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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    The meanings given to gender in studies on multimodal rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a literature review2016In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 38, no 23, p. 2255-2270Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess and describe the meanings given to "gender" in scientific publications that evaluate multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary or multimodal rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Method: A systematic literature search for papers evaluating multimodal rehabilitation was conducted. The PubMed and EBSCO databases were searched from 1995 to 2015. Two or three researchers independently read each paper, performed a quality assessment and coded meanings of gender using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Twenty-seven papers were included in the review. Gender was used very differently in the MMR studies investigated but primarily it referred to factual differences between men and women. Only one paper provided a definition of the concept of gender and how it had been used in that study. In the content analysis, the meaning of gender formed three categories: "Gender as a factual difference", "The man is the ideal" and "Gender as a result of social role expectations".

    Conclusions: The meaning of the concept of gender in multimodal rehabilitation is undefined and needs to be developed further. The way the concept is used should be defined in the design and evaluation of multimodal rehabilitation in future studies.

    Implications for rehabilitation

    Healthcare professionals should reflect on gender relations in encounters with patients, selection of patients into rehabilitation programs and design of programs. In rehabilitation for chronic pain the patients' social circumstances and cultural context should be given the same consideration as biological sex and pain symptoms.

  • 2.
    Alers, Margret
    et al.
    Unit Gender and Women’s Health, Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands .
    Pepping, Tess
    Unit Gender and Women’s Health, Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Bor, Hans
    Unit Gender and Women’s Health, Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Verdonk, Petra
    Department of Medical Humanities, School of Medical Sciences, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands .
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lagro-Janssen, Antoine
    Unit Gender and Women’s Health, Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Speciality preferences in Dutch medical students influenced by their anticipation on family responsibilities2014In: Perspectives on Medical Eduction, ISSN 2212-277X, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 443-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physician gender is associated with differences in the male-to-female ratio between specialities and with preferred working hours. We explored how graduating students’ sex or full-time or part-time preference influences their speciality choice, taking work-life issues into account. Graduating medical students at Radboud University Medical Centre, the Netherlands participated in a survey (2008–2012) on career considerations. Logistic regression tested the influence of sex or working hour preference on speciality choice and whether work-life issues mediate. Of the responding students (N = 1,050, response rate 83, 73.3 % women), men preferred full-time work, whereas women equally opted for part time. More men chose surgery, more women family medicine. A full-time preference was associated with a preference for surgery, internal medicine and neurology, a part-time preference with psychiatry and family medicine. Both male and female students anticipated that foremost the career of women will be negatively influenced by family life. A full-time preference was associated with an expectation of equality in career opportunities or with a less ambitious partner whose career would affect family life. This increased the likelihood of a choice for surgery and reduced the preference for family medicine among female students. Gender specifically plays an important role in female graduates’ speciality choice making, through considerations on career prospects and family responsibilities.

  • 3.
    Alers, Margret
    et al.
    Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Primary and Community Care, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Verdonk, Margret
    Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Primary and Community Care, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Bor, Hans
    Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Primary and Community Care, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lagro-Janssen, Antoine
    Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Primary and Community Care, Gender and Women's Health Unit,Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Gendered career considerations consolidate from the start of medical education2014In: International Journal of Medical Education, ISSN 2042-6372, E-ISSN 2042-6372, Vol. 5, p. 178-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore changes in specialty preferences and work-related topics during the theoretical phase of Dutch medical education and the role of gender.

    Methods: A cohort of medical students at Radboudumc, the Netherlands, was surveyed at start (N=612, 69.1% female) and after three years (N=519, 69.2% female), on specialty preferences, full-time or part-time work, motivational factors, and work-life issues. Chi square tests were performed to analyze gender-differences, and logistic regression to explore the influence of gender on considerations.

    Results: A total of 214 female and 78 male students completed both surveys. After three years, the male students remained highly interested in surgery, but the female students increasingly preferred gynecology. These initial preferences were predictive. Four out of five male students versus three out of five female students continued to show a full-time preference. Women increasingly preferred part-time work. After three years, the combination of work, care, and patient contact motivated female students more, whereas salary remained more important to male students. Female students indicated that their future careers would influence their family life; male students assumed having a family would only affect their partners' careers.

