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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Näsholm, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    A systematic review of coopetition: levels and effects on different levels2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the field of coopetition has grown the multi-level nature of the phenomena have not been systematically addressed. The purpose of this systematic review is to organize extant research by distinguishing between level of coopetition and the effects of coopetition. Through a search of two databases, 99 articles were identified addressing coopetition, or collaboration and competition. The articles were classified by the method used, the level of coopetition addressed and on what level the effects were described. Within the different combinations of level and effect a content analysis was made of the articles. We suggest that additional clarification of the concept is needed to consolidate the field and give direction for future research. 

  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    A systematic review of research on coopetition: Toward a multilevel understanding2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 57, p. 23-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While research on the phenomenon of coopetition has dramatically increased during the last years, this line of inquiry often embodies a loosely connected body of work with fragmented themes, underdeveloped concepts, and little work explaining coopetition at multiple levels. In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review of the field, and based on a final set of 142 contributions, synthesize the disparate research into a coherent whole by developing an overarching and dynamic multilevel model. We first systematize diverse conceptualizations of coopetition with respect to different levels into The Actor and The Activity Schools of Thought. Then we integrate major critical themes into a Driver, Process, Outcomes (DPO) framework, and offer a Blended School of Thought to show how different levels are intertwined and affect each other. Next, we develop a multilevel conceptual model of coopetition by integrating the Blended School into the DPO framework. This model helps future re- search better understand how the phenomena of coopetition at one level of analysis are distinct, yet interlinked, from coopetition at other levels, and in so doing, provides a richer and more complete perspective of the phe- nomenon of coopetition. Finally, we identify promising research avenues and suggest how future research can strengthen this line of inquiry.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Paradox at an inter-firm level: a coopetition lens2017In: The Oxford handbook of organizational paradox / [ed] Wendy K. Smith, Marianne W. Lewis, Paula Jarzabkowski and Ann Langley, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 296-314Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on coopetition (i.e., simultaneous pursuit of cooperation and competition between firms) as a manifestation of paradox at an inter-firm level, and develops a nuanced understanding of the resulting paradoxical tension by bringing its micro-foundations into focus. The authors suggest that unlike the paradox that manifests at the inter-firm level (or organizational level), tension is experienced by individual actors, and comprises ambivalent cognitions, emotions, and their interplay. The authors further suggest that paradoxical tension is most productive when maintained at a moderate level, and for that firms need to develop a multilevel operating capability. The suggested theory provides novel and useful insights to advance the research on paradoxes at inter-firm and organizational levels.

  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Srivastava, Manish
    Looking different vs thinking differently: Impact of TMT diversity on coopetition capability2018In: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we focus on the micro-foundations of coopetition capability and ask: "where does coopetition capability come from?" Drawing upon social psychology and cognitive theories, we seek to offer insights into the micro-foundations of coopetition capability by focusing on the role of top management team (TMT) diversity. We suggest that TMT diversity emerges from two distinct attributes of the team members: surface-level (e.g., age, gender, nationality) and deep-level (e.g., knowledge and experience). We argue that TMT diversity based on surface-level attributes contributes negatively while TMT diversity based on deep-level attributes contributes positively to coopetition capability. We test our hypotheses using a novel dataset that combines primary data and employee level secondary data of a sample of 315 Swedish firms. Results provide broad support for our hypotheses. We discuss the implications of our findings and key limitations of our study.

  • 5.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Linking coopetition tensions with performance: the mediating role of ambidexterity2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By viewing coopetition as a paradox, this paper provides a conceptual model for examining the mediating role of managers’ ambidextrous orientation in linking coopetition tensions with firm’s performance. With a focus on two kinds of tensions that managers usually experience in the coopetition relationship (i.e., external tensions) as well as perceive inside the organization (i.e., internal tensions), we conceptualize their materialization from the coopetition paradox and how ambidextrous managers can mitigate their potential destructive effects on performance. This conceptual model is tested on a representative sample of 1,532 firms in Sweden. The results show that coopetition paradox associates with external tensions but weakly relates to internal tensions. A key contribution is that there is no significant direct relation between coopetition tensions and performance but that an ambidextrous orientation of managers provides a strong mediating effect between the two. 

