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  • 1.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Testing Effect and Its Relation to Working Memory Capacity and Personality Characteristics2017Ingår i: Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, ISSN 1945-8959, E-ISSN 1810-7621, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 241-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice is known to lead to better retention of a to-be-learned material than restudy (i.e., the testing effect). However, few studies have investigated retrieval practice in relation to working memory capacity (WMC) and personality characteristics such as grittiness (Grit) and need for cognition (NFC). In two experiments, we examined retrieval practice and restudy of Swahili–Swedish word pairs in relation to individual differences in Grit and NFC. In Experiment 1, using a between-subjects design, a significant main effect of retention interval was qualified by a Group × Retention Interval interaction. However, there were no effects of Grit or NFC. In Experiment 2, a within-subjects design was used, and a measure of WMC was included. The analyses revealed a testing effect; but again, WMC, Grit, and NFC were not significantly associated with performance. These results indicate that retrieval practice levels out the playing field regarding WMC, NFC, and Grit.

  • 2.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Stress och påverkan på de nationella provresultaten för åk 32014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur upplever 9-10 åringar de nationella proven i åk 3? Påverkar upplevelsen prestationen? Påverkas något matematikdelområde mer eller mindre av upplevelsen? Skiljer sig olika uppgifter åt beroende på om de har mer eller mindre text respektive bilder? Vad kan man som lärare tänka på och göra i allmänhet och i synnerhet vid prov/förhörssituationer?

    Läsåret 2012/13 genomfördes en studie med 624 st elever i åk 3 för att bringa klarhet i ovan frågor. Eleverna fick göra olika arbetsminnesövningar och svara på frågor om stress, motivation och attityder, etc. Teoretiskt tror man nämligen att allt för hög nivå av t ex stress (prestationsångest) sänker ens prestation på ett prov/förhör. Resultaten på de olika nationella delproven i matematik kördes därför statistiskt mot nivå av självrapporterad stress/ångest och uppskattad eller egentlig prestationsförmåga hos eleverna.

    Uppskattad eller egentlig förmåga att prestera i matematik för elever kan mätas genom t ex deras arbetsminneskapacitet. Arbetsminne är en kognitiv förmåga som är väl klarlagd för att väsentligen påverka prestation och utveckling inom t ex matematik- och läsförståelse hos både vuxna och barn (Menon, 2010). Det finns dessutom starka kopplingar mellan arbetsminneskapacitet och skolprestation i teoretiska ämnen. Majoriteten av de elever som har inlärningssvårigheter i skolan verkar även ha svag arbetsminnesförmåga (Gathercole et al., 2006).

    Arbetsminnet kan förenklat beskrivas som bestå av tre olika specialiserade komponenter. En huvudcentral som t ex kontrollerar, fördelar, uppmärksammar och processerar information, och hämtar/lagrar information från/i långtidsminnet. Till sin hjälp har denna huvudcentral en visuell-spatial del för hantering av bilder, former och dimension, samt en auditiv del för behandling av lingvistik (Baddeley, 1986). Matematik innefattar olika områden som beror av olika kognitiva förmågor (t ex huvudräkning, problemlösning), vilka i sin tur är relaterade till visuell-spatial och/eller auditiv fakta (Rasmussen & Bisanz, 2005).

    ”Provstress” eller ”provängslan” är en etablerad term för att beskriva elevers påverkan och upplevelse av prov. Termen innefattar ofta för barn observerbara beteenden (t ex gå på toan, vicka på stolen, titta sig omkring), tankar/oro (t ex jag kommer aldrig att klara det här, mina föräldrar kommer att bli arga om jag misslyckas), autonoma/somatiska reaktioner (t ex svettas, ont i magen, varm om kinderna) (Zeidner, 2007). Man tror att provängslan är ett inlärt beteende som väcks tidigt i skolåren (Pekrun, 2000). Det är ett väldigt inskränkande tillstånd (Rothman, 2004) som starkt kan begränsa elevers prestation i alla åldrar (Birenbaum & Gutvirtz, 1993). Även om ett visst mått av provängslan är nödvändigt för att öka fokus, motivation och förberedelse (Gregor, 2005), kan det i allt för höga nivåer negativt påverka en elevs prestation och resultat på ett prov (Zeidner, 2007), särskilt i matematik (e.g. Putwain, 2008). 

    Om och hur stark den kognitiva störningen är av provängslan används alltså i vår studie som ett mått eller symptom på elevers ev. underprestation. Vi undersöker också om eleverna uppvisar mer eller mindre av beteenden, autonoma reaktioner eller tankar relaterat till provängslan. Slutligen summerar vi våra resultat mot undervisning och prov/förhörssituationer. En jämförelse kommer även att göras med Finländska och Kinesiska åk-3 elever.

  • 3.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Factors of importance for mathematics performance in grade 3: working memory capacity, teat anxiety and self-regulation2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Hermansson, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Lindhé, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Lundgren, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Norlund Shaswar, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    The (non)effect of Joint Construction in a genre-based approach to teaching writing2019Ingår i: The Journal of educational research (Washington, D.C.), ISSN 0022-0671, E-ISSN 1940-0675, Vol. 112, nr 4, s. 483-494Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This quasi-experimental intervention study examines the effect of genre-based instructional practices on 90 primary students’ narrative writing achievements and is a result of six teachers’ action to meet the educational goals of the Swedish national curriculum. Specifically, the authors examine the effects of Joint Construction, the phase in the genre pedagogical model of the Sydney School known as the Teaching and Learning Cycle, in which teachers and students work together to co-construct texts. Joint Construction has been put forward as the most powerful part of the Teaching and Learning Cycle. The authors challenge this argument, presenting findings that are inconsistent with this widely held belief. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, the study shows that the Joint Construction stage did not significantly improve the quality of students’ narrative writing or increase the text length of their writings.

