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  • 1.
    Blomgren, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svahn, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coping Strategies in Late Adolescence: Relationships to Parental Attachment and Time Perspective2016In: The Journal of Genetic Psychology, ISSN 0022-1325, E-ISSN 1940-0896, Vol. 177, no 3, p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping.

  • 2. Börjesson, A
    et al.
    Karlsson, T
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Nilsson, L
    Linopirdine (DUP 996): cholinergic treatment of older adults using successive and non-successive tests.1999In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether cholinergic treatment of age-associated memory impairment with Linopirdine (DUP 996), a derivate of phenylindoline, affects explicit memory, implicit memory, and primary memory. We also assessed cognitive decision making in a reaction time test. Explicit memory was assessed by face recognition, word recall and a word recognition test, being part of a successive test paradigm. Implicit memory was assessed by primed word fragment completion in the same successive test paradigm. Primary memory was studied by means of digit recall. Thirty-eight elderly subjects fulfilled the criteria for memory impairment. Four groups of subjects were given 10, 20 or 30 mg of DUP 996 or placebo during 4 weeks. A double-blind procedure was applied. No significant treatment effects for recognition memory and priming were obtained in the successive test paradigm. Analysis of dependence/independence between tests did not show any clear pattern of treatment effects. The other explicit memory tests and the reaction time test showed no effect with DUP 996. Because of the range of the different tests used here, the result and the general evidence in other investigations of the cholinergic depletion among aged people, the conclusion is that DUP 996 does not improve memory performance either in explicit, implicit or primary tests.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of perceived long-term stress on health and memory functioning2010In: Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 2010, p. 78-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined effects of perceived long-term stress on health and memory functioning in middle-aged individuals (40–60 years). Participants in the Betula study (Nilsson et al., 1997) describing themselves as being stressed in general over three measurement occasions (10 years in total) were compared with a matched (sex and education) group (n = 98) reporting no stress. The results revealed a higher incidence of depressive symptoms, flus, and not-healthy-ratings over time for the stress group. In addition, the stress group provided more negative subjective memory ratings, whereas time-related change in memory performance, indicative of a high degree of cognitive stability, did not differ from that of controls. Degree of perceived stress is discussed as a factor underlying variations in regard to the outcome of studies of perceived stress.

  • 4.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Blood Pressure Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Relation to Social Network Factors2016In: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 59-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables and levels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. The participants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097) responded to questions concerning social relationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic) was measured. Blood pressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses to questions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex) as covariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits, little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based on all questions) was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolic blood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend). In general, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between several of the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additional covariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI) suggesting that the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelated factors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should consider qualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships) in addition to structural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

  • 5.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ger en aktiv livsstil bättre minne?2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 43-45Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sägs ibland att aktivteter som stimulerar hjärnan förbättrar minnet. En rad studier indikerar också att olika typer av livsstilsfaktorer hänger samman med prestation i kognitiva test. De visar att dålig minnesförmåga är överrepresenterad hos dem som inte ägnar sig åt fritidsaktiviteter såsom att läsa, idrotta och lägga pussel.

  • 6.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Social relationships and risk of dementia: a population-based study2015In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1391-1399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective was to examine whether aspects of social relationships in old age are associated with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    Methods: We studied 1,715 older adults (≥ 65 years) who were dementia-free at baseline over a period of up to 16 years. Data on living status, contact/visit frequency, satisfaction with contact frequency, and having/not having a close friend were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regressions with all-cause dementia or AD as the dependent variable. To control for reverse causality and to identify potential long-term effects, we additionally performed analyses with delayed entry.

    Results: We identified 373 incident cases of dementia (207 with AD) during follow-up. The variable visiting/visits from friends was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia. Further, a higher value on the relationships index (sum of all variables) was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia and AD. However, in analyses with delayed entry, restricted to participants with a survival time of three years or more, none of the social relationship variables was associated with all-cause dementia or AD.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that certain aspects of social relationships are associated with incident dementia or AD, but also that these associations may reflect reverse causality. Future studies aimed at identifying other factors of a person's social life that may have the potential to postpone dementia should consider the effects of reverse causality.

  • 7.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, L-G
    Leisure-time activity in old age as predictors of impending dementia: A 15-year prospective study.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relationship between leisure activities and risk of dementia in a sample of healthy older individuals, dementia free at the beginning of the project. Data were drawn from a population-based longitudinal study (the Betula project) and the participants were followed up for 15 years. At baseline, participants were asked about their frequency of participation in 15 selected leisure activities. When age, gender, education, APOE and other potential confounders were controlled for, results revealed quite moderate effects on dementia after analysis of the activities separately. However, by weighting each activity into a mental, social and physical dimension (based on valuation by the participants), and then summarizing into a score for each dimension, we further investigated if level of engagement could predict impending dementia. Preliminary results indicate that the dimensions may have influence on the risk of dementia for certain age groups. The study also showed that the strongest predictor of dementia is being a carrier of the APOE ɛ4 allele. The outcomes are discussed in terms of important methodological difference between studies concerning the effects of leisure activities in preventing dementia diseases.

