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  • 1.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Blood loss in exsanguination deaths2011In: Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, ISSN 0973-9122, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 5-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deaths by exsanguination among various underlying causes of death were analyzed in order to expand the knowledge on the relation of extravasated blood volume to other documented parameters.

    A consecutive series of 193 cases of ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm (n=13), gunshot wounds (n=63), stab wounds (n=28), rib fractures (n=5), and blunt injury to thoracic aorta (n=84) were investigated.

    The amount of internal bleeding into pleural cavities only varied greatly (200-3,400 ml) with a mean value of 1,174 ml, slightly higher among males. Age, body weight, cause and manner of death, external bleeding, alcohol inebriation, multiplicity of injuries, and degree of coronary heart disease did not significantly affect the amount of internal (pleural) bleeding. Also, post-mortem delay to autopsy did not correlated to the amount of extravasated blood, indicating that post-mortem bleeding is of no importance in these days.

     

  • 2.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Driver's alcohol and passenger's death in motor vehicle crashes2006In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 219-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on alcohol involvement associated with fatal injury in traffic crashes have focused on the drivers, but the passenger's view is not well known. This study (1) analyzes the relationship between passenger's death and alcohol inebriation of the driver and (2) estimates the role of alcohol as the cause of a crash by examining who was at fault, sober, or inebriated.

    METHOD: The study includes all motor vehicle passengers (n = 420) who died in crashes in Sweden 1993 through 1996 and were medicolegally autopsied. Autopsy reports from the Departments of Forensic Medicine, including toxicological analyses, and police reports were studied. Presence of alcohol among drivers was based on blood and breath tests.

    RESULTS: One-fifth of the fatally injured passengers and one-fifth of the tested drivers were under the influence of alcohol. The youngest drivers had the highest prevalence of drunken driving. Drivers at fault were alcohol positive in 21% of these crashes and drivers were not at fault in 2% of these crashes. In 53% of the crashes where both the passenger and driver were alcohol positive, the passenger had a lower alcohol concentration than the driver. Children (<16 years) comprised 15% of the killed passengers. Notably, the children were riding with a driver who was under influence of alcohol in 13% of these crashes. Alcohol involvement was not tested in half of the surviving drivers.

    CONCLUSIONS: The data show that 20% of both passengers and drivers were under the influence of alcohol. Increased testing of surviving drivers regarding alcohol and other drugs is recommended.

  • 3.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Hassler, Sven
    Sjölander, Per
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Unnatural deaths in reindeer-herding Sami families in Sweden, 1961-20012010In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Unnatural deaths among Indigenous populations, including the Swedish Sami, occur more often than among the general population. To find prevention strategies, we explored the circumstances of the unnatural deaths of members of reindeer-herding Sami families.

    STUDY DESIGN: The number of deaths from among a cohort of 7,482 members of reindeer-herding Sami families were retrieved from the National Board of Health and Welfare for the years 1961- 2001.

    METHODS: An evaluation of the information from autopsy records at the National Board of Forensic Medicine, police reports, and available medical records identified 158 unnatural deaths. These were then analysed in detail.

    RESULTS: Transport-related deaths and suicides were the most common unnatural deaths among Swedish reindeer-herding Sami family members. Suicides contributed to 23% of all deaths, road traffic accidents to 16%, and snowmobile fatalities to 11%. The accidents generally reflected an "outdoor lifestyle" and the working conditions were characterized by the use of off-road vehicles such as snowmobiles. Half of the number of victims tested positive for alcohol and alcohol abuse was documented in 15% of all victims.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that alcohol is an important factor in preventing unnatural deaths among reindeer-herding Sami, together with increased safety of both on-road and off-road transportation.

  • 4.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Björnstig, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Sjögren, Harmeet
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Violent deaths in small children in northern Sweden.2006In: International journal of circumpolar health, ISSN 1239-9736, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To identify causes and trends of violent deaths among children younger than 4 years in a northern region. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of medico-legal autopsy and police data. METHODS: Data from all 72 deaths from "external causes" 1977-2004, in children < 4 years from the northern half of Sweden were analysed. RESULTS: The death rate was 7.1 per 100,000 children and year during the first half of the study period, and 5.2 during the second half. Vehicle- and drowning-related deaths were halved. Fifteen were struck by motor vehicles (in 8 cases by heavy vehicles), 14 car occupants were killed in car crashes, 12 were killed by intentional violence inflicted by an adult, and 9 each were killed by (i) carbon monoxide/smoke inhalation, (ii) asphyxiation, or (iii) drowning. The boy:girl ratio was 1:1 in all groups, except in the groups "drowning" and "run over by motor vehicle", where boys dominated. CONCLUSIONS: Medical professionals have a difficult but important task in identifying and taking action against child abuse and in promoting child safety especially in the traffic and home environments.