  • 5.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Olafsdottir, Anna Sigridur
    School of Education, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Lagström, Hanna
    Turku Institute of Child and Youth Research, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Wergedahl, Hege
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway,.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Fossgard, Eldbjörg
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway.
    Holthe, Asle
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway.
    Talvia, Sanna
    Turku Institute of Child and Youth Research, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali, The National University Hospital of Iceland, and Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    School meals and health: the PROMEAL-study2016Ingår i: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, nr 1, artikel-id 31961Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prospective Control and Object Representation in Yound Infants: An action-based account2001Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis was to study the age-related differences of prospective control and object representation in young infants. The overall set of theoretical and empirical issues addressed in this thesis consists of how infants represent and react to visible and non-visible moving objects. This involves understanding the interrelationship between different actions, such as head and trunk movements, and reaching. Questions about infants’ ability to negotiate different kinds of motions and the notion that infant representation of an occluded object can be graded in strength are also addressed in the present thesis. The hypothesis of graded representation proposed that a concept of object representation is not a clear-cut distinction between whether one has a representation or not. It is rather a graded process, evolving with experience and becoming embedded in processes underlying overt behaviour. Study I showed that perturbing an object affected the quality of grasp, which seems to indicate that the approach and grasp components are, at least partially, integrated by nine months of age. The analysis of the relationship between head and hand movements showed tightness in the coupling between these movements, as indicated by a small correction time difference between them. Study III showed that 6-month-old infants, under certain conditions, can form a dynamical representation of a moving and temporarily occluded object, taking into account the velocity and the direction of the object’s motion. It also revealed three other interesting findings: firstly, that an occluder could provide landmark information about object reappearance; secondly, that reaching was dramatically disrupted when the object was temporarily non-visible either due to occlusion or blackout of the room lights and thirdly, that reaching recovered markedly after a few trials, but only when subject to blackout. Overall, the results supported the hypothesis of graded representations. In Study IV, when infants observed a circular object motion, it was shown that while head tracking is functional in 6-month-old infants, it continues to develop and become more refined up to, and beyond, the age of 12 months. The structural organization of head tracking in both 6 and 12-month-old infants complied with an organizational pattern of accelerations and decelerations, or so-called movement units, which is in line with earlier studies of both goal-directed and spontaneous arm movements. The intersegmental coupling between the head and the trunk showed that the infants tried to stabilise head movements by adjustments of the trunk. In addition, study II presents a method for coding prehensile movements by means of a touch screen system, which is used in study III.

  • 7.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstad University.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Mathematical Teaching Method affects Performance and Brain Activity2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kulaksiz, Yagmur C.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Creative and algorithmic mathematical reasoning: effects of transfer-appropriate processing and effortful struggle2016Ingår i: International journal of mathematical education in science and technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211, Vol. 47, nr 8, s. 1206-1225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two separate studies, Jonsson et al. (J. Math Behav. 2014;36: 20–32)and KarlssonWirebring et al. (Trends Neurosci Educ. 2015;4(1–2):6–14),showed that learning mathematics using creative mathematical reasoningand constructing their own solution methods can be moreefficient than if students use algorithmic reasoning and are giventhe solution procedures. It was argued that effortful struggle was thekey that explained this difference. It was also argued that the resultscould not be explained by the effects of transfer-appropriate processing,although this was not empirically investigated. This studyevaluated the hypotheses of transfer-appropriate processing andeffortful struggle in relation to the specific characteristics associatedwith algorithmic reasoning task and creativemathematical reasoningtask. In a between-subjects design, upper-secondary students werematched according to their working memory capacity.The main finding was that the superior performance associated withpracticing creative mathematical reasoning was mainly supportedby effortful struggle, however, there was also an effect of transferappropriateprocessing. It is argued that students need to strugglewith important mathematics that in turn facilitates the constructionof knowledge. It is further argued that the way we construct mathematicaltasks have consequences for how much effort students allocateto their task-solving attempt.

  • 9.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Karlstad University, Sweden ; The Centre of Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Learning mathematics through algorithmic and creative reasoning2014Ingår i: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, nr 36, s. 20-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are extensive concerns pertaining to the idea that students do not develop sufficient mathematical competence. This problem is at least partially related to the teaching of procedure-based learning. Although better teaching methods are proposed, there are very limited research insights as to why some methods work better than others, and the conditions under which these methods are applied. The present paper evaluates a model based on students’ own creation of knowledge, denoted creative mathematically founded reasoning (CMR), and compare this to a procedure-based model of teaching that is similar to what is commonly found in schools, denoted algorithmic reasoning (AR). In the present study, CMR was found to outperform AR. It was also found cognitive proficiency was significantly associated to test task performance. However the analysis also showed that the effect was more pronounced for the AR group.

  • 10.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Noushandeh, Barham
    MicroTouch®Screen technology for the use of coding crude movements and as a response surface for pointing tasks2000Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The following is a description of an inexpensive touch monitor system, based on a MicroTouch monitor and specifically developed software. When touching the MicroTouch monitor, a pre-determined set of values are extracted and displayed in a terminal window as single X and Y coordinates. The program is written in C, runs directly in either MS DOS or through Windows and also serves as a receiver that automatically saves the X and Y coordinates in a text-file format. This paper describes the overall system, discusses the system validity and reliability as well as how it was used in a context of coding crude motor behavior and as a response surface for a specific pen-pointing task.

  • 11.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prospective head tracking: head movements, accuracy and timing in relation to a circular object motion2009Ingår i: Current Psychology Letters: Behaviour, Brain & Cognition, ISSN 1379-6100, E-ISSN 1379-6100, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, kinematic and video recordings were made of the eye- and head tracking of an object revolving in a vertical plane in two groups of infants (6- and 12-month-old) and one group of adults. The study had two purposes. The first concerned infants' abilities to negotiate the target trajectory when being forced to extensively recruit the head. The second addressed the question whether the same underlying neural controller drives both eye- and head motor systems. It was found that head tracking ability is functional already in 6-month-old infants. However, infants of both age groups displayed more extensive head movements and less accuracy compared to adults. This finding is in line with previous research on one-dimensional horizontal head tracking in infants. Infants also showed less developed timing between head movements and vertical object motion, supporting the argument that both eye- and head tracking have a common developmental trajectory.

