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  • 1.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Det praktiska körprovet 2009-2011: analys av datas tillförlitlighet samt provresultat och trender2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to examine the reliability of data from the practical driving test for category B 2009-2011 and study the composition of the group of test-takers and results and changes in pass rates over time during the period. Based on the data checks done it can be concluded that data is reliable. Data from 2011 does not comprise the entire year, but when data for the equivalent period previous years is compared with the year as a whole the differences are negligible.

    There are certain differences between groups as to the proportion of passed tests. A larger proportion of test-takers below the age of 20 pass the test compared to older test-takers. A larger proportion of test-takers who were registered by a driving school passed than those who registered themselves. If you divide the test-takers by gender and type of registration a somewhat larger percentage of the men passed the driving test. As for average number of mistakes there are no major differences between the sexes except for manoeuvring.

    As for the content of the test, the most common areas to test are street crossing, driving towards a goal and reversing. Motorway, lanes, roundabouts and signalled crossings are more commonly tested at the main offices, while narrow winding roads, railway crossing and turning off a main road are more common in the other places. Street crossing, lanes and motorway are the situations where the largest percentage of test-takers fails. The percentage of fails for each curricular module are fairly similar for main offices and other offices, but the proportion of fails is higher for roundabouts, driving towards a goal and railway crossings at the main offices. The requirement for attention and identifying risks is the hardest for test-takers to fulfil.

    When comparing the results with previous years we find that the group differences are fairly similar, but the percentage of tests registered via a driving school continues to decrease. It is more common to include reversing in the test. Even though test-takers who has failed the theory tests are now allowed to take the practical driving test the percentage of passed tests remains on the same level for tests registered via driving schools and has only decreased by a couple of percentage points for the remaining tests.

  • 2.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Jämförelser mellan provorter: en studie av körprov för behörighet B2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are more than 130 places in Sweden where driving tests can be carried out, with their own particular traffic environments, examiners and test-takers. The test-takers' ages and their preferred method of registering for the test vary between places. In some places only a few tests are carried out and in some a large number of tests. In some places certain aspects of the traffic environment are absent, like motorways, railway crossings or roundabouts. The intensity of traffic also varies between different locations. In short, there are many aspects that can vary between individual tests. In this report various ways of presenting such differences and some ways of categorizing places are explored.

    Does this have consequences for results? It is difficult to analyse as several variables probably interact and are hard to untangle and due to the nature of the data. The result is binary – pass/fail – which limits what analyses can be made – and there are many categories in the variables place and examiner. In order to achieve fewer categories some can be collapsed into fewer and larger categories. The question is then how many categories and what criteria should be used to form them. When analyses are made we can see that the content of tests differ both within a particular location and between different places. It is, however, unclear if the same or different skills and abilities are measured in different places, but nevertheless not as simple as to claim that it is "easier" to obtain a licence in certain places than others based on simple comparisons of success rates. Test-takers' age and method of registration for the test, aspects that we know are connected to the percentage of passed tests, also differ between places.

  • 3.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Samma prov - andra provtagare: en studie av förändringar i körprovsresultat och provtagargruppens sammansättning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe the trend regarding the pass rate for the driving test and examine to what degree changes of the pass rate can be linked to changes in the composition of the group of test-takers. Previously there have been no trend studies exploring changes with regard to the language of the theory test, i.e. whether the test-takers take the test in Swedish or another language so special attention will be given to this aspect.

    The composition of the group of test-takers has changed quite a lot over the last 20 years. Test-takers can either register for the test via a driving school or on their own. The percentage of tests registered via a driving school has decreased, and in later years the number of driving tests not registered via a driving school following theory tests in other languages than Swedish has increased. The pass rate among the tests that were not registered via a driving school has decreased more than for those registered via a driving school. If the results are weighted to reflect the distribution of groups as it was in 1998 or 2010 one may conclude that if the total group of test-takers had had the same composition in later years the pass rate would probably not have decreased as much.

    If theory tests are categorised according to whether they were carried out in Swedish or another language (translated or interpreted) results show that the percentage of tests in other languages has increased significantly since 2013. The percentage of driving tests following theory tests in other languages has also increased. Most of the driving tests after theory tests in other languages are carried out by test-takers who are 25 years or older and who have not registered for the test via a driving school. Such tests are also failed to a greater degree.

