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  • 1.
    Allard, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energy evaluation of residential buildings: Performance gap analysis incorporating uncertainties in the evaluation methods2018In: Building Simulation, ISSN 1996-3599, E-ISSN 1996-8744, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 725-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calculation and measurement-based energy performance evaluations of the same building often provide different results. This difference is referred as "the performance gap". However, a large performance gap may not necessarily mean that there are flaws in the building or deviations from the intended design. The causes for the performance gap can be analysed by calibrating the simulation model to measured data. In this paper, an approach is introduced for verifying compliance with energy performance criteria of residential buildings. The approach is based on a performance gap analysis that takes the uncertainties in the energy evaluation methods into consideration. The scope is to verify building energy performance through simulation and analysis of measured data, identifying any performance gap due to deviations from the intended design or flaws in the finished building based on performance gap analysis. In the approach, a simulation model is calibrated to match the heat loss coefficient of the building envelope [kWh/K] instead of the measured energy. The introduced approach is illustrated using a single-family residential building. The heat loss coefficient was found useful towards identifying any deviations from the intended design or flaws in the finished building. The case study indicated that the method uncertainty was important to consider in the performance gap analysis and that the proposed approach is applicable even when the performance gap appears to be non-existing.

  • 2.
    Allard, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energy performance indicators in the Swedish building procurement process2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, all new buildings need to comply with the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning’s requirement on specific purchased energy (kWh/m2). Accordingly, this indicator is often used to set design criteria in the building procurement process. However, when energy use is measured in finished buildings, the measurements often deviate significantly from the design calculations. The measured specific purchased energy does not necessarily reflect the responsibility of the building contractor, as it is influenced by the building operation, user behavior and climate. Therefore, Swedish building practitioners may prefer other indicators for setting design criteria in the building procurement process. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to understand the Swedish building practitioners’ perspectives and opinions on seven building energy performance indicators (envelope air leakage, U-values for different building parts, average U-value, specific heat loss, heat loss coefficient, specific net energy, and specific purchased energy); and (ii) to understand the consequences for the energy performance of multi-family buildings of using the studied indicators to set criteria in the procurement process. The study involved a Delphi approach and simulations of a multi-family case study building. The studied indicators were discussed in terms of how they may meet the needs of the building practitioners when used to set building energy performance criteria in the procurement process.

  • 3. Asthana, Arvind
    et al.
    Nair, Gireesh
    ?.
    Big efficiency in small scale2001Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Comparative Study of Influential Factors on Implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures in Single-Family Houses in Cold Climate2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A combination of factors, which include occupants and building related aspects, could motivate homeowners to implement energy renovation (ER). This study applies a comparative approach to assess perspectives of single-family homeowners towards different energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The aim is to unveil the factors that are effective on the residents’ attitude and decision making to implement an EEM or a set of EEMs. The analysis is based on a questionnaire survey conducted during spring 2017 among1550 owners of single-family houses in seven municipalities in northern Sweden. Approximately, 35% of respondents expressed their interest to install energy efficient household appliances and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis suggests significant relations between the homeowners’ interest to implement thermal envelope measures and the quality of the house such as age and indoor environmental problems such as cold surfaces. The group of respondents, who reported their heating cost to be high, are more likely to be interested in implementing thermal envelope measures than other measures such as HVAC. Several socio-economic factors are found to be significantly related with homeowners’ interest to implement EEMs.

