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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Climates of Global Competition1998Book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Business Administration.
    Konkurrensklimat och dynamik: en studie av interaktion mellan konkurrenter1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    A partly new train of thought has emerged during the last few years, which claims that national conditions are of importance for company strength in relation to international competitors. National competition has stood out as one of the most important explanatory factors, and is seen as the catalyst or motor in dynamic industrial environments. The demands and pressures that evolve from competition between geographically proximate companies stimulate the innovativeness within the industry. Thus, the question about

    why and how dynamics of competition develop and function has not been answered in existing research.

    The main purpose of this study is therefore to

    analyse the process of competition in industries with a high degree of geographical proximity between competitors, in order to improve the understanding of the character and dynamics of competition.

    A general review of literature dealing with competition at industry, strategic group, and organisation level was compiled. The review gave two dimensions by which four types of competition were possible to distinguish,

    degree of symmetry between competitores and degree of activity in competition. To obtain an understanding for the character and dynamics of competition, it is not enough to identify different types of competition. The process through which competition is formed over time also needs to be studied. Other theoretical approaches are therefore necessary. First, the companies' competitive actions should be understood from their experience and expectations of competition. Second, the specific competitive moves that are taken by individual companies are of importance for the competition. Third, competition has to be described as a process of interaction over time.

    A case-study approach has been used for the gathering of data. Case-studies have been conducted within three industries that differ from each other with regard to competition. Competition in the Frontloader industry has been driven by two companies equal in both size and relative strength. The competitors in the Lining industry are,on the other hand, dissimilar, both in respect to relative strength and to the orientation of their business. The third industry, that of Hoisters, is characterised by the domination by one company.

    Two major results have been reached in this study. First the concept

    climate of competition has been coined to analyse and describe the character of the four types of competition. The following four climates of competition emerge from the analysis; climate of rivalling competion, of co-existing competition, of evolutionary competition and climate of revolutionary competition. The climates of competition differ with regard to the functional and psychological distance between competitors, the possibility to survey competition, and the actors' acceptance of current rules-of-play and role distribution.

    The second result of the study is a greater understanding for the dynamics within competition. By analysing the character of and change in competition over time two partly different, but interwined forces, have been detected. Competition gives rise on the one hand to different kinds of learning processes, and on the other forces competitors to innovative and creative measures.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Baldwin, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    The interactive base of inter-organizational identity formation: inclusion and exclusion through boundary drawing2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Integrating the Internet and Marketing Operations: A Study of Antecedents in Firms of Different Size2007In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 27-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adopting the Internet for advanced marketing operations opens up challenging opportunities for firms of all sizes. However, such adoption might destroy investments in present market channels and thus has the characteristics of radical innovation. In this article, we draw on the literature on innovation to investigate what differentiates adopters of advanced Internet-based marketing operations from non-adopters in firms of different sizes. The conceptual model for this study is centred on the set of internal and external factors size, willingness to cannibalize, entrepreneurial drivers, management support, and market pressure. Our analysis is built on survey data from 379 Swedish manufacturing firms. The results of analysis show that composition of factors on which firms base their decision to adopt advanced Internet-based marketing operations varies signifi cantly with fi rm size. A number of implications for further research as well as for managers and educators are discussed.

  • 5.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    The challenge of building marketing channels via the Internet2003In: International Council for Small Business, Belfast, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Business Administration.
    Stickiness and leakiness in inter-organizationalinnovation projects2002In: Regenerated Projects: Beyond Project Management. New Perspectives on the Temporary-PermanentDilemma. Festschrift for Rolf A. Lundin. / [ed] K. Sahlin-Andersson & A. Söderholm, Malmö: Liber, 2002, p. 81-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Kock, Sören
    Innovationer gynnas av både konkurrens och samarbete2008In: Marknadsorientering: Myter och möjligheter, Liber AB Malmö , 2008, p. 239-256Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    De myter som diskuteras i detta kapitel är att antingen konkurrens eller samarbete utgör det bästa receptet för att stödja innovationsprocesser.