    Many more tests are administered today than 10 or 20 years ago. The number of test-takers increased by 87 per cent between 1998 and 2016 while the number of tests increased by 137 per cent. A contributing factor is the change in 2008 that all were allowed to take the driving test regardless of result on the theory test (previously only those who passed could). If results on the driving test are divided by result on the preceding theory test (pass/fail) it turns out that the pass rate has decreased at roughly the same rate since 2012 for both those who failed and those who passed the theory test. However, a larger proportion of those who have passed the theory test also pass the driving test.

    The changes in conditions for taking the driving test does not constitute the whole explanation. If comparing the number of driving tests in 2010 (when all were part of the new system) and 2016 the increase is 22 and 33 per cent respectively.

    When performing analyses based on test-takers rather than tests it is also clear that the number of test-takers who are 25 or older and not registered via a driving school is increasing. At least from 2013 this increase is almost entirely due to test-takers who have taken the theory test in other languages than Swedish.  In 1998 24 per cent of the test-takers only took tests for which they had not registered via a driving school. In 2010 that percentage was 42 per cent an in 2016 53 per cent. Students who do not register for the test via a driving school also carry out more tests on average within the year than those who do.

    Test-takers who carry out many driving tests have, to a greater extent than others, had the examiner intervene (e.g. by braking) during their first test attempt, which perhaps is a consequence of not being properly prepared.

    To summarize: the trend with decreasing pass rate, an increasing proportion of older test-takers and of tests not registered via a driving school that has been visible over the last 20 years or so seems to be continuing. When looking at trends in a shorter perspective, the most notable change is the increase in theory tests that are taken in languages other than Swedish. These tests are, to a great extent, taken by older test-takers, not registered via a driving school, factors that are associated with a lower pass rate. Findings may inform policy makers and other stake-holders when it comes to understanding changes in the composition of test-takers and how possible efforts to increase pass rates could be targeted.

  • 4.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Trender 1998-2015 avseende förändringen av andelen godkända på körprov för körprovsbehörighet B2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road Administration has, over the years, gathered a lot of data in connection with the driving test. One of the statistics used is the percentage of passed tests and this number has decreased since 1998. In a previous report factors which can affect the result and possible interpretations of results were discussed in terms of to what degree changes in the percentage of passed tests were connected to changes in the composition of the group of test-takers. This is a follow-up of that study with more recent data which includes analyses of the composition of test-takers both based on individuals and on tests.

    Many results are presented in terms of 16 categories based on test-takers’ age, sex and how they were registered for the test. Within each category the results are comparatively stable over time. It is among test-takers who did not register for the test via a driving school that you can discern a downward trend regarding the percentage of passed tests. The percentage of such test-takers in the group as a whole has increased.

    In 2008 a major change was introduced as all who took the theory part of the test also took the driving test. Previously this was restricted to those who passed the theory test. Such a change affects the percentage of passed tests which got slightly higher for driving tests preceded by a passed theory test and slightly lower for driving tests preceded by failed theory tests.

    If results are weighted to reflect the distribution of groups as it was in 1998 one may conclude that if the total group of test-takers had had the same composition as 1998 over the years that followed the total percentage of tests resulting in a pass would have been greater than what is now the case.

  • 5.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Henriksson, Widar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Prov för förarbevis för moped klass II2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2009 a requirement to obtain a driver’s certificate was introduced for riding a moped class II. In order to obtain a driver’s certificate test-takers are required to complete a compulsory course and pass a test. Those who applied for permission to arrange tests for moped class II had to submit an example of a test to the Swedish Transport Agency with their applications. We have studied a sample of those tests. The content of the tests were analysed in order to determine to what extent the stipulated content of the regulations was covered. Compliance with general guidelines for item construction and whether the regulations concerning number of questions were met was also examined.

    Among the 34 selected examiners 11 had developed their own test. The remaining examiners stated that they used the test developed by the Swedish National Association of Driving Schools (STR). Regulations for the test (TSFS 2010:80) stipulate that it should consist of 25 to 35 items. All tests in the study contained at least 25 items. With a couple of exceptions there are items from all four content areas outlined in the regulations. The main emphasis in the tests is on Traffic rules. The goals stipulated for the training and the goals stipulated for the test do not correspond entirely which probably is the reason why many items contain content not defined in the requirements for the test. However, most of such items can be linked to goals for the training.

