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  • 1.
    Boström, Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among people with dementia in residential care: a randomized controlled trial2016In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 868-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among older care facility residents with dementia.

    METHODS: Residents (n = 186) with a diagnosis of dementia, age ≥ 65 years, Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥ 10, and dependence in activities of daily living were included. Participants were randomized to a high-intensity functional exercise program or a non-exercise control activity conducted 45 min every other weekday for 4 months. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were administered by blinded assessors at baseline, 4, and 7 months.

    RESULTS: No difference between the exercise and control activity was found in GDS or MADRS score at 4 or 7 months. Among participants with GDS scores ≥ 5, reductions in GDS score were observed in the exercise and control groups at 4 months (-1.58, P = 0.001 and -1.54, P = 0.004) and 7 months (-1.25, P = 0.01 and -1.45, P = 0.007). Among participants with MADRS scores ≥ 7, a reduction in MADRS score was observed at 4 months in the control group (-2.80, P = 0.009) and at 7 months in the exercise and control groups (-3.17, P = 0.003 and -3.34, P = 0.002).

    CONCLUSIONS: A 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program has no superior effect on depressive symptoms relative to a control activity among older people with dementia living in residential care facilities. Exercise and non-exercise group activities may reduce high levels of depressive symptoms.

  • 2. Bringman, S.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Osterberg, J.
    Location of recurrent groin hernias at TEP after Lichtenstein repair: a study based on the Swedish Hernia Register2016In: Hernia, ISSN 1265-4906, E-ISSN 1248-9204, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 387-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate which type of hernia that has the highest risk of a recurrence after a primary Lichtenstein repair. Male patients operated on with a Lichtenstein repair for a primary direct or indirect inguinal hernia and with a TEP for a later recurrence, with both operations recorded in the Swedish Hernia Register (SHR), were included in the study. The study period was 1994-2014. Under the study period, 130,037 male patients with a primary indirect or direct inguinal hernia were operated on with a Lichtenstein repair. A second operation in the SHR was registered in 2236 of these patients (reoperation rate 1.7 %). TEP was the chosen operation in 737 in this latter cohort. The most likely location for a recurrence was the same as the primary location. If the recurrences change location from the primary place, we recognized that direct hernias had a RR of 1.51 to having a recurrent indirect hernia compared to having a direct recurrence after an indirect primary hernia repair. Recurrent hernias after Lichtenstein are more common on the same location as the primary one, compared to changing the location.

  • 3.
    Broström, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Generalized linear models with clustered data: fixed and random effects models2011In: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, ISSN 0167-9473, E-ISSN 1872-7352, Vol. 55, no 12, p. 3123-3134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The statistical analysis of mixed effects models for binary and count data is investigated. In the statistical computing environment R, there are a few packages that estimate models of this kind. The packagelme4 is a de facto standard for mixed effects models. The packageglmmML allows non-normal distributions in the specification of random intercepts. It also allows for the estimation of a fixed effects model, assuming that all cluster intercepts are distinct fixed parameters; moreover, a bootstrapping technique is implemented to replace asymptotic analysis. The random intercepts model is fitted using a maximum likelihood estimator with adaptive Gauss–Hermite and Laplace quadrature approximations of the likelihood function. The fixed effects model is fitted through a profiling approach, which is necessary when the number of clusters is large. In a simulation study, the two approaches are compared. The fixed effects model has severe bias when the mixed effects variance is positive and the number of clusters is large.

  • 4. Hallén, Magnus
    et al.
    Sevonius, Dan
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Sandblom, Gabriel
    Low complication rate and an increasing incidence of surgical repair of primary indirect sliding inguinal hernia2016In: Langenbeck's archives of surgery (Print), ISSN 1435-2443, E-ISSN 1435-2451, Vol. 401, no 2, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to explore the risk for complications and reoperations following open repairs for sliding groin hernias.

    Method All primary indirect inguinal hernia repairs registered in the Swedish Hernia Register 1998–2011 were identified. Repeated and bilateral procedures were excluded. The epidemiology, the incidence of per- and postoperative complications, and the reoperation rate due to recurrences were analyzed.

    Results 100 240 non-repeated unilateral repairs were registered with sliding hernias in 13 132 (13.1 %) (male 14 %, female 5 %) procedures. The methods of repair for sliding and non-sliding hernias were Lichtenstein and other open anterior mesh repairs (N = 10865, 82.7 % and N = 60790, 69.8 %), endoscopic techniques (N = 136, 1.0 % and N= 4352, 5.0 %), and other techniques (N= 2131, 16.2 % and N= 21966, 25.2 %). In multivariate analyses with adjustment for gender, acute/planned surgery, reducibility, method of repair and age, sliding hernias were associated with a low but slightly increased risk for perioperative complications (hazard ratio 1.30, 95 % confidence interval 1.04–1.62, p = 0.023) and postoperative hematoma (hazard ratio 1.13, confidence interval 1.02–1.26, p =0.019). There was no increased risk of reoperation due to recurrences.