    En orsak till att myterna fått så stor genomslagskraft är att konkurrens och samarbete sällan diskuteras kopplat till vad somutgör innovativa processer, nämligen förmogan att utforska och exploatera nya idéer. Det är därför viktigt att man avfärdar de båda myterna och istället inser att konkurrens och samarbete pågår samtidigt, så kallad coopetition.

    Både konkurrens och samarbete kan stimulera och försvåra innovativa processer om än på olika sätt under olika delar av den innovativa processen. I kapitlet visas med hjälp av några praktiska exempel hur olika kombinationer av konkurrens och samarbete stimulerar förmågan att utforska respektive exploatera nya idéer.

  • 8.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Business Administration.
    Kock, Sören
    The importance of competition and cooperation for the exploration of innovation opportunities2005In: Managing opportunity development in business networks / [ed] Pervez Ghauri, Amjad Hadjikhani and Jan Johanson, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan , 2005, p. 49-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Co-opetition dynamics – an outline for further inquiry2010In: Competitiveness Review: An International Journal, ISSN 1059-5422, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 194-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to conceptually develop the understanding of co-opetitiondynamics and to enhance the conceptual clarity of co-opetition by developing a definition based onprevious research efforts.Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual paper integrates various approaches to theconcept co-opetition into a definition that holds for co-opetitive interactions across multiple levels.Different co-opetitive interactions and the resulting dynamics are discussed by drawing uponcompetition and cooperation theories. The paper concludes with an agenda for further research onco-opetition dynamics.Findings – The paper outlines how different types of co-opetitive interactions result in archetypicalsituations where the dynamics of co-opetition are present as well as where the dynamics of co-opetitionare missing due to a lack of balance between cooperation and competition. It notes four co-opetitiveforces: over-embedding, distancing, confronting, and colluding. These four forces drive developmenttowards situations without dynamics.Originality/value – This paper provides a conceptual understanding of co-opetition dynamics andwill reveal that in order to adequately account for co-opetition dynamics, a definition of co-opetitionmust analytically separate the cooperative and the competitive interaction inherent in co-opetition.

  • 10.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Coopetition: New ideas for a new paradigm2010In: Coopetition: Winning strategies for the 21st century / [ed] Yami, Said et.al., CHELTENHAM: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, p. 19-39Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    La coopétition: Un nouveau monde2010In: Stratégies de coopétition: Rivaliser et coopérer simultanément / [ed] Saïd Yami, Frédéric le Roy, de boeck , 2010, 1, p. 29-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Kock, Sören
    Handelshögskolan i Vasa, Finland .
    Role conflicts in co-opetitive relationships2009In: EIASM Co-opetition and Entrepreneurship, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Wåhlin, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Ledarskap och strategisk förändring2009In: Ledarskapsboken, Malmö: Liber AB , 2009, p. 123-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Holmquist, Carin
    Entrepreneurial Drivers and Dynamic Capabilities in Situations of Encompassing Change2005In: A focused Issue on Understanding Growth: Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Diversification / [ed] Ron Sanchez, Aime Heene, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005, p. 3-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We lack knowledge concerning the importance of entrepreneurial actors in development of dynamic capabilities. Entrepreneurial drives lead the entrepreneur and his/her firm into different strategies to cope with encompassing change and in building different sets of capabilities. A case study of four high-tech firms suggests that entrepreneurial actions determined by entrepreneurial drives (technological, market, business, and development) lead to the creation of new modules and to combinations of external and internal capabilities that increase the balance between contradicting demands. This suggests that a combination of different drives is important, as is the formation of entrepreneurial roles (creators, expanders, and builders).

  • 15.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Holmquist, Carin
    Managing the Unmanageable: Strategic Balancing in Industries Characterized by Encompassing Change2000In: Winning Strategies in a Deconstructing World, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. , 2000, p. 332-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Clashes between contending market regimes: a challenge for firms in converging industries2011In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 454-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework that describe three contending market regimes in converging industries, and to use this framework to study clashes between the different regimes and the implication they have on firms’ competitive strategies and on the interaction among competitors. More specifically, it is the challenges that develop when competitors simultaneously are acting in accordance with a competitive, a cooperative, and a co-opetitive market regime that are elaborated upon.

    Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory study of the interaction between firms within the IT and Telecom industry is conducted using a case study approach with in-depth interviews with 30 informants within the industry together with secondary data.

    Findings – The paper brings forward clashes between different market regimes in converging industries and six propositions are formulated.  The study furthermore shows how firms respond differently to a demand-driven convergence, some act in accordance with a competitive regime and try to exclude others whereas others act in accordance with the co-opetitive regime and cooperate with competitors to develop new product offers.

  • 17.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Managing coopetition to create opportunities for small firms2014In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 401-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how coopetition enables Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) to create entrepreneurial opportunities in fast-paced industries. The purpose is to explore the managerial challenges that SMEs face when collaborating with large powerful competitors and examine how they balance the relationship to create and sustain business opportunities through coopetition. Based on three exploratory case studies in the IT and telecom industry, we develop a theoretical model suggesting that SME can manage the liabilities of smallness and newness; and sustain independence in and balance coopetitive relationships with large firms if they develop alliance portfolio managing capabilities. We find that the ability to build legitimacy, to enhance agility and to create role flexibility plays an important role in balancing and navigating among different coopetitive relationships, thereby creating and sustaining opportunities.

  • 18.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Näsholm, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Alliance portfolio management capability of SMEs: strategies for dealing with larger partners2015In: Strategic alliances for SME development / [ed] T. K. Das, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2015, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Näsholm, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    A systematic review of coopetition: levels and effects on different levels2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the field of coopetition has grown the multi-level nature of the phenomena have not been systematically addressed. The purpose of this systematic review is to organize extant research by distinguishing between level of coopetition and the effects of coopetition. Through a search of two databases, 99 articles were identified addressing coopetition, or collaboration and competition. The articles were classified by the method used, the level of coopetition addressed and on what level the effects were described. Within the different combinations of level and effect a content analysis was made of the articles. We suggest that additional clarification of the concept is needed to consolidate the field and give direction for future research. 

  • 20.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Kock, Sören
    Cooperation and competition in relationships between competitors in business networks1999In: Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 178-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally the relationships between competitors in the industrial market have been based on competition. The network approach and literature about strategic alliances have provided new insights into cooperation between firms based on the value chain. The empirical findings from two in-depth studies, the rack and pinion industry and the lining industry, show that a firm can be involved in four different types of horizontal relationships at the same time. Apart from relationships consisting of competition or cooperation, a firm can live in symbiosis by coexisting with other relationships, or being involved in a relationship simultaneously containing elements of both cooperation and competition. Consequently, a successful firm needs to focus on relationship management in order to achieve a portfolio consisting of the four types of relationships to other

    horizontal firms.

  • 21.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Kock, Sören
    "Coopetition" in Business Networks -- to Cooperate and Compete Simultaneously2000In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 411-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing theory and research on relationships among competitors focuses either on competitive or on cooperative relationships between them, and the one relationship is argued to harm or threaten the other. Little research has considered that two firms can be involved in and benefit from both cooperation and competition simultaneously, and hence that both types of relationships need to be emphasized at the same time. In this article, it is argued that the most complex, but also the most advantageous relationship between competitors, is “coopetition” where two competitors both compete and cooperate with each other. Complexity is due to the fundamentally different and contradictory logics of interaction that competition and cooperation are built on. It is of crucial importance to separate the two different parts of the relationship to manage the complexity and thereby make it possible to benefit from such a relationship. This article uses an explorative case study of two Swedish and one Finnish industries where coopetition is to be found, to develop propositions about how the competitive and cooperative part of the relationship can be divided and managed. It is shown that the two parts can be separated depending on the activities degree of proximity to the customer and on the competitors' access to specific resources. It is also shown that individuals within the firm only can act in accordance with one of the two logics of interaction at a time and hence that either the two parts have to be divided between individuals within the company, or that one part needs to be controlled and regulated by an intermediate actor such as a collective association.