    Conclusions: Against an international background of the feminization of medicine, our study shows that career considerations are reinforced early in medical studies. Women prefer to work fewer hours and anticipate care tasks more often. Students' preferences reflect Dutch cultural norms about working men and women. Therefore, guidance in choice-making much earlier in medical education can create opportunities.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Brandstetter-Hiltunen, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Knutsson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Is it possible to identify patient´s sex when reading blinded illness narratives? An experimental study about gender bias2008In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 7, no 21, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many diseases men and women, for no apparent medical reason, are not offered the same investigations and treatment in health care. This may be due to staff's stereotypical preconceptions about men and women, i.e., gender bias. In the clinical situation it is difficult to know whether gender differences in management reflect physicians' gender bias or male and female patients' different needs or different ways of expressing their needs. To shed some light on these possibilities this study investigated to what extent it was possible to identify patients' sex when reading their blinded illness narratives, i.e., do male and female patients express themselves differently enough to be recognised as men and women without being categorised on beforehand?

    Methods: Eighty-one authentic letters about being diseased by cancer were blinded regarding sex and read by 130 students of medicine and psychology. For each letter the participants were asked to give the author's sex and to explain their choice. The success rates were analysed statistically. To illuminate the participants' reasoning the explanations of four letters were analysed qualitatively.

    Results: The patient's sex was correctly identified in 62% of the cases, with significantly higher rates in male narratives. There were no differences between male and female participants. In the qualitative analysis the choice of a male writer was explained by: a short letter; formal language; a focus on facts and a lack of emotions. In contrast the reasons for the choice of a woman were: a long letter; vivid language; mention of emotions and interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, the same expressions were interpreted differently depending on whether the participant believed the writer to be male or female.

    Conclusion: It was possible to detect gender differences in the blinded illness narratives. The students' explanations for their choice of sex agreed with common gender stereotypes implying that such stereotypes correspond, at least on a group level, to differences in male and female patients' illness descriptions. However, it was also obvious that preconceptions about gender obstructed and biased the interpretations, a finding with implications for the understanding of gender bias in clinical practice.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Using patients' narratives to reveal gender stereotypes among medical students2013In: Academic Medicine, ISSN 1040-2446, E-ISSN 1938-808X, Vol. 88, no 7, p. 1015-1021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Gender bias exists in patient treatment, and, like most people, health care providers harbor gender stereotypes. In this study, the authors examined the gender stereotypes that medical students hold about patients. Method: In 2005, in Umeå, Sweden, the authors collected 81 narratives written by patients who had undergone cancer treatment; all information that might reveal the patients’ gender was removed from the texts. Eighty-seven medical students read 40 or 41 narratives each, guessed the patient’s gender, and explained their guess. The authors analyzed the students’ explanations qualitatively and quantitatively to reveal the students’ gender stereotypes and to determine whether those stereotypes had any predictive value for correctly guessing a patient’s gender. Results: The students’ explanations contained 21 categories of justifications, 12 of which were significantly associated with the students guessing one gender or the other. Only three categories successfully predicted a correct identification of gender; two categories were more often associated with incorrect guesses. Conclusions: Medical students enter their training program with culturally shared stereotypes about male and female patients that could cause bias during their future careers as physicians. To prevent this, medical curricula must address gender stereotypes and their possible consequences. The impact of implicit stereotypes must be included in discussions about gender bias in health care.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Verdonk, Petra
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lagro-Janssen, Toine
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Comparing gender awareness in Dutch and Swedish first-year medical students: results from a questionaire2012In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 12, p. 3-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To ascertain good and appropriate healthcare for both women and men implementation of gender perspectives in medical education is needed. For a successful implementation, knowledge about students' attitudes and beliefs about men, women, and gender is crucial. The aim of this study was to compare attitudes to gender and gender stereotyping among Dutch and Swedish male and female medical students.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we measured the attitudes and assumptions about gender among 1096 first year medical students (616 Dutch and 480 Swedish) with the validated Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale (N-GAMS). The response rate was 94% in the Netherlands and 93% in Sweden. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the scores between Dutch and Swedish male and female students. Linear regressions were used to analyze the importance of the background variables.

    Results: There were significant differences in attitudes to gender between Dutch and Swedish students. The Swedish students expressed less stereotypical thinking about patients and doctors and the Dutch were more sensitive to gender differences. The students' sex mattered for gender stereotyping, with male students in both countries agreeing more with stereotypical statements. Students' age, father's birth country and mother's education level had some impact on the outcome.