  • 12.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Infants’ ability to track and reach for temporarily occluded objects2003Ingår i: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 86-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Six-month-old infants were presented with a moving object that temporarily became invisible. The object moved on a horizontal path and was made invisible for either 400, 800 or 1,200 ms before being within reach. Two kinds of events were used to make the object invisible: blackout of the room lights and occlusion behind a screen. First, infants saw 6 trials of the fully visible motion, then 12 trials of a temporarily invisible motion and finally 6 trials of the fully visible motion again. Each infant was presented with only one of the 6 experimental conditions. The results show that reaching is much more severely affected by a eriod of temporary non-visibility than tracking. The effects of the two modes of non-visibility were rather different. In general, lackout deteriorated tracking and made the gaze lag at reappearance. It inhibited reaching but this effect attenuated with experience. onger periods of blackout deteriorated tracking and reaching more. Compared to blackout, occlusion had both a facilitating and an inhibiting effect on infants’ actions. Tracking had less tendency to lag but reaching showed more severe inhibition. The results are discussed in terms of graded representations. Furthermore, it is argued that an occluder facilitates tracking by providing information of where the moving object becomes visible again and it inhibits reaching by interfering with the representation of the object behind the occluder.

  • 13.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Predictive head movements in 6-month old infants1998Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 21, nr Supplement, s. 491-491Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate infant’s predictive head-tracking relatively to a linearly moving object. Object’s motion was  produced by a large computer controlled plotter, tilted 15 degrees  forward from vertical position. The objects moved on a white  ainted  aluminum sheet (98x 130 cm). Objects were presented in three different conditions. It was either visible all the time, occluded during part of its motion, or the room lights were extinguished during part of the object’s motion. Infant’s head movements were recorded by two infrared cameras and mixed onto a single video screen. Each infant was shown 6 initial and 6 final visible trials, and 6 times 2 occlusion trials in between, occlusion either by occluder or extinguished light. Sticky paper was placed on the infant’s head and by a touch-screen technology the markers were coded every 100 msec.

  • 14.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Olafsdottir, Anna S
    Lagström, Hanna
    Wergedahl, Hege
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Fossgard, Eldbjörg
    Holthe, Asle
    Talvia, Sanna
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    The effect of schooling on basic cognition in selected Nordic Countries2017Ingår i: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 645-666Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated schooling effects on cognition. Cognitive data were collected as part of a research project (ProMeal) that investigated school meals and measured the intake of school lunch in relation to children’s health, cognitive function, and classroom learning in four Nordic countries, among children between 10–11 years of age. It was found that Finnish pupils attending 4th grade were not, on any measure, outperformed by Norwegian and Icelandic pupils attending 5th and Swedish pupils attending 4th grade on a task measuring working memory capacity, processing speed, inhibition, and in a subsample on response- and attention control. Moreover, boys were found to perform superior to girls on tasks measuring processing speed. However, girls were found to perform better on tasks related to attention and self-control. The results are discussed in relation to the reciprocal association between cognition and schooling and whether these results reflect quality differences between schools in the four Nordic countries; most notably in comparison to Finland.

  • 15.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Börjesson, Arne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Self-reported memory strategies and their relationship to immediate and delayed text recall and working memory capacity2014Ingår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 385-404Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of fifth-grade children in the reproduction of the content of a new text - directly, after they had read it (immediate recall), and one week later (delayed recall) - and to investigate the relationship between performance, self-reported memory strategies, and working memory capacity (WMC). The results revealed that more complex strategies are associated with better performances, and that children with high WMC outperformed children with lower WMC in immediate and delayed text recall tasks. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that memory strategy and WMC are the strongest predictors for both immediate and delayed recall tasks. It is argued that self-reported memory strategies are possible to use as estimates of strategy proficiency. The awareness of the importance of memory strategies and children’s WMC in education are further discussed.

  • 16. Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Jonsson, Fredrik U.
    Selander, Staffan
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Multimedia learning trumps retrieval practice in psychology teaching2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 60, nr 3, s. 222-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that studying with (vs. without) visual illustrations as well as taking tests (vs. restudying) is beneficial for learning, but on which strategy should one put the efforts, or should they be combined for best learning? Eighty-eight upper secondary school students were given a brief lecture presented verbally (6 classes) or with the aid of a visual illustration (visuoverbal, 6 classes). The information was processed again by taking a memory test or by restudying. Recall and transfer tests were conducted after some few minutes and again after one week. The visuoverbal lecture resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only. A significant study strategy by retention interval interaction was found. However, this interaction was not qualified by a testing effect. Hence, taking tests (retrieval practice) did not lead to better learning than restudying. It was concluded that it is worthwhile to use visual illustrations in teaching. However, the present study did not reveal any synergistic effects from the combination of visuoverbal presentation and retrieval practice.

  • 17.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden and Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Kubik, Veit
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden and Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson Sundqvist, Max
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden and Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden and Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    How crucial is the response format for the testing effect?2014Ingår i: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 78, nr 5, s. 623-633Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining study and test trials during learning is more beneficial for long-term retention than repeated study without testing (i.e., the testing effect). Less is known about the relative efficacy of different response formats during testing. We tested the hypothesis that overt testing (typing responses on a keyboard) during a practice phase benefits later memory more than covert testing (only pressing a button to indicate successful retrieval). In Experiment 1, three groups learned 40 word pairs either by repeatedly studying them, by studying and overtly testing them, or by studying and covertly testing them. In Experiment 2, only the two testing conditions were manipulated in a within-subjects design. In both experiments, participants received cued recall tests after a short (~19 min) and a long (1 week) retention interval. In Experiment 1, all groups performed equally well at the short retention interval. The overt testing group reliably outperformed the repeated study group after 1 week, whereas the covert testing group performed insignificantly different from both these groups. Hence, the testing effect was demonstrated for overt, but failed to show for covert testing. In Experiment 2, overtly tested items were better and more quickly retrieved than those covertly tested. Further, this does not seem to be due to any differences in retrieval effort during learning. To conclude, overt testing was more beneficial for later retention than covert testing, but the effect size was small. Possible explanations are discussed.