  • 22.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Kock, Sören
    Department of Management and Organization, Hanken School of Economics, Finland & Erling-Persson Center for Entrepreneurship, Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Coopetition - Quo vadis?: Past accomplishments and future challenges2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 180-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on coopetition has been conducted for more than two decades. However, several concepts remain that require elaboration. A study on the literature shows that there is a lack of unified definitions, as various definitions have been employed in previous accomplished research. In this article we suggest that the early definition of coopetition, as a dual relationship between firms that simultaneously cooperate and compete needs to be refined. Our new definition suggests that coopetition is a paradoxical relationship between two or more actors, regardless of whether they are in horizontal or vertical relationships, simultaneously involved in cooperative and competitive interactions. We also highlight important contributions to the field, and some shortcomings that point to future challenges for coopetition research. Finally, we put forward five directions for future research: (1) understand the balancing of cooperation and competition, (2) understand the coopetition paradox and engendered tension, (3) apply a multilevel perspective on coopetition (4) understand the dynamics of coopetitive interaction, and (5) understand how coopetition impacts business models and strategy.

  • 23.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Kock, Sören
    Dynamics in business networks: Cooperation and competition among competitors1999In: Training exercises for improving sensemaking skills - with solutions, JAI Press Inc. , 1999Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationships among competitors in the same market have for a long time been regarded as consisting of only competition. By competing, the competitors have been forced to develop their products, although this is not always a demand from the buyers. Moreover, competition is regarded as the main driving force behind better internal efficiency. Lately, the importance of cooperation in order to pool resources together has been suggested as an effective way of enabling competitors to be more effective. Shorter lead times, distribution of costs for developing new products, more efficient production processes, and focusing on core competition are mentioned as some of the reasons competitors should form cooperative relationships that can range from informal long-term relationships between competitors and how they can affect their business.

  • 24.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Kock, Sören
    Hanken School of Economics, Department of Management and Organization, Finland.
    Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena
    Hanken School of Economics, Department of Management and Organization, Finland.
    Harryson Näsholm, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Coopetition research in theory and practice: growing new theoretical, empirical, and methodological domains2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 57, p. 4-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss the theoretical rooting of present research on coopetition and point to the need for an integration of theories on competition dynamics, and cooperative interactions in social networks. We argue that the future growth of the coopetitive research field hinges on creatively combining existing theoretical approaches with novel research methods and contexts. In particular, we suggest that incorporating theories on the micro foundations of strategic action can substantially enhance the field. The aim of this paper is both to raise questions regarding the theory and practice of coopetition research and to give examples of new approaches and trends that may contribute to the advancement of the field in the future. We consider our research practice and explore avenues for further research starting from what, where and how we study coopetition, to when and who we study. In general, we call for a stronger focus on the centrality of multiple stakeholders in forming, executing, and developing coopetition, and on research methods that can investigate in depth the multitude of actors, interests, and interactions using a multi-level analysis, including the micro foundations of coopetition.

  • 25.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Baldwin, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Business induced barriers in explaining the effects of deregulation: Two Swedish case studies1998In: Who Benefits from Privatisation? / [ed] Moazzem Hossain and Justin Malbon, Routledge, 1998, p. 157-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Müllern, Tomas
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Wåhlin, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    A Grammar of Organizing2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Powell, Walter W.
    Introduction: new perspectives on competition and cooperation2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, Vol. 20, no 1-2, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    A systematic review of research on coopetition: Toward a multilevel understanding2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 57, p. 23-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While research on the phenomenon of coopetition has dramatically increased during the last years, this line of inquiry often embodies a loosely connected body of work with fragmented themes, underdeveloped concepts, and little work explaining coopetition at multiple levels. In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review of the field, and based on a final set of 142 contributions, synthesize the disparate research into a coherent whole by developing an overarching and dynamic multilevel model. We first systematize diverse conceptualizations of coopetition with respect to different levels into The Actor and The Activity Schools of Thought. Then we integrate major critical themes into a Driver, Process, Outcomes (DPO) framework, and offer a Blended School of Thought to show how different levels are intertwined and affect each other. Next, we develop a multilevel conceptual model of coopetition by integrating the Blended School into the DPO framework. This model helps future re- search better understand how the phenomena of coopetition at one level of analysis are distinct, yet interlinked, from coopetition at other levels, and in so doing, provides a richer and more complete perspective of the phe- nomenon of coopetition. Finally, we identify promising research avenues and suggest how future research can strengthen this line of inquiry.