  • 5.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Björnstig, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine. Rättsmedicin.
    Passenger car collision fatalities - with special emphasis on collisions with heavy vehicles2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 158-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1995 and 2004, 293 passenger car occupants died in collisions with other vehicles in northern Sweden (annual incidence: 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants, 6.9 per 100,000 cars, or 4.8 per 109 km driven); half of these deaths involved heavy vehicles. The annual number of passenger car occupant death per 100,000 cars in var-truck/bus collisions has remained unchanged since the 1980s, , but in car-car collisions it has decreased to one third of its former level. As crash objects, trucks and buses killed five times as many car occupants per truck/bus kilometer driven as did cars.

    The collisions were characterized by crashes in the oncoming vehicle´s lane, under icy, snowy, or wet conditions; crashes into heavy vehicles generally occurred in daylight, on workdays, in winter, and on 90 and 70 km/h two-lane roads. Head and chest injuries accouted for most of the fatal injuries. multiple fatal injuries and critical and deadly head injuries characterized the deaths in collisions with heavy vehicles.

    An indication of suicide was present in 4% of the deaths; for thos who crashed into trucks, this percentage was doubled. Among the driver victims, 4% had blood alcohol levels above the legal limit of 0.2 g/L.

    Frontal collision risks might be reduced by a mid-barrier, by building less injurious fronts on trucks and buses, by efficient skid prevention, and by use of flexible speed limits varying with road and light conditions.

  • 6. Boman, Helena
    et al.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Små barn lever farligt i traktorers närhet. Håll barn borta från traktorer; gör traktorer säkrare!1999In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 96, no 18, p. 2222-4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren 1992-1997 inträffade i Sverige 14 traktorrelaterade dödsfall bland barn. Elva var pojkar och medelåldern 5 år. I nära hälften av fallen var barnets far förare av traktorn. För att förebygga dessa händelser bör barn inte tillåtas vara i närheten av traktorer i arbete eller färdas som passagerare. Med hänsyn till hur svåråtkomlig "den mänsliga faktorn" är, torde också utvecklande av skadeförebyggande åtgärder i traktorn vara av betydelse.

  • 7.
    Boman, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Hedelin, Annika
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    "Avoidable" deaths in two areas of sweden - Analysis of deaths in hospital after injury1999In: The European journal of surgery = Acta chirurgica, ISSN 1102-4151, Vol. 165, no 9, p. 828-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe causes of death and other characteristics of "avoidable" deaths in patients admitted to hospital after trauma, and estimate and analyse changes in the avoidable death rate during the years studied. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of medico legal autopsy material. SETTING: One northern and one western area in Sweden 1988-1996. SUBJECTS: 335 cases who died in hospital after trauma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Avoidable death, defined as an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 35 or less and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) head of 4 or less and cause of death. RESULTS: We found 70 avoidable deaths (21%). Among these, 15 (21%) died of head injuries, 17 (24%) of thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic injuries, and 38 (54%) of medical complications. The number of deaths after trauma decreased considerably from 1988-90 to 1994-96, but the proportion who died in hospital remained almost constant. The proportion of avoidable deaths decreased from 22% to 17%, mainly because the proportion of deaths from medical complications was halved. CONCLUSION: The standard of Swedish in-hospital trauma care has improved, particularly with a reduction in post-traumatic complications. However, there is still room for improvement in the treatment of complications among elderly people.

  • 8.
    Brändström, Helge
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Giesbrecht, Gordon
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Dep of Anesthesia.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Fatal hypothermia: an analysis from a sub-arctic region2012In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 71, no 0, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To determine the incidence as well as contributing factors to fatal hypothermia.

    Study design. Retrospective, registry-based analysis.

    Methods. Cases of fatal hypothermia were identified in the database of the National Board of Forensic Medicine for the 4 northernmost counties of Sweden and for the study period 1992-2008. Police reports, medical records and autopsy protocols were studied.

