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  • 1.
    Anna, Baranowska-Rataj
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Praca dla absolwenta: trudno znaleźć, łatwo stracić?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [pl]

    Kierunki biznesowe zapewniają szanse zawodowe porównywalne do uczelni technicznych; Osoby młode poszukujące pracy znajdują zatrudnienie częściej niż osoby w wieku dojrzałym; W przypadku zwolnień, w pierwszej kolejności redukowane są stanowiska pracy młodych pracowników; • Młode osoby częściej znajdują zatrudnienie w małych firmach oraz w sektorze usług. Taka struktura zatrudnienia wpływa na niską stabilność zatrudnienia w tej grupie społecznej; Sektor publiczny znacznie silniej chroni przed utratą pracy osoby w wieku dojrzałym niż młodych pracowników

  • 2.
    Anna, Baranowska-Rataj
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. In- stitute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    Sonia, Bertolini
    Chiara, Ghislieri
    Antonella, Meo
    Valentina, Moiso
    Rosy, Musumeci
    Roberta, Ricucci
    Paola Maria, Torrioni
    Becoming adult in hard times: current and future issues on job insecurity and autonomy2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution focuses on the consequences of early job insecurity and labour market exclusion (i.e. unemployment or economic inactivity) for youths' autonomy in Europe, referring to leaving the parental home and forming one's own family.

  • 3.
    Baranowska, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    Changing patterns of entry into employment and motherhood in Poland: a cross cohort comparison2011In: Youth on globalised labour markets: rising uncertainty and its effects on early employment and family lives in Europe / [ed] Blossfeld H-P, Bertolini S, Hofäcker D, Barbara Budrich Publishers , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Baranowska, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    Decyzje kobiet u progu wejścia w dorosłość: inwestycja w karierę zawodową czy rodzinną? Rola kapitału ludzkiego i uwarunkowań instytucjonalnych2007In: Strukturalne i kulturowe uwarunkowania aktywności zawodowej kobiet w polsce. / [ed] Irena E Kotowska, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar , 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Baranowska, Anna
    Warsaw School of Economics.
    Decyzje prokreacyjne: preferencje a realizacja2007In: Aktywność zawodowa i edukacyjna a obowiązki rodzinne w Polsce w świetle badań empirycznych / [ed] Kotowska I. E., Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar , 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Baranowska, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    Does horizontal differentiation make any difference? Heterogeneity of educational degrees and labor market entry in Poland.2011In: Making the transition: education and labor market entry in Central and Eastern Europe / [ed] Irena Kogan, Clemens Noelke, and Michael Gebel, Stanford University Press, 2011, p. 216-239Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Baranowska, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Family formation and subjective well-being: A literature overview2010In: Studia Demograficzne, ISSN 0039-3134, Vol. 157/158, no 1-2, p. 103-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While most frequently cited economic models of family formation link partnership or parenthood decisions with the concept of maximisation of life-cycle utility, empirical research has so far assumed that life satisfaction represents a factor which cannot be measured directly. Empirical studies have therefore treated the utility derived from partnership and parenthood as universal and assumed that only the direct or opportunity costs of family formation produce variation in the observed fertility behaviour. The emerging literature treats the subjective wellbeing as a measure of utility and hence allows direct tests of hypotheses related to the impact of events in family career on life satisfaction.

    This article provides an overview of the leading theoretical concepts and the recent empirical evidence on the impact of family formation on subjective wellbeing. It surveys the studies which investigate effects of entry into union and entry into parenthood on subjective well-being. The focus is on studies that attempt to estimate the causal effects. Furthermore, the article discusses studies that consider various ways in which institutional and cultural factors can modify the impact of family formation on subjective well-being. Finally, some suggestions are formulated how the research in this field could contribute to the debate on population policy. Consequently, and some topics for further research are proposed.