  • 29.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Paradox at an inter-firm level: a coopetition lens2017In: The Oxford handbook of organizational paradox / [ed] Wendy K. Smith, Marianne W. Lewis, Paula Jarzabkowski and Ann Langley, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 296-314Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on coopetition (i.e., simultaneous pursuit of cooperation and competition between firms) as a manifestation of paradox at an inter-firm level, and develops a nuanced understanding of the resulting paradoxical tension by bringing its micro-foundations into focus. The authors suggest that unlike the paradox that manifests at the inter-firm level (or organizational level), tension is experienced by individual actors, and comprises ambivalent cognitions, emotions, and their interplay. The authors further suggest that paradoxical tension is most productive when maintained at a moderate level, and for that firms need to develop a multilevel operating capability. The suggested theory provides novel and useful insights to advance the research on paradoxes at inter-firm and organizational levels.

  • 30.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Linking coopetition tensions with performance: the mediating role of ambidexterity2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By viewing coopetition as a paradox, this paper provides a conceptual model for examining the mediating role of managers’ ambidextrous orientation in linking coopetition tensions with firm’s performance. With a focus on two kinds of tensions that managers usually experience in the coopetition relationship (i.e., external tensions) as well as perceive inside the organization (i.e., internal tensions), we conceptualize their materialization from the coopetition paradox and how ambidextrous managers can mitigate their potential destructive effects on performance. This conceptual model is tested on a representative sample of 1,532 firms in Sweden. The results show that coopetition paradox associates with external tensions but weakly relates to internal tensions. A key contribution is that there is no significant direct relation between coopetition tensions and performance but that an ambidextrous orientation of managers provides a strong mediating effect between the two. 

  • 31.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The coopetition paradox and tension: the moderating role of coopetition capability2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 53, p. 19-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we apply a paradox perspective on coopetition to investigate the effects of coopetition paradox on managers' experience and perception of coopetitive tensions, and the role of coopetition capability in managing such tensions. We propose a theoretical model to posit that the intensity of coopetition paradox positively associates with managers' experience of external tension, which in turn lead them to perceive internal tension. Further, coopetition capability plays a dual role—moderates the relation between coopetition paradox and external tension, and reduces internal tension. We tested hypotheses on a representative multi-industry sample of 1532 firms in Sweden and the results confirm them. Our study contributes to understanding the critical role of coopetition capability that enables firms to maintain a moderate level of tension regardless of the intensity of coopetition paradox. 

  • 32.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Bridging Distances: Organizing Boundry-spanning Technology Development Projects2002In: Regional Studies, ISSN 0034-3404, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology development is often a boundary-spanning activity where insights and discoveries from different organizations or organizational units are merged into new products or new technical solutions. In some cases, projects of this kind are organized within large multinational firms. In other cases, technology development projects are organized within networks through co-operation between independent companies possessing unique resources that can be utilized as parts of the project. In this paper, we discuss and analyse how distances are bridged in technology development projects. We focus on: (1) the relationship between implicit and explicit knowledge; and (2) different distances inherent in the development effort. Two different bridging processes are proposed as means to overcome distances: a separating-integrating process; and a linking-formalizing process. It is argued that a development project typically runs through either one of these two processes.