    Results. A total of 207 cases of fatal hypothermia were noted during the study period, giving an annual incidence of 1.35 per 100,000 inhabitants. Seventy-two percent occurred in rural areas, and 93% outdoors. Many (40%) were found within approximately 100 meters of a building. The majority (75%) occurred during the colder season (October to March). Some degree of paradoxical undressing was documented in 30%. Ethanol was detected in femoral vein blood in 43% of the victims. Contributing co-morbidity was common and included heart disease, earlier stroke, dementia, psychiatric disease, alcoholism, and recent trauma.

    Conclusions. With the identification of groups at high risk for fatal hypothermia, it should be possible to reduce risk through thoughtful interventions, particularly related to the highest risk subjects (rural, living alone, alcohol-imbibing, and psychiatric diagnosis-carrying) citizens.

  • 9.
    Bäckstrom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine. Department of Forensic Medicine, National Board of Forensic Medicine, PO Box 7616, SE-907 12, Umeå.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Death from Nitrous Oxide2015In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 1662-1665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and deaths, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental deaths related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available.

  • 10.
    Bäckström, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Accidental death by voluntary nitrous oxide inhalation: effects on subjective dyspnea by nitrous oxide2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 78-78Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bäckström, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Sprogoe-Jakobsen, Susan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Homicid among the young2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 18, p. 82-83Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Davies Forsman, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Svanström, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Fatal bupivacaine overdose through intrathecally positioned epidural catheter2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 10-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a fatality due to an intrathecally positioned epidural catheter and an infusion rate of bupivacaine set 10 times higher than planned. The undetected misplacement, despite safety routines, is discussed along with the toxicological findings and new information on the intrathecal distribution of bupivacaine. From a clinical point of view, the human factor, in combination with an indistinct decimal point on the pump, was considered as the reason for the unfortunate overdose. In continuous epidural infusion of local anesthetics, the importance of guidelines and informed staff in managing complications of epidural lumbar infusion as well as careful monitoring of the vital functions is essential. Guidelines are also vital during the procedure of insertion of epidural catheters. When using combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia, we believe that an epidural catheter should be inserted, and its position tested, prior to spinal anesthesia. The case also illustrates the need of innovative investigation techniques to confirm the suspicion of unusual manifestations of inadvertent drug effects. Segmental analysis, together with analyses in a control case, enabled us to elucidate the high and varying tissue concentrations in the central nervous system.

  • 13. Druid, Henrik
    et al.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Sundberg, Anna
    Lex Maria--fatal cases must be reported to the police!2006In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 103, no 1-2, p. 50; discussion 50-1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14. Elinder, Göran
    et al.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine. The National Board of Forensic Medicine, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Boubou
    Lynøe, Niels
    Sundgren, Pia Maly
    Rosén, Måns
    Engström, Ingemar
    Erlandsson, Björn-Erik
    Traumatic shaking: the role of the triad in medical investigations of suspected traumatic shaking2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, p. 3-23Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assesment of Social Services (SBU) is an independent national authority, tasked by the government with assessing methods used in health, medical and dental services and social service interventions from a broad perspective, covering medical, economic, ethical and social aspects. The language in SBU's reports are adjusted to a wide audience. SBU's Board of Directors has approved the conclusions in this report. The systematic review showed the following graded results:

    • There is limited scientific evidence that the triad (Three components of a whole. The triad associated with SBS usually comprises subdural haematoma, retinal haemorrhages and encephalopathy.) and therefore, its components can be associated with traumatic shaking (low-quality evidence).
    • There is insufficient scientific evidence on which to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the triad in identifying traumatic shaking (very low-quality evidence).