    As to shortcomings in the test some items could for example have been phrased more clearly and contained more information. Some response options deviate from the others or are just too unlikely which unfortunately makes the number of selectable options smaller.

    Both content and design of the tests vary considerably why it would be best to let the Swedish Transport Agency develop the test for the conditional driving licence for mopeds class II. The test would be more uniform and equivalent, which would mean a fairer testing. It would be possible to strive for parallel tests. It would also be easier to supervise the results and the quality of the tests than is possible with the current system of supervision.

  • 6.
    Brown, Gavin T L
    et al.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Intelligence and beliefs about assessment: Swedish Grade 6 students2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Brown, Gavin T. L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Swedish student perceptions of achievement practices: the role of intelligence2018In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 69, p. 94-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of intelligence and motivational constructs in school achievement is well attested. Beliefs and attitudes about assessment (including classroom assessment, homework and tests) can be adaptive within a self-regulation of learning framework. However, the role of intelligence upon the student and parent coping with school assessment practices is less well known. This paper examines responses of Swedish Grade 6 (modal age 13) students (N = 4749) participating in the Education Through Follow-up (ETF) project to four cognitive tests and survey items concerning achievement demands. Their responses were integrated with parent perceptions of grading and school pressure. Robust factors for intelligence, student perceptions, and parental perceptions were found and introduced into a structural equation model with intelligence as the predictor. The well-fitting SEM model showed that intelligence had statistically significant predictions on all four student and three parent perceptions factors, of which two predicted student factors. However, only one prediction was substantive; intelligence on coping with school demands (beta = 0.48). Although not allowing for causal inference, the results support the claim that general cognitive abilities act as a predictor of self-regulating capability of coping with school demands.

  • 8.
    Costa, Denise Reise
    et al.
    Oslo University.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    IRT scales for self-reported test-taking motivation of Swedish students in international surveys2019In: Quantitative Psychology: 83rd Annual Meeting of the Pychometric Society, ISSN 2194-1009, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Egberg Thyme, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Sundin, Eva C
    Division of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 4BU, England.
    Ståhlberg, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Lindström, Birgit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The outcome of short-term psychodynamic art therapy compared to short-term psychodynamic verbal therapy for depressed women2007In: Psychanalytic Psychotherapy, ISSN 0266-8734, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 250-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the outcome from two types of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. The participants were thirty-nine women with depression. Half of the participants (n = 18) received art psychotherapy and the other half received verbal psychotherapy (n = 21). Data was collected before and after psychotherapy, and at a 3-month follow-up using self-rating scales and interviewer-based ratings. Results showed that art and verbal psychotherapies were comparable, and at follow-up, the average participant in both groups had few depressive symptoms and stress-related symptoms. The conclusion was that short-term psychodynamic art therapy could be a valuable treatment for depressed women.

  • 10.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    A cross-national study of student effort in TIMSS Advanced2012In: The International Test Commission Conference, Amsterdam, July 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Betyg i den svenska skolan2011In: Utvärdering och bedömning i skolan: för vem och varför? / [ed] Agneta Hult, Anders Olofsson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2011, 1, p. 65-81Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Betygen i den svenska skolan2017In: Utvärdering och bedömning i skolan: för vem och varför? / [ed] Agneta Hult & Anders Olofsson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017, 2, p. 62-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Cross-country differences in reported test-taking effort: A measurement invariance study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Development and validation of scores from an instrument measuring student test-taking motivation2006In: Educational and Psychological Measurement, ISSN 0013-1644, E-ISSN 1552-3888, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 643-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the expectancy-value model of achievement motivation as a basis, this study’s purpose is to develop, apply, and validate scores from a self-report instrument measuring student test-taking motivation. Sampled evidence of construct validity for the present sample indicates that a number of the items in the instrument could be used as an indicator of student test-taking motivation. Exploratory factor analyses suggests that the test-taking motivation construct is distinct from general attitudes toward a subject and that task value perceptions are distinct from task performance expectancies. The instrument needs further development to consolidate its psychometric properties and to laborate on the testtaking motivation construct in relation to the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation.