    Conclusions: There are differences between cultures as well as between men and women in gender awareness that need to be considered when implementing gender in medical education. This study suggests that to arouse the students' interest in gender issues and make them aware of the significance of gender in medical work, the examples used in discussions need to be relevant and challenging in the context of the specific country. Due to different levels of knowledge and different attitudes within the student population it is important to create a climate for dialogue where students feel permitted to disclose their ideas and attitudes in order to become aware of what these are as well as their possible consequences on interaction and decision-making in medical work.

  • 7.
    Brännström, Jon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Molander, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gender disparities in the pharmacological treatment of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in the very old: an epidemiological, cross-sectional survey2011In: Drugs & Aging, ISSN 1170-229X, E-ISSN 1179-1969, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 993-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There are many reports of disparities in health and medical care both between women and men and between various age groups. In most cases, men receive better treatment than women and young and middle-aged people are privileged compared with the old and the very old. Cardiovascular morbidity and diabetes mellitus are common, increase with age and are often treated extensively with drugs, many of which are known to have significant adverse effects.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyse gender differences in the pharmacological treatment of cardiovascular disease and diabetes among very old people.

    METHODS: The study took the form of an epidemiological, cross-sectional survey. A structured interview was administered during one or more home visits, and data were further retrieved from medical charts and interviews with relatives, healthcare staff and other carers. Home-dwelling people as well as people living in institutional care in six municipalities in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden, in 2005-7 were included in the study. Half of all people aged 85 years, all of those aged 90 years and all of those aged ≥95 years living in the selected municipalities were selected for inclusion in the study. In total, 467 people were included in the present analysis. The main study outcome measures were medical diagnoses and drug use.

    RESULTS: In total, women were prescribed a larger number of drugs than men (mean 7.2 vs 5.4, p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age and other background variables as well as relevant medical diagnoses (hypertension, heart failure) showed strong associations between female sex and prescriptions of thiazide diuretics (odds ratio [OR] 4.4; 95% CI 1.8, 10.8; p = 0.001), potassium-sparing diuretics (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.4, 8.7; p = 0.006) and diuretics as a whole (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1, 2.9; p = 0.021). A similar model, adjusted for angina pectoris, showed that female sex was associated with prescription of short-acting nitroglycerin (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.6, 8.9; p = 0.003). However, more men had been offered coronary artery surgery (p = 0.001). Of the participants diagnosed with diabetes, 55% of the women and 85% of the men used oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (p = 0.020), whereas no gender difference was seen in prescriptions of insulin.

    CONCLUSIONS: Significant gender disparities in the prescription of several drugs, such as diuretics, nitroglycerin and oral antihyperglycaemic drugs, were observed in this study of very old people. In most cases, women were prescribed more drugs than men. Men more often had undergone coronary artery surgery. These disparities could only in part be explained by differences in diagnoses and symptoms.

  • 8.
    Diderichsen, Saima
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Verdonk, Petra
    VU University Medical Center, Department of Medical Humanities, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Lagro-Janssen, Toine
    Department of Primary and Community Care, Centre for Family Medicine, Geriatric and Public Helth, Unit Women's Studies, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Health Centre, The Netherlands .
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Swedish medical students' expectations of their future life2011In: International Journal of Medical Education, ISSN 2042-6372, E-ISSN 2042-6372, Vol. 2, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year.

    Methods: The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59%) first-year students and 209 (41%) last-year students. Women constituted 60% of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create statistically comparable themes and categories.

    Results: Students' written answers were coded, categorized and clustered into four themes: "Work", "Family", "Leisure" and "Quality of personal life". Almost all students included aspects of work in their answers. Female students were more detailed than male ones in their family concerns. Almost a third of all students reflected on a future work-life balance, but considerations regarding quality of personal life and leisure were more common among last-year students.

    Conclusions: Today's medical students expect more of life than work, especially those standing on the doorstep of working life. They intend to balance work not only with a family but also with leisure activities. Our results reflect work attitudes that challenge the health care system for more adaptive working conditions. We suggest that discussions about work-life balance should be included in medical curricula.