  • 18.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Retrieval practice is characterized by reduced fronto-striatal activity2013Ingår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 25, nr Suppl., s. S82-S83Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstad, Sweden.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Learning mathematics without a suggested solution method: durable effects on performance and brain activity2015Ingår i: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 4, nr 1-2, s. 6-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A dominant mathematics teaching method is to present a solution method and let pupils repeatedly practice it. An alternative method is to let pupils create a solution method themselves. The current study compared these two approaches in terms of lasting effects on performance and brain activity. Seventythree participants practiced mathematics according to one of the two approaches. One week later, participants underwent fMRI while being tested on the practice tasks. Participants who had created the solution method themselves performed better at the test questions. In both conditions, participants engaged a fronto-parietal network more when solving test questions compared to a baseline task. Importantly, participants who had created the solution method themselves showed relatively lower brain activity in angular gyrus, possibly reflecting reduced demands on verbal memory. These results indicate that there might be advantages to creating the solution method oneself, and thus have implications for the design of teaching methods.

  • 20.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Lesser neural pattern similarity across repeated tests is associated with better long-term memory retention2015Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 35, nr 26, s. 9595-9602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Encoding and retrieval processes enhance long-term memory performance. The efficiency of encoding processes has recently been linked to representational consistency: the reactivation of a representation that gets more specific each time an item is further studied. Here we examined the complementary hypothesis of whether the efficiency of retrieval processes also is linked to representational consistency. Alternatively, recurrent retrieval might foster representational variability—the altering or adding of underlying memory representa- tions. Human participants studied 60 Swahili–Swedish word pairs before being scanned with fMRI the same day and 1 week later. On Day 1, participants were tested three times on each word pair, and on Day 7 each pair was tested once. A BOLD signal change in right superior parietal cortex was associated with subsequent memory on Day 1 and with successful long-term retention on Day 7. A representational similarity analysis in this parietal region revealed that beneficial recurrent retrieval was associated with representational variability, such that the pattern similarity on Day 1 was lower for retrieved words subsequently remembered compared with those subsequently forgot- ten. This was mirrored by a monotonically decreased BOLD signal change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on Day 1 as a function of repeated successful retrieval for words subsequently remembered, but not for words subsequently forgotten. This reduction in prefrontal response could reflect reduced demands on cognitive control. Collectively, the results offer novel insights into why memory retention benefits from repeated retrieval, and they suggest fundamental differences between repeated study and repeated testing. 

  • 21.
    Korhonen, Johan
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Additive and multiplicative effects of working memory and test anxiety on mathematics performance in grade 3 students2018Ingår i: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 572-595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between test anxiety and working memory (WM) on mathematics performance in younger children. A sample of 624 grade 3 students completed a test battery consisting of a test anxiety scale, WM tasks and the Swedish national examination in mathematics for grade 3. The main effects of test anxiety and WM, and the two-way interaction between test anxiety and WM on mathematics performance, were modelled with structural equation modelling techniques. Additionally, the effects were also tested separately on tasks with high WM demands (mathematical problem-solving) versus low WM demands (basic arithmetic). As expected, WM positively predicted mathematics performance in all three models (overall mathematics performance, problem-solving tasks, and basic arithmetic). Test anxiety had a negative effect on problem-solving on the whole sample level but concerning basic arithmetic only students with lower WM were affected by the negative effects of test anxiety on performance. Thus, students with low WM are more vulnerable to the negative effects of test anxiety in low WM tasks like basic arithmetic. The results are discussed in relation to the early identification of test anxiety.

  • 22.
    Korhonen, Johan
    et al.
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    The role of cognitive-affective factors in underachievement2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23. Munakata, Yuko
    et al.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Spelke, Elisabeth S
    von Hofsten, Claes
    When it helps to occlude and obscure: 6-month-olds' predictive tracking of moving toys1996Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 19, nr Suppl. 1, s. 639-639Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What do infants know about hidden objects’? Previous research suggests that the answer depends on how the objects are hidden. For instance, infants appear to reach for toys in the dark (Clifton, Rochat, Litovsky, & Penis, 1991; Hood & Willatts, 1986) before they reach for toys occluded in the light. However, these experiments have not compared directly toys occluded in the light and by darkness. The current experiment tests infants under both conditions in the same paradigm. In addition, the experiment introduces a combined ccluderdarkness condition to test two distinct explanations for a possible advantage in the dark. First,  infants may have knowledge about hidden objects but cannot act on it for occluder-specific reasons (e.g., means-ends deficits, beliefs about the whether the object is accessible). Second, infants may have graded representations of occluded objects that can be more easily maintained in the face of global darkness than with the direct visual interference of an occluder. Counterintuitive results from the current experiment provide evidence for both representational and occluder-specific effects.

  • 24.
    Nordvall, Olov
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Self-reported and performance-based measures of executive functions in interned youth2017Ingår i: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 240-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study address three questions: (a) Do interned adolescents exhibit general or specific deficits in the core executive functions, as compared to an age-matched control group? (b) Do interned adolescents report more executive problems in everyday life, as compared to an age-matched control group? And (c) are performance-based measures of executive functions related to self-reported executive problems? Thirty-one interned youths and 40 non-interned controls participated in the study. To this end, we measured the three constituents (inhibition, shifting, and updating) of the Unity/Diversity model of executive functioning, as well as the participants’ self-reported everyday executive functioning using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions scale. The interned group performed less well compared to the control group on the majority of performance-based tasks but did not show more pronounced deficits in any one executive function, reflective of a more general deficit. Compared to the controls, the interned adolescents also reported more dysfunction in executive behaviors related to the ability to inhibit action, behavioral flexibility, working memory, and the ability to follow through with tasks. Overall, correlations between self-report and performance-based measures were weak. These findings suggest that performance-based and self-report measures may assess different, albeit important, aspects of executive functioning.