  • 15.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Gender differences in test-taking motivation on low-stakes tests2007In: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), Chicago, IL, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Motivational aspects in international studies of student knowledge2010In: The Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA) congress, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Motivational aspects of test-taking: Theoretical assumptions and empirical findings2008In: Invited presentation at the 1st annual conference of the Swedish national doctoral programme in educational assessment, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Motivational beliefs in the TIMSS 2003 context: Theory, measurement and relation to test performance2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this thesis was to explore issues related to student achievement motivation in the Swedish TIMSS 2003 (Trend in International Mathematics and Science Study) context. The thesis comprises of five empirical papers and a summary. The expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation was used as the general theoretical framework in all empirical papers, and all papers are concerned with construct validation in one form or another. Aspects of student achievement motivation were measured on a task-specific level (motivation to do well on the TIMSS test) and on a domain-specific level (self-concept in and valuing of mathematics and science) and regressed on test performance.

    The first paper reports the development and validation of scores from an instrument measuring aspects related to student test-taking motivation. It was shown that a number of items in the instrument could be interpreted as a measure of test-taking motivation, and that the test-taking motivation construct was distinct from other related constructs. The second paper related the Swedish students’ ratings of mathematics test-taking motivation to mathematics performance in TIMSS 2003. The students in the sample on average reported that they were well motivated to do their best on the TIMSS mathematics test and their ratings of test-taking motivation were positively but rather weakly related to achievement. In the third and the fourth papers, the internal structure and relation to performance of the mathematics and science self-concept and task value scales used in TIMSS internationally was investigated for the Swedish TIMSS 2003 sample. For mathematics, it was shown that the internationally derived scales were suitable also for the Swedish sample. It was further shown that ratings of self-concept were rather strongly related to mathematics achievement while ratings of mathematics value were basically unrelated to mathematics achievement. For the science subjects, the internal structure of the scales was less simple, and ratings of self-concept and valuing of science were not very strongly related to science achievement. The study presented in the fifth paper used interviews and an open-ended questionnaire item to further investigate student test-taking motivation and perceptions of the TIMSS test. The results mainly corroborated the results from study II.

    In the introductory part of the thesis, the empirical studies are summarized, contextualized, and discussed. The discussion relates obtained results to theoretical assumptions, applied implications, and to issues of validity in the TIMSS context.

  • 19.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of the student opinion scale2012Other (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Pupil perceptions of educational tests in school2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Science motivational beliefs in a Swedish TIMSS 2003 setting: Scale structure and relation to performanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Self-concept and valuing of mathematics in TIMSS 2003: Scale structure and relation to performance in a Swedish setting2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 297-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated whether two summated rating scales used in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 2003), Mathematics Self-Concept (MSC), and Students' Valuing of Mathematics (VoM) seemed appropriate, meaningful, and useful in a Swedish context. The 4,256 Swedish eighth-grade students involved in TIMSS 2003 participated in the study. Items in the TIMSS Student Background Questionnaire asking for motivational beliefs were subjected to item analyses, principal components analyses, and confirmatory factor analyses. Factor scores were saved and regressed on mathematics score. The results indicated that the MSC scale was internally consistent, showed a simple factor structure that fitted the data rather well, and was positively related to mathematics achievement. The VoM scale was unrelated to mathematics score, showed a poor model-data fit, and the items in the scale were rather heterogeneous. The findings are discussed from an expectancy-value perspective and suggestions for researchers performing secondary analyses on TIMSS data are presented.

  • 23.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Self-reported effort and motivation: same construct in different cultures?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Skill and will: test-taking motivation and assessment quality2010In: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, E-ISSN 1465-329X, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 345-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An achievement test score can be viewed as a joint function of skill and will, of knowledge and motivation. However, when interpreting and using test scores, the 'will' part is not always acknowledged and scores are mostly interpreted and used as pure measures of student knowledge. This paper argues that students' motivation to do their best on the assessment - their test-taking motivation - is important to consider from an assessment validity perspective. This is true not least in assessment contexts where the assessment outcome has no consequences for the test-taker. The paper further argues that the quality of assessment of test-taking motivation also needs attention. Theoretical and methodological issues related to the assessment of test-taking motivation are presented from a validity perspective, and findings from empirical studies on the relation between test stakes, test-taking motivation and test performance are presented.