  • 8.
    Baranowska, Anna
    Warsaw School of Economics.
    From employment guarantee to job competition: flexibilisation of the Polish labour market2011In: Globalized labour markets and social inequality in Europe / [ed] Blossfeld H.-P., Buchholz S., Hofäcker D., Kolb K., Palgrave Macmillan, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Baranowska, Anna
    Warsaw School of Economics.
    Poglądy i preferencje dotyczące ekonomicznych modeli rodziny2007In: Aktywność zawodowa i edukacyjna a obowiązki rodzinne w Polsce w świetle badań empirycznych / [ed] Kotowska I.E., Sztanderska U., Wóycicka I., Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar , 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Baranowska, Anna
    Warsaw School of Economics.
    Poland2008In: Europe Enlarged: A Handbook of Education, Labour and Welfare Regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. / [ed] Kogan I., Gebel M., Noelke C., Policy Press, 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Baranowska, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Gebel, Michael
    University of Mannheim, Mannheim Centre for European Social Research (MZES), Mannheim, Germany.
    The Determinants Of Youth Temporary Employment In The Enlarged Europe: Do Labour Market Institutions Matter?2010In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 367-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses comparative micro data from the 2004 European Union Labour Force Survey (EULFS) for 23 European countries to study the impact of labour market institutions on the youth relative temporary employment probability. We find relatively high temporary employment rates for young workers in all countries but also a large cross-country variation in this respect. The results of multi-level regression analyses confirm that neither employment protection of regular contracts nor its interaction with the level of employment protection of temporary contracts affects the young people's relative risk. Instead, we find a positive association between collective bargaining coverage as a measure of insider–outsider cleavages and the relative temporary employment risk of young persons. These results remain robust even after controlling for macro-structural conditions, such as unemployment rate and business uncertainty.

  • 12.
    Baranowska, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Gebel, Michael
    University of Mannheim.
    Kotowska, Irena Elzbieta
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    The role of fixed-term contracts at labour market entry in Poland: Stepping stones, screening devices, traps or search subsidies?2011In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 777-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poland has become an interesting outlier in Europe in terms of employment flexibility, with an extremely high incidence of fixed-term contracts, particularly at labour market entry. In this article, detailed retrospective data from the Polish School Leavers Survey are used to analyse the dynamics of entry and exit from fixed-term contracts. The results show that neither firm-based vocational training nor diplomas from more selective tertiary education institutions provide graduates better access to secure entry positions. Regarding exit dynamics, transition patterns from fixed-term contracts into unemployment suggest that the timing of exits often coincides with the date of becoming eligible to collect unemployment benefits. The results also imply that, in Poland, fixed-term contracts might serve employers by helping them to identify the best workers.

  • 13.
    Baranowska, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Matysiak, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Does parenthood increase happiness?: Evidence for Poland2011In: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, ISSN 1728-4414, E-ISSN 1728-5305, Vol. 9, p. 307-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent decade demographers turned their attention to investigating the effects of children on self-rated happiness or life satisfaction. The underlying idea of this strand of research is to find out whether it pays off for individuals to become parents in terms of their subjective well-being, given the costs of having children. Following this line of research, this article studies the impacts of childbearing on individual-level happiness in Poland; a country which experienced a rapid decline in fertility despite the particularly strong attachment of young Poles to family values. To this end, we applied methods for panel data analysis which allowed us to control for endogeneity of subjective well-being and parenthood. Our results reveal a significantly positive effect of the first child on the subjective well-being of mothers. For men, this impact is weaker and most likely temporary since it weakens with the child’s increasing age. An important finding is that neither for men nor for women does the positive impact of parenthood rise with an increase in parity. This may explain the persistence of low fertility in this country.