  • 33.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Sölvell, Örjan
    Climate of Competition: Clusters and Innovative Performance2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 225-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine industry competition and cooperation in industry clusters, and to explore the role they play in driving innovation among firms. The dependent variable, innovative performance, is measured in terms of both product and process development. A theoretical model is built on the basis of three constructs: industry competition, involving both structural and relational, or ‘climatic’ characteristics; industry cluster; and innovative performance. Seven hypotheses are extracted from the model. A LISREL model based on a stratified sample of all Swedish manufacturing industries is used to test our hypotheses. The empirical findings have important theoretical implications in three areas. First, by introducing relational dimensions of competition—the ‘climate of competition’—we can build a more refined model of the nature of industry competition. Two types of climate are identified, the ‘hot’ and the ‘cold’. Second, it is shown that the structure and climate of competition are both important drivers of innovative behavior. Third, in addition to competition, cooperation within clusters also has a significant impact on innovation.

  • 34.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Wilson, Timothy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Introduction to the special issue: changing paradigms in competition and competitiveness2010In: Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness, ISSN 1059-5422, Vol. 20, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Brand equity, satisfaction and switching costs: An examination of effects in the B2B setting2013In: Book of Abstracts from the 8th Global Brand Conference of Brand, Identity and Corporate Reputation SIG, Academy of Marketing, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of satisfaction and switching costs on the development of brand equity in the B2B setting. The study considers the hierarchical effects between brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality, and brand loyalty. Furthermore, the conceptual model examines the direct effect of switching costs on satisfaction. The structural equation modeling was used to analyze 632 responses from the CEOs and CFOs of organizations buying auditing and business consultancy services from one of the Big Four auditing companies. The findings demonstrate the significant impact of satisfaction and switching costs on B2B brand equity.

  • 36.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Brand equity, satisfaction, and switching costs: An examination of effects in the business-to-business setting2015In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 164-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of satisfaction and switching costs on the development of brand equity in the business-to-business setting. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze 632 responses from the CEOs and CFOs of organizations buying auditing and business consultancy services from one of the Big Four auditing companies. The findings demonstrate the significant impact of satisfaction and switching costs on B2B brand equity. Furthermore, the findings show the positive effect of switching costs on satisfaction. The findings provide a strong foundation for further investigation of links between the key marketing concepts: brand equity, satisfaction, and switching costs.

  • 37.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology .
    B2B brand equity: Analyzing the impact of customer-employee rapport and employee role behavior2011In: Proceedings, 40th EMAC Conference, the European Marketing Academy, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of customer-employee rapport and employee role behavior on the development of B2B brand equity. The process of brand equity development is captured in this study through the hierarchical effects between the dimensions of brand equity. The interaction between the customer and the employee is reflected by customer-employee rapport, employee role ambiguity and role overload. The results of the structural equation modeling show the positive effect of customer-employee rapport and the negative effects of role ambiguity and role overload on the development of B2B brand equity.

  • 38.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Brand equity in the professional service context: Analyzing the impact of employee role behavior and customer–employee rapport2011In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1093-1102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines whether factors related to customers' perception of employees' behavior in terms of customer perceived role ambiguity, role overload and customer–employee rapport influence the development of brand equity in the professional service context. 632 customers of one of the Big Four auditing companies participated in the study. The results of structural equation modeling show negative effects of role ambiguity and role overload on brand associations, perceived quality and brand loyalty, which constitute brand equity. The findings indicate a positive effect of customer–employee rapport on the enhancement of B2B brand equity. However, the negative influences of role ambiguity and role overload on customer–employee rapport transfer detrimental indirect effects on brand equity. The study contributes to an understanding of how the real interaction between service providers and customers can influence brand equity in the professional service setting.

  • 39.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Dynamics of B2B brand equity formation: An empirical comparison between uni- and multi-service buyers2009In: Book of Abstracts from the 5th International Conference of Academy of Marketing Brand, Identity and Corporate Reputation SIG: "Branding and Society: The Social, Cultural and Financial Impacts of Brands in the 21st Century", Academy of Marketing - Brand, Identity and Corporate Reputation SIG , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the study is to investigate the dynamics of brand equity formation in the business-to-business setting. The study focuses on examining the potential differences in the formation of brand equity between the customers, who have chosen to buy only the core service, versus the customers, who have decided to buy a diverse range of services from their current provider of professional services.