  • 5.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande, Östersund.
    Heated atrium in multi-storey apartment buildings: a design for better energy efficiency and social interactions2013In: Passivhus Norden, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Fröling, Morgan
    Heated atrium in multi-storey apartment buildings, a design with potential to enhance energy efficiency and to facilitate social interactions2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 106, p. 352-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design concept of conditioned atria gains increasing popularity in commercial and service buildings all over the world, but is still not a common building design in the residential sector. This study investigates the potential of such design in residential buildings in Nordic climates as means to enhance both energy efficiency as well as social interaction among residents. Energy modelling was used to compare energy efficiency among designs of residential buildings with and without atrium and to identify important design parameters. Social interaction was analysed, based on a survey evaluating the perception of residents living in an existing multi-storey apartment building designed with a heated atrium in the north of Sweden. The results show that heated atrium in Nordic climates have a potential to reduce the total final energy demand while at the same time increase the conditioned space of the building. To positively impact energy efficiency, the atrium should fulfil three requirements: (i) it should be designed to reduce the shape factor for the whole building; (ii) it should have the minimum glazed area that comply with the building requirements concerning natural light and visual comfort; and (iii) adjustable solar shading should be installed in the atrium’s façades to avoid unwanted overheating. The survey results indicate that the additional space created by the atrium has a potential to facilitate and promote social interaction among residents and to increases a sense of neighbourliness and belongingness, which are often discussed as important parameters in relation to social sustainability.

  • 7.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementering av energieffektiviseringsåtgärder i befintlig bebyggelse: Report prepared for the Swedish Energy Agency2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is great potential to improve energy efficiency in existing Swedish residential buildings. However, the successful implementation of efficiency measures depends on economical and technical factors, as well as on the attitudes and perceptions of the relevant actors. A better understanding of their attitudes and perceptions may influence the design of suitable policy measures that increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. In this context, we conducted mail-in surveys completed by owners of detached houses, chairmen of co-operative housing associations (bostadsrättsförening) and municipality energy advisers in Sweden. We also interviewed window sellers/installers in Jämtland.

    Results show that it was important for the majority of homeowners to reduce their household energy use, with most undertaking no-cost measures (e.g., switching off lights). However, 70–90% of the responding homeowners had no intention of adopting building envelope measures over the next 10 years. The main reason for non-adoption was that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition and thermal performance of their existing building envelope components. Homeowners who thought their energy cost was high were more likely to adopt an investment measure compared to those who thought their energy cost was low. Investment costs and annual energy cost savings were the most important factors in adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures. Therefore, economic incentives may induce homeowners to adopt energy efficiency investment measures. However, a large percentage (64%) of homeowners was unaware of the existence of government support for reducing household energy use. Information campaigns announcing the availability of economic incentives and the cost advantages of energy efficiency measures may be helpful in the adoption decision.

    Homeowners‘ considered interpersonal sources, builders, installers and energy advisers as important sources of information for their adoption of energy efficiency measures. Though a large percentage of respondents considered energy advisers as an important source of information, only 14% of homeowners had contacted an energy adviser in the past. Our findings suggest that the energy advice service is important for homeowners, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners‘ awareness of and satisfaction with such services. The majority of municipal energy advisers were of the opinion that more training in technical aspects of energy issues and increased financial support could improve their performance.

    Installers and material suppliers are important actors in homeowners‘ adoption of energy efficiency measures. For example, approximately 53% of responding homeowners to a survey in Jämtland/Västernorrland stated that the window seller/installer from whom they had bought windows had recommended a particular type of window, and 97% had installed the windows that were recommended. The window sellers/installers in Jämtland prefer a window that is ―reasonably‖ energy efficient. They believe that windows with a U-value of 1.2 W/m2K are good and there is no reason to further improve the energy efficiency. The majority did not recommend windows with U-value <1.2 W/m2K. They were concerned about the condensation issues and high prices of such windows. This may influence the diffusion of very energy efficient windows in Swedish detached houses.

    About 80-95% of chairmen in co-operative housing associations who responded to our survey had no intention of adopting building envelope measures over the next 10 years. They were satisfied with the existing building envelope components, which may be one of the reasons for this lack of intention. As in the case of owners of detached houses, economic factors, like annual energy cost savings and investment costs, guide the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures in co-operative housing associations. However, about 66% of the responding chairmen did not consider financial constraint as a barrier to implementing investment intensive energy efficiency measures. For 54% of the respondents limited in-house competency to evaluate the benefits of energy efficiency measures was the main barrier.