    Conclusion Compared to older reports, the incidence of repairs due to primary indirect sliding inguinal hernias has increased over time and it is not just a male disease. The overall results are good with low and comparable complication rates, and no increased risk of reoperations due to recurrences.

  • 5.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Generalised linear models with clustered data2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In situations where a large data set is partitioned into many relativelysmall clusters, and where the members within a cluster have some common unmeasured characteristics, the number of parameters requiring estimation tends to increase with sample size if a fixed effects model is applied. This fact causes the assumptions underlying asymptotic results to be violated. The first paper in this thesis considers two possible solutions to this problem, a random intercepts model and a fixed effects model, where asymptoticsare replaced by a simple form of bootstrapping. A profiling approach is introduced in the fixed effects case, which makes it computationally efficient even with a huge number of clusters. The grouping effect is mainly seen as a nuisance in this paper.

    In the second paper the effect of misspecifying the distribution of the random effects in a generalised linear mixed model for binary data is studied. One problem with mixed effects models is that the distributional assumptions about the random effects are not easily checked from real data. Models with Gaussian, logistic and Cauchy distributional assumptions are used for parameter estimation on data simulated using the same three distributions. The effect of these assumptions on parameter estimation is presented. Two criteria for model selection are investigated, the Akaike information criterion and a criterion based on a chi-square statistic. The estimators for fixed effects parameters are quite robust against misspecification of the random effects distribution, at least with the distributions used in this paper. Even when the true random effects distribution is Cauchy, models assuming a Gaussian or a logistic distribution regularly produce estimates with less bias.

  • 6.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Generalised linear models with clustered data: robustness against a misspecified random effects distributionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Generalized linear models with clustered data2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In situations where a large data set is partitioned into many relatively small groups, and where the members within a group have some common unmeasured characteristics, the number of parameters requiring estimation tends to increase with sample size if a fixed effects model is applied. This fact causes the assumptions underlying asymptotic results to be violated.

    The first paper in this thesis considers two possible solutions to this problem, a random intercepts model and a fixed effects model, where asymptotics are replaced by a simple form of bootstrapping. A profiling approach is introduced in the fixed effects case, which makes it computationally efficient even with a huge number of groups. The grouping effect is mainly seen as a nuisance in this paper.

    In the second paper the effect of misspecifying the distribution of the random effects in a generalized linear mixed model for binary data is studied. One problem with mixed effects models is that the distributional assumptions about the random effects are not easily checked from real data. Models with Gaussian, logistic and Cauchy distributional assumptions are used for parameter estimation on data simulated using the same three distributions. The eect of these assumptions on parameter estimation is presented. Two criteria for model selection are investigated, the Akaike information criterion and a criterion based on a X2 statistic. The estimators for fixed effects parameters are quite robust against misspecification of the random effects distribution, at least with the distributions used in this paper. Even when the true random effects distribution is Cauchy, models assuming a Gaussian or a logistic distribution regularly produce estimates with less bias.

    In the third paper the results from the first two papers are applied to infant mortality data. We found that there was significant clustering of infant mortality in the Skellefteå region in the years 1831-1890. An "ad hoc" method for comparing the magnitude of unexplained clustering after a model is applied is also presented.

    The last paper of this thesis is concerned with the problem of testing for spatial clustering caused by autocorrelation. A test that is robust against heteroscedasticity is proposed. In a simulation study the properties of the proposed statistic, K, are investigated. The power of the test based on K is compared to that of Moran's I in the simulation study. Both tests are then applied to mortality data from Swedish municipalities.

  • 8.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    On statistical methods for clustering: A case study on infant mortality, northern Sweden, 1831-18902012In: Biodemography and Social Biology, ISSN 1948-5565, E-ISSN 1948-5573, Vol. 58, p. 173-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers the interfamily clustering of infant mortality (defined as mortal- ity during the first year of life). We developed and evaluated statistical tools to detect clustering and a measure to quantify excess clustering for nineteenth-century data from Skellefteå, Sweden. The detection was performed using the standard methods of gener- alized linear models and logistic regression. The index of clustering was constructed by comparing the observed numbers of families with specific numbers of deaths to the cor- responding observed numbers, after correcting for explanatory variables. To the best of our knowledge, no clustering index of this kind has ever been created.