  • 40.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Dynamics of B2B brand equity: the role of interdependencies in buyer-seller relationships2010In: Proceeding of the 39th EMAC Conference / [ed] Beckmann, S.C., Ringberg, T., and Ritter, T., European Marketing Academy , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of buyer-seller interdependencies on the formation of brand equity in the B2B context. The study demonstrates that a higher level of dependency, experienced by the multi-services buyers compared to the uni-service buyers, affects overall brand equity developed towards the seller. By considering the hierarchy of effects between the brand equity dimensions, the study shows that the factors capturing the interdependencies have a significant impact on brand loyalty of the multi- service buyers. The study contributes to branding research by evaluating the impact of buyer- seller dependency on B2B brand equity.

  • 41.
    Gnyawali, Devi R
    et al.
    Pamplin College of Business, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA.
    Machavan, Ravi
    Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh, 208 Mervis Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.
    He, Jinyu
    Department of Management, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The competition-cooperation paradox in inter-firm relationships: a conceptual framework2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 53, p. 7-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a focus on inter-firm relationships involving the simultaneous pursuit of competition and cooperation, we develop a conceptual framework that explicates key paradoxical conditions, paradoxical tension, and performance implications of tension in such relationships. We propose felt tension as the actual manifestation of the paradox and offer insights on critical capabilities necessary to understand and manage the paradox. Our paper extends the paradox literature in the inter-organizational context and provides a set of concepts and propositions designed to stimulate systematic empirical research on the competition–cooperation paradox.

  • 42.
    Harryson Näsholm, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Managing multiple identifications in the context of coopetition2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals working on coopetitive projects are important to the success of a coopetitive relationship yet coopetition has rarely been studied on the individual level. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conceptually examine (1) the consequences of coopetition for individuals by drawing on social identity theory and (2) how these consequences affect the balancing of coopetitive relationships. A conceptual model is developed that link experienced coopetition to individuals’ dual identifications, experienced tension and coopetitive behavior, which in turn affects the balance of coopetitive relationships. Implications for organizations’ coopetitive capabilities and how coopetitive relationships can be managed are discussed.

  • 43.
    Hedlund, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Tourists’ vacation choice structure: Exploring the relationship between values, vacation choices, and green tourismManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for charter tourists to be able to go on vacation, they have to make several different sub-choices, for example regarding what type of destination to visit and what travel mode and accommodation to choose. These sub-choices can be seen as part of an individual’s vacation choice structure. The outcome of one sub-choice can have an impact on other choices in this structure and also be more or less harmful to the environment. The present study used conjoint analysis to explore the trade-off between and within vacation choices as well as to see if and when green aspects are included in the choice of vacation packages. It also explored how value orientation influences tourists’ green vacation choices. The results indicated that charter tourists clearly make a distinction between vacation choices with regard to their importance in a trade-off situation and that travel mode is the most important choice. The findings also showed that green preferences only could be found in choice of accommodation and that individuals’ value orientation does not affect vacation choices to a large extent. Implications of the findings and recommendations for further research are also provided.

  • 44.
    Johansson, Marlene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Business Administration.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Study on balancing cooperation and competition in coopetitive relationships through bridging and bondingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coopetitive relationships, with simultaneous cooperation and competition, are argued to be beneficial for the development of competitive advantage. To obtain and maintain such advantage over time the relationship however needs to be balanced. Through two longitudinal case studies we examine how bridging and bonding activities can facilitate and restrict the balancing of coopetitive relationships. Our findings illustrate changes in coopetitive relationships over time, focusing how these changes affect the coopetitive balance. We show how bridging and bonding possibilities arise in coopetitive relationships, how bridging and bonding are related and influence each other, and outline mechanisms in the different processes that facilitate and restrict firms’ ability to balance coopetitive relationships over time. The study offer implications for the literature on firms’ capabilities to manage coopetition as a strategy.