    The majority of owners of detached houses (80%) and chairmen of co-operative housing associations (70%) perceived that economic policy instruments, such as investment subsidies and tax deductions, would encourage them to implement energy efficiency measures. Other policy instruments, especially information instruments, were perceived as less effective. Among various information policies, increasing the frequency of meter reading received the highest approval with 38% of homeowners, whereas approximately 41% of housing association chairmen thought that individual metering of heating and hot water use could be effective. Approximately 30% of homeowners and housing association chairmen thought that energy declaration was effective.

  • 8.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementing energy efficiency measures in existing Swedish building stock2008In: World Sustainable Energy Days, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large potential for improving energy efficiency in the existing Swedish building stock. However, how successful the implementation of the efficiency measures will be, depends on economical and technical factors as well as on the attitudes and perceptions of the relevant actors. In this paper we use Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory to analyze various factors affecting implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish detached houses and apartment buildings. Results of recent Swedish household surveys concerning adoption of heating systems showed that majority of the respondents were satisfied with their heating systems and did not intend to install a new one. Economic aspects and functional reliability were important factors in the choice of heating systems, while installers/vendors were the most important sources of information on heating system. We discuss upcoming empirical studies on implementation of other energy efficiency measures, e.g. energy efficient windows and additional insulation, including that of heating systems, in detached houses and apartment buildings.

  • 9.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK, Växjö.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK, Växjö.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK, Växjö.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    System analysis of and stakeholders’ perceptions on end-use energy efficiency measures for existing Swedish multi-family buildings2012In: Conference on Building Energy and Environment, COBEE 12, International Conference on Building Energy and Environment. Boulder, Colorado, USA, August 1-4., 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there is opportunity to implement energy efficiency measures in about one million existing apartments that are likely to be refurbished within the next 20 years. System analyses of installation of energy efficient windows, and increased insulation in attic and in exterior walls for an existing multi-story building showed that the primary energy savings for the measures depend on the energy supply system. Energy efficiency potential was higher with installation of efficient windows than improved attic insulation. Responses of 673 chairpersons of co-operative hosing associations to a mail-in survey in 2010 also showed that greater proportion of respondents perceived that energy efficient windows had advantages over insulation improvements. However, majority had no intention to implement such measures during next 10 years and economic factors guide their decisions. Lack of expertise to assess the benefits of energy efficiency measures was the most cited hindrances to energy efficiency investments.

  • 10.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Potential target group for the introduction of full service energy efficient renovation in Swedish single-family houses2010In: SB10:  Sustainable  Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11. Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Swedish homeowners’ perceptions of innovative heating systems: results of three surveys2009In: ECEEE Summer study, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Energy advice service as a policy instrument to promote energy efficiency in residential sector: perception of end-users and service providers2011In: SB11, World Sustainable Building Conference, Helsinki, Finland. October 18-21, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden ; Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Energy advice service as perceived by Swedish homeowners2011In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 104-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    External actors can influence potential adopters to adopt energy efficiency measures. In Sweden municipality energy advisers are one such actor group who provides energy advice and information to the end users. The success of energy advice service for improvement of energy efficiency of detached houses depends on homeowners' perception towards it. In this context, we conducted a national survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses through stratified random sampling method in the summer of 2008. We found that majority of owners of detached houses consider energy advisers as an important source of information. Furthermore, many homeowners who contacted energy advisers for advice had implemented the suggestions. However, only a few homeowners had contacted an energy adviser. Our findings suggest that it is beneficial to continue the energy advice service, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners' awareness of and satisfaction with such services.