    Limited scientific evidence (low-quality evidence) represents a combined assessment of studies of high or moderate quality which disclose factors that markedly weaken the evidence. It is important to note that limited scientific evidence for the reliability of a method or an effect does not imply complete lack of scientific support. Insufficient scientific evidence (very low-quality evidence) represents either a lack of studies or situations when available studies are of low quality or show contradictory results. Evaluation of the evidence was not based on formal grading of the evidence according to GRADE but on an evaluation of the total scientific basis.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Asfyksi - kvaelning2013In: Retsmedicin / [ed] Thomsen JL, FADL's Forlag a/s, 2013, 3, p. 120-135Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Asfyksi - kvaelning2008In: Retsmedicin: nordisk laerebog / [ed] Jørgen Lange Thomsen, Köbenhavn: Foreningen af Danske Laegestuderendes Forlag Aktieselskab , 2008, 2, p. 131-147Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Den svenska identifieringsverksamheten - ett exempel från Thailand 20052006In: Rättsmedicin / [ed] Thomsen Jørgen, Liber , 2006, p. 65-67Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Intermediate-sized (skeletin) filaments of heart Purkinje fibres: an investigation into their morphology, composition and function1979Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Kupierverbot in Skandinavien - ein Erfarungsbericht1999Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Specialist training strategies, assessment and evaluation2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 18, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Vad är handledning? Kan en bofink se ut hur som helst?2012In: Moderna läkare, ISSN 1403-5502, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 14-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Druid, Henrik
    Giebe, Birkhild
    Krantz, Peter
    Thiblin, Ingemar
    Vetenskapligt arbete under ST: en integrerad del - inte en udda fågel2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, no 32-33, p. 1415-1416Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Druid, Henrik
    Thiblin, Ingemar
    Löwenhielm, Peter
    ST-handledarna bör vara vetenskapligt kompetenta2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 24-25, p. 1817-1817Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför särbehandlas vetenskaplig kompetens negativt jämfört med övriga områden som handledarskap, pedagogik, kommunikation och etik? Frågan ställs i detta inlägg om Socialstyrelsens förslag till föreskrifter och allmänna råd om läkarnas specialiseringstjänstgöring. Författningstexten bör justeras så att handledaren är kompetent inom alla områden, uppmanar artikelförfattarna.

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Ekman, Jonn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Deaths in custody in Sweden2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 1-1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Georén, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Work-place homicide by bow and arrow.2000In: Journal of forensic sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 911-6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arrow wounds represent an unusual class of wounds rarely seen by most forensic pathologists. In this paper we present a case of homicide by bow and arrow and the characteristics of such injuries. The essential characteristics of the lesions obtained from conically-tapered field points and from hunting broadhead tips are described and discussed in relation to injuries caused by firearm bullets. In the present case, three arrows struck the victim, and the order in which the injuries were sustained are analyzed. We also discuss the possibilities of localizing the shooter relative to the victim by analysis of the trajectories.

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Gustafsson, T
    Hultcrantz, M
    Höistad, M
    Jacobson, S
    Persson, A
    Postmortem imaging: a systematic review2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 47-47Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Gustafsson, Torfinn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Hoistad, Malin
    Hultcrantz, Monica
    Jacobson, Stella
    Mejare, Ingegerd
    Persson, Anders
    Diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging vs autopsy: a systematic review2017In: European Journal of Radiology, ISSN 0720-048X, E-ISSN 1872-7727, Vol. 89, p. 249-269Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Postmortem imaging has been used for more than a century as a complement to medico-legal autopsies. The technique has also emerged as a possible alternative to compensate for the continuous decline in the number of clinical autopsies. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging for various types of findings, we performed this systematic literature review. Data sources The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library through January 7, 2015. Relevant publications were assessed for risk of bias using the QUADAS tool and were classified as low, moderate or high risk of bias according to pre-defined criteria. Autopsy and/or histopathology were used as reference standard. Findings The search generated 2600 abstracts, of which 340 were assessed as possibly relevant and read in full-text. After further evaluation 71 studies were finally included, of which 49 were assessed as having high risk of bias and 22 as moderate risk of bias. Due to considerable heterogeneity - in populations, techniques, analyses and reporting - of included studies it was impossible to combine data to get a summary estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of the various findings. Individual studies indicate, however, that imaging techniques might be useful for determining organ weights, and that the techniques seem superior to autopsy for detecting gas Conclusions and Implications In general, based on the current scientific literature, it was not possible to determine the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging and its usefulness in conjunction with, or as an alternative to autopsy. To correctly determine the usefulness of postmortem imaging, future studies need improved planning, improved methodological quality and larger materials, preferentially obtained from multi-center studies.