  • 25.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Skill and will: test-taking motivation and assessment quality2007In: Key Note Address given at the 8th Annual Conference of the Association for Educational Assessment, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Student motivation and effort in the TIMSS advanced 2008 field study2010In: Proceedings of the 4th international research conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Student motivation on low-stakes tests: An example from TIMSS 2003Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Testmotivation och testprestation: motivationsaspekter i internationella kunskapsmätningar2010In: PISA: sannheten om skolen? / [ed] Eyvind Elstad, Kirsten Sivesind, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget , 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Test-taking motivation and mathematics performance in TIMSS 20032007In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 311-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the reported level of test-taking motivation and the relation between test-taking motivation and mathematics achievement in a sample of Swedish eighth-grade students (n = 343) participating in Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003. A majority of students reported that they were motivated to do their best in TIMSS. Test-taking motivation was positively related to mathematics achievement, but the effect was small and not statistically significant when other relevant variables were held constant. Further, gender comparisons showed that test-taking motivation was positively, but not significantly related to achievement in boys, and was unrelated to achievement in girls. This result was probably due to the larger variability in boys' ratings. It was concluded that the Swedish TIMSS mathematics result is unlikely to be affected by a lack of student motivation, but that further research on the relation between test-taking motivation and test achievement is warranted.

  • 30.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Test-taking motivation on low-stakes: A Swedish TIMSS 2003 example2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study’s objective was to investigate student test-taking motivation in the Swedish TIMSS 2003 context. Swedish eighth-grade students formed the study sample and the focus was on mathematics. Test-taking motivation was measured using questionnaire items and interviews, and reported level of test-taking motivation was regressed on test score. The questionnaire study showed that the Swedish students in general reported that they were well motivated to do their best in TIMSS. According to regression analysis, test-taking motivation was positively and significantly though rather weakly related to mathematics achievement. The interview study mainly corroborated the main results from the questionnaire study but added some complexity to the results. Although most interviewed students reported that they were well motivated to do their best in TIMSS and that they valued a good performance, they nevertheless seemed aware of the fact that the test was low-stakes for them personally. Many students further reported competitive, comparative, or social responsibility reasons as motivating, while other students seemed more intrinsically motivated to do their best. Findings from quantitative as well as qualitative analyses suggest that the Swedish TIMSS result is unlikely to be negatively affected by a lack of student motivation. However, nothing is known about student test-taking motivation in other countries participating in TIMSS, and further research exploring this issue in an international context is warranted.

  • 31.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Test-taking motivation on low-stakes tests: A Swedish TIMSS 2003 example2008In: Issues and methodologies in large-scale assessments, Hamburg: IEA-ETS Research Institute , 2008, p. 9-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study’s objective was to investigate the test-taking motivation of students in the Swedish TIMSS 2003 context. Swedish Grade 8 students formed the study sample, and the focus was on mathematics. Test-taking motivation was measured using self-report measures (Likert-scale and open-ended questionnaire items), and reported level of test-taking motivation was regressed on test score. The quantitative part of the questionnaire study showed that the Swedish students in general reported that they were well motivated to do their best in TIMSS. According to regression analysis, test-taking motivation was positively and significantly, although rather weakly, related to mathematics achievement. Qualitative analysis of an open-ended questionnaire item mainly corroborated obtained findings but added some complexity to the results. In their answers to the open-ended item, most students reported they were well motivated to do their best in TIMSS and that they valued a good performance. Many students reported competitive, comparative, or social-responsibility reasons as motivating, while other students seemed more intrinsically motivated to do their best. Findings from quantitative as well as qualitative analyses suggest that the Swedish mathematics result in TIMSS 2003 is unlikely to be negatively affected by a lack of student motivation. However, nothing is known about student test-taking motivation in other countries participating in TIMSS, and further research exploring this issue in an international context is warranted.