  • 14.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Perceptional and soicio-economic factors in adoption of low energy houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT, March 11-12, in connection with 'Energitiget 2009', Stockholm, Sweden., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion of low energy houses reduces greenhouse emission from residential sector. However, adoption of such houses depends on the perception of the potential buyers. In this paper we have analyzed Swedish homeowners’ perception of low energy houses. Data was collected in 2008 from a mail-in questionnaire survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses. Results showed that about 39% of respondents, especially young, educated or whose household income was high, would consider buying a low energy house. Majority of the respondents agreed that a low energy house in comparison to a conventional house has lower operating energy cost, but higher investment cost. Majority thought that low energy houses do not have lower resale value, lower aesthetic appearance, or greater operational difficulty.

  • 15.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Policy instruments to promote energy efficiency in the building sector: Indian and Swedish experiences2008In: 14th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency measures in buildings are widely regarded as cost effective options to mitigate climate change. However, policy instruments are needed to improve the diffusion of such measures. The policy mix may be country-specific. Here, we compare and contrast the various policy instruments designed to enhance energy efficiency in the building sector in India and Sweden. The objective is to explore if the experiences of Sweden that have promoted energy efficiency in buildings for decades could be useful for India, where energy demand is forecasted to strongly increase. India and Sweden are very different, for example, in terms of development, size, priorities, population, and climatic conditions. In Sweden, policy initiatives to reduce energy use in buildings date back to the 1970s and the government is committed to significantly reduce energy use in buildings. In India, the interest in energy efficiency improvements in buildings is a recent phenomenon. The country introduced an energy conservation building code in 2007. This analysis shows that policy instruments are more prevalent in Sweden than in India where regulatory instruments are particularly lacking. Hence, Swedish buildings are more energy efficient than those in India. The Swedish experience could be useful for devising programs and implementing policy instruments to improve energy efficiency of Indian buildings.

  • 16.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Östersund, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Östersund, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden and Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Swedish energy advisers' perceptions regarding and suggestions for fulfilling homeowner expectations2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 7, Special Issue, p. 4264-4273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipality energy advice services were re-introduced in Sweden in 1998 as a way of advising end-users, mainly owners of detached houses, on energy issues. In this paper, we investigate Swedish energy advisers' perceptions of homeowners' awareness of the energy advice service and their perceived ability to fulfil homeowners' expectations. Our study is based on a mail-in questionnaire survey conducted in 2009 and distributed to municipality energy advisers in all municipalities in Sweden. About 66% of the energy advisers responded. The results show that 43% of the energy advisers thought that fewer than 50% of the homeowners were aware of the service and that mass media advertisements and presentations at different organisations could improve homeowner awareness. Energy adviser attitudes, job satisfaction, and the perception that the advisers possessed up-to-date and good knowledge and sufficient financial resources to execute their duties had a significant influence on their perceived ability to fulfil homeowner expectations. Increased training in technical aspects of energy measures and increased financial support were the two measures most widely suggested as a means to improve energy advisers' performance.

  • 17.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    The role of energy advisers on adoption of energy measures in detached houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT,  11-12 March, in connection with the ‘Energitinget 2009’, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande, Östersund.
    Fostering community based social marketing for energy efficiency improvements in the residential sector2013In: International Conference on Applied Energy 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementation of energy efficiency measures in Swedish single-family houses2012Other (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Waste minimization circle in aluminium utensil manufacturing units2002Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Allard, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Åstrand, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Building professionals' views on energy efficiency compliance requirements2017In: 11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB 2017 / [ed] Geving S., Time B., Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 132, p. 988-993Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the national building code (BBR) stipulates the specific energy use as an indicator to verify whether a newbuilding is complying with its design-phase energy performance values. However, previous studies have shown that there may belarge differences between the calculated specific energy and the actual monitored energy use. The differences are attributed tovarious reasons including the actual energy behaviour of the occupants as compared to the standard values used in thesimulations. This may lead to disputes between the client and the contractor on the responsibility of meeting the energyrequirements.In this study an adapted version of Delphi methodology was used to understand the building professionals’ view on variousindicators used to verify building energy performance. The study showed that professionals are concerned with the use of specificenergy as an indicator in the building procurement process as they do not have control over the occupants’ energy behaviour.Majority of the professionals expressed a large confidence in the average U-value of the building, component U-values and thespecific heat loss figure by the Swedish center for zero-energy buildings as indicators of building energy performance.

