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  • 1.
    Boström, Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among people with dementia in residential care: a randomized controlled trial2016In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 868-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among older care facility residents with dementia.

    METHODS: Residents (n = 186) with a diagnosis of dementia, age ≥ 65 years, Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥ 10, and dependence in activities of daily living were included. Participants were randomized to a high-intensity functional exercise program or a non-exercise control activity conducted 45 min every other weekday for 4 months. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were administered by blinded assessors at baseline, 4, and 7 months.

    RESULTS: No difference between the exercise and control activity was found in GDS or MADRS score at 4 or 7 months. Among participants with GDS scores ≥ 5, reductions in GDS score were observed in the exercise and control groups at 4 months (-1.58, P = 0.001 and -1.54, P = 0.004) and 7 months (-1.25, P = 0.01 and -1.45, P = 0.007). Among participants with MADRS scores ≥ 7, a reduction in MADRS score was observed at 4 months in the control group (-2.80, P = 0.009) and at 7 months in the exercise and control groups (-3.17, P = 0.003 and -3.34, P = 0.002).

    CONCLUSIONS: A 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program has no superior effect on depressive symptoms relative to a control activity among older people with dementia living in residential care facilities. Exercise and non-exercise group activities may reduce high levels of depressive symptoms.

  • 2.
    Boström, Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Functional capacity and dependency in transfer and dressing are associated with depressive symptoms in older people2014In: Clinical Interventions in Aging, ISSN 1176-9092, E-ISSN 1178-1998, Vol. 9, p. 249-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study examined associations between depressive symptoms and functional capacity, overall dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADLs), and dependency in individual ADL tasks, respectively, in people with a high mean age, large range of functional capacity, and wide spectrum of dependency in ADLs. Methods: Cross-sectional data from three studies were used. A total of 392 individuals living in community and residential care facilities were included. Mean age was 86.2 years, 72% were women, 75% were dependent in ADLs, 42% had depression, and 39% had dementia. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), functional capacity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and ADLs with the Barthel ADL Index. Multiple linear regression analyses with comprehensive adjustments were performed between GDS-15 and BBS, GDS-15 and Barthel ADL Index, and GDS-15 and each individual ADL task, separately. Results: GDS-15 score was associated with BBS score (unstandardized b=-0.03, P=0.008), but not with Barthel ADL Index score (unstandardized b=-0.07, P=0.068). No significant interaction effects of sex, dementia, or living conditions were found in these associations. Among individual ADL tasks, dependency in transfer (unstandardized b=-1.03, P=0.007) and dressing (unstandardized b=-0.70, P=0.035) were associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Functional capacity seems to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in older people living in community and residential care facilities, whereas overall ADL performance may not be associated. Dependency in the individual ADL tasks of transfer and dressing appear to be independently associated with depressive symptoms and may be an important focus of future interdisciplinary multifactorial intervention studies.

  • 3.
    Boström, Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Brännström, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Allard, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Antidepressant use and mortality in very old people2016In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1201-1210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Antidepressant treatment may increase the risk of death. The association between antidepressants and mortality has been evaluated in community-dwelling older people, but not in representative samples of very old people, among whom dementia, multimorbidity, and disability are common.

    METHODS: Umeå 85+/GERDA study participants (n = 992) aged 85, 90, and ≥95 years were followed for up to five years. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze mortality risk associated with baseline antidepressant treatment, adjusted for potential confounders.

    RESULTS: Mean age was 89 years; 27% of participants had dementia, 20% had stroke histories, 29% had heart failure, and 16% used antidepressants. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, antidepressant use was associated with a 76% increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-2.19). Adding adjustment for Geriatric Depression Scale score, HR was 1.62 (95% CI, 1.29-2.03). The association was not significant when adjusting for additional confounding factors (HR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.85-1.38). Interaction analyses in the fully adjusted model revealed a significant interaction between sex and antidepressant use (HR: 1.76; 95% CI, 1.05-2.94). Among male and female antidepressant users, the HRs for death were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.47-1.24) and 1.28 (95% CI, 0.97-1.70), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Among very old people, baseline antidepressant treatment does not seem to be independently associated with increased mortality risk. However, the risk may be different in men and women. This difference and the potential risk of initial treatment require further investigation in future cohort studies of very old people.

  • 4.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Physical exercise and mental health among older people: measurement methods and exercise effects focusing on people living in residential care facilities2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of exercise on mental health among older people living in residential care facilities. The aim was also to study the reliability of an assessment scale for balance function and the usefulness of an assessment scale for depressive symptoms among older people, including people with cognitive impairments.