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Hougen, Hans Petter
    Knudsen, Peter Thiis
    Leth, Peter
    Lynnerup, Niels
    Sprogoe-Jakobsen, Susan
    Dansk-svenskt rättsmedicinskt arbete i Kosovo, 1999.: II. Rättsmedicinska fynd och erfarenheter2000In: Nordisk Rettsmedicin - Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, Vol. 6, p. 74-79Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    På begäran av FN arbetade danska och svenska rättsmedicinska team i Kosovo under sommaren och hösten 1999. Totalt undersöktes 308 kroppar, och då 1-18 månader passerat sedan dödsfallet var kropparna i flertalet fall stadda i avancerad förruttnelse. Arbetet företogs framförallt som mobilt teamarbete med obduktion på platser med 1-5 gravar, men på ett par större gravplatser med 62 respektive 31 döda utfördes arbetet på ett mer traditionellt, stationärt sätt. De flesta avlidna återfanns i separata gravar, ett mindre antal återfanns i gemensamma gravar, medan inga egentliga massgravar blev föremål för våra undersökningar. Huvuduppgiften vid ICTYs utredning av krigsförbrytelser var att fastställa dödsorsaken, medan personidentifiering ansågs vara av sekundär betydelse. Majoriteten av de avlidna var dock identifierade redan före obduktionen.

    Åldern på de undersökta varierade mellan 5 och 101 år och dominerades av män, vilka företedde en relativt jämn åldersfördelning i åldrarna 20-70 år. Den vanligaste dödsorsaken var skottskador och det vanligaste dödssättet var homicid.

    Resultatet av undersökningarna har överlämnats till ICTY som en del av bevisningen i de åtal om krigsförbrytelser som kan väntas.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Hougen, HP
    Knudsen, PT
    Leth, P
    Lynnerup, N
    Sprogoe-Jakobsen, Susan
    Dansk-svenskt rättsmedicinskt arbete i Kosovo, 1999.: I. Administrativa erfarenheter2000In: Nordisk Rettsmedisin - Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, Vol. 6, p. 69-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    De danska och svenska regeringarna sände på begäran av FN rättsmedicinska team till Kosovo under sommaren och hösten 1999. Dessa team bestod i princip av rättsläkare och assistenter, men andra team med kriminaltekniker arbetad nära de rättsmedicinska teamen.

    Förberedelsetiden var kort och kaotisk, och inledningsvis gjordes många administrativa misstag. De första teamen visste exempelvis inte vart de skulle resa, när de skulle resa, vad de skulle göra, eller hur de skulle göra det. Efter ankomst till ICTYs högkvarter i Skopje, och efter omfattande byråkratiska övningar i Pristina, fördes vi så småningom till Pejë (Pec) i Kosovos västra del. Vi arbetade i huvudsak i denna region från slutet av juli till slutet av oktober, i regel i 2 veckor långa perioder. I de flesta fallen kunde vi få en viss tidsmässig överlappning mellan teamen, vilket var fördelaktigt för informationsöverföringen.

    Förslag till lösningar på de problem som förelegat har framförts till de berörda myndigheterna, och förhoppningen är att våra erfarenheter ska kunna ligga till grund vid planering av framtida missioner av liknande slag.

  • 30.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Loisel, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Thid, Michael
    Rättsmedicin2012In: Jourhandboken / [ed] Andersson S, Hovelius B, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, p. 928-941Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Sprogoe-Jakobsen, Susan
    The identification of tsunami victims - A Swedish experience2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Medicine, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 51-53Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Bygren, Lars Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Johansson, Lars Age
    Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare.
    Olofsson, Bert-Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Accuracy of death certificates of cardiovascular disease in a community intervention in Sweden.2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 883-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the possibility to evaluate the mortality pattern in a community intervention programme against cardiovascular disease by official death certificates.

    Methods: For all deceased in the intervention area (Norsjö), the accuracy of the official death certificates were compared with matched controls in the rest of Västerbotten. The official causes of death were compared with new certificates, based on the last clinical record, issued by three of the authors, and coded by one of the authors, all four accordingly blinded.

    Results: The degree of agreement between the official underlying causes of death in "cardiovascular disease" (CVD) and the re-evaluated certificates was not found to differ between Norsjö and the rest of Västerbotten. The agreement was 87% and 88% at chapter level, respectively, but only 55% and 55% at 4-digit level, respectively. The reclassification resulted in a 1% decrease of "cardiovascular deaths" in both Norsjö and the rest of Västerbotten.

    Conclusions: The disagreements in the reclassification of cause of death were equal but large in both directions. The official death certificates should be used with caution to evaluate CVD in small community intervention programmes, and restricted to the chapter level and total populations.