  • 9.
    Diderichsen, Saima
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Verdonk, Petra
    Lagro-Janssen, Toine
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Few gender differences in specialty preferences and motivational factors: a cross-sectional Swedish study on last-year medical students2013In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 13, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today, women constitute about half of medical students in several Western societies, yet women physicians are still underrepresented in surgical specialties and clustered in other branches of medicine. Gender segregation in specialty preference has been found already in medical school. It is important to study the career preferences of our future physicians, as they will influence the maintenance of an adequate supply of physicians in all specialties and the future provision of health care. American and British studies dominate the area of gender and medical careers whereas Swedish studies on medical students' reasons for specialty preference are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare Swedish male and female medical students' specialty preferences and the motives behind them. Methods: Between 2006 and 2009, all last-year medical students at Umea University, Sweden (N = 421), were invited to answer a questionnaire about their future career and family plans. They were asked about their specialty preference and how they rated the impact that the motivational factors had for their choice. The response rate was 89% (N = 372); 58% were women (N = 215) and 42% were men (N = 157). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent impact of each motivational factor for specialty preference. Results: On the whole, male and female last-year students opted for similar specialties. Men and women had an almost identical ranking order of the motivational factors. When analyzed separately, male and female students showed both similarities and differences in the motivational factors that were associated with their specialty preference. A majority of the women and a good third of the men intended to work part-time. The motivational factor combining work with family correlated with number of working hours for women, but not for men. Conclusions: The gender similarities in the medical students' specialty preferences are striking and contrast with research from other Western countries where male and female students show more differences in career aspirations. These similarities should be seized by the health care system in order to counteract the horizontal gender segregation in the physician workforce of today.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Jansson, Lilian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Women's experiences of intense fear related to childbirth investigated in a Swedish qualitative study.2006In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Eriksson, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Men's experiences of intense fear related to childbirth investigated in a Swedish qualitative study2007In: Journal of Men's health and gender, Vol. 4, p. 409-418Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Westman, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Content of childbirth-related fear in Swedish women and men: analysis of an open-ended question2006In: Journal of midwifery & women's health, ISSN 1526-9523, E-ISSN 1542-2011, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The content of childbirth-related fear as described by 308 women and 194 men was analyzed and compared in relation to intensity of fear. The content of fear was similarly described by women and men and concerned the following main categories: the labor and delivery process, the health and life of the baby, the health and life of the woman, own capabilities and reactions, the partner's capabilities and reactions, and the professionals' competence and behavior. Among women, the labor and delivery process was the most frequently reported among the 6 categories of fears, whereas the health and life of the baby was the most frequent among the men. Fears related to own capabilities and reactions were described significantly more often by women with intense fear than by women with mild to moderate fear. The greatest difference between men with intense versus mild to moderate fear was a more frequent expression of concern for the health and life of the woman. Both women and men had fears related to not being treated with respect and not receiving sufficient medical care. This finding suggests that part of the problem with childbirth-related fear is located within the health care system itself.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Westman, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Experiential factors associated with childbirth-related fear in Swedish women and men: a population based study.2005In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 63-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Forssén, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hormoner och positioner2002In: Hjärnsläpp: Bang om biologism / [ed] Karin Ekman, Vanja Hermele, Ulrika Westerlund, Stockholm: Bang , 2002Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Georgiev, Dejan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience. Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Hariz, Gun-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gender differences in Parkinson's disease: a clinical perspective2017In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 136, no 6, p. 570-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Available data indicate that there are gender differences in many features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Precise identification of the gender differences is important to tailor treatment, predict outcomes, and meet other individual and social needs in women and men with PD. The aim of this study was to review the available clinical data on gender differences in PD. Original articles and meta-analyses published between 1990 and 2016 systematically exploring gender differences in PD were reviewed. There is slight male preponderance in incidence and prevalence of PD. PD starts earlier in men. Women tend to be more prone to develop tremor-dominant PD but are less rigid than men. Motor improvement after deep brain stimulation is equal in both sexes, but women tend to show better improvement in activities of daily living. Furthermore, women with PD show better results on tests for general cognitive abilities, outperform men in verbal cognitive tasks, show more pain symptoms, and score higher on depression scales. It seems, however, that the differences in cognition, mood, and pain perception are not disease specific as similar gender differences can be found in healthy subjects and in other neurological conditions. Despite PD being the most frequently studied movement disorder, studies investigating gender differences in PD are still scarce with most of the studies being cross-sectional. Good-quality, prospective, longitudinal studies analyzing gender differences in PD and comparing them to matched healthy controls are needed in order to properly address the issues of gender differences in PD.