  • 14.
    Baranowska, Anna
    et al.
    Warsaw School of Economics.
    Piętka-Kosińska, Katarzyna
    Center for Social and Economic Research.
    Poland2011In: The Last Safety Net: A Handbook of Minimum Income Protection in Europe / [ed] Thomas Bahle, Vanessa Hubl and Michaela Pfeifer, Policy Press, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Baranowska Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Spillover Effects of Job Separations: Does Becoming Unemployed Among Youth Affect Health of Their Family Members?2016Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    Decomposition of Trends in Non-Marital Childbearing in Poland2014In: Population, ISSN 0032-4663, E-ISSN 1957-7966, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 269-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to decompose the increase in the share of out-of-wedlock births in Poland into two components: one attributed to the changing structure of births based on marital status at conception, and one related to the declining propensity for shotgun weddings. Analysis of data from the Birth Register 1985-2009 shows that a decline in the propensity to marry among single pregnant women played an important role in the diffusion of non-marital childbearing, especially in the last decade. In urban areas, the impact of the declining propensity for shotgun weddings was greater than in rural areas. This is consistent with the notion that rural areas are a more traditional context for family formation. It seems that in villages, social pressure still inhibits the diversification of family forms more strongly than in cities.

  • 17.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    Jak zachowania w zakresie formowania i rozwoju rodzin wpływają na nasze zadowolenie z życia?2014In: Nowe wzorce formowania i rozwoju rodziny w Polsce: przyczyny oraz wpływ na zadowolenie z życia / [ed] Anna Matysiak, Warsaw: Scholar , 2014, p. 188-209Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Trash contracts?: The impact of temporary employment on leaving the parental home in Poland2011In: Studia Demograficzne, ISSN 0039-3134, Vol. 159, no 1, p. 57-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poland stands out in international comparisons as a country where leaving the parental home is remarkably delayed. There are many economic and institutional factors which contribute to postponement of residential independence among youth, such as housing shortages, limited availability of rental housing and limited social assistance for young people. However, there is little discussion in public debate about re-designing social policy support for youth or improving the situation on the housing market. What attracts attention instead is the role of flexibilisation of contractual arrangements on the Polish labour market. In media discourse, fixed-term contracts have been labelled as “trash contracts” and all the problems that young people in Poland face when making the transition to adulthood have been attributed to the spread of this specific employment form. This article aims to find out whether fixed-term contracts do indeed hinder residential independence of youth. Models of leaving the parental home are estimated based on panel data from EU-SILC. The results show no significant negative impact of temporary employment on the probability of establishing one’s own household among youth. What matters is whether young people have jobs at all, whereas the type of contract that they receive from employers seems to be of little importance.

  • 19.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland .
    What would your parents say?: the impact of cohabitation among young people on their relationships with their parents2014In: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1313-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most European countries have seen a retreat from marriage, which is increasingly preceded or replaced by cohabitation. A question that arises in light of this trend is how the diffusion of non-marital cohabitation may affect the quality of family relations. This article investigates how cohabitation among young people affects their level of satisfaction with their relationship with their parents. We analyse data from the recently released Generation and Gender Survey for Poland, a country with a limited degree of social acceptance of cohabitation, a high degree of attachment to the institution of marriage, and a familialistic culture. Since young adults who choose to cohabit are a rather specific group, we use statistical methods that allow us to control for both the observed and the unobserved characteristics of cohabiters. We find that young people who cohabited in their first union rated their level of satisfaction with their parental relationship lower than their peers who were married. Thus, at least in the context of a country where informal partnerships are not yet fully socially accepted or institutionally supported, the role of cohabitation in intergenerational relations may not be neutral.

  • 20.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    Wpływ międzygeneracyjnych transferów norm na ryzyko urodzenia pozamałżeńskiego2014In: Nowe wzorce formowania i rozwoju rodziny w Polsce: przyczyny oraz wpływ na zadowolenie z życia / [ed] Anna Matysiak, Warsaw: Scholar , 2014, p. 133-163Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Abramowska-Kmon, Anita
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland.
    Number of Children and Social Contacts among Older People: the Moderating Role of Filial Norms and Social Policies2019In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 16, p. 95-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social contacts offer opportunities for provision of emotional and instrumental support that enhance well-being throughout the life course, and the importance of these contacts is especially evident at advanced ages. In this paper, we take a cross-country comparative perspective to examine the association between the number of children and the frequency of social contacts among older people. Using data from the European Quality of Life Survey, we employ multilevel models with cross-level interactions between the number of children and macro-level indicators of filial norms and social policies supporting older people. Our results suggest that older adults with children are more likely than older adults without children to have frequent social interactions, but that the number of children does not affect social contact frequency. The magnitude of the association between having children and social contact frequency varies across European societies. The social contact frequency gap between older adults with children and older adults without children is larger in more familialistic countries with strong filial norms. Our results do not confirm that having children affects social contact frequency less in countries where the state provides more support for older people.