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Thid, Micael
    Saukko, Petter
    Rognum, T
    Rättsmedicin i Sverige: Organisering av rettsmedisin i de nordiske land2010In: Lærebok i rettsmedisin, Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, 2010, p. 413-415Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Homicide by bow and arrow1999In: Proceeding annual meeting American Academy of Forensic Sciences, 1999, p. 189-190Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Traffic fatalities2009In: Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Chichester,: John Wiley & Sons Ltd , 2009Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This A to Z encyclopedia provides a comprehensive, definitive, and up-to-date reference of the main areas of specialist and expert knowledge and skills used by those involved in all aspects of the forensic process, including, but not limited to, forensic scientists, doctors, practicing and academic lawyers, paralegals, police, crime scene investigators, analytical chemists, behavioral scientists and toxicologists.

    This five-volume set covers all topics which, either as part of an established forensic discipline or as a potentially useful emerging discipline, are of interest to those involved in the forensic process. This includes both the scientific methodology and the admissibility of evidence. The encyclopedia also provides case studies of landmark cases in the definition and practice of forensic science.

    Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science presents all material on a level and in a style that makes it accessible to a wide range of readers. In particular, lawyers needing to better understand the key aspects of the science, and scientists who require a deeper insight into legal issues will find the encyclopedia an important resource, as will physical, biological and behavioral scientists who require background information on the most important aspects of each other’s areas of expertise.

     

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Spigset, Olav
    Thorson, Jan
    Fatal intoxications with selective serotonin reuptake inhibition: Do the different drugs differ in toxicity?1999In: 15th Triennial Meeting International Association of Forensic Sciences, 1999, p. 270-Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Eriksson-Strand, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Snowmobilie fatalities in Sweden, 1999-20062007In: Proceedings of the 6th International congress of the baltic medico-legal association: New technologies in forensic medicine, 2007, p. S13-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Finnberg, A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Junuzovic, M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Homicidal poisoning2012In: Clinical Forensic Medicine, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39. Finnberg, Amanda
    et al.
    Junuzovic, Mensura
    Dragovic, Ljubisa
    Ortiz-Reyes, Ruben
    Hamel, Marianne
    Davis, Joseph
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Homicide by Poisoning2013In: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, ISSN 0195-7910, E-ISSN 1533-404X, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 38-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By studying the number and method of homicidal poisoning in Miami-Dade County, Florida; New York City, NY; Oakland County, Michigan; and Sweden, we have confirmed that this is an infrequently established crime. Several difficulties come with the detection of homicidal poisonings. Presenting symptoms and signs are often misdiagnosed as natural disease, especially if the crime is committed in a hospital environment, suggesting that an unknown number of homicides go undetected. In the reported cases analyzed, the lethal agent of choice has changed over the years. In earlier years, traditional poisons such as arsenic, cyanide, and parathion were frequently used. Such poisonings are nowadays rare, and instead, narcotics are more commonly detected in victims of this crime.

  • 40.
    Forsman, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Skateboarding injuries of today.2001In: British journal of sports medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 325-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Skateboarding injuries have increased with the rise in popularity of the sport, and the injury pattern can be expected to have changed with the development of both skateboard tricks and the materials used for skateboard construction. OBJECTIVE: To describe the injury pattern of today. METHODS: The pattern of injuries, circumstances, and severity were investigated in a study of all 139 people injured in skateboarding accidents during the period 1995-1998 inclusive and admitted to the University Hospital of Umea. This is the only hospital in the area, serving a population of 135 000. RESULTS: Three of the 139 injured were pedestrians hit by a skateboard rider; the rest were riders. The age range was 7-47 years (mean 16). The severity of the injuries was minor (AIS 1) to moderate (AIS 2); fractures were classified as moderate. The annual number of injuries increased during the study period. Fractures were found in 29% of the casualties, and four children had concussion. The most common fractures were of the ankle and wrist. Older patients had less severe injuries, mainly sprains and soft tissue injuries. Most children were injured while skateboarding on ramps and at arenas; only 12 (9%) were injured while skateboarding on roads. Some 37% of the injuries occurred because of a loss of balance, and 26% because of a failed trick attempt. Falls caused by surface irregularities resulted in the highest proportion of the moderate injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Skateboarding should be restricted to supervised skateboard parks, and skateboarders should be required to wear protective gear. These measures would reduce the number of skateboarders injured in motor vehicle collisions, reduce the personal injuries among skateboarders, and reduce the number of pedestrians injured in collisions with skateboarders.