  • 25.
    Nordvall, Olov
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstads Universitet.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Limited effects of executive-process training in interned and non-interned adolescents: Issues of transfer to school-related tasks, performance-based, and self-assessed cognitionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a process-based executive functions (EFs) training program in interned and in non-interned adolescents. In particular, the extent to which training effects were transferred to non-trained executive functions, scholastic performance, as well as to self-reported everyday executive functioning, was addressed. Three groups participated in the study: one group consisted of interned adolescents receiving EF-training (n=21), the other two 30 non-interned adolescents randomized to either EF-training (n=15) or alternatively placebo-training (n=15). All three groups participated in 28 computer-based training sessions, each lasting 20 minutes, over a period of 10 weeks. Theresults showed that the non-interned adolescents receiving EF training did not improve over and above that of the placebo-training group on any of the criterion and transfer tasks, nor in self-assessed cognition. Instead both groups showed equivalent gains suggesting that the improvements seen after training most likely is driven by placebo responses. Comparing the interned and non-interned training progression revealed that the non-interned group gained substantially more across training than the interned group. Still, both groups showed equal improvements in several non-trained tasks, along with self-reported aspects of working memory and planning ability. The implication of these findings for EF training as part of rehabilitation in incarcerated settings will be discussed below.

  • 26.
    Nordvall, Olov
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Self-Reported Impulsivity and its Relation to Executive Functions in Interned Youth2017Ingår i: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 910-922Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In adolescence, antisocial behaviors increase in prevalence, an occurrence that has been related to the parallel increase of impulsive behaviors. However, impulsivity is a conglomerate of unidimensional impulsigenic traits, divided into aspects of behavioral dyscontrol and sensation seeking. In the present study, we examine how these traits differ between interned youth and an aged-matched control group, and how they relate to executive functioning. Results indicate that impulsigenic traits related to behavioral dyscontrol, but not sensation seeking, are more pronounced in interned adolescents. Also, executive functioning was predictive of lack of premeditation, a trait specifically related to antisocial behavior. One implication of this is that interventions improving executive functioning could be beneficial in the rehabilitation of interned adolescents with impulsivity-related problems.

  • 27.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eye-tracking data and mathematical tasks with focus on mathematical reasoning2019Ingår i: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 25, artikel-id 104216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This data article contains eye-tracking data (i.e., dwell time and fixations), Z-transformed cognitive data (i.e., Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and Operation span), and practice and test scores from a study in mathematics education. This data is provided in a supplementary file. The method section describes the mathematics tasks used in the study. These mathematics tasks are of two kinds, with and without solution templates, to induce different types of mathematical reasoning.

  • 28.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Qwillbard, Tony
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Investigating algorithmic and creative reasoning strategies by eye tracking2019Ingår i: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Imitative teaching and learning approaches have been dominating in mathematics education. Although more creative approaches (e.g. problem-based learning) have been proposed and implemented, a main challenge of mathematics education research is to document robust links between teaching, tasks, student activities and learning. This study investigates one aspect of such links, by contrasting tasks providing algorithmic solution templates with tasks requiring students’ constructions of solutions and relating this to students’ learning processes and outcomes. Information about students’ task solving strategies are gathered by corneal eye-tracking, which is related to subsequent post-test performances and individual variation in cognitive proficiency. Results show that students practicing by creative tasks outperform students practicing by imitative algorithmic tasks in the post-test, but also that students that perform less well on creative tasks tend to try ineffective imitative strategies.

  • 29.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Increased efficiency when engaging in creative mathematical founded reasoning2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 37th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 5. / [ed] Lindmeier, A. M. & Heinze, A., Kiel, Germany: PME , 2013, s. 136-136Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap..
    Creative Reasoning More Beneficial For Cognitively Weaker Students2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Prague: Charles University , 2015, s. 502-503Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a study with 91 upper-secondary students the efficiency of two different types of mathematical practice tasks, procedural based algorithmic tasks and creative reasoning tasks, were studied. It was found that although the algorithmic group outperformed the creative group during practice the latter performed significantly better on a follow-up test. Closer inspection revealed that the difference in test performance was, contrary to common beliefs, driven by the cognitively weaker students.

  • 31.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kognitiva implikationer för matematiklärande hos yngre elever2015Ingår i: Resultatdialog 2015 / [ed] Vetenskapsrådet, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, s. 160-171Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt projekt visar att kognition och emotion har stor betydelse for åk 3 elevers matematikprestation. Det var 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik för elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil. Det fanns inget samband mellan kronologisk ålder och matematikprestation. Låg arbetsminneskapacitet i samverkan med hög provångest bidrog negativt till matematikprestation. Skolklass bidrog till skillnader i elevers rapporterade provångest.

    Q1) Provångest och arbetsminne predicerade enskilt elevs matematikprestation; hög provångest respektive låg arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till låg matematikprestation, och låg provångest respektive god arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till god matematikprestation. Därtill fanns en samverkanseffekt vilken var ogynnsam för elever med låg arbetsminneskapacitet, jämfört med elever med medel och hög arbetsminneskapacitet.

    Q2) Elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil hade 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik. Elever som presterade lågt i matematik hade dock inte uteslutande en risk-kognitiv profil. Likaväl fanns andra profiler än den stödjande-kognitiva profilen i gruppen med bra matematikprestation. Lika lovande som att 75 % av elever med en risk-profil inte presterade lågt i matematik, lika nedslående är det att endast 16 % av elever med en stödjande-kognitiv profil presterade bra i matematik.

    Q3) Grad av matematikprestation ar en funktion av arbetsminneskapacitet, men olika subkomponenter i arbetsminnet karaktariserar olika nivaer av matematikprestation. Lågpresterande elever påvisade framförallt betydande sämre visuospatial förmåga (bearbeta visuell och spatial information), medan god fonologisk förmåga (auditivt material) var karaktaristiskt för den högpresterande elevgruppen. I ett didaktiskt perspektiv pekar dessa resultat på vikten av anpassade pedagogiska insatser i relation till kognitiva förmågor.

    Q4) Skolklass har en betydande inverkan på elevers skattade provångest. För skolklasser med ett högt medelvärde på provångest verkade självregleringsförmåga ytterligare bidra till rapporterad provångest.

    Q5) Resultatet visar inte på någon relativ ålderseffekt och modereras inte heller av arbetsminneskapacitet. Resultatet tyder på att biologisk mognad i termer av arbetsminnet är viktigare än relativa åldereffekter.