  • 8.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Leisure Activity in Old Age and Risk of Dementia: a 15-Year Prospective Study2014In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 493-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate whether leisure activity is associated with incident dementia in an older sample.

    Method. We examined a sample of 1,475 elderly (>= 65 years) who were dementia free at baseline over a follow-up period of up to 15 years. In addition to analyses involving the total time period, separate analyses of three time periods were performed, 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 years, following baseline measurement of leisure activity.

    Results. After controlling for a variety of potential confounders, analyses of data for the total time period revealed that higher levels of "Total activity" and "Social activity," but not "Mental activity," were associated with decreased risk of dementia. However, analyses of the separate time periods showed that this association was only significant in the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline.

    Discussion. The results from this study provide little support for the hypothesis that frequent engagement in leisure activities among elderly serve to protect against dementia diseases across a longer time frame. The finding of a relationship for the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline, could indicate short-term protective effects but could also reflect reverse causality.

  • 9.
    Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Adult age differences in the realism of confidence judgments: overconfidence, format dependence, and cognitive predictors2008In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 531-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Realistic confidence judgments are essential to everyday functioning, but few studies have addressed the issue of age differences in overconfidence. Therefore, the authors examined this issue with probability judgment and intuitive confidence intervals in a sample of 122 healthy adults (ages:

    35-40, 55-60, 70-75 years). In line with predictions based on the naïve sampling model (P. Juslin, A. Winman, & P. Hansson, 2007), substantial format dependence was observed, with extreme overconfidence when confidence was expressed as an intuitive confidence interval but not when confidence was expressed as a probability judgment. Moreover, an age-related increase in overconfidence was selectively observed when confidence was expressed as intuitive confidence intervals. Structural equation modeling indicated that the age-related increases in overconfidence were mediated by a general cognitive ability factor that may reflect executive processes. Finally, the results indicated that part of the negative influence of increased age on general ability may be compensated for by an age-related increase in domain-relevant knowledge.(c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  • 10. Henriksson, Jessica
    et al.
    Waasara, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of Eight-Week-Web-Based Mindfulness Training on Pain Intensity, Pain Acceptance, and Life Satisfaction in Individuals With Chronic Pain2016In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 586-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of an eight-week-web-based mindfulness programdesigned for individuals with chronic pain. A sample of 107 participants with chronicpain (M¼51.0 years, SD¼9.3) were randomly assigned to a treatment group and acontrol group. The mindfulness program involved 20 minutes of training per day, sixdays a week, for eight weeks. During this period, the control group was invited to anonline discussion forum involving pain-related topics. A total of 77 participantscompleted the postintervention assessment (n¼36 in the treatment group, n¼41in the control group). The group assigned to mindfulness training showed increasedmindfulness skills (Cohen’s d¼1.18), reduced pain intensity (d¼0.47–0.82), reducedpain-related interference/suffering (d¼0.39–0.85), heightened pain acceptance(d¼0.66), reduced affective distress (d¼0.67), and higher ratings of life satisfaction(d¼0.54) following the training with no or minor changes up for the control group(d values 0.01–0.23), a pattern substantiated by significant group-by-time interactions.Despite limitations of this study, including a less than ideal control groupto isolate effects of mindfulness and lack of a long-term follow-up, the results appearpromising and may motivate further investigations.

  • 11.
    Lövdén, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden / Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Backman, Lars
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The extent of stability and change in episodic and semantic memory in old age: Demographic predictors of level and change2004In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 130-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural stability and change in semantic and episodic memory performance as well as interindividual differences in 5-year changes in these constructs are examined within a sample of older adults (age rangeT1 = 60–80; n = 361). Interindividual differences in change were limited but significant. Stability coefficients were higher for semantic memory (.95) than for episodic memory (.87). Changes in episodic and semantic memory performance were strongly associated (r =.68). Across time, variances and covariances increased, and a tendency toward dedifferentiation in terms of increasing correlations was found. Chronological age was related to both level and change, but gender and education were only related to level of memory performance. Collectively, these results depict relatively high degrees of structural stability and stability of interindividual differences in declarative memory in old age.