  • 41.
    Freeman, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Dobbertin, K
    Kohles, SS
    Uhrenholt, L
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Serious head and neck injury as a predictor of occupant position in fatal rollover crashes2012In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 222, no 1-3, p. 228-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serious head and neck injuries are a common finding in fatalities associated with rollover crashes. In some fatal rollover crashes, particularly when ejection occurs, the determination of which occupant was driving at the time of the crash may be uncertain. In the present investigation, we describe the analysis of rollover crash data from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System for the years 1997 through 2007 in which we examined the relationship between a serious head and neck injury in an occupant and a specified degree of roof deformation at theoccupant's seating position. We found 960 occupants who qualified for the analysis, with 142 deaths among the subjects. Using a ranked compositehead and neck injury score (the HNISS) we found a strong relationship between HNISS and the degree of roof crush. As a result of the analysis, we arrived at a predictive model, in which each additional unit increase in HNISS equated to an increased odds of roof crush as follows: for ≥8cm of roof crush compared with <8cm by 4%, for ≥15cm of roof crush compared to <8cm by 6% and for ≥30cm of roof crush compared to <8cm by 11%. We describe two hypothetical scenarios in which the model could be applied to the real world investigation of occupant position in a rollover crash-related fatality.

  • 42.
    Freeman, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Leith, Wendy
    Head and neck injury patterns in fatal falls: epidemiologic and biomechanical considerations2014In: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, ISSN 1752-928X, E-ISSN 1878-7487, Vol. 21, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatal falls often involve a head impact, which are in turn associated with a fracture of the skull or cervical spine. Prior authors have noted that the degree of inversion of the victim at the time of impact is an important predictor of the distribution of skull fractures, with skull base fractures more common than skull vault fractures in falls with a high degree of inversion. The majority of fatal fall publications have focused on skull fractures, and no research has described the association between fall circumstances and the distribution of fractures in the skull and neck. In the present study, we accessed data regarding head and neck fractures resulting from fatal falls from a Swedish autopsy database for the years 1992–2010, for the purposes of examining the relationships between skull and cervical spine fracture distribution and the circumstances of the fatal fall.

    Out of 102,310 medico-legal autopsies performed there were 1008 cases of falls associated with skull or cervical spine fractures. The circumstances of the falls were grouped in 3 statistically homogenous categories; falls occurring at ground level, falls from a height of <3 m or down stairs, and falls from ≥3 m. Only head and neck injuries and fractures that were associated with the fatal CNS injuries were included for study, and categorized as skull vault and skull base fractures, upper cervical injuries (C0–C1 dislocation, C1 and C2 fractures), and lower cervical fractures. Logistic regression modeling revealed increased odds of skull base and lower cervical fracture in the middle and upper fall severity groups, relative to ground level falls (lower cervical <3 m falls, OR = 2.55 [1.32, 4.92]; lower cervical ≥3 m falls, OR = 2.23 [0.98, 5.08]; skull base <3 m falls, OR = 1.82 [1.32, 2.50]; skull base ≥3 m falls, OR = 2.30 [1.55, 3.40]). C0–C1 dislocations were strongly related to fall height, with an OR of 8.3 for ≥3 m falls versus ground level. The findings of increased odds of skull base and lower cervical spine fracture in falls from a height are consistent with prior observations that the risk of such injuries is related to the degree of victim inversion at impact. The finding that C0–C1 dislocations are most common in falls from more than 3 m is unique, an indication that the injuries likely result from high energy shear forces rather than pure tension, as previously thought.

  • 43.
    Freeman, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine. Department of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; Department of Forensic Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Leith, Wendy
    Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants2014In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 1271-1274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR=3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections.

  • 44. Gudmannsson, Petur
    et al.
    Berge, Johan
    Druid, Henrik
    Ericsson, Göran
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    A Unique Fatal Moose Attack Mimicking Homicide2018In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 622-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury. The dog probably provoked a moose, which, in response, stomped and gored the victim to death. The injuries resembled those previously reported from attacks by cattle and water buffalo. Fatal moose attacks constitute an extremely rare threat in boreal areas, but can be considered in traumatic deaths of unknown cause.