  • 9.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    On statistical methods for clustering: a case study on infant mortality, northern Sweden 1831-1890Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    A new test for spatial autocorrelation with an application to mortality in Swedish municipalities2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    A test for robust detection of residual spatial autocorrelation with application to mortality rates in Sweden2015In: Spatial Statistics, E-ISSN 2211-6753, Vol. 14, no C, p. 365-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When analyzing data collected with a geographical dimension it is important to be able to test for spatial autocorrelation. The presence of spatial autocorrelation might unveil ignored explanatory variables or just be a factor necessary to consider when further analyzing the data.

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to propose a new test that works well for detecting spatial autocorrelation, which is robust against heteroscedasticity and useful regardless of the underlying distribution. The new test is then used to investigate if the mortality rates in the aging Swedish population show spatial autocorrelation as an example of its use.

    Methods: We derive such a test assuming the mean function for the model is known and perform simulations for this case and for residuals to investigate its finite sample performance, especially how the nominal rejection size is kept.

    Results: In the simulations we show that our test works well if there is no heteroscedasticity and also under difficult situations such as heteroscedasticity with structure, given that sufficient number of observations are available. This study finds no autocorrelation of mortality rates in Swedish municipalities in the age group 64–75 in year 2006.

  • 12.
    Lundström, Karl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Montgomery, A.
    Nordin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Patient-reported rates of chronic pain and recurrence after groin hernia repair2018In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 105, no 1, p. 106-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The effectiveness of different procedures in routine surgical practice for hernia repair with respect to chronic postoperative pain and reoperation rates is not clear.

    Methods: This was prospective cohort study based on a unique combination of patient-reported outcomes and national registry data. Virtually all patients with a groin hernia repair in Sweden between September 2012 and April 2015 were sent a questionnaire 1 year after surgery. Persistent pain, defined as at least "pain present, cannot be ignored, and interferes with concentration on everyday activities' in the past week was the primary outcome. Reoperation for recurrence recorded in the register was the secondary outcome.

    Results: In total, 22 917 patients (response rate 75.5 per cent) who had an elective unilateral groin hernia repair were analysed. Persistent pain present 1 year after hernia repair was reported by 15.2 per cent of patients. The risk was least for endoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) repair (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.84, 95 per cent c.i. 0.74 to 0.96), compared with open anterior mesh repair. TEP repair had an increased risk of reoperation for recurrence (adjusted OR 2.14, 1.52 to 2.98), as did open preperitoneal mesh repair (adjusted OR 2.34, 1.42 to 3.71) at 2.5-year follow-up. No other methods of repair differed significantly from open anterior mesh repair.

    Conclusion: The risk of significant pain 1year after groin hernia repair in routine surgical practice was 15.2 per cent. This figure was lower in patients who had surgery by an endoscopic technique, but at the price of a significantly higher risk of reoperation for recurrence.

  • 13. Nilsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Nordin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Groin hernia repair in women - A nationwide register study2018In: American Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0002-9610, E-ISSN 1879-1883, Vol. 216, no 2, p. 274-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate reoperation for recurrence in men and women with respect to method of repair, hernia anatomy and year of operation. Method: Since 1992, groin hernia repairs performed in Sweden are prospectively registered in the Swedish Hernia Register, (SHR). Reoperations are noted, regardless of where the reoperation is performed. Risk of reoperation for recurrence is calculated for men and women with respect of method of repair, hernia anatomy and year of operation. Results: Out of 221 108 eligible operations registered between 1992-2013,17 545 (8%) were performed on women. The risk of being operated for recurrence after laparoscopic surgery was lowered in women, RR 0,4(95%CI 0.3-0.7) and increased in men, RR 2.3(95% CI 2.0-2.7), compared to the Lichtenstein technique. Discussion: The reoperation for recurrence rate differed significantly between men and women. As regards the technique used for primary repair, laparoscopic groin hernia repair lowered the risk of reoperation for recurrence in women whereas it doubled the risk in men.

