increased survival among very old people.

  • 7.
    Niklasson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustavsson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    High morale and survival2016In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 85, p. 75-75Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Niklasson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Morale in very old people who have had a stroke2014In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 408-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke incidence increases with age and may impact on morale. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of stroke among individuals aged 85 years or older in Northern Sweden and Western Finland and to evaluate factors associated with morale among those who have had a stroke compared with those without a stroke history. This population- based, cross-sectional study included 708 individuals (504 women and 204 men) aged 85 years and older (range 85-107). The study was conducted through structured interviews during home visits and from reviews of medical records, where demographic data and health-related factors were collected. The 17-item Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to assess morale. Stroke-prevalence was 22% (156 of 708) in the study population. Ninety-one of 465 participants who could answer PGCMS questions had had a stroke. Those with stroke had significantly lower PGCMS scores than those without (10.9 +/- 3.8 SD vs. 12.1 +/- 3.0 SD, p-value 0.008), but 38.5% had high morale. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that low morale was independently associated with depression, angina pectoris and impaired hearing among those with stroke and another multiple linear regression, among those without a stroke history, showed that low morale was independently associated with depression, pain and poor nutritional status. A large proportion of very old have had stroke which is associated with reduced morale. Low morale among those with stroke was independently associated with depression, angina pectoris and impaired hearing which could be the focus for future intervention studies. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Niklasson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Näsman, Marina
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Higher morale is associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old peopleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Niklasson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Näsman, Marina
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Higher morale is associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people2017In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 69, p. 61-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether higher morale, i.e. future-oriented optimism, at baseline was associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people.Methods The Umeå85+/GErontological Regional Database, a population-based study with a longitudinal design, recruited participants in Sweden and Finland aged 85, 90 and ≥95 years. The sample in the present study included 647 individuals (89.1±4.4 years (Mean±SD), range 85-103). After five years, 216 were alive and agreed to a follow-up (92.6±3.4 years, range 90-104). The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to assess morale. The depressive disorder diagnosis was determined according to DSM-IV based on medical records and interview data including assessment scales for depressive disorders. A number of sociodemographic, functional and health-related variables were analysed as possible confounders.Results For those with no depressive disorders at baseline, the only baseline variable significantly associated with depressive disorders five years later was the PGCMS score. A logistic regression model showed lower risk of depressive disorders five years later with higher baseline PGCMS scores (odds ratio 0.779 for one point increase in PGCMS, p<0.001). The association remained after adjusting for social isolation (p<0.1 association with depressive disorders five years later).Conclusion Our results indicate that the higher the morale, the lower the risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people. The PGCMS seems to identify those very old individuals at increased risk of depressive disorders five years later. Preventive measures could befocused on this group.

  • 11.
    Näsman, Marina
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nygård, Mikael
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyqvist, Fredrika
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Risk factors for a decrease in high morale in very old peopleover a 5‑year period: data from two Nordic countries2019In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High morale could be considered to be an essential part of aging well and increased knowledge of how to prevent a decreasein high morale in very old age could have important implications for policy, and social and health care development. Theobjective was to identify social and health-related risk factors for a decrease in morale over 5 years in very old peopleamong those with high morale at baseline. The study is based on data derived from the Umeå85+/GERDA study conductedin Northern Sweden and Western Finland. The final sample consisted of 174 individuals who were 85 years and older atbaseline and who had completed the follow-up 5 years later. Morale was measured with The Philadelphia Geriatric CenterMorale Scale (PGCMS). A set of social and health-related variables were used to test which factors were associated with adecrease in morale over 5 years. Linear regression was used for the multivariable analyses. The sample had a mean changeof − 1.3 (SD = 2.5) in PGCMS scores from T1 to T2. The results from the regression analyses showed that development ofdepressive disorders, increased feelings of loneliness and the death of a child during the follow-up period were associatedwith a decrease in morale. The results from our study indicate that preventing the development of depressive disorders andincreasing loneliness are key factors in preventing a decrease in high morale. Additionally, very old people who have recentlylost an adult child should receive adequate psychosocial support

  • 12. Näsman, Marina
    et al.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Saarela, Jan
    Nygård, Mikael
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Five-year change in morale is associated with negative life events in very old age2019In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, p. 84-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to study changes in morale in individuals 85 years and older, and to assess the effect of negative life events on morale over a five-year follow-up period.

    METHOD: The present study is based on longitudinal data from the Umeå85+/GERDA-study, including individuals 85 years and older at baseline (n = 204). Morale was measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Negative life events were assessed using an index including 13 negative life events occurring during the follow-up period. Linear regression was used for the multivariate analyses.

    RESULTS: The majority of the sample (69.1%) had no significant changes in morale during the five-year follow-up. However, the accumulation of negative life events was significantly associated with a greater decrease in PGCMS. A higher baseline PGCMS score did not attenuate the adverse effect negative life events had on morale.

    CONCLUSION: Morale seemed to be mainly stable in a five-year follow-up of very old people. It seems, nonetheless, that individuals are affected by negative life events, regardless of level of morale. Preventing negative life events and supporting individuals who experience multiple negative life events could have important implications for the care of very old people.

  • 13.
    Strinnholm, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Depressive Disorders and Religious Engagement in Very Old People2019In: Gerontology and geriatric medicine, E-ISSN 2333-7214, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine associations between religious engagement and depressive disorders in very old people.

    Method: This cross-sectional study uses data from the Umea 85+/Gerontological Regional Database (GERDA) study. Every other 85-year-old, every 90-year-old, and everyone more than 95 years from eight municipalities in northern Sweden and Finland were invited: 1,014 persons accepted participation. Data were gathered using questionnaires and assessment scales during structured home visits.

    Results: The prevalence of depressive disorders was 35.8%. In a logistic regression model, several factors were adjusted for, such as demographic variables including social factors, diseases, and cognitive and physical functional level. A high level of self-reported religious engagement was independently associated with not having depressive disorders (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, confidence interval [CI] = [0.38, 0.89]). After stratifying by gender, religious engagement was only significant for women (OR = 0.49, CI = [0.29, 0.82]).

    Discussion: There is an association between a high level of religious engagement and being free from diagnosis of depressive disorders among very old women.

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