  • 45.
    Gustafsson, Torfinn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Fatal brown bear attacks2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 21, p. 80-80Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Gustafsson, Torfinn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Fatal Eurasian brown bear attacks: two Swedish fatalities in modern times2015In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 1658-1661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatal bear attacks on humans are uncommon with only one reported case in Sweden since 1902. The bear population is, however, growing and the frequency of confrontations is likely to increase. Case I-A 40-year-old hunter and his dog were found dead near a bear's den. Autopsy showed that a large portion of the face, facial skeleton, and anterior portion of the brain was missing. Autopsy of the bear showed two nonfatal gunshot wounds. Case II-A 61-year-old man and his dog were found dead outside a hunting lodge. Autopsy revealed numerous wounds, including partial evisceration of the intestines. The victim's blood ethanol concentration was 0.27%. These cases confirm the presence of risk factors identified by the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project, that is, provocation by a dog, encountering an injured bear, and appearing close to its den. An additional possible factor in case II was ethanol intoxication.

  • 47.
    Gustafsson, Torfinn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Intervention related deaths2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 81-81Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Gustafsson, Torfinn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Off-road vehicle fatalities: a comparison of all-terrain vehicle and snowmobile accidents in Sweden2013In: International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences (IATSS) Research, ISSN 0386-1112, Vol. 37, p. 12-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates accident fatalities involving two types of off-road vehicles: snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). All snowmobile fatalities in Sweden from the 2006/2007 season through the 2011/2012 season, and all ATV fatalities from 2007 through 2012, were retrospectively examined. A total of 107 fatalities—57 snowmobile-related and 50 ATV-related—were found. Most deaths occurred on weekends (71% of the snowmobile-related and 72% of the ATV-related). A majority of the fatalities were males (91% and 94%), with the largest share in the age group 40–49 years (19% and 24%). The most common causes of death were blunt trauma (56% and 66%), drowning (30% vs 6%), and traumatic asphyxia (9% vs 14%). Among victims who were tested (95% vs 92%), a very high share was found to be inebriated (59% vs 61%), and mean blood alcohol concentration was also high (1.9 vs 1.7 g/l). Forty-seven percent of snowmobile-related fatalities and 48% of ATV-related fatalities had a blood alcohol concentration above 1.0 g/l. This means that there was a very strong association between off-road vehicle fatalities and drunken riding; steps to prevent riding while intoxicated seem to be the most important preventive measure. Automatic measures such as alcolocks are probably the most effective. The obvious at-risk group to target is middle-aged men with high alcohol consumption.

  • 49.
    Gustafsson, Torfinn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Wingren, C. J.
    Multivariate linear regression modelling of lung weight in 24,056 Swedish medico-legal autopsy cases2017In: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, ISSN 1752-928X, E-ISSN 1878-7487, Vol. 46, p. 20-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy combined lung weight at autopsy is a non-specific autopsy finding associated with certain causes of death such as intoxication. There is however no clear definition of what constitutes "heavy" lung weight. Different reference values have been suggested but previous studies have been limited by small select populations and only univariate regression has been attempted. The aim of this study was to create a model to estimate lung weight from decedent parameters. We identified all cases >18 years age autopsied at the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine from 2000 through 2013, excluding cases with a post-mortem interval >5 days as well as cases with extreme values, totalling 24,056 cases. We analysed body weight, body height, sex, age, BMI, BSA as well as untransformed and transformed lung weight. The analysis was stratified for sex. We evaluated the fit of the models and that the model assumptions were not violated. We set out to apply the model with the highest residual sum of squares to derive limits for heavy lungs. In univariate regression BSA and height showed best performance. The final model included height, weight and age group. After excluding large standardized residuals (>3, <-3) the final model achieved R-2 of 0.132 and 0.106 for women and men respectively. While we managed to create a multivariate model its performance was poor, possibly a fact reflective of the physiological nature of the lungs and in turn its variability in fluid content. Linear regression is a poor model for estimating lung weight in an unselected population.

  • 50. Hougen, Hans Petter
    et al.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Leth, Peter
    Lynnerup, Niels
    Knudsen, Peter Thiis
    Sprogoe-Jakobsen, Susan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    The Danish-Swedish team in Kosova. Experiences from 1999.2000In: XIV Nordiske Kongres i Retsmedicin, 2000Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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