  • 22.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Warsaw School of Economics.
    Barclay, Kieron
    Kolk, Martin
    The effect of number of siblings on adult mortality: evidence from Swedish registers for cohorts born between 1938 and 19722017In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 43-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic research has paid much attention to the impact of childhood conditions on adult mortality. We focus on one of the key aspects of early life conditions, sibling group size, and examine the causal effect of growing up in a large family on mortality. While previous studies have focused on low- or middle-income countries, we examine whether growing up in a large family is a disadvantage in Sweden, a context where most parents have adequate resources, which are complemented by a generous welfare state. We used Swedish register data and frailty models, examining all-cause and cause-specific mortality between the ages of 40 and 74 for the 1938–72 cohorts, and also a quasi-experimental approach that exploited multiple births as a source of exogenous variation in the number of siblings. Overall our results do not indicate that growing up in a large family has a detrimental effect on longevity in Sweden.

  • 23.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    De Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Does the number of siblings affect health in midlife?: Evidence from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register2016In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 35, p. 1259-1302, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many societies, growing up in a large family is associated with receiving less parental time, attention, and financial support. As a result, children with a large number of siblings may have worse physical and mental health outcomes than children with fewer siblings.

    Objective: Our objective is to examine the long-term causal effects of sibship size on physical and mental health in modern Sweden.

    Methods: We employ longitudinal data covering the entire Swedish population from the Multigenerational Register and the Medical Birth Register. This data includes information on family size and on potential confounders such as parental background. We use the Prescribed Drug Register to identify the medicines that have been prescribed and dispensed. We use instrumental variable models with multiple births as instruments to examine the causal effects of family size on the health outcomes of children, as measured by receiving medicines at age 45.

    Results: Our results indicate that in Sweden, growing up in a large family does not have a detrimental effect on physical and mental health in midlife.

    Contribution: We provide a systematic overview of the health-related implications of growing up in a large family. We adopt a research design that gives us the opportunity to make causal inferences about the long-term effects of family size. Moreover, our paper provides evidence on the links between family size and health outcomes in the context of a developed country that implements policies oriented towards reducing social inequalities in health and other living conditions.

  • 24.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Spillover effects of social policies: Can the state support for the unemployed affect employees’ health and wellbeing?2018Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Matysiak, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    Czy znamy lekarstwo na niską dzietność? Międzynarodowe badania ewaluacyjne na temat polityki rodzinnej (Do we know the cure for low fertility? The results from the international research evaluating family policies)2012In: Polityka Społeczna (Social Policy), ISSN 0137-4729, Vol. 460, no 7, p. 9-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an idea of policy evaluation research and reviews empirical studies which measure causal effects of family policies reforms on fertility. In light of international experience, a positive impact on fertility can be exerted through an increase in availability of childcare, speed premium implemented in parental leave schemes as well as tax exemptions and family benefits. Nevertheless, family policy reforms that proved to work in Europe, might not necessarily have exactly the same effects in Poland. Therefore, it is of overriding importance to fill the existing research gap in the evaluation of family policies in Poland by making use of the methodology for evaluating policy interventions. Otherwise future reforms in family policies will be based on ad-hoc assumptions rather than on scientific evidence.