     

  • 12.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kliegel, Matthias
    Department of Psychology, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany.
    Components of executive functioning in metamemory2010In: Applied neuropsychology, ISSN 0908-4282, E-ISSN 1532-4826, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 289-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined metamemory in relation to three basic executive functions (set shifting, working memory updating, and response inhibition) measured as latent variables. Young adults (Experiment 1) and middle-aged adults (Experiment 2) completed a set of executive functioning tasks and the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ). In Experiment 1, source recall and face recognition tasks were included as indicators of objective memory performance. In both experiments, analyses of the executive functioning data yielded a two-factor solution, with the updating and inhibition tasks constituting a common factor and the shifting tasks a separate factor. Self-reported memory problems showed low predictive validity, but subjective and objective memory performance were related to different components of executive functioning. In both experiments, set shifting, but not updating and inhibition, was related to PRMQ, whereas source recall showed the opposite pattern of correlations in Experiment 1. These findings suggest that metamemorial judgments reflect selective effects of executive functioning and that individual differences in mental flexibility contribute to self-beliefs of efficacy.

  • 13.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sternäng, Ola
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Challenging the notion of an early-onset of cognitive decline.2009In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 521-524; discussion 530Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Salthouse claims that cognitive aging starts around 20 years of age. The basis for this claim is cross-sectional data. He dismisses longitudinal data, which typically show the cognitive decline to start much later, around 60 years of age. He states that longitudinal data cannot be trusted because they are flawed. There is a confounding between the effects of maturation and retest effects. We challenge Salthouse's strong claim on four accounts.

  • 14.
    Nyström, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. The Graduate School in Population Dynamics and Public Policy, Umeå university.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    To what extent is subjective well-being in late adulthood related to subjective and objective memory functioning?: Five-year cross-lagged panel analyses2017In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Nyström, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is cognitive functioning important for quality in aging?: A five year follow-up study of older adults  2015In: Psychonomic Society’s 56th Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, USA, November 19-22 2015, Madison, USA: The Psychonomic Society , 2015, p. 92-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Michael, Rönnlund
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odor identification deficit as a predictor of five-year global cognitive change: Interactive effects with age and ApoE-ε42009In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 496-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory impairments are present in common neurodegenerative disorders and predict conversion to dementia in non-demented individuals with cognitive impairment. In cognitively intact elderly, evidence is sparse regarding the role of olfactory deficits in predicting cognitive impairment. The present study investigated predictors of 5-year prospective decline in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a large (n = 501), population-based sample of elderly (65-90 years) individuals. All participants were genotyped for the ApoE gene, assessed for health factors, and were non-demented at the baseline assessment. After partialling out the influences of demographic and health-factors at baseline and dementia at follow-up, poor odor identification ability in combination with older age and the ApoE-epsilon4 allele predicted larger prospective global cognitive decline. This effect could not be produced by a vocabulary test. In sum, the findings suggest that an olfactory deficit can dissociate between benign and malign global cognitive development in non-demented, very old epsilon4-carriers, who are at high risk of developing dementia.

  • 17.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Backman, L
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stabilty, growth, and decline in adult life span development of declarative memory: Crosssectional and longitudinal data from a population-based study2005In: Psychology and Aging, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time Perspective Biases Are Associated With Poor Sleep Quality, Daytime Sleepiness, and Lower Levels of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Adults2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the extent to which individual differences in time perspective, i.e., habitual way of relating to the personal past, present, and future, are associated with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in a sample of older adults. The participants (N = 437, 60-90 years) completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ), a the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), and two ratings of subjective well-being (SWB) (life satisfaction, happiness). Based on established relationships between dimension of time perspective and other variables (e.g., depression) and relations between negative retrospection (rumination) and negative prospection (worry) in prior studies, we expected higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative to be linked to poor sleep quality and (indirectly) increased daytime sleepiness. Moreover, we examined the possibility that variations in perceived sleep and sleepiness during the day mediates the expected association between an aggregate measure of deviations from a so called balanced time perspective (DBTP) and SWB. In regression analyses controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, and work status), higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative predicted poorer sleep quality and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Additionally, most of the association between time perspective and daytime sleepiness was accounted for by individual differences in sleep quality. Finally, structural equation modeling yielded results consistent with the hypothesis that variations in sleep mediate part of the negative relationship between DBTP and SWB. Given that good sleep is essential to multiple aspects of health, future studies evaluating relationships between time perspective and adverse health outcomes should consider sleep quality as a potentially contributing factor.