  • 14.
    Nordin, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Ahlberg, J.
    Johansson, H.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Hafstrom, L.
    Risk factors for injuries associated with damage claims following groin hernia repair2017In: Hernia, ISSN 1265-4906, E-ISSN 1248-9204, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surgical repair of groin hernia should be carried out with minimal complication rates, and it is important to have regular quality control and accurate means of assessment. The Swedish healthcare system has a mutual insurance company (LA-F) that receives claims from patients who have suffered healthcare-related damage or malpractice. The Swedish Hernia Register (SHR) currently covers around 98% of all Swedish groin hernia operations. The aim of this study was to analyse damage claims following groin hernia repair surgery and link these with entries in the SHR, in order to identify risk factors and causes of injuries and malpractice associated with hernia repair. Data on all 48,574 groin hernia operations registered in the SHR between 2008 and 2010 were compared and linked with data on claims made to the Swedish National Patient Injury Insurance (LA-F). Of the 130 damage claims received by LA-F, 26 dealt with bleeding, 20 with testicular injury and 7 with intestinal lesions. Eighty (62%) of the complications were considered malpractice according to the Swedish Patient Injury Act. Acute and recurrent surgery, sutured repair and general anaesthesia were associated with a significantly increased risk for a damage claim independently the patients were compensated or not. Females filed claims in greater proportion than males. There was no significant difference in background factors between claims accepted by LA-F and compensated and those who were rejected compensation. Risk factors for filing a damage claim included acute surgery, operation for recurrence, sutured repair and general anaesthesia, whereas local anaesthesia reduced the risk.

  • 15.
    Sondell, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Is the Effect of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program on Functional Balance Influenced by Applicability and Motivation Among Older People with Dementia in Nursing Homes?2019In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 1011-1020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives: Exercise can be an important way of maintaining balance function in people with dementia, but further investigation is needed to determine the optimal way of exercising. The objective was to evaluate whether exercise applicability (i.e., attendance, exercise intensity, and adverse events) and motivation were associated with the effect on functional balance of a high-intensity functional exercise program for older people with dementia in nursing homes.

    Design, Setting and Participants: Exercise intervention participants (n = 81; 60 women, 21 men) from a randomized controlled trial (UMDEX) were included. Their mean age was 84 and mean Mini-Mental State Examination score was 15.

    Intervention: Groups of 3–8 participants participated in the High-Intensity Functional Exercise (HIFE) Program, with 5 sessions per 2-week period, for 4 months (total, 40 sessions).

    Measurements: Outcome was the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), assessed at baseline and follow up, and the score difference, dichotomized to classify participants into two groups: responders (≥5-point increase) and non-responders (<5-point increase). Target variables were measures of applicability and motivation. Associations between each target variable and the outcome were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Baseline characteristics and new medical conditions developing during the intervention period were compared between responders and non-responders and included in the analyses when p < 0.10.

    Results: The BBS score was 28.6 ± 14.3 at baseline and 31.2 ± 15.3 at follow up, with the difference between follow-up and baseline scores ranging from −35 to 24. Twenty-nine (35.8%) participants were responders. The multivariable models showed no significant association between responders vs. non-responders and any target variable.

    Conclusion: Participation in a 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program can improve balance in many individuals with dementia in nursing homes, despite the progressiveness of dementia disorders and several co-existing medical conditions. Predicting balance exercise response based on applicability and motivation seem not to be possible, which lends no support for excluding this group from functional exercise, even when exercise intensity or motivation is not high.

  • 16.
    Toots, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Boström, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Effects of exercise on cognitive function in older people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial2017In: Journal of alzheimers disease, ISSN 1387-2877, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 323-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although physical exercise has been suggested to influence cognitive function, previous exercise studies show inconsistent results in people with dementia. Objectives: To investigate effects of exercise on cognitive function in people with dementia. Method: The Umea a Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial, was set in 16 nursing homes in Umea, Sweden. One hundred-and-forty-one women and 45 men with dementia; mean age of 85 y and mean MiniMental State Examination (MMSE) score of 15, were randomized to a High-Intensity Functional Exercise program or a seated attention control activity. Blinded assessors measured global cognitive function using the MMSE and the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale -Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), and executive function using Verbal fluency (VF) at baseline and 4 months (directly after intervention completion), and MMSE and VF at 7 months. Results: Linear mixed models showed no between-group effects in mean difference from baseline (95% confidence intervals, CI) at 4 months in MMSE (-0.27; 95% CI -1.4 to 0.87, p = 0.644), ADAS-Cog (-1.04, 95% CI -4 to 1.92, p = 0.491), or VF (-0.53, 95% CI -1.42 to 0.35, p = 0.241) or at 7 months in MMSE (-1.15, 95% CI -2.32 to 0.03, p = 0.056) or VF (-0.18, 95% CI -1.09 to 0.74, p = 0.707). Conclusion: A 4-month, high-intensity functional exercise program had no superior effects on global cognition or executive function in people with dementia living in nursing homes when compared with an attention control activity.