  • 45.
    Manzhynski, Siarhei
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Stål, Herman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Knotted paradoxes in eco-innovation: a double trap or two needs with one deed?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paradox theory has not yet considered how paradoxes interact when they are brought together. To explore such knotting we investigate coopetition for sustainability, when competitors collaborate to address environmental concerns. We use a case study of three examples of collaborative activities between housing companies in Belarus to display how these two paradoxes are knotted together. We find that coopetition brings less tension and is used as a means to address stronger sustainability tensions, enabling firms to partially achieve ‘two needs with one deed’. Based on our findings we suggest that how knotting appears is affected by the type of paradoxes involved, the strength and dynamics of their tensions, and their relationships to each other. We conclude with a call for more research particularly in more competitive settings and with other types of paradoxes. 

  • 46.
    Näsholm, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    A conceptual model of individual identifications in the context of coopetition2014In: International Journal of Business Environment, ISSN 1740-0589, E-ISSN 1740-0597, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 11-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals working on inter-organisational cooperative projects with their competitors are important to the success of a coopetitive relationship between firms, but the role of individuals has rarely been addressed in coopetition research. The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model of individuals in coopetitive contexts and explore their identification with the organisation and the cooperative project. The developed model links experienced coopetition to individuals' dual, potentially conflicting, identifications which affects individuals' experienced tension and coopetitive behaviour. Secondly we will discuss how these consequences of coopetition for individuals affect the balancing of dyadic coopetitive relationships. Implications for organisations' coopetitive capabilities and how coopetitive relationships can be managed are also discussed.

  • 47.
    Ossipenko, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Satisfaction and brand equity: an empirical analysis of the effects in the B2B setting2009In: Proceeding of the 38th EMAC Conference / [ed] Jean-Pierre Helfer, Jean-Louis Nicolas, European Marketing Academy , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the study is to examine the causal relationships between satisfaction and the dimensions of brand equity. Despite the importance that customer satisfaction and brand equity have for the company’s success, the causal relationships between these concepts were not investigated in previous research. Considering the hierarchical effects between the brand equity dimensions, the conceptual framework examines the relationships between satisfaction and brand equity in the business-to-business setting. Confirmatory factor analysis indicates significant positive effects of satisfaction on brand awareness, brand associations, and brand loyalty. The important link between perceived quality, satisfaction, and brand loyalty is confirmed in this study.

  • 48.
    Ossipenko, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    The impact of customer experience on brand equity: a communal relationships norms perspective2008In: Book of Abstracts from 4th International Colloquium of Academy of Marketing Brand, Identity and Corporate Reputation SIG: Experiental Brands, Identity and Reputation: The Power of Intangible Assets in Expressive Organisations and Markets / [ed] Francisco Guzmán, Academy of Marketing - Brand, Identity and Corporate Reputation SIG , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of customer experience on different dimensions of brand equity. The study employs a customer-based approach for conceptualizing brand equity. The conceptual model illustrates the impact of customer experience on the formation of brand equity, which is assessed through a hierarchy of effects between the brand equity dimensions. Structural equation modeling is used to perform a confirmatory factor analysis testing the significance of the proposed model in the business-to-business setting.

  • 49.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Emotions in paradoxical inter-firm relationships: a conceptual framework2014In: The 74th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, 2014, p. 15851-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a theory of emotions in inter-firm relationships with specific attention to the context of coopetition in which firms deal with the paradox of simultaneous cooperation and competition with each other. Our theory articulates the antecedents, characteristics, consequences and management of emotions in coopetition. We propose that the cognitive appraisal of paradox in coopetition leads to emotional ambivalence – an emotional state of experiencing simultaneous positive and negative emotions. We introduce the concept of emotional ambidexterity that enables the focal firm to accept, allow, and maintain emotional ambivalence at a moderate level, and enhance performance. Applying an emotional lens on coopetition enhances scholarly understanding of the paradoxical phenomenon and provides intriguing avenues for further research.

  • 50.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Tension in Paradoxical Relationships between Firms2013In: 29th EGOS Colloquium, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 56
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