  • 26.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland.
    Matysiak, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics; Wittgenstein Centre (IIASA, VID/OEAW, WU), Vienna Institute of Demography / Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    The causal effects of the number of children on female employment: do European institutional and gender conditions matter?2016In: Journal of Labor Research, ISSN 0195-3613, E-ISSN 1936-4768, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 343-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the discussion on the effects of the number of children on female employment in Europe. Most previous research has either (1) compared these effects across countries, assuming an exogeneity of family size; or (2) used methods that dealt with endogeneity of family size, but that focused on single countries. We combine these two approaches by taking a cross-country comparative perspective and applying quasi-experimental methods. We use instrumental variable models, with multiple births as instruments, and the harmonized data from the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). We examine the cross-country variation in the effects of family size on maternal employment across groups of European countries with different welfare state regimes. This step gives us an opportunity to investigate whether the revealed cross-country differences in the magnitude of the effect of the family size on maternal employment can be attributed to the diversity of European institutional arrangements, as well as the cultural and the structural conditions for combining work and family duties.

  • 27.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    Matysiak, Anna
    Wittgenstein Centre, Vienna Institute of Demography/Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Mynarska, Monika
    Institute of Psychology, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Does lone motherhood decrease women’s happiness?: evidence from qualitative and quantitative research2014In: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1457-1477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the discussion on the effects of single motherhood on happiness. We use a mixed-method approach. First, based on in-depth interviews with mothers who gave birth while single, we explore mechanisms through which children may influence mothers’ happiness. In a second step, we analyze panel survey data to quantify this influence. Our results leave no doubt that, while raising a child outside of marriage poses many challenges, parenthood has some positive influence on a lone mother’s life.

    Our qualitative evidence shows that children are a central point in an unmarried woman’s life, and that many life decisions are taken with consideration of the child’s welfare, including escaping from pathological relationships. Our quantitative evidence shows that, although the general level of happiness among unmarried women is lower than among their married counterparts, raising a child does not have a negative impact on their happiness.

  • 28.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    Rynko, Maja
    Educational Research Institute.
    Dostosowanie sposobu organizacji czasu pracy do obowiązków rodzinnych w Polsce2013In: Studia Demograficzne, ISSN 0039-3134, Vol. 164, no 2, p. 59-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a diagnosis of reconciliation of work and parenthood in Poland based on the data from the European Labour Force Survey ad hoc module “Reconciliation between work and family life” carried out in 2010. These data provide information on the following options of combining work with parenthood duties: (1) part-time work (2) flexible arrangements of working time (3) distance work. We compare the conditions for combining work with parenthood duties in Poland with opportunities observed in other European countries. We also show towhat extent the conditions for reconciliation of work and parenthood in Poland have improved in time. We make an overview of legal regulations related to combining work with childcare duties and indicate the opportunities for improvement of these policies.

  • 29.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Unt, Marge
    Institute of International and Social Studies, Tallinn University.
    Is it worth becoming an engineer in Central and Eastern Europe?: The evidence from Poland and Estonia2012In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 717-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the labour market returns to field of study for tertiary graduates in two countries with post-socialist heritage: Poland and Estonia. So far, research focusing on the employment chances of graduates in Western countries has emphasized the benefits of engineering. We would like to revisit this conclusion and find out if the same can be generalized for all other societies, including Central and Eastern Europe. We use micro-level data, which include detailed information about the type of education gained and early career development. We examine the following outcomes: the chances of finding a job within the first half-year of graduation and the quality of the first job and its salary. Our findings suggest that in Estonia and Poland, the effects of completing engineering courses are quite different to Western Europe. We discuss possible explanations for the lack of advantage for engineering graduates. We pay special attention to the role of licensing, i.e. institutional barriers to entry into the occupation of engineer.

  • 30.
    Gebel, Michael
    et al.
    University of Mannheim.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    New inequalities through privatization and marketization?: An analysis of labour market entry of higher education graduates in Poland and Ukraine2012In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 729-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the effects of privatized and marketized higher education on inequalities in education attainment and labour market outcomes in Poland and Ukraine. Drawing on representative samples of tertiary graduates, our analyses show that students from advantageous social backgrounds are more likely to enter state-funded studies. Regarding labour market chances, we find a trade-off between higher status attainment and slower labour market entry among graduates who studied free-of-charge compared with students who paid tuitions. In accordance with our hypotheses, inequality patterns are more pronounced in Poland. Particularly, graduates from the Polish ‘mass’ lower tertiary private education have the lowest chances of finding high-quality jobs. Thus, mass privatization and marketization of higher education have its drawbacks in terms of lower status returns for graduates. In both countries, however, the Bachelor–Master differentiation, as well as the academic–vocational distinction, matter more for inequalities in status attainment than the privatization and marketization of tertiary education.