     

    The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) is frequently used to assess balance in older people, but knowledge is lacking about its absolute reliability. The BBS (0-56 points) was assessed twice among older people living in residential care facilities by the same assessor, at approximately the same time of day, and with 1-3 days in between. The absolute reliability was calculated as being 7.7 points, using 95% confidence level, and the Intra Class Correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to 0.97.

     

    Depression is common among older people and is often not detected and not treated adequately. The Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version (GDS-15) was designed to assess depressive symptoms among older people, but there is limited knowledge about the usefulness of the scale among people with varying degree of cognitive impairment. A sample of people aged 85 years and over was divided into groups according to cognitive function using their Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores; 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-27, and 28-30. In total, 650 (78%) of the 834 participants completed the GDS-15. The lower the cognitive function, the smaller the proportion who completed the GDS-15 assessment; for the two MMSE groups with scores of < 10, the proportions who completed the GDS-15 were 1% and 42%, respectively, compared to 64–95% in people with MMSE scores of ≥ 10. The level of correlation between the GDS-15 and a scale of psychological wellbeing, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), did not differ between MMSE groups with scores of ≥5 compared to people in the group with the highest scores (MMSE 28–30).

     

    Exercise has been suggested as effective in influencing mental health among community-dwelling older people, but there is a need for a well-designed study to establish the effects among older people living in residential care facilities. A high-intensity functional exercise programme was evaluated for effects on depressive symptoms and psychological wellbeing among older people dependent in activities of daily living (ADL) and living in residential care facilities. The study was a cluster-randomised controlled study. Participants were randomised to either a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program (HIFE Program) or a control activity. Sessions were held in groups, for approximately 45 minutes, five times over each two-week period for three months, a total of 29 times. The outcome measures, the GDS-15 and the PGCMS, were blindly assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow-up.  There were no differences between the groups at the 3- or 6-month follow-ups in the total sample. However, sub-groups analyses showed a difference in PGCMS scores in favor of the exercise group among people with dementia at the 3-month follow-up.

     

    Regarding older people living in residential care facilities, including people with cognitive impairments, there is a lack of evidence showing that exercise has a positive influence on mental health. This may either be due to a lack of effect, or an insufficient amount of effect of exercise on physical capacity or dependence in ADL, which could be two important mediating factors for influencing mental health. The association between changes in physical capacity (BBS) or dependence in ADL (Barthel ADL Index) and changes in mental health (GDS-15 and PGCMS) was evaluated. The results showed no significant associations between change in physical capacity or dependence in ADL, and change in depressive symptoms or psychological well-being. Further, interaction analyses showed no moderating effects for dementia disorder.

     

    In conclusion, despite a high ICC value, the result of the absolute reliability evaluation shows that a change of 8 BBS points is required to reveal a genuine change in function among older people who are dependent in ADL and living in residential care facilities. This knowledge is important in the clinical setting when evaluations are made of an individual’s change in balance function over time in this group of older people. The GDS-15 seems useful in assessing depressive symptoms among very old people with MMSE scores of ten or above. More studies are needed to strengthen the validity among people with MMSE scores of 10-14, and for people with lower MMSE scores than ten there may be a need to develop and validate other measurements. Furthermore, a high-intensity exercise programme offered 2-3 times/week seems not to generally influence mental health among older people living in residential care facilities. However, the exercise programme may have a short-term effect on well-being among people with dementia. A change in physical capacity or dependence in ADL does not appear to be associated with a change in depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people who are living in residential care facilities. These results may explain why studies of using exercise to influence mental health have not shown effects in this group of older people. In future research, there is a need for studies that evaluate whether exercise offered more frequently, or interventions that aim to increase the level of physical activity in daily life, can influence mental health among older people living in residential care facilities.

  • 5.
    Conradsson, Mia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Boström, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Is a change in functional capacity or dependency in activities of daily living associated with a change in mental health among older people living in residential care facilities?2013In: Clinical Interventions in Aging, ISSN 1176-9092, E-ISSN 1178-1998, Vol. 8, p. 1561-1568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Functional capacity and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL) could be important mediators for an association between physical exercise and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL is associated with a change in depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities, and whether dementia can be a moderating factor for this association.

    Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken. Participants were 206 older people, dependent in ADL, living in residential care facilities, 115 (56%) of whom had diagnosed dementia. Multivariate linear regression, with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, was used to investigate associations between differences over 3 months in Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) scores, and in BBS and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) scores. Associations were also investigated between differences in Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 scores, and in Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS scores.