  • 6.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The coopetition paradox and tension: the moderating role of coopetition capability2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 53, p. 19-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we apply a paradox perspective on coopetition to investigate the effects of coopetition paradox on managers' experience and perception of coopetitive tensions, and the role of coopetition capability in managing such tensions. We propose a theoretical model to posit that the intensity of coopetition paradox positively associates with managers' experience of external tension, which in turn lead them to perceive internal tension. Further, coopetition capability plays a dual role—moderates the relation between coopetition paradox and external tension, and reduces internal tension. We tested hypotheses on a representative multi-industry sample of 1532 firms in Sweden and the results confirm them. Our study contributes to understanding the critical role of coopetition capability that enables firms to maintain a moderate level of tension regardless of the intensity of coopetition paradox. 

  • 7.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    A theory of experienced paradoxical tension in co-opetitive alliances2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical research shows that co-opetition is a double-edged sword such that it can both help and hurt the achievement of desired performance outcomes. Despite the proliferation of co-opetitive alliances (i.e., simultaneous pursuit of competition and cooperation between firms), the field still lacks a theoretical framework that could help explain the dynamic mechanisms and conditions leading to these contradictory results. This thesis attempts to distill and integrate arguments from different literature streams of paradox, ambidexterity, and emotion to develop a framework in which experienced paradoxical tension (i.e., individual level cognitive difficulty and emotional ambivalence that pulls managers in opposite directions) serves as the main underlying mechanism through which co-opetition (i.e., an inter-firm level paradox) differentially affects performance in co-opetitive alliances. I further propose that firms' failure or success to achieve performance objectives in co- opetitive alliances is also contingent upon having a strong co-opetition capability (i.e., a multidimensional capability comprising analytical, emotional, and balancing dimensions). This thesis includes four appended papers that have used various methodologies such as anecdotes, exemplar cases, and particularly survey questionnaires to test some parts of the developed theory. The results from different papers show support for most of the tested relationships. Overall, the thesis contributes by proposing a much- need theory of experienced paradoxical tension that address the core issues related to the nature, source, consequence, and management of such tension in co-opetitive alliances. My theory has implications for research on organizational paradox and emotion, as well as for senior managers who are responsible for the success of co-opetitive alliances.

  • 8.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Experiencing the paradox of coopetition: A moderated mediation framework explaining the paradoxical tension–performance relationship2018In: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I investigate how and why experienced paradoxical tension deteriorates coopetitive performance and when such debilitating effects can be managed. More specifically, by drawing on the paradox theory and emotion literature, I suggest that paradoxical tension (i.e., the cognitive difficulty faced by senior managers as they pursue multiple, simultaneous competing demands of coopetition) creates a state of emotional ambivalence, which in turn, contributes negatively to coopetitive performance. I further propose that the negative consequences can be managed through organizational-level mechanisms, namely, emotional capability and balancing capability. The results show a full mediation of emotional ambivalence and a positive influence of balancing capability. Surprisingly, the moderating effect of emotional capability turns out to be negative. However, interestingly, the moderated-mediation result shows that a blend of higher balancing capability and lower emotional capability produces a positive indirect effect of tension on performance. The paper contributes to the research on strategy and organizational paradoxes.

  • 9.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Paradoxical tension and performance in co-opetitive alliances: a moderated mediation model including emotional ambivalence, ambivalence response, and balancing capability2017In: 33rd EGOS Colloquium, Copenhagen, July 6-8, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. Umeå University.
    The role of emotional ambivalence in coopetition alliances2017In: 77th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Atlanta, Aug 4-8, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I develop and test a theoretical model of moderated mediation in which emotional ambivalence functions as an intervening mechanism that explains association between co-opetitive tension and performance in co-opetition alliances. I also consider how managerial response of acceptance and organizational balancing capability influence the mediating role of emotional ambivalence in the tension– performance relationship through the effect they have on how ambivalence relates to performance. The structural model results, based on a sample of 220 firms involved in dyadic co-opetition alliances, show full mediation of emotional ambivalence and positive moderation of balancing capability. Counter to my expectation, however, acceptance response negatively moderates the link between emotional ambivalence and performance. Interestingly, the moderated mediation results show that when balancing capability is high and ambivalence response is low, the conditional indirect effects of tension on performance turn from negative to positive. I discuss how the recent theory on ambivalent responses of wise actors versus wise systems can explain this intriguing pattern of moderated mediation.