  • 22.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    A management perspective on energy efficient renovations in Swedish multi-family buildings2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 132, p. 994-999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has around 2.5 million dwellings in multi-family buildings, which constitute about 55% of the total dwelling units. The multi-family building ownership in Sweden can be categorized into municipal, private and co-operative ownership. Approximately 40% of apartments in multi-family buildings belong to municipal housing companies, while the rest is equally shared by private companies and co-operative housing associations. These organizations have different priorities, limitations and concerns related to energy renovations. Accordingly, in this sector the decisions to invest in energy efficiency improvement depends to a large extent on the type of ownership.

    In this study we analyzed the perspectives of different types of building ownership on energy efficient renovation. The analysis is based on detailed interviews of 4 senior managers representing the multi-family buildings under different ownership categories. Along with this we also interviewed a municipality energy adviser. All the interviewees are based in in North Sweden. The drivers to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy renovation in such buildings are discussed.

  • 23.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Organizational perspectives on adoption of energy efficiency measures in Swedish multi-storey apartment buildings2012In: MILEN International Conference, 22-23 November, Oslo., 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling. Östersund.
    Diddi, Saurabh
    Bureau of Energy Efficiency, New Delhi, India .
    Partial risk guarantee fund for ESCO business: an innovative support system for energy efficiency business2012In: ECEEE Summer study, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Barriers to implement energy efficiency investment measures in Swedish co-operative apartment buildings2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 2956-2963Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 2411-2419Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Programme of activities: Will it break the ice for residential sector CDM projects?2008In: 14th Annual international sustainable development research conference, New Delhi, India, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Role of sellers/installers in the diffusion of energy efficient windows in Swedish detached houses2010In: SB10: Sustainable Community, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Adoption of energy efficiency measures in Swedish detatched houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT,  March 11-12, in connection with 'Energitiget 2009', Stockholm, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners’ need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures such as improved windows and attic and wall insulation. The results of a questionnaire surveying 3000 randomly selected homeowners during the summer of 2008 revealed that about 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of implementing such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing installations. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improving attic insulation has more advantages than other measures, but windows were more likely to be installed than attic insulation was to be improved. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure, while environmental aspects were given lower priority. Hence, economic incentives could be useful in promoting the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures. Interpersonal sources, construction companies/installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to install energy efficiency measures.

  • 31.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö.
    Implementation of energy efficient windows in Swedish single-family houses2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 329-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire survey of 1010 homeowners in Jämtland and Västernorrland, which are two counties in central Sweden, was conducted to understand the factors influencing their decision to install energy-efficient windows. We complemented this survey with an interview of 12 window sellers/installers in the county Jämtland. The annual energy cost reduction, age, and condition of the windows were the most important reasons for the window replacement decision. Approximately 80% of the respondents replaced their windows with energy-efficient windows with U-value of 1.2 W/m2 K. Condensation problems, perceived higher prices, and lack of awareness about windows with lower U-values were important reasons for non-adoption of more energy-efficient windows. Window sellers/installers have a strong influence on homeowners’ window selection that was indicated by the 97% of homeowners who bought the windows that were recommended to them. Sellers/installers revealed that they did not recommend windows with U-value of less than 1.2 W/m2 K because they thought that investing in such windows was not economical and because windows with U-value less than 1.2 W/m2 K could cause water condensation on the external surface of window pane.