  • 32.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    The concept of accountability in education: Does the Swedish school system apply?2009In: Cadmo, ISSN 1122-5165, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Costa, Denise R
    Oslo University.
    Test-taking motivation in Swedish TIMSS and TIMSS Advanced: Findings across cohorts and over time2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Costa, Denise Reis
    Knekta, Eva
    Changes in self-reported test-taking effort in relation to changes in PISA mathematics performance. Findings from PISA 2012 and PISA 2015 in Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Elwood, Janette
    Queens University Belfast.
    Hopfenbeck, Therese
    Oxford University.
    Knekta, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Barrance, Rhian
    Queen's University Belfast.
    Students: researching views, opinions, perspectives and voice in assessment policy and practice2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Hopfenbeck, Therese
    Oxford University.
    Self-reported effort and motivation in the PISA test2019In: International Large-Scale Assessments in Education: Insider Research Perspectives / [ed] Bryan Maddox, Bloomsbury Academic, 2019, p. 121-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Hopfenbeck, Therese
    Kjaernsli, Marit
    Hva vet vi om elevers testmotivasjon?2012In: Kvalitet i norsk skole: Internasjonale og nasjonale undersokelser av laeringsutbytte og undervisning / [ed] Therese Nerheim Hopfenbeck, Marit Kjaernsli, Rolf Vegar Olsen, Oslo: Universitetsförlaget , 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Stress och påverkan på de nationella provresultaten för åk 32014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur upplever 9-10 åringar de nationella proven i åk 3? Påverkar upplevelsen prestationen? Påverkas något matematikdelområde mer eller mindre av upplevelsen? Skiljer sig olika uppgifter åt beroende på om de har mer eller mindre text respektive bilder? Vad kan man som lärare tänka på och göra i allmänhet och i synnerhet vid prov/förhörssituationer?

    Läsåret 2012/13 genomfördes en studie med 624 st elever i åk 3 för att bringa klarhet i ovan frågor. Eleverna fick göra olika arbetsminnesövningar och svara på frågor om stress, motivation och attityder, etc. Teoretiskt tror man nämligen att allt för hög nivå av t ex stress (prestationsångest) sänker ens prestation på ett prov/förhör. Resultaten på de olika nationella delproven i matematik kördes därför statistiskt mot nivå av självrapporterad stress/ångest och uppskattad eller egentlig prestationsförmåga hos eleverna.

    Uppskattad eller egentlig förmåga att prestera i matematik för elever kan mätas genom t ex deras arbetsminneskapacitet. Arbetsminne är en kognitiv förmåga som är väl klarlagd för att väsentligen påverka prestation och utveckling inom t ex matematik- och läsförståelse hos både vuxna och barn (Menon, 2010). Det finns dessutom starka kopplingar mellan arbetsminneskapacitet och skolprestation i teoretiska ämnen. Majoriteten av de elever som har inlärningssvårigheter i skolan verkar även ha svag arbetsminnesförmåga (Gathercole et al., 2006).

    Arbetsminnet kan förenklat beskrivas som bestå av tre olika specialiserade komponenter. En huvudcentral som t ex kontrollerar, fördelar, uppmärksammar och processerar information, och hämtar/lagrar information från/i långtidsminnet. Till sin hjälp har denna huvudcentral en visuell-spatial del för hantering av bilder, former och dimension, samt en auditiv del för behandling av lingvistik (Baddeley, 1986). Matematik innefattar olika områden som beror av olika kognitiva förmågor (t ex huvudräkning, problemlösning), vilka i sin tur är relaterade till visuell-spatial och/eller auditiv fakta (Rasmussen & Bisanz, 2005).

    ”Provstress” eller ”provängslan” är en etablerad term för att beskriva elevers påverkan och upplevelse av prov. Termen innefattar ofta för barn observerbara beteenden (t ex gå på toan, vicka på stolen, titta sig omkring), tankar/oro (t ex jag kommer aldrig att klara det här, mina föräldrar kommer att bli arga om jag misslyckas), autonoma/somatiska reaktioner (t ex svettas, ont i magen, varm om kinderna) (Zeidner, 2007). Man tror att provängslan är ett inlärt beteende som väcks tidigt i skolåren (Pekrun, 2000). Det är ett väldigt inskränkande tillstånd (Rothman, 2004) som starkt kan begränsa elevers prestation i alla åldrar (Birenbaum & Gutvirtz, 1993). Även om ett visst mått av provängslan är nödvändigt för att öka fokus, motivation och förberedelse (Gregor, 2005), kan det i allt för höga nivåer negativt påverka en elevs prestation och resultat på ett prov (Zeidner, 2007), särskilt i matematik (e.g. Putwain, 2008). 