    Results: There were no significant associations between changes in scores over 3 months; the unstandardized beta for associations between BBS and GDS-15 was 0.026 (P=0.31), BBS and PGCMS 0.045 (P=0.14), Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 0.123 (P=0.06), and Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS -0.013 (P=0.86). There were no interaction effects for dementia.

    Conclusion: A change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL does not appear to be associated with a change in depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities. These results may offer one possible explanation as to why studies of physical exercise to influence these aspects of mental health have not shown effects in this group of older people.

  • 6.
    Conradsson, Mia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Boström, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Is a change in physical capacity or dependence in ADL associated with a change in mental health among older people living in residential care facilities?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Conradsson, Mia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Effects of a high-intensity functional exercise programme on depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities: a cluster-randomized controlled trial2010In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 565-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of a high-intensity functional exercise programme on depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people dependent in activities of daily living (ADL) and living in residential care facilities.

    Method: Cluster-randomized controlled study. Participants were 191 older people, aged 65–100, dependent in ADL and with Mini Mental State Examination scores between 10 and 30. One-hundred (52%) of the participants had a diagnosed dementia disorder. A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise programme and a control activity were performed in groups. Sessions were held five times over each two week period for three months, a total of 29 times. The outcome measures, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) were blindly assessed at baseline, three and six months.

    Results: At baseline, mean ± SD (range) for GDS was 4.4 ± 3.2 (0–14), and for PGCMS 11.0 ± 3.5 (2–17). There were no significant differences in GDS or PGCMS between the exercise and the control group at the three and six month follow-ups in the total sample. Among people with dementia, there was a between-group difference at three months in PGCMS scores in favour of the exercise group.

    Conclusion: A high-intensity functional exercise programme seems generally not to influence depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people dependent in ADL and living in residential care facilities. An individualized and multifactorial intervention may be needed in this group. However, an exercise programme as a single intervention may have a short-term effect on well-being among people with dementia.

  • 8.
    Conradsson, Mia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillernor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Malmqvist, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Physiotherapy Unit, Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology.
    Berg balance scale: intrarater test-retest reliability among older people dependent in activities of daily living and living in residential care facilities2007In: Physical Therapy, ISSN 0031-9023, E-ISSN 1538-6724, Vol. 87, no 9, p. 1155-1163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose: The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) is frequently used to assess balance in older people, but knowledge is lacking about the absolute reliability of BBS scores. The aim of this study was to investigate the absolute and relative intrarater test-retest reliability of data obtained with the BBS when it is used among older people who are dependent in activities of daily living and living in residential care facilities.

    Subjects: The participants were 45 older people (36 women and 9 men) who were living in 3 residential care facilities. Their mean age was 82.3 years (SD=6.6, range=68-96), and their mean score on the Mini Mental State Examination was 17.5 (SD=6.3, range=4-30).

    Methods: The BBS was assessed twice by the same assessor. The intrarater test-retest reliability assessments were made at approximately the same time of day and with 1 to 3 days in between assessments. Absolute reliability was calculated using an analysis of variance with a 95% confidence level, as suggested by Bland and Altman. Relative reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results The mean score was 30.1 points (SD=15.9, range=3-53) for the first BBS test and 30.6 points (SD=15.6, range=4-54) for the retest. The mean absolute difference between the 2 tests was 2.8 points (SD=2.7, range=0-11). The absolute reliability was calculated as being 7.7 points, and the ICC was calculated to .97.

    Discussion and Conclusion: Despite a high ICC value, the absolute reliability showed that a change of 8 BBS points is required to reveal a genuine change in function among older people who are dependent in activities of daily living and living in residential care facilities. This knowledge is important in the clinical setting when evaluating an individual's change in balance function over time in this group of older people.

  • 9.
    Conradsson, Mia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Usefulness of the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version among very old people with and without cognitive impairment2013In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 81p. 638-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the usefulness of the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version (GDS-15) to assess depressive symptoms among very old people with differing levels of cognitive function.

    Methods: The 834 participants were aged 85 and over. Feasibility of GDS-15 was evaluated as the proportion of people who completed the scale. Concurrent criterion validity was evaluated by calculating correlations between GDS-15 and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). PGCMS measures psychological wellbeing which is closely related with depressive symptoms. Correlations were calculated within groups according to cognitive function assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-27, and 28-30, using Pearson's two-sided correlation and compared using Fisher r-to-z transformation. Internal consistency of the GDS-15 was evaluated by calculating Cronbach's in each group.