  • 32.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    The department of Special Education, Åbo Akademy University Vaasa, Finland.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Children’s mathematical achievement and its relation to working memory, test anxiety, self-regulation: a person-centered approach2015Ingår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 73-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting the challenges of teaching for all individuals requires a multifaceted approach, especially from the Swedish standpoint of inclusive education for all pupils. In the context of applied standards for receiving special educational provision, the present paper strives to shed light on the scope of novel indicators, which can accommodate pupils’ different needs.  Founded upon 3 hitherto established robust psycho-educational concepts – working memory, test anxiety and self-regulation – all of which are important for educational, social, emotional and behavioural development, the present study examined those concepts in terms of profiles and their relations to mathematical achievement. 624 children between the ages of 8 and 10 completed a battery of tests, assessing working memory, test anxiety, self-regulation, and mathematical achievement. Person-centred analyses reiterated the negative academic outcomes associated with the aforementioned variables but also revealed individual variations that warrant attention. Furthermore pupils labelled with an ‘At-risk’ profile were more likely to achieve low Math scores, compared to pupils with an ‘In-vigour’ profile. Implication for special educational provision is discussed, and practical suggestions provided.

  • 33.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    The role of cognitive-affective factors in underachievement2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is converging evidence on the strong relationship between working memory capacity and mathematical performance. Test anxiety is a potential moderating factor involved in the relationship between working memory and academic performance. Based on Eysenck and Calvo’s (1992) Processing Efficiency Theory the present study investigated whether associations between working memory and educational achievement in mathematics were moderated by test anxiety. 624 children aged 9-10 years completed verbal, spatial, and complex working memory tasks. Test anxiety was measured using the Children’s Test Anxiety Scale (Wren & Benson, 2004). Mathematical performance was assessed using the Swedish national test in mathematics.

  • 34.
    Nyström, Markus B. T.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kjellberg, Emilie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Heimdahl, Ulrica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Shame and interpersonal sensitivity: Gender differences and the association between internalized shame coping strategies and interpersonal sensitivity2018Ingår i: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, ISSN 0025-9284, E-ISSN 1943-2828, Vol. 82, nr 2, s. 137-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated gender differences in interpersonal sensitivity and internalized shame coping strategies in 252 undergraduate students. To measure interpersonal sensitivity and shame coping strategies, the self-assessment forms Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure and Compass of Shame Scale were used. The analyses revealed that compared to men, women display interpersonal sensitivity to a higher degree, and they use internalized shame coping strategies to a greater extent. The results also showed that interpersonal sensitivity is highly correlated with shame coping strategies. However, in contrast to earlier research, no gender difference was found, and gender did not significantly mediate the association between interpersonal sensitivity and internalized shame coping. These results could aid clinicians and researchers in promoting, designing, delivering, and evaluating treatments for patients with, for example, depression, anxiety, and interpersonal and/or relational problems.

  • 35.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Motor representations and practice affect brain systems underlying imagery: an FMRI study of internal imagery in novices and active high jumpers2008Ingår i: The Open Neuroimaging Journal, ISSN 1874-4400, E-ISSN 1874-4400, Vol. 2, s. 5-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate differences in brain activity between one group of active high jumpers and one group of high jumping novices (controls) when performing motor imagery of a high jump. It was also investigated how internal imagery training affects neural activity. The results showed that active high jumpers primarily activated motor areas, e.g. pre-motor cortex and cerebellum. Novices activated visual areas, e.g. superior occipital cortex. Imagery training resulted in a reduction of activity in parietal cortex. These results indicate that in order to use an internal perspective during motor imagery of a complex skill, one must have well established motor representations of the skill which then translates into a motor/internal pattern of brain activity. If not, an external perspective will be used and the corresponding brain activation will be a visual/external pattern. Moreover, the findings imply that imagery training reduces the activity in parietal cortex suggesting that imagery is performed more automatic and results in a more efficient motor representation more easily accessed during motor performance.

  • 36.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Internal imagery training in active high jumpers2008Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 133-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether the use of internal imagery would affect high jumping performance for active high jumping athletes. Over a period of six weeks, a group of active high jumpers were trained with an internal imagery program for a total of 72 minutes. This group was compared to a control group consisting of active high jumpers that only maintained their regular work-outs during the same time period. Four variables were measured; jumping height, number of failed attempts, take-off angle, and bar clearance. There was a significant improvement on bar clearance for the group that trained imagery (p < 0.05) but not for the control group. No other differences were found. The results suggest that internal imagery training may be used to improve a component of a complex motor skill. Possible explanations and future recommendations are discussed.

  • 37.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Learning by doing and learning by thinking: An fMRI study of combining motor and mental training2008Ingår i: Frontiers in human neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 2, nr 5, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    The current study investigated behavioral and neural effects of motor, mental, and combined motor and mental training on a finger tapping task. The motor or mental training groups trained on a finger-sequence for a total of 72 min over six weeks. The motor and mental training group received 72 min motor training and in addition 72 min mental training. Results showed that all groups increased their tapping performance significantly on the trained sequence. After training fMRI data was collected and indicated training specific increases in ventral pre-motor cortex following motor training, and in fusiform gyrus following mental training. Combined motor and mental training activated both the motor and the visual regions. In addition, motor and mental training showed a significant increase in tapping performance on an untrained sequence (transfer). FMRI scanning indicated that the transfer effect involved the cerebellum. Conclusions were that combined motor and mental training recruited both motor and visual systems, and that combined motor and mental training improves motor flexibility via connections from both motor and cognitive systems to the cerebellum.

  • 38.
    Röhlcke, Sebastian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Time on task matters most in video game expertise2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikel-id e0206555Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated whether working memory capacity (WMC), personality characteristics (grit) and number of matches played (time on task) can predict performance score (matchmaking rating [MMR]) in experienced players of a popular video game called Dota 2. A questionnaire and four online-based cognitive tasks were used to gather the data, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to investigate the interrelationships between constructs. The results showed that time on task was the strongest predictor of MMR, and grit also significantly influenced performance. However, WMC did not play a substantial role in predicting performance while playing Dota 2. These results are discussed in relation to sample characteristics and the role of deliberate practice and skill acquisition within the domain of playing Dota 2. Further, we suggest that future research investigates the social aspects of attaining skill, the relationship between personality and performance, and the qualitative aspects of time spent on a task.