  • 19.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Secular trends in cognitive test performance: Swedish conscript data 1970-19932013In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated time-related patterns in levels of cognitive performance during the period from 1970 to 1993 based on data from Swedish draft boards. The conscripts, including more than a million 18-19-year old men, had taken one of two versions of the Swedish enlistment battery (SEB67; 1970-1979 or SEB80; 1980-1993), each composed of four subtests. The results revealed significant Flynn effects, with estimated gains of 1.2-1.5 IQ-units per decade. The effect seem to hold across ability levels, even though tendencies of more pronounced effects in the lower half of the ability distribution was observed. The largest gains were for visuospatial tests (Paper Form Board and Metal Folding), with little change, even slight losses during the second sub-period, for tests of verbal knowledge (Concept Discrimination and Synonyms) and a mixed pattern for a test of technical comprehension (losses followed by gains). Finally, comparisons of trends in cognitive performance and in standing height show that the gains in cognitive performance over the years from 1980 to 1993 occurred in the absence of overall gains in height which speaks against nutrition as the cause of the Flynn effects. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Karlsson, E
    The relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing or externalizing problems during adolescence2006In: JOURNAL OF GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0022-1325, Vol. 167, no 1, p. 47-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Karlsson, E
    Laggnas, E
    Larsson, L
    Lindström, T
    Risky decision making across three arenas of choice: Are younger and older adults differently susceptible to framing effects?2005In: JOURNAL OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0022-1309, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Löwdén, Martin
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal age Gradients of Tower of Hanoi Performance: The Role of Practice Effects and Cohort Differences in Education2007In: Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585/05Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Factorial structure, relations to global subjective memory ratings, and Swedish norms2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The factorial structure of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith et al., 2000) was examined in a Swedish population based sample (N= 540, age range; 35–90 years). Concurrent validity was assessed by relating PRMQ to global ratings of memory. Confirmatory factor analyses of the PRMQ items indicated a superior fit of a three-factor model, with prospective and retrospective memory as orthogonal factors and episodic memory as a common factor. Furthermore, the PRMQ scales correlated with the global ratings of memory, suggesting that each rating contributed with unique variance in predicting PRMQ scores. Given differences in levels of complaints as compared with prior research (Crawford et al., 2003) norms for the Swedish version are provided. In conclusion, the present findings extend earlier work by providing additional support for the construct and concurrent validity of the PRMQ scales.

  • 24.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Adult life-span patterns in WAIS-R Block Design performance: Cross-sectional versus longitudinal age gradients and relations to demographic factors2006In: INTELLIGENCE, ISSN 0160-2896, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Flynn effects on sub-factors of episodic and semantic memory: Parallel gains over time and the same set of determining factors2009In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 47, p. 2174-2180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the extent to which time-related gains in cognitive performance, so-called Flynn effects, generalize across sub-factors of episodic memory (recall and recognition) and semantic memory (knowledge and fluency).We conducted time-sequential analyses of data drawnfromthe Betula prospective cohort study, involving four age-matched samples (35–80 years; N= 2996) tested on the same battery of memory tasks on either of four occasions (1989, 1995, 1999, and 2004). The results demonstrate substantial time-related improvements on recall and recognition as well as on fluency and knowledge, with a trend of larger gains on semantic as compared with episodic memory [Rönnlund, M., & Nilsson, L. -G. (2008). The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study. Intelligence], but highly similar gains across the sub-factors. Finally, the association with markers of environmental change was similar, with evidence that historical increases in quantity of schoolingwas a main driving force behind the gains, both on the episodic and semantic sub-factors. The results obtained are discussed in terms of brain regions involved.

  • 26.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    The Betula study: reliabilities and long-term stabilities of memory test performances over the adukt lifespan2006In: Baltic Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1407-768x, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 6-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory and visuospatial ability: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study2008In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, Vol. 36, p. 192-209Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Backman, L
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stability, growth, and decline in adult life span development of declarative memory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a population-based study2005In: PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING, ISSN 0882-7974, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 3-18Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Self-reported memory failures: associations with future dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up2015In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 1766-1773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between self-reported memory failures and incident dementia in individuals aged 60 and older.

    DESIGN: Longitudinal, community based.

    SETTING: Betula Prospective Cohort Study, a population-based study in Umea, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with a mean age of 71.5 +/- 8.8 (range 60-90) (N = 1,547).

    MEASUREMENTS: Participants rated the frequency of everyday memory failures using the 16-item Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) and underwent objective memory testing at baseline. Participant self-reports of complaints of poor memory by family and friends were evaluated. Dementia status was followed-up for 10 to 12 years.

    RESULTS: Over the study period, 225 participants developed dementia (132 with Alzheimer's disease (AD)). In Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for demographic factors, PRMQ z-scores predicted incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.21 for all-cause dementia; HR = 1.25 for AD, Ps < .01). The significant associations remained when depressive symptoms and objective memory performance were adjusted for, when low performers on objective memory (= 1 standard deviations below the age group mean) were excluded, and in analyses with delayed entry (survival time = 5 years). Similar patterns were observed for the prospective and retrospective subscales, although including how often participants self-reported that others complained about their poor memory eliminated the association between PRMQ scores and dementia and itself emerged as a significant predictor.