  • 16.
    Griffin, Gabriele
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Managing differences: The complexities of leadership and leadership styles in interdisciplinary research collaboration2013In: The social politics of research collaboration / [ed] Griffin G, Hamberg K, Lundgren B., New York: Routledge, 2013, p. 39-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Griffin, Gabriele
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hamberg, KatarinaUmeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.Lundgren, BrittaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The social politics of research collaboration2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Begränsade möjligheter - anpassade strategier: en studie i primärvården av kvinnor med värk1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Begränsade möjligheter - anpassade strategier.: En studie i primärvården av kvinnor med värk.1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Biologi eller kultur? - Om kön inom medicinen.1998In: Läkare - Doktor - Kvinna. En antologi om kön i medicinen, Studentlitteratur, Lund , 1998Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Biology, gender and behaviour: A critical discussion of the biological models used for explaining cognitive and behavioural gender differences.2005In: Psychology and Gender identity / [ed] Janice W. Lee, New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2005, p. 127-144Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Difficult patients or difficult relationships: when things go wrong.2002In: Chronic myofascial pain.: A patient centered approach., Radcliffe Medical Press, Oxon , 2002, p. 104-115Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Från redaktionen. Datorisering - utan reflexion och återvändo?1998In: AllmänMedicin, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 216-218Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Få och spridda genusinslag i Umeås läkarprogram: Lärarna nyckelgrupp för att sjösätta förslagen till förbättringar2003In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 100, no 49, p. 4084-4090Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Gender bias in medicine2008In: Women's health., ISSN 1745-5057, E-ISSN 1745-5065, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 237-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender bias has implications in the treatment of both male and female patients and it is important to take into consideration in most fields of medical research, clinical practice and education. Gender blindness and stereotyped preconceptions about men and women are identified as key causes to gender bias. However, exaggeration of observed sex and gender differences can also lead to bias. This article will examine the phenomenon of gender bias in medicine, present useful concepts and models for the understanding of bias, and outline areas of interest for further research.

  • 26.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Genus, medicin och risken för biologisk determinism2004In: Kropp och genus i medicinen / [ed] Birgitta Hovelius, Eva E Johansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2004, p. 59-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Genusperspektiv i allmänmedicinskt arbete2015In: Allmänmedicin / [ed] Steinar Hunskår, Birgitta Hovelius (red. Sverige), Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 2, p. 1028-1035Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Genusperspektiv i läkarutbildningen - erfarenheter från Umeå2007In: Karolina, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 18-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Genusperspektiv relevant frö många av läkarutbildningens ämnen. Viktigt att betrakta män och kvinnor med helhetssyn.2003In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 100, no 49, p. 4078-4083Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Genusperspektiv relevant för många av läkarutbildningens ämnen.: Viktigt att betrakta män och kvinnor med helhetssyn.2003In: Läkartidningen, Vol. 100, p. 4078-4083Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Har kvinnor verkligen bredband i hjärnan?: Om jakten på biologin i "manligt" och "kvinnligt"2004In: Kropp och genus i medicinen. / [ed] Birgitta Hovelius, Eva E Johansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2004, p. 69-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hur har hon det hemma? Fokusera mer på villkor i familjen vid oklara eller långvariga besvär.1995In: Svensk Medicin: Nr 49/96 Tema: Kvinna. Symposier vid Svenska Läkaresällskapets riksstämma, 1995Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Kvinnoperspektiv på familj och förvärvsarbete1988In: Allmänmedicin: Supplement Nr 12, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Könet i hjärnan. En kritisk granskning av jakten på den biologiska könsskillnaden.2000In: Läkartidningen, Vol. 97, no 45, p. 5130-5136Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Makten i patient-läkarrelationen2001In: Månedsskrift for praktisk laegegerning, Vol. 79, p. 691-698Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Onyanserat om könsskillnader och biologi1995In: Läkartidningen, Vol. 92, p. 1129-1131Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Resultat, ny kunskap.2007Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sitter könet i hjärnan? Om kunskapsutvecklingen kring könsskillnader i beteenden.2007In: Jordemodern, Vol. 120, no 9, p. 6-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Vi är ju olika - det går inte att komma ifrån?: Om biologins tolkningsföreträde i medicinen.2002In: Genusvägar, Liber AB, Stockholm , 2002Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Visst är det väl ändå en skillnad? Jakten på biologin i manligt och kvinnligt.2001In: Kvinnligt - manligt - barnsligt: Kön, kärlek och föräldraskap i sjugohundratalets Sverige., 2001Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Åsikter och vetande. Vad vet hjärnforskarna egentligen om skillnader mellan mäns och kvinnors hjärnor?1999In: Bang, no 4, p. 24-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Bäckström, Bo
    Schulte Hemming, Andreas
    Gender Bias in der Gesundheitswirtschaft: Empirische Ergebnisse und Instrumente der praktischen Anwendung in Organisationen2014In: Vielfalt erkennen: Strategien für einen sensiblen Umgang mit unbevissten Vorurteilen / [ed] Kerstin Tote, Berlin: charta der vielfalt , 2014, p. 70-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Hovelius, Birgitta
    Johansson, Eva
    Risberg, Gunilla
    Feministiska perspektiv inom medicin och vård.1998In: Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, Vol. 1-2, p. 2-3Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hariz, Gun-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    The decision-making process leading to deep brain stimulation in men and women with parkinson's disease: an interview study2014In: BMC Neurology, ISSN 1471-2377, E-ISSN 1471-2377, Vol. 14, p. 89-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for patients with advanced parkinson's disease (PD). Research shows that women are under-represented among patients undergoing DBS surgery. This may be due to gender-biased selection of patients, but patients' wishes and attitudes may also contribute. This study investigated the decision making process to undergo DBS from the patient's perspective, and explored any gender patterns in the participants' decision-making. Methods: All patients operated on with DBS for PD at the University Hospital of Northern Sweden between January 2002 and April 2010 were invited to an interview study. In this way 39 patients were recruited, 31 men and eight women. Three additional women, operated elsewhere, were recruited to acheive a more gender-balanced sample. In a mixed-method analysis, the interviews were analysed according to the constant comparison technique in grounded theory and descriptive statistics was used to present demographics and compare categories. Results: Three different approaches to DBS were identified among the patients. `Taking own initiative', included 48% of the patients and implied that the patients' own initiatives and arguments had been crucial for having surgery. `Agreeing when offered', and accepting DBS when suggested by doctors embraced 43%. The third approach, `Hesitating and waiting' included < 10% of the patients. Most of the men were either `taking own initiative' or `agreeing when offered'. The 11 women were evenly distributed in all three approaches. Among the interviewed, more women than men expressed strong fear of complications and more women consulted friends and relatives prior to deciding about DBS. Half of the patients had held a leadership position at work or in another organisation, and among patients `taking own initiative' the proportion with leadership experiences was 80%. At time for surgery ten men but no woman were professionally active. Conclusion: This study suggests that many patients with advanced PD have to argue and struggle with their clinicians in order to be referred to a DBS-team. The study further suggests that patients' wishes, behaviour and position in society may all contribute to the skewed gender distribution among patients treated with DBS.