  • 39. Savelsbergh, Geert
    et al.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The coupling of head, reach and grasp movement in ninemonths old infant prehension1997Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 325-333Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 9-month-old-infants adjustments in the reaching pattern to sudden changes in object location were examined. An attractive ball was presented to the infants at their midline and on some trials (perturbation trials) the ball suddenly changed position 15 cm to the right or left during the reach. For the perturbed trials the movement times approximately doubled compared to the control trials and significantly fewer balls were grasped. The results indicate that infants need to finish the first movement before being able to redirect the reach to a new destination. The correlation between the latency of the head and hand adjustment to the perturbation were 0.85 and 0.78 for movements to the left and to the right, respectively, indicating a tight coupling. The time between the start of the perturbation and peak velocity(TPPV) was significantly shorter for the head movement than for the hand movement, indicating that the head is leading the hand.

  • 40.
    Stenlund, Tova
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Assessing the Willingness to Elaborate among Young Students: Psychometric Evaluation of a Swedish Need for Cognition Scale2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Education, ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 2, artikel-id 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The personality trait Need for Cognition (NFC) has been studied for many years, and found to be important for individuals’ educational achievement. The original NFC-scale was developed in the eighties, and during the following decade the scale was translated and adapted into a number of other languages. A renewed interest for the personality trait of NFC has made these scales interesting to use. It is though vital that instruments used for studies of individual differences in the area of educational research, or in any other area, can portray valid results today. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate validity and reliability of the short version of the Mental Effort Tolerance Questionnaire, a Swedish adaption of the NFC-scale made in 1991, which has not been previously evaluated. This study involved 420 young students, and the evaluation of reliability includes a study of temporal stability (test-retest), as well as internal stability. Further, the evaluation of validity includes construct and criterion validity. Regarding reliability, the results showed a test-retest reliability coefficient of .88 (n = 108), and an internal stability (Cronbach’s alpha) of .88 (n = 420). Evaluation of construct validity found evidence for a five factor dimensional structure (n = 420), discriminant validity to measures of general intelligence (r = .25; n = 122), working memory (r = .22; n =164), and the personality trait Grit (r = .26; n = 169). Finally, criterion validity was found for grades (r =.35; n =125). Overall, the results of the evaluation show that the inferences made from the results of the short version of the Swedish NFC-scale exhibits satisfactory reliability and validity, suggesting that the questionnaire can be used in educational contexts. The questionnaire might, however, benefit from being even more shortened.

  • 41.
    Stenlund, Tova
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics2017Ingår i: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 145-156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions benefit learning when compared to test-enhanced learning over time. The results showed that feedback does not seem to have any effect if provided to a discussion group,and that test-enhanced learning leads to better learning than the discussion groups, independent of retention interval. Moreover, we examined whether memory and learning might be influenced by the participants’ need for cognition (NFC). The results showed that those scoring high on NFC remembered more than those who scored low. To conclude, testing trumps discussion groups from a learning perspective, and the discussion groups were also the least beneficial learning context for those scoring low on NFC.

  • 42.
    Stenlund, Tova
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Effects of repeated testing on short- and long-term memory performance across different test formats2016Ingår i: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 36, nr 10, s. 1710-1727Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether practice testing with short-answer (SA) items benefits learning over time compared to practice testing with multiple-choice (MC) items, and rereading the material. More specifically, the aim was to test the hypotheses of retrieval effort and transfer appropriate processing by comparing retention tests with respect to practice testing format. To adequately compare SA and MC items, the MC items were corrected for random guessing. With a within-group design, 54 students (mean age = 16 years) first read a short text, and took four practice tests containing all three formats (SA, MC and statements to read) with feedback provided after each part. The results showed that both MC and SA formats improved short- and long-term memory compared to rereading. More importantly, practice testing with SA items is more beneficial for learning and long-term retention, providing support for retrieval effort hypothesis. Using corrections for guessing and educational implications are discussed.

  • 43.
    Sternäng, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Examination of the common cause account in a population-based longitudinal study with narrow age cohort design2010Ingår i: Gerontology, ISSN 0304-324X, E-ISSN 1423-0003, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 553-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The common cause account suggests that there is a third factor causing aging effects in both sensory and cognitive functioning, hypothesized to be the integrity of the central nervous system [Lindenberger and Baltes; Psychol Aging 1994;9:339–355]. Importantly, the common cause account was developed based on cross-sectional data, which are especially biased by cohort effects. However, cohort effects can be controlled for in narrow age cohort (NAC) designs and by longitudinal examination. Findings from the few longitudinal studies that have studied the relation between age-related changes in sensory and cognitive functions are complex and give only partial support to the common cause account. Objective: The present paper examines the common cause account within a longitudinal setting.

    Method: Our study is unique in the sense that it tests the common cause account within a longitudinal NAC design sing data from the Betula project. The participants (n = 1,057) were in the age range of 45–90 years. Results: The findings indicate that the relationship between sensory and memory functioning in both a longitudinal age-heterogeneous and a longitudinal NAC design are much weaker than that detected by an age-heterogeneous cross-sectional design.

    Conclusion: The demonstrated weak age-associated sensory-cognitive link raises questions regarding the explanatory value of the common cause account and related theoretical accounts for accounting for age-related cognitive changes.

  • 44.
    Waling, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Olafsdottir, Anna S
    School of Education, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland .
    Lagström, Hanna
    Turku Institute of Child and Youth Research, 20014 University of Turku, Finland.
    Wergedahl, Hege
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Norway.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Fossgard, Eldbjørg
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Norway.
    Holthe, Asle
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Norway.
    Talvia, Sanna
    Turku Institute of Child and Youth Research, 20014 University of Turku, Finland.
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    School meal provision, health and cognitive function in a Nordic setting – the ProMeal-study: description of methodology and the Nordic context2016Ingår i: Food and Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, artikel-id 30468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: School meals, if both nutritious and attractive, provide a unique opportunity to improve health equality and public health.