    CONCLUSION: Self-reported memory failure predicted future dementia or AD independent of objective memory performance. Subjective reports of complaints by family and friends appear to be an even more-important indicator of preclinical impairments, and physicians should not ignore them, even in the absence of objective memory deficits.

  • 30.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Subjective memory impairment in older adults predicts future dementia independent of baseline memory performance: Evidence from the Betula prospective cohort study2015In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 1385-1392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The objective was to examine whether subjective memory impairment (SMI) predicts all-cause dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a population-based study with long-term follow-up (median = 10 years).

    METHODS: A total of 2043 initially dementia-free participants (≥ 60 years) made three memory ratings ("compared with others", "compared with five years ago", and "complaints from family/friends") at baseline. During follow-up, 372 participants developed dementia (208 with AD).

    RESULTS: Cox regression revealed that subjective memory impairment ratings predicted all-cause dementia in models adjusting for age and sex (hazard ratio or HR from 2.04 to 3.94), with even higher values for AD (HR from 2.29 to 5.74). The result persisted in models including other covariates, including baseline episodic memory performance, and in analyses restricted to participants with long time to dementia diagnosis (≥ 5 years).

    DISCUSSION: The findings underscore the usefulness of subjective memory assessment in combination with other factors in identifying individuals at risk for developing dementia.

  • 31.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Goran
    Effects of Perceived Long-Term Stress on Subjective and Objective Aspects of Memory and Cognitive Functioning in a Middle-Aged Population-Based Sample2013In: The Journal of Genetic Psychology, ISSN 0022-1325, E-ISSN 1940-0896, Vol. 174, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The longitudinal effects of perceived stress on measures of memory and two other cognitive functions (word fluency, visuospatial ability) in a middle-aged sample (4060 years, M age = 47.1 years, SD = 6.1 years; n = 192) were examined. A group describing themselves as stressed in general at baseline, and at follow-up measurement 5 and 10 years later (n = 96) was compared with a matched (age, sex) low-stress group (n = 96). The results revealed more depressive symptoms over time in the high-stress group. With regard to memory, a dissociation between subjective and objective measures was observed. Specifically, participants in the high-stress group rated their memory as worse over time as compared with controls, and reported a higher frequency of occurrence of everyday memory failures, effects partly independent of depressive symptoms. However, the groups did not differ in terms of objective episodic memory performance, word fluency or block design performance, with stable levels of performance over time regardless of perceived stress. The lack of effects of stress on cognitive performance is discussed in the light of factors such as stress level, age of the participants, and other individual difference factors.

  • 32.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Interindividual differences in general cognitive ability from age 18 to age 65 years are extremely stable and strongly associated with working memory capacity2015In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 53, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to examine the degree of stability of interindividual differences in general cognitive ability (g) across the adult life span. To this end, we examined a sample of men (n = 262), cognitively assessed for the first time at age 18 (conscript data). The sample was reassessed at age 50 and at five year intervals up to age 65. Scores from conscript tests at age 18 were retrieved and three of the subtests were used as indicators of g in early adulthood. At age 50–65 years, four indicators served the same purpose. At the 15-year follow-up (age 65) two working memory measures were administered which allowed examination of the relationship with working memory capacity. Results from structural Equation Modelling (SEM) indicated extremely high level of stability from young adulthood to age 50 (standardized regression coefficient = − 95) as well as from age 50 to age 55, 60 and 65 with stability coefficients of .90 or higher for the for the latent g factor. Standardized regression coefficients between young-adult g and the g factor in midlife/old age were .95 from age 18 up to age 50 and 55, .94 up to age 60, and .86 up to age 65. Hence, g at age 18 accounted for 90–74% of the variance in g 32–47 years later. A close association between g and working memory capacity was observed (concurrent association: r = .88, time lagged association: r = .61). Taken together, the present study demonstrates that interindividual differences in g are extremely stable over the period from 18 to midlife, with a significant deviation from unity only at age 65. In light of the parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence, consistent with the close association between g and working memory capacity, midlife may be characterized by neural stability, with decline and decreased interindividual stability, related to loss of parieto-frontal integrity, past age 60.