  • 32.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Influence of external actors in Swedish homeowners’ adoption of energy efficient windows2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress, 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Policy instruments to promote building energy efficiency from an end-user point of view2011In: ECEEE Summer study, Belambra Presqu'île de Giens, France, 6–11 June, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Att utveckla en stadsdel på ett hållbart sätt: en fråga om energi, transporter och människor2018Report (Other academic)
  • 35. Olofsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Azizi, Shoaib
    Enkät om renovering och energieffektivisering2018In: Energi & Miljö, no 1Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Soleimani-Mohseni, Mohsen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Hasselrot, Rasmus
    Energy simulation for a high-rise building using IDA ICE: investigations in different climates2016In: Building Simulation, ISSN 1996-3599, E-ISSN 1996-8744, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 629-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a model of a high-rise building is constructed in the simulation program IDA ICE. The model is based on an IFC-model of a demonstration building constructed in Ljubljana, Slovenia, as part of an EU-project, EE-high-rise. The model's energy performance was simulated for four cities: Umeå (Scandinavia), Ljubljana (Central Europe), Sibenik (Mediterranean) and Dubai (The Persian Gulf). Furthermore, the climate envelope of the building was modified with the aim to improve the model's energy performance in each of the regions. The results were evaluated according to the energy requirements of passive house standard by the German Passive House Institute. The analysis suggests that the reference building model, which itself incorporates several energy efficient components, was unable to meet the German passive house standard in none of the four cities (Umeå, Ljubljana, Sibenik and Dubai) studied. By providing a combination of energy saving measures, such as modifications of thermal resistance of building envelope, the building may be able to meet the passive house standard in Ljubljana. The analysis concludes that the reduction in window area results in reduction of both heating and cooling demand. Increase in the thickness of the insulation and the thermal resistance of windows reduces the space heating demand for Umeå, Ljubljana and Sibenik (not applied for Dubai) while increasing the cooling demand for these cities. Increased airtightness has marginal effect on heating and cooling demand for all investigated cities. Reduced thermal resistance of windows will decrease cooling demand for Ljubljana, Sibenik and Dubai (not applied for Umeå). Reduced insulation thickness (not applied for Umeå) will decrease cooling demand for Ljubljana and Sibenik but not for Dubai. Reducing the insulation thickness may often result in reduced cooling demand for moderately warm countries since the average outdoor temperature could be lower than the indoor temperature during part of the cooling season. In those situations a reduced insulation thickness can cause heat flow from the relatively hot inside to the colder outside. However, for hot climates like in Dubai where outdoor temperature is higher than the indoor temperature for most of the year, reducing the insulation thickness will increase the cooling demand. This result suggests that the insulation thickness must be chosen and optimized based on heating and cooling demand, internal heat gain, and outdoor climate

  • 37.
    Yang, Bin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    Outdoor thermal comfort under subarctic climate of north Sweden: a pilot study in Umeå2017In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 28, p. 387-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outdoor microclimate is important to determine the quality of outdoor spaces. Swedish people cherish summer period and prefer more outdoor activities in summer because of long winter with harsh outdoor environments. People in urban areas use parks for recreation and outdoor activities frequently in summer. Under subarctic climate, limited studies have been performed to explore the effect of microclimate environments on usage of outdoor spaces such as parks. The study explored the relationship of microclimate environments, park use and human behavioral patterns in urban area of Umeå, Sweden, which is under subarctic climate. Observations of naturally occurring behavior were recorded. Structured interviews, based on specially designed questionnaires, were performed during July to August in 2015. Measurements of objective parameters for microclimate environments, including air dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation and globe temperature, were performed. Human subjective responses from the questionnaire survey were compared with objectively measured results. 49% of local persons still prefer higher solar radiation even under "slightly warm" Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV), which reflects their high expectation to solar radiation. Local persons in Umeå, who expose themselves to a wider climate, are more adapted to subarctic climate than non-local persons. Practical implications: The pilot study demonstrated that wind attenuation together with strong sunshine can improve Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV), which could be realized by specially designed hump terrain for attenuating wind without shading effects. The results will be used for optimizing design of urban outdoor environments such as parks under subarctic or arctic climate.

  • 38. Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana
    et al.
    Köppel, Sonja
    Liang, Chunyu
    Benigna, Kiss
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Celikyilmaz, Gamze
    An assessment of energy service companies (ESCOs) worldwide2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 38 of 38
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