    Objective: To describe the study rationale, data collection, and background of participants in the study 'Prospects for promoting health and performance by school meals in Nordic countries' (ProMeal). The general aim was to determine whether overall healthiness of the diet and learning conditions in children can be improved by school lunches, and to capture the main concerns regarding school lunches among children in a Nordic context.

    Design: A cross-sectional, multidisciplinary study was performed in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden on pupils (n=837) born in 2003.

    Results: In total 3,928 pictures of school lunches were taken to capture pupils' school lunch intake. A mean of 85% of all parents responded to a questionnaire about socioeconomic background, dietary intake, and habitual physical activity at home. Cognitive function was measured on one occasion on 93% of the pupils during optimal conditions with a Stroop and a Child Operation Span test. A mean of 169 pupils also did an Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test after lunch over 3 days. In total, 37,413 10-sec observations of classroom learning behavior were performed. In addition, 753 empathy-based stories were written and 78 focus groups were conducted. The pupils had high socioeconomic status.

    Conclusions: This study will give new insights into which future interventions are needed to improve pupils' school lunch intake and learning. The study will provide valuable information for policy making, not least in countries where the history of school meals is shorter than in some of the Nordic countries.

  • 45.
    Wiklund-Hörnkvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    The neural mechanisms underlying test-enhanced learning: An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study2012Ingår i: Earli-SIG 22: Neuroscience and Education" 24th-26th May 2012, Institute of Education, London, 2012, s. 9-9Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that testing improves the performance on later retention tests, a phenomenon called the testing-effect. However, the neural mechanisms of test-enhanced learning are not well understood. The current study examined changes in functional brain networks in relation to repeated retrieval (i.e. test-enhanced learning).

    Participants (n=20) first studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word-pairs. Subsequently, they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while being tested on each study item three times.

    Successful repeated retrieval was characterized by decreased activity in prefrontal and premotor regions and in the right caudate, compared to items not successfully retrieved at consecutive tests. Successful repeated retrieval was also characterized by increased activity in right middle temporal cortex (BA 37 & 21).

    Tentatively, these results imply that the benefits of test-enhanced learning in part is due to decreased need for executive processing along with strengthening of semantic representations.

    The current results generate novel information on the effectiveness of testing as a learning method and thus contribute to bridge the current gap between cognitive neuroscience and educational research.

  • 46.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Neural activations associated with feedback and retrieval success2017Ingår i: npj Science of Learning, E-ISSN 2056-7936, Vol. 2, nr 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is substantial behavioral evidence for a phenomenon commonly called “the testing effect”, i.e. superior memory performance after repeated testing compared to re-study of to-be-learned materials. However, considerably less is known about the underlying neuro-cognitive processes that are involved in the initial testing phase and thus underlies the actual testing effect. Here, we investigated functional brain activity related to test-enhanced learning with feedback. Subjects learned foreign vocabulary across three consecutive tests with correct-answer feedback. Functional brain-activity responses were analyzed in relation to retrieval and feedback events, respectively. Results revealed up-regulated activity in fronto-striatal regions during the first successful retrieval, followed by a marked reduction in activity as a function of improved learning. Whereas feedback improved behavioral performance across consecutive tests, feedback had a negligable role after the first successful retrieval for functional brain-activity modulations. It is suggested that the beneficial effects of test-enhanced learning is regulated by feedback-induced updating of memory representations, mediated via the striatum, that might underlie the stabilization of memory commonly seen in behavioral studies of the testing effect.

  • 47.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Börjesson, A
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert A
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Working memory, reading comprehension and learning strategies among 5(th) grade children2010Ingår i: XIV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (ECDP), Bologna: Medimond, 2010, s. 105-108Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relationship between reading comprehension, working memory (WM) and learning strategies. The results revealed that working memory predicted reading comprehension, both immediate and with one week delay. Having a strategy benefits comprehension and children with high WM span outperformed low span individuals in terms of more elaborated strategies. In addition, girls used significantly more and more elaborated strategies than boys.

  • 48.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    An fMRI study of the supportive role of feedback during test-enhanced learning2016Ingår i: ICOM-6 Conference Programme: Konferensbidrag. Abstract (Refereegranskat), 2016, 2016, s. 29-29Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that testing improves the performance on later retention tests (i.e., the testing-effect).

    One key factor is the inclusion of feedback which enhances the benefits. Participants (n=21) first studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word-pairs. Subsequently, they underwent fMRI while being tested on each study-item either with or without feedback.

    Contrary to no feedback, several regions were identified as a feedback-network with the strongest contribution from the bilateral MTL regions (anterior hippocampus, amygdala), insula and left IFC. Several of these responses were modulated by type of response (correct/incorrect) and repetition (1,2,3).

    These findings link the effect of feedback on learning to strengthening of semantic representations, providing novel insights about the crucial role of feedback during test-enhanced learning.

  • 49.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Untangling the Contribution of the Subcomponents of Working Memory to Mathematical Proficiency as Measured by the National Tests: A Study among Swedish Third Graders2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, artikel-id 1062Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the present study was to examine the relationship between the subcomponents in working memory (WM) and mathematical performance, as measured by the National tests in a sample of 597 Swedish third-grade pupils. In line with compelling evidence of other studies, individual differences in WM capacity significantly predicted mathematical performance. Dividing the sample into four groups, based on their mathematical performance, revealed that mathematical ability can be conceptualized in terms of different WM profiles. Pupils categorized as High-math performers particularly differed from the other three groups in having a significant higher phonological ability. In contrast, pupils categorized as Low-math performers were particularly characterized by having a significant lower visuo-spatial ability. Findings suggest that it is important for educators to recognize and acknowledge individual differences in WM to support mathematical achievement at an individual level.

  • 50.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    How to learn? The Effects of Repeated Testing with Feedback compared to Rereading of Educational Material2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An obvious way to promote acquisition of new information is to repeat the learning/encoding phase. However, recent evidence (Roediger & Butler, 2010) indicate that repeating the test phase may be even more effective, particularly when combined with feedback on response correctness.

    The aim of this ongoing study is to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology text-book facts in an educational context. The effect was examined immediate after practice, after 18-days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students.

    Preliminary analyses revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, thus indicating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and long-term. Learning methods including elements of repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

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