  • 33.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Midlife level and 15-year changes in general cognitive ability in a sample of men: the role of education, early adult ability, BMI, and pulse pressure2017In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 61, p. 78-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to examine determinants of midlife level and long-term changes in a general cog-nitive ability (g) factor. The data were from a Swedish sample of men (n=262;M=49.9years,SD=4.0)forwhich cognitive (conscript) test scores at age 18 were retrieved. In midlife the men completed a battery of cog-nitive tests that was re-administered atfive-year intervals up to 15 years after the baseline assessment. Second-order latent growth curve models were used to examine predictors of midlife level and longitudinal changes in agfactor reflecting four cognitive measures (WAIS-R Block Design, vocabulary, action recall, and wordfluency).The results showed education (years of schooling) to be related to ability level (intercept) before (β= 0.71),but not after (β= 0.09), adjustment of an early adult (age 18)gfactor (reflecting three different cognitive mea-sures)that washighly predictive of midlifeglevel (adjustedβ= 0.89). Neither education norgat age 18 (or mid-lifeglevel) was related to long-term changes ing, though. Conversely,baseline age, BMI, and pulse pressure wereunrelated to midlife ability level, but higher baseline age, higher BMI and higher pulse pressure in midlife werepredictive of cognitive decline. Thus, whereas higher levels of initial ability or educational attainment do not ap-pear to buffer against onset of age-related decline ingin midlife and young-old age, maintenance of lower levelsof pulse pressure and body weight could possibly have such an effect. However, further research is required toevaluate the mechanisms behind the observed relationships of the targeted variables and cognitive decline.

  • 34.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Vestergren, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University and Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Predictors of self-reported prospective and retrospective memory in a population-based sample of older adults2011In: The Journal of Genetic Psychology, ISSN 0022-1325, E-ISSN 1940-0896, Vol. 172, no 3, p. 266-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors examined predictors of self-reported everyday memory failures using the Prospective and Retrospective Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith, Della Sala, Logie, &Maylor, 2000) in a population-based sample of older adults (age range = 60–90 years; N = 250). The results showed that a higher frequency of reported failures was associated with lower scores on the personality dimension of self-directedness as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI; Cloninger, Dragan, Svrakic,& Przybeck, 1993) and more depressive symptoms on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977).However, PRMQscores showed no relationships with objective memory ability, as reflected by a series of retrospective memory measures and a measure of prospective memory. Neither were the PRMQ scales associated with general cognitive functioning as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1977). Taken together, the results indicate that within the older population, self-reported memory as assessed by the PRMQ may reflect moodstate and personality factors rather than individual differences in memory and cognitive ability.

  • 35.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vestergren, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Dimensionality of stress experiences: Factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) in a population-based Swedish sample2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 592-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-recent; Levenstein, Prantera, Varvo et al., 1993) in a large (N = 1516; 35-95 years) population-based Swedish sample (Nilsson, Adolfsson, Backman et al., 2004; Nilsson, Backman, Erngrund et al., 1997). Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted on a first, randomly drawn subsample (n = 506). Next, the model based on the PCA was tested in a second sample (n = 505). Finally, a third sample (n = 505) was used to cross-validate the model. Five components were extracted in the PCA (eigenvalue > 1) and labeled "Demands," "Worries/Tension," " Lack of joy," " Conflict," and " Fatigue," respectively. Twenty-one out of the 30 original PSQ items were retained in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model that included the five (first-order) factors and, additionally, a general (second-order) stress factor, not considered in prior models. The model showed reasonable goodness of fit [chi(2)(184) = 511.2, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.904; RMSEA = 0.059; and SRMR = 0.063]. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported the validity of the established model. The results are discussed in relation to prior investigations of the factorial structure of the PSQ.

  • 36.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived stress in adults aged 65 to 90: Relations to facets of time perspective and COMT Val158Met polymorphism2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relation between perceived stress and time perspective (views of past, present, future) in a population-based sample of older adults (65-90 years, N = 340). The Perceived Questionnaire (PSQ index) was used to measure stress and the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) was used to operationalize time perspective. Unlike the original inventory, S-ZTPI separates positive and negative aspects of a future time perspective and we hypothesized that the Future Negative (FN) scale would be important to account for variations in stress. Additionally, associations with Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism were examined, motivated by prior associations of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with stress (or "anxiety") related personality traits. In line with the hypotheses, FN was the strongest predictor of PSQ index scores in multiple regression analyses. In a related vein, the dichotomization of the unitary Future scale increased the association between PSQ scores and a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective, i.e., the difference between a proposed optimal and observed ZTPI profile. Finally, higher levels of stress as well as higher scores on FN were observed in COMT Val/Val carriers, at least among men. This suggests a shared dopaminergic genetic influence on these variables. Collectively, the results demonstrate that perceived stress is closely linked to time perspective and highlight the need to take negative aspects of a future temporal orientation into account to understand this relation.