    Results: In total, 651 (78%) of the 834 participants completed the GDS-15. For the two MMSE-groups with scores of <10, the proportion who completed GDS-15 were 1% and 42%, respectively, compared to 65-95% in the MMSE-groups with scores of 10. Cronbach's in each MMSE-group ranged from 0.636 (MMSE 28-30) to 0.821 (MMSE 5-9). The level of correlation between GDS-15 and PGCMS did not significantly differ between MMSE-groups with scores of 5-27 compared to the MMSE-group with scores of 28-30.

    Conclusions: The GDS-15 seems to have an overall usefulness to assess depressive symptoms among very old people with an MMSE score of 10 or more. More studies are needed to strengthen the validity of GDS-15 among older people with MMSE scores of 10-14. For older people with MMSE scores lower than 10, there is a need to develop and validate other measurements.

  • 10.
    Niklasson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Psychometric properties and feasibility of the Swedish version of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale2015In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 2795-2805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Morale is related to psychological well-being and quality of life in older people. The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) is widely used to assess morale. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and feasibility of the Swedish version of the 17-item PGCMS among very old people.

    METHODS: The Umea 85+/GERDA study included Swedish-speaking people aged 85, 90 and 95 years and older, from Sweden and Finland. Participants were interviewed in their own homes using a predefined set of questions. In the main sample, 493 individuals answered all 17 PGCMS items (aged 89.0 +/- 4.3 years). Another 105 answered between 1 and 16 questions (aged 89.6 +/- 4.4 years). A convenience sample was also collected, and 54 individuals answered all 17 PGCMS items twice (aged 84.7 +/- 6.7 years). The same assessor restated the questions within 1 week.

    RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha was 0.74 among those who answered all 17 questions in the main sample. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the construct validity of the most widely used version of the PGCMS, with 17 items and three factors, and showed a generally good fit. Among those answering between 1 and 17 PGCMS questions, 92.6 % (554/598) answered 16 or 17. The convenience sample was used for intra-rater test-retesting, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.89. The least significant change between two assessments, with 95 % confidence interval, was 3.53 PGCMS points.

    CONCLUSION: The Swedish version of the PGCMS seems to have satisfactory psychometric properties and feasibility among very old people.

  • 11.
    Niklasson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Mental Health Promotion Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Vaasa, Finland.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    High morale is associated with increased survival in the very old2015In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 630-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: high morale is defined as future-oriented optimism. Previous research suggests that a high morale independently predicts increased survival among old people, though very old people have not been specifically studied.

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate whether high morale is associated with increased survival among very old people.

    SUBJECTS: the Umeå 85+/GErontological Regional DAtabase-study (GERDA) recruited participants aged 85 years and older in northern Sweden and western Finland during 2000-02 and 2005-07, of whom 646 were included in this study.

    METHODS: demographic, functional- and health-related data were collected in this population-based study through structured interviews and assessments carried out during home visits and from reviews of medical records. The 17-item Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to assess morale.

    RESULTS: the 5-year survival rate was 31.9% for participants with low morale, 39.4% for moderate and 55.6% for those with high morale. In an unadjusted Cox model, the relative risk (RR) of mortality was higher among participants with low morale (RR = 1.86, P < 0.001) and moderate morale (RR = 1.59, P < 0.001) compared with participants with high morale. Similar results were found after adjustment for age and gender. In a Cox model adjusted for several demographic, health- and function-related confounders, including age and gender, mortality was higher among participants with low morale (RR = 1.36, P = 0.032) than those with high morale. There was a similar but non-significant pattern towards increased mortality in participants with moderate morale (RR = 1.21, P value = 0.136).

    CONCLUSION: high morale is independently associated with increased survival among very old people.

  • 12.
    Niklasson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustavsson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    High morale and survival2016In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 85, p. 75-75Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Niklasson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Näsman, Marina
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Higher morale is associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people2017In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 69, p. 61-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether higher morale, i.e. future-oriented optimism, at baseline was associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people.Methods The Umeå85+/GErontological Regional Database, a population-based study with a longitudinal design, recruited participants in Sweden and Finland aged 85, 90 and ≥95 years. The sample in the present study included 647 individuals (89.1±4.4 years (Mean±SD), range 85-103). After five years, 216 were alive and agreed to a follow-up (92.6±3.4 years, range 90-104). The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to assess morale. The depressive disorder diagnosis was determined according to DSM-IV based on medical records and interview data including assessment scales for depressive disorders. A number of sociodemographic, functional and health-related variables were analysed as possible confounders.Results For those with no depressive disorders at baseline, the only baseline variable significantly associated with depressive disorders five years later was the PGCMS score. A logistic regression model showed lower risk of depressive disorders five years later with higher baseline PGCMS scores (odds ratio 0.779 for one point increase in PGCMS, p<0.001). The association remained after adjusting for social isolation (p<0.1 association with depressive disorders five years later).Conclusion Our results indicate that the higher the morale, the lower the risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people. The PGCMS seems to identify those very old individuals at increased risk of depressive disorders five years later. Preventive measures could befocused on this group.