  • 17.
    Toots, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Walking aids moderate exercise effects on gait speed in people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial2017In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of exercise on gait speed, when tested using walking aids and without, and whether effects differed according to amount of support in the test.

    DESIGN: A cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    SETTING: The Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study was set in 16 nursing homes in Umeå, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: One hundred forty-one women and 45 men (mean age 85 years) with dementia, of whom 145 (78%) habitually used walking aids.

    INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized to the high-intensity functional exercise program or a seated attention control activity.

    MEASUREMENTS: Blinded assessors measured 4-m usual gait speed with walking aids if any gait speed (GS), and without walking aids and with minimum amount of support, at baseline, 4 months (on intervention completion), and 7 months.

    RESULTS: Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect in either gait speed test at 4 or 7 months. In interaction analyses exercise effects differed significantly between participants who walked unsupported compared with when walking aids or minimum support was used. Positive between-group exercise effects on gait speed (m/s) were found in subgroups that walked unsupported at 4 and 7 months (GS: 0.07, P = .009 and 0.13, P < .001; and GS test without walking aids: 0.05, P = .011 and 0.07, P = .029, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: In people with dementia living in nursing homes exercise had positive effects on gait when tested unsupported compared with when walking aids or minimum support was used. The study suggests that the use of walking aids in gait speed tests may conceal exercise effects.

  • 18.
    Toots, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wiklund, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Effects of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program on Dependence in Activities of Daily Living and Balance in Older Adults with Dementia2016In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on independence in activities of  daily living (ADLs) and balance in older people with dementia and whether exercise effects differed between dementia types.

    DESIGN: Cluster-randomized controlled trial: Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study.

    SETTING: Residential care facilities, Umeå, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older with a dementia diagnosis, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater, and dependence in ADLs (N = 186).

    INTERVENTION: Ninety-three participants each were allocated to the high-intensity functional exercise program, comprising lower limb strength and balance exercises, and 93 to a seated control activity.

    MEASUREMENTS: Blinded assessors measured ADL independence using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Barthel Index (BI) and balance using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at baseline and 4 (directly after intervention completion) and 7 months.

    RESULTS: Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect on ADL independence at 4 (FIM=1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-1.6-4.3; BI=0.6, 95% CI=-0.2-1.4) or 7 (FIM=0.8, 95% CI=-2.2-3.8; BI=0.6, 95% CI=-0.3-1.4) months. A significant between-group effect on balance favoring exercise was observed at 4 months (BBS=4.2, 95% CI=1.8-6.6). In interaction analyses, exercise effects differed significantly between dementia types. Positive between-group exercise effects were found in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia according to the FIM at 7 months and BI and BBS at 4 and 7 months.

    CONCLUSION: In older people with mild to moderate dementia living in residential care facilities, a 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program appears to slow decline in ADL independence and improve balance, albeit only in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia.

  • 19.
    Wiklund, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Toots, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Risk factors for hip fracture in very old people: a population-based study2016In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 923-931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of risk factors for hip fracture among very old people is limited. Walking indoors with help from ≤1 person, Parkinson's disease, currently smoking, delirium in the previous month, underweight, and age were associated with increased risk of hip fracture and could be important for preventive strategy development.

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to investigate risk factors for hip fracture among a representative sample of very old people.

    METHODS: In total, 953 participants from the Umeå 85+/Gerontological Regional Database population-based cohort study were interviewed and assessed during home visits. Associations of baseline characteristics with hip fracture during the maximum 5-year follow-up period were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression.

    RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 89.3 ± 4.7 years; 65.8 % were women, 36.8 % lived in residential care facilities, 33.6 % had dementia, and 20.4 % had histories of hip fracture. During a mean follow-up period of 2.7 years, 96 (10.1 %) individuals sustained hip fracture. Walking indoors with help from no more than one person (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.57; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.90-38.71), Parkinson's disease (HR = 5.12; 95 % CI, 1.82-14.44), currently smoking (HR = 4.38; 95 % CI 2.06-9.33), delirium in the previous month (HR = 2.01; 95 % CI, 1.15-3.49), underweight (body mass index <22; HR = 1.74, 95 % CI, 1.09-2.77), and age (HR = 1.09; 95 % CI, 1.04-1.14) were associated independently with an increased risk of hip fracture. Hip prosthesis at baseline decreased the risk of hip fracture (HR = 0.37; 95 % CI, 0.15-0.91), but only for those with bilateral hip prostheses.

    CONCLUSIONS: Seven factors were associated independently with incident hip fracture during follow-up in this sample of very old people. These factors could have important clinical implications in identifying persons at high risk of hip fracture, as well as in the development of effective preventive strategies.

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