    Om och hur stark den kognitiva störningen är av provängslan används alltså i vår studie som ett mått eller symptom på elevers ev. underprestation. Vi undersöker också om eleverna uppvisar mer eller mindre av beteenden, autonoma reaktioner eller tankar relaterat till provängslan. Slutligen summerar vi våra resultat mot undervisning och prov/förhörssituationer. En jämförelse kommer även att göras med Finländska och Kinesiska åk-3 elever.

  • 39.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Knekta, Eva
    The Swedish PISA decline: Can changes in reported test-taking effort explain changes in PISA performance?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Knekta, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Using large-scale educational data to test motivation theories: a synthesis of findings from Swedish studies on Test-Taking Motivation2017In: International Journal of Quantitative Research in Education, ISSN 2049-5986, E-ISSN 2049-5994, Vol. 4, no 1/2, p. 52-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the purpose of mapping the test-taking motivation construct, theoretically and empirically, the current paper presents a synthesis of findings from test-taking motivation studies performed in various large-scale educational assessment settings. Self-report scales measuring reported motivation to spend effort on the test, and in some studies also other aspects of expectancy and value, have been administered to Swedish samples taking tests such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study - Advanced (TIMSS), the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Swedish National Tests. Taken together, results indicate that tests with lower stakes are associated with a lower level of reported test-taking motivation, that the expectancy-value theory seems a viable framework for interpreting the test-taking motivation construct, and that reported level of motivation consistently seems to have a significant effect on test performance, also when modelled together with other motivational and background variables.

  • 41.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Factors of importance for mathematics performance in grade 3: working memory capacity, teat anxiety and self-regulation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Lindberg, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Test-takers' perceptions of the SweSAT: relevance, difficulty, and test-taking behavior2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Pupil perceptions of national tests in science: perceived importance, invested effort, and test anxiety2013In: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 497-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although large-scale national tests have been used for many years in Swedish compulsory schools, very little is known about how pupils actually react to these tests. The question is relevant, however, as pupil reactions in the test situation may affect test performance as well as future attitudes towards assessment. The question is relevant also in light of the changing assessment culture in Sweden and other European countries. The main purpose of the present study was to explore how a sample of grade 9 pupils perceived their first encounter with national tests in science, mainly in terms of perceived importance of the test, reported invested effort, and feelings of test anxiety, and how these aspects were related to test performance. Results show that a majority of the pupils seemed to perceive the test as rather important and claimed that they spent effort on the test. There was, however, also a fair group of students who did not perceive the test as very important. Ratings of perceived importance and invested effort and motivation were positively related to performance, particularly for the boys. Many students also reported that they felt anxious before and during the test, but the relationship between test anxiety and test performance was rather weak. Findings illuminate how pupils may perceive and behave in the assessment situation, and point to the need of further studies investigating the psychology of test-taking.

  • 44.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Pavesic, Barbara Japelj
    Gronmo, Liv Sissel
    A Cross-National Comparison of Reported Effort and Mathematics Performance in TIMSS Advanced2014In: Applied measurement in education, ISSN 0895-7347, E-ISSN 1532-4818, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 31-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to measure students' reported test-taking effort and the relationship between reported effort and performance on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced mathematics test. This was done in three countries participating in TIMSS Advanced 2008 (Sweden, Norway, and Slovenia), and the present study is the first to make a cross-national comparison of reported effort in the TIMSS context. Students in all three samples on average reported a rather low level of motivation to spend effort on the low-stakes TIMSS test and in all nations, there was a statistically significant relationship between reported effort and test performance. These patterns of results were similar for the three nations, although there were also differences. The Swedish students reported the lowest level of invested effort, and the relationship between reported effort and test performance was strongest for Sweden. Although the study has limitations, findings are potentially important and suggest that student effort and motivation needs continued monitoring in low-stakes assessment contexts such as TIMSS, Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), or National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).

  • 45.
    Ivanova, Militsa G.
    et al.
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Modeling students’ number of actions on open-response items in PISA2015 and their effect on performance2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer-based assessments can provide data reflecting not just the examinees’ item responses but also their overt behavior during the test. The PISA test is computer-based since 2015 and all student-computer interactions are logged, thus allowing researchers to look closer into test-takers’ behavior. Studies have shown that different kinds of examinee test-taking actions (or lack of actions) are related to students’ performance (e.g. Greiff, Niepel, Scherer, & Martin, 2016). However, previous studies have mainly explored selected-response items, and described students’ test-taking behavior as a sequence of different actions on this type of items. Students’ behavior on open-response items is still underexplored.