  • 31.
    Högberg, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ageing, health inequalities and the welfare state: a multilevel analysis2018In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 311-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative studies of health inequalities have largely neglected age and ageing aspects, while ageing research has often paid little attention to questions of social inequalities. This article investigates cross-country differences in gradients in self-rated health and limiting long-standing illness (LLSI) in middle-aged and in older people (aged 50–64 and 65–80 years) linked to social class, and degrees to which the social health gradients are associated with minimum pension levels and expenditure on elderly care. For these purposes, data from the European Social Survey (2002–2010) are analysed using multilevel regression techniques. We find significant cross-level interaction effects between class and welfare policies: higher expenditure on elderly care and particularly more generous minimum pensions are associated with smaller health inequalities in the older age group (65–80 years). It is concluded that welfare policies moderate the association between social class and health, highlighting the importance of welfare state efforts for older persons, who are strongly reliant on the welfare state and welfare state arrangements such as pensions and care policies.

  • 32.
    Kotowska, Irena E.
    et al.
    Warsaw School of Economics, Poland .
    Jóźwiak, Janina
    Warsaw School of Economics, Poland .
    Matysiak, Anna
    Warsaw School of Economics, Poland .
    Baranowska, Anna
    Warsaw School of Economics, Poland .
    Poland: Fertility decline as a response to profound societal and labour market changes?2008In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 19, p. 795-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article opens with a review of the main trends in family-related behaviour, i.e. fertility decline and changes in fertility patterns, a decreasing propensity to marry, postponement of marriage, and a slowly increasing frequency of divorces and separations. The analysis takes into account urban and rural differences. We then aim to identify the main determinants of family changes within the general conceptual framework of the Second Democratic Transition (SDT) in Poland. However, contrary to mainstream interpretations of the SDT, the main emphasis of this study is on the structural components of change, which need to be reformulated to account for processes specific to the transition to a market economy. The focus is, therefore, on labour market developments and family policy, and to a lesser extent on ideational change.

  • 33.
    Mynarska, Monika
    et al.
    Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Warsaw, Polan.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    Matysiak, Anna
    Vienna Institute of Demography, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria .
    Free to stay, free to leave: insights from Poland into the meaning of cohabitation2014In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 31, no 36, p. 1107-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in Poland cohabitation is most of all a transitory step or a testing period before marriage. Polish law does not recognize this living arrangement and it has been portrayed as uncommitted and short-lived. However, few studies have investigated what cohabitation means for relationships, especially with respect to freedom.

    Objective: We explore how young people in Poland understand and evaluate freedom in cohabitation. We investigate how they view the role freedom plays in couple dynamics and in relationship development.

    Methods: We analyze data from focus group interviews conducted in Warsaw with men and women aged 25-40. We identify passages in which opinions on cohabitation and marriage are discussed, and use bottom-up coding and the constant comparative method to reconstruct different perspectives on the issue of freedom in cohabitation.

    Results: The respondents argued that cohabitation offers the partners freedom to leave a union at any time with few repercussions. On the negative side, the freedom related to cohabitation brings insecurity, especially for young mothers. On the positive side, it offers relaxed conditions for testing a relationship, grants partners independence, and encourages cohabitors to keep their relationship interesting, precisely because it is fragile and easy to dissolve.

    Conclusions: The open nature of cohabitation offers benefits to partners, but does not provide secure conditions for childbearing. As long as the couple is not planning to have children, however, the benefits of cohabitation are likely to be seen as outweighing the disadvantages.

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