  • 14. Nyqvist, Fredrica
    et al.
    Cattan, Mima
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nasman, Marina
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Prevalence of loneliness over ten years among the oldest old2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 411-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study examined the prevalence of loneliness among the oldest old within a 10-year period and studied the influence of various sociodemographic, social and health characteristics on loneliness.

    Methods: The study used population-based data from the Umea85+/GErontological Regional DAtabase-study (GERDA) for the years 2000-2002, 2005-2007 and 2010-2012 including 85-year-old, 90-year-old and 95-year-old participants. A final sample of 304 participants in 2000-2002, 329 participants in 2005-2007 and 401 participants in 2010-2012 was included in the analyses.

    Results: Although the level of loneliness was already high in 2000-2002 (49.3% reported frequent loneliness), the results showed limited changes in loneliness during the 10-year study period. Loneliness was closely related to living alone, depressive symptoms and living in institutional settings.

    Conclusions: Although societal changes such as solitary living and growing urbanization suggest a changing trend in loneliness, we found that the prevalence of loneliness was relatively stable in this study. Nevertheless, loneliness is common among the oldest old and a focus on social issues related to living arrangements and on depressive symptoms is important in understanding loneliness.

  • 15. Näsman, Marina
    et al.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Saarela, Jan
    Nygård, Mikael
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Five-year change in morale is associated with negative life events in very old age2019In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, p. 84-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to study changes in morale in individuals 85 years and older, and to assess the effect of negative life events on morale over a five-year follow-up period.

    METHOD: The present study is based on longitudinal data from the Umeå85+/GERDA-study, including individuals 85 years and older at baseline (n = 204). Morale was measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Negative life events were assessed using an index including 13 negative life events occurring during the follow-up period. Linear regression was used for the multivariate analyses.

    RESULTS: The majority of the sample (69.1%) had no significant changes in morale during the five-year follow-up. However, the accumulation of negative life events was significantly associated with a greater decrease in PGCMS. A higher baseline PGCMS score did not attenuate the adverse effect negative life events had on morale.

    CONCLUSION: Morale seemed to be mainly stable in a five-year follow-up of very old people. It seems, nonetheless, that individuals are affected by negative life events, regardless of level of morale. Preventing negative life events and supporting individuals who experience multiple negative life events could have important implications for the care of very old people.

  • 16.
    Wiklund, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Toots, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Risk factors for hip fracture in very old people: a population-based study2016In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 923-931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of risk factors for hip fracture among very old people is limited. Walking indoors with help from ≤1 person, Parkinson's disease, currently smoking, delirium in the previous month, underweight, and age were associated with increased risk of hip fracture and could be important for preventive strategy development.

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to investigate risk factors for hip fracture among a representative sample of very old people.

    METHODS: In total, 953 participants from the Umeå 85+/Gerontological Regional Database population-based cohort study were interviewed and assessed during home visits. Associations of baseline characteristics with hip fracture during the maximum 5-year follow-up period were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression.

    RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 89.3 ± 4.7 years; 65.8 % were women, 36.8 % lived in residential care facilities, 33.6 % had dementia, and 20.4 % had histories of hip fracture. During a mean follow-up period of 2.7 years, 96 (10.1 %) individuals sustained hip fracture. Walking indoors with help from no more than one person (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.57; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.90-38.71), Parkinson's disease (HR = 5.12; 95 % CI, 1.82-14.44), currently smoking (HR = 4.38; 95 % CI 2.06-9.33), delirium in the previous month (HR = 2.01; 95 % CI, 1.15-3.49), underweight (body mass index <22; HR = 1.74, 95 % CI, 1.09-2.77), and age (HR = 1.09; 95 % CI, 1.04-1.14) were associated independently with an increased risk of hip fracture. Hip prosthesis at baseline decreased the risk of hip fracture (HR = 0.37; 95 % CI, 0.15-0.91), but only for those with bilateral hip prostheses.

    CONCLUSIONS: Seven factors were associated independently with incident hip fracture during follow-up in this sample of very old people. These factors could have important clinical implications in identifying persons at high risk of hip fracture, as well as in the development of effective preventive strategies.

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