  • 11.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Emotions in paradoxical inter-firm relationships: a conceptual framework2014In: The 74th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, 2014, p. 15851-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a theory of emotions in inter-firm relationships with specific attention to the context of coopetition in which firms deal with the paradox of simultaneous cooperation and competition with each other. Our theory articulates the antecedents, characteristics, consequences and management of emotions in coopetition. We propose that the cognitive appraisal of paradox in coopetition leads to emotional ambivalence – an emotional state of experiencing simultaneous positive and negative emotions. We introduce the concept of emotional ambidexterity that enables the focal firm to accept, allow, and maintain emotional ambivalence at a moderate level, and enhance performance. Applying an emotional lens on coopetition enhances scholarly understanding of the paradoxical phenomenon and provides intriguing avenues for further research.

  • 12.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Tension in Paradoxical Relationships between Firms2013In: 29th EGOS Colloquium, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Gnyawali, Devi
    Virginia Tech.
    Experienced paradoxical tension in coopetition and firm performance: The moderating role of coopetition capability2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate the conditions under which firms involved in coopetition can mitigate the detrimental effects of experienced paradoxical tension on performance. We propose that the ability of a firm to benefit from the challenging and paradoxical phenomenon of coopetition is contingent upon having a specialized multi-dimensional coopetition capability comprising analytical, emotional, and balancing dimensions. Analysis of multisource, one-year time-lagged data on 173 Swedish firms in the high-tech manufacturing and knowledge intensive services industries show strong support for the moderating role of coopetition capability. Our study contributes by theorizing and operationalizing coopetition capability as a multi-dimensional construct and foregrounding its critical role in helping firms reduce the negative consequences of paradoxical tension while at the same time tapping into its positive energy.

  • 14.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Kock, Sören
    Department of Management and Organization, Hanken School of Economics, Vaasa, Finland.
    The coopetition paradox and tension in coopetition at multiple levels2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 189-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the nature of the paradox inherent in coopetition; that is, the simultaneous pursuit of cooperation and competition between firms, and emanating tensions that develop at individual, organizational, and inter-organizational levels. We dissect the anatomy of the coopetition paradox to discover how it materializes by creating an external boundary (i.e., via unifying forces) and internal boundaries (i.e., via divergent forces). After explaining the coopetition paradox, we distinguish tension from paradox and submit that tension comprises both positive and negative emotions simultaneously, also known as emotional ambivalence. Finally, we recognize that emotional ambivalence in coopetition prevails at different levels, and vary in its level of intensity and persistency in relation to different contexts. We employ illustrative cases to ground our propositions empirically. This article provides understanding on concepts, expects to incite fruitful dialogue, and fuels further studies on inter-firm paradoxes.

  • 15.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Coopetition capability: what is it?2018In: The Routledge companion to coopetition strategies / [ed] Anne-Sophie Fernandez, Paul Chiambaretto, Frédéric Le Roy, Wojciech Czakon, Abingdon: Routledge , 2018, p. 197-204Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we develop a fundamental understanding of an essential yet overlooked component of alliance capability, namely coopetition capability. We suggest that coopetition capability based on three dimensions—analytical, balancing, and emotional—reflects managers' ability to handle paradoxical demands. This capability is especially helpful and needed to deal with coopetition paradox and the resultant paradoxical tension. Coopetition capability not only allows firms to balance their cooperative and competitive interactions but also helps managers to keep a moderate level of tension to boost performance outcomes.

  • 16.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Knowledge sharing and knowledge leakage in dyadic coopetitive alliances involving SMEs2018In: Global opportunities for entrepreneurial growth: coopetition and knowledge dynamics within and across firms / [ed] Stavros Sindakis, Panagiotis Theodorou, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018, p. 229-252Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we empirically investigate an important question of "how does knowledge sharing and knowledge leakage impact the alliance performance in dyadic coopetitive alliance settings that involve small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)." Taking the perspective of the focal SME to address this question, we posit that while knowledge sharing positively associates with alliance performance, inadvertent knowledge leakage is negatively related to performance. We further postulate that under the conditions of high knowledge leakage, the positive impacts of knowledge sharing on performance would be reduced. Our structural model results based on a survey of 186 SMEs in the high-tech and knowledge-intensive industries in Sweden show support for two of the hypothesized relation- ships. More specically, the results show that knowledge sharing has a positive effect on alliance performance but knowledge leakage has an insignificant direct effect on performance. However, knowledge leakage plays a negative moderating role on the relationship between knowledge sharing and performance. We contribute by demonstrating the effects of knowledge sharing and leakage in under-researched but important dyadic one-to-one coopetitive alliances involving SMEs.

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