  • 37.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Graduate School in Population Dynamics and Public Policy, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time Perspective in Late Adulthood: aging patterns in past, present and future dimensions, deviations from balance, and associations with subjective well-being2017In: Timing & Time Perception, ISSN 2213-445X, E-ISSN 2213-4468, Vol. 5, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined cross-sectional aging patterns for subscales of the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a population-based sample of older adults (60–90 years; N = 447). Alternative methods to assess time perspective balance (DBTP, involving a single Future dimension; S-BTP; and DBTP-E, including in addition, Future Negative), were compared and their relations to subjective well-being (SWB) were examined. Significant negative age relations were observed for Past Negative and Future Negative with a clear age-related increase in Present Fatalistic, while Past Positive, Present Hedonistic, and Future Positive were relatively stable across age. A significant age-related increase in deviation from balance was observed across methods (Cohen’s ds 0.28–0.57), with the highest value for DBTP-E. Overall, S-BTP and DBTP-E were more strongly associated with SWB than DBTP (r = −0.40), with the highest value for DBTP-E (r = −0.53). Analyses of separate age groups (60–65 vs. 70–75 vs. 80–90 years) revealed a trend of weakened association with balance in old-old age, for S-BTP and DBTP-E in particular. This seemed to reflect the fact that negative views of the future are strongly related to SWB in young-old adults but diminish in importance in late senescence (80–90 years). Potential factors behind the observed patterns of results, including deficits in cognitive functioning and physical health to account for the age-related increase in present fatalism, and the potential role of a self-transcendent future time perspective for well-being in old-old age, are discussed.

  • 38.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Derwinger-Hallberg, Anna
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memory plasticity in older adults: Cognitive predictors of training response and maintenance following learning of number-consonant mnemonic2016In: Neuropsychological rehabilitation (Print), ISSN 0960-2011, E-ISSN 1464-0694, Vol. 26, no 5-6, p. 742-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the relationship between cognitive factors and gains in number recall following training in a number–consonant mnemonic in a sample of 112 older adults (M = 70.9 years). The cognitive factors examined included baseline episodic memory, working memory, processing speed, and verbal knowledge. In addition, predictors of maintenance of gains to a follow-up assessment, eight months later, were examined. Whereas working memory was a prominent predictor of baseline recall, the magnitude of gains in recall from pre- to post-test assessments were predicted by baseline episodic memory, processing speed, and verbal knowledge. Verbal knowledge was the only significant predictor of maintenance. Collectively, the results indicate the need to consider multiple factors to account for individual differences in memory plasticity. The potential contribution of additional factors to individual differences in memory plasticity is discussed.

  • 39.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Executive process training in young and old adults2014In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 577-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of research on the modifiability of executive functions in different stages of life. Previous studies demonstrate robust training effects but limited transfer in younger and particularly in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a theoretically derived intervention for executive functioning, addressing several basic processes (updating, shifting, and inhibition), can induce transfer effects in early and late adulthood. Fifty-nine healthy adults, 29 young and 30 older adults, were randomly assigned to either training or no-contact control groups. The training groups received 15 sessions of executive process training for about 45 min/session during 5 weeks. A test battery including a criterion task and near, intermediate, and far transfer tasks was administered before and after training. Results showed pronounced age-equivalent gains on the criterion task. Near transfer was seen to non-trained updating and inhibition tasks for the young and older trained participants. However, only the young adults showed intermediate transfer to two complex working memory tasks. No far transfer effects were seen for either age group. These findings provide additional evidence for age-related constraints in the ability to generalize acquired executive skills, and specifically show that training of multiple executive processes is not sufficient to foster transfer beyond the very near in older adults.

  • 40.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stressful life events are not associated with development of dementia2014In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 26, p. 147-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The impact of stressful life events as a risk factor of dementia diseases is inconclusive. We sought to determine whether stressful negative life events are associated with incidental dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up. We also tested the hypothesis that the occurrence of positive life events could mitigate or overcome the possible adverse effects of negative life events on dementia conversion.

    Methods: The study involved 2,462 dementia-free participants aged 55 years and older. Information on life events was ascertained at baseline from a comprehensive Life Event Inventory, which included 56 questions about specific life events. For each life event, the emotional impact (both positive and negative) and emotional adjustment were asked for.

    Results: During follow-up, 423 participants developed dementia; of these, 240 developed Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cox regression analysis showed no association between the total number of negative life events and the incidence of dementia when adjusted solely for age and gender (hazard ratio = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.92-1.02), or with multiple adjustments for a range of covariates (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.01). Similarly, neither emotional impact nor emotional adjustment to these life events was associated with incident dementia. A separate analysis of AD did not alter the results.

    Conclusions: The result of this population-based study finds no association between negative or positive life events and dementia. Accordingly, our results reject the hypothesis that stressful life events trigger the onset of dementia diseases.