  • 45.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hovelius, Birgitta
    Johansson, Eva
    Ökad utbildning och större inflytande ger kvinnor kontroll över kropp och liv.1995In: Läkartidningen, Vol. 92, p. 656-657Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Family, work, health and rehabilitation for women in pain.2002In: Chronic myofascial pain.: A patient centered approach., Radcliffe Medical Press, Oxon , 2002, p. 72-85Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva
    Fråga och lyssna - teori, metod och analys i allmänmedicinsk kvinnoforskning1993In: Allmänmedicin, Vol. 14, p. 238-242Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva
    Läkare, kvinna och forskare - reflexioner kring tolkning av intervjuer1998In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, no 1-2, p. 17-20Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Medical students' attitudes to gender issues in the role and career of physicians: a qualitative study conducted in Sweden2006In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 635-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance to address gender issues during medical studies. This qualitative study is aimed at exploring students’ attitudes to gender issues in the career of physicians, and identifying questions important to consider in medical education about gender. At Umeå University in Sweden, third-term medical students write an essay about ‘being a doctor’ and they also reflect on gender issues their future career. In 2002, the essays of 41 men and 63 women (75%) were analysed using open coding and repeated comparisons to elaborate categories. Four main attitudes towards gender were identified. Important and interesting (men 22%, women 63%), meaning gender was regarded as a crucial consideration in a physician's working life. Interested women expressed personal worries about their future, while interested men's reflections were more intellectually focused. Relevant with doubts (54%, 27%) represented a positive stand while simultaneously reducing the significance of gender. In Irrelevant and irritating (20%, 8%), gender was seen as over-talked and politics. Irritated students challenged the teachers and questioned gender as a field of scientific knowledge. Neglecting denoted avoidance of gender (5%, 3%). To avoid reinforcing stereotypical ideas about men and women, teachers and physicians need more knowledge about gender.

  • 50.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva
    Practitioner, Researcher and Gender Conflict in a Qualitative Study.1999In: Qualitative Health Research, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 455-467Article in journal (Refereed)
123 1 - 50 of 127
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