    The present study therefore aims to describe the students’ test-taking behavior on open-response items in PISA 2015 as measured by number of actions.  Few studies have used number of actions as an explanatory variable and, to our knowledge, this is the first study exploring students’ test-taking behavior on open-response items in a large-scale international study. We used Swedish PISA 2015 data and chose to analyze actions on one science cluster, hence all students in the sample (n = 1227) responded to the same items, although the cluster could appear in one of four positions in the test.

    Different factors influencing the number of actions were examined and the effect of number of actions on performance was investigated. Results indicated that number of actions is mediating the effect of self-reported test-taking effort on performance. Also, a significant indirect effect of cluster position on science performance through number of actions was found.

  • 46.
    Knekta, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Modeling the test-taking motivation construct through investigation of psychometric properties of an expectancy-value-based questionnaire2015In: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, ISSN 0734-2829, E-ISSN 1557-5144, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 662-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an expectancy-value-based questionnaire measuring five aspects of test-taking motivation (effort, expectancies, importance, interest, and test anxiety). The questionnaire was distributed to a sample of Swedish Grade 9 students taking a low-stakes (n = 1,047) or a high-stakes (n = 536) test. Structural equation modeling largely supported theoretical assumptions and psychometric properties were acceptable. Expectancies and importance were significant predictors of effort, and effort significantly predicted performance in both test situations. Furthermore, measurement invariance across test situations was investigated. Partial scalar invariance was obtained and latent mean comparisons showed significantly higher levels of reported test-taking motivation in the high-stakes context. The study findings suggest that the present instrument can be used in low- as well as high-stakes assessment contexts not only to get an extended knowledge of test-takers' perceptions of tests but also to control for lack of motivation when stakes are low for test-takers.

  • 47.
    Knekta, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    PISA test validity from a student perspective2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Knekta, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Test-takers' reported motivation and anxiety: findings in the Swedish National Test context in relation to the SweSAT and TIMSS2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Korhonen, Johan
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Additive and multiplicative effects of working memory and test anxiety on mathematics performance in grade 3 students2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between test anxiety and working memory (WM) on mathematics performance in younger children. A sample of 624 grade 3 students completed a test battery consisting of a test anxiety scale, WM tasks, and the Swedish national examination in mathematics for grade 3. The main effects of test anxiety and WM, and the two-way interaction between test anxiety and WM on mathematics performance, were modelled with structural equation modelling techniques. Additionally, the effects were also tested separately on tasks with high WM demands (mathematical problem-solving) versus low WM demands (basic arithmetic). As expected, WM positively predicted mathematics performance in all three models (overall mathematics performance, problem-solving tasks, and basic arithmetic). Test anxiety had a negative effect on problem solving on the whole sample level but concerning basic arithmetic only students with lower WM were affected by the negative effects of test anxiety on performance. These students probably use counting based strategies that impose more WM load and have lower WM capacity than their peers who are more likely to use memory based strategies (i.e., fact-retrieval) in addition to having higher WM capacity. Thus, students with low WM are more vulnerable to the negative effects of test anxiety in low WM tasks like basic arithmetic. The results are discussed in relation to the early identification of test anxiety.

  • 50.
    Korhonen, Johan
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Additive and multiplicative effects of working memory and test anxiety on mathematics performance in grade 3 students2018In: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 572-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between test anxiety and working memory (WM) on mathematics performance in younger children. A sample of 624 grade 3 students completed a test battery consisting of a test anxiety scale, WM tasks and the Swedish national examination in mathematics for grade 3. The main effects of test anxiety and WM, and the two-way interaction between test anxiety and WM on mathematics performance, were modelled with structural equation modelling techniques. Additionally, the effects were also tested separately on tasks with high WM demands (mathematical problem-solving) versus low WM demands (basic arithmetic). As expected, WM positively predicted mathematics performance in all three models (overall mathematics performance, problem-solving tasks, and basic arithmetic). Test anxiety had a negative effect on problem-solving on the whole sample level but concerning basic arithmetic only students with lower WM were affected by the negative effects of test anxiety on performance. Thus, students with low WM are more vulnerable to the negative effects of test anxiety in low WM tasks like basic arithmetic. The results are discussed in relation to the early identification of test anxiety.

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