  • 41.
    Sörman Eriksson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, 113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social network size and cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations2017In: Journal of Adult Development, ISSN 1068-0667, E-ISSN 1573-3440, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 77-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present study was to examine relations between social network size and three cognitive abilities (episodic memory, semantic memory, visuospatial ability) in middle-aged adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data on social network size and cognitive functioning that were available for 804 participants aged 40–60 years. In addition, we examined 5- and 10-year follow-up measurements of cognitive functioning that were available for 604 and 255 participants, respectively. Cross-sectional analyses revealed a positive association between social network size and each of the three cognitive abilities. Baseline network size was positively related to 5-year changes in semantic memory, and to 10-year changes in semantic as well as episodic memory, but was unrelated to changes in visuospatial performance. A minor portion of the sample (n = 131) had 10-year follow-up data on network size. Cross-lagged panel correlations revealed that baseline network size was associated with follow-up measurement in cognitive functioning (episodic memory, semantic memory), whereas baseline cognitive performance was unrelated to future network size. Together, the results demonstrate a small but positive relation between network size and declarative memory abilities, in line with models proposing a cognitive reserve built up by factors such as the increased cognitive stimulation associated with a more extensive social network.

  • 42.
    Vesa, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Liedberg, Liza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Two-Week Web-Based Mindfulness Training Reduces Stress, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms in Individuals with Self-reported Stress: A Randomized Control Trial2016In: International Journal of Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 2376-0281, Vol. 3, no 3, article id 1000209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the effects of a short-term web-based mindfulness program. Participants describing themselves as stressed were recruited and a total of 70 participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n=35) and a control group (n=35). The mindfulness program included two, 10-minute exercises per day, six days a week, for two weeks. Twenty participants in the treatment group and 34 participants in the control group completed the training. The mean pretest scores indicated that the group was above the cutoff for severe stress on a wellestablished measure (the Perceived Stress Questionnaire). Measures of stress, anxiety and depression symptoms, and a mindfulness questionnaire were administered before, during (after 1 week), and at the end of the treatment (after 2 weeks). The results showed that mindfulness training increased mindfulness skills and reduced levels of perceived stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms (Cohen’s ds>1). No significant changes from pre- to posttest were observed in the wait-list control group. Additionally, increments from pre- to post-test in mindfulness skills were associated with reductions in symptom scores, indicating treatment-specific effects. Together, the results suggest that the brief webbased mindfulness program may serve as an effective means to treat individuals suffering from stress, and motivate further research involving active control groups, alternative forms of web-based treatments as a control, and long-term follow-up of the effects.

  • 43.
    Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University and Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Development of the cognitive dysfunction questionnaire (CDQ) in a population based sample2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 218-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reports on the development of a questionnaire for assessment of adult cognitive dysfunction (CDQ). Participants in a population-based sample(65 ± 15 years, N = 370) responded to a 90-item pilot version covering multiple aspects of memory/cognition. Based on exploratory principal components analyses and correlations with criterion measures of cognitive functioning (MMSE, Block Design, semantic/episodic memory), 20 items loading on 6 components were selected for the final version of the questionnaire. Cronbach’s a for the total score was 0.90. There was evidence of construct validity as judged by correlations between CDQ scores, objective cognitive measures, and a subjective memory measure (PRMQ). Discriminant validity was demonstrated by a low and non-significant correlation with depressive symptoms. Further evidence of construct validity was provided by correlations with age and educational attainment. In conclusion, the CDQ is promising as a self-rating screening tool for cognitive dysfunction, and will be the subject of further development and validation.

  • 44.
    Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University and Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive dysfunction questionnaire: instrument refinement and measurement invariance across age and sex2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 390-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study adopted CFA to investigate the factorial structure and reduce the number of items of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire (CDQ; Vestergren, Rönnlund, Nyberg, & Nilsson, 2011). The analyses were based on data for a total of 1115 participants from population based samples (mean age: 63.0 ± 14.5 years, range: 25 - 95) randomly split into a refinement (n = 569) and a cross-validation (n = 546) sample. Equivalence of the measurement and structural portions of the refined model was demonstrated across the refinement and cross-validation samples. Among competing models the best fitting and parsimonious model had a hierarchical factor structure with five first-order and one second-order general factor. The final version of the CDQ consisted of 20 items in five domains (Procedural actions, Semantic word knowledge, Face recognition, Temporal orientation and Spatial navigation). Internal consistency reliabilities were adequate for the total scale and for the subscales. Multigroup CFAs were performed and the results indicate measurement invariance across age and sex up to the scalar level. Finally, higher levels of cognitive dysfunction as reflected by CDQ scores were observed with advancing age and with deficits in general cognitive functioning as reflected by scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, adoption of the final version of the CDQ appears to be a way of measuring cognitive dysfunction without administering formal cognitive tests. Future studies should apply it among clinical groups to further test its usefulness.

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