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  • 1.
    Al-Alawi, Kamila
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Johansson, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Al Mandhari, Ahmed
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Are the resources adoptive for conducting team-based diabetes management clinics? An explorative study at primary health care centers in Muscat, Oman.2018In: Primary Health Care Research and Development, ISSN 1463-4236, E-ISSN 1477-1128, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimThe aim of this study is to explore the perceptions among primary health center staff concerning competencies, values, skills and resources related to team-based diabetes management and to describe the availability of needed resources for team-based approaches.

    BACKGROUND: The diabetes epidemic challenges services available at primary health care centers in the Middle East. Therefore, there is a demand for evaluation of the available resources and team-based diabetes management in relation to the National Diabetes Management Guidelines.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 26 public primary health care centers in Muscat, the capital of Oman. Data were collected from manual and electronic resources as well as a questionnaire that was distributed to the physician-in-charge and diabetes management team members.FindingsThe study revealed significant differences between professional groups regarding how they perceived their own competencies, values and skills as well as available resources related to team-based diabetes management. The perceived competencies were high among all professions. The perceived team-related values and skills were also generally high but with overall lower recordings among the nurses. This pattern, along with the fact that very few nurses have specialized qualifications, is a barrier to providing team-based diabetes management. Participants indicated that there were sufficient laboratory resources; however, reported that pharmacological, technical and human resources were lacking. Further work should be done at public primary diabetes management clinics in order to fully implement team-based diabetes management.

  • 2. Araghi, Marzieh
    et al.
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Lundberg, Michael
    Lager, Anton
    Engström, Gunnar
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Knutsson, Anders
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Trolle Lagerros, Ylva
    Bellocco, Rino
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Use of moist oral snuff (snus) and pancreatic cancer: pooled analysis of nine prospective observational studies2017In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 141, no 4, p. 687-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While smoking is a well-established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the effect of smokeless tobacco is less well understood. We used pooled individual data from the Swedish Collaboration on Health Effects of Snus Use to assess the association between Swedish snus use and the risk of pancreatic cancer. A total of 424,152 male participants from nine cohort studies were followed up for risk of pancreatic cancer through linkage to health registers. We used shared frailty models with random effects at the study level, to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for confounding factors. During 9,276,054 person-years of observation, 1,447 men developed pancreatic cancer. Compared to never-snus use, current snus use was not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.83–1.11) after adjustment for smoking. Swedish snus use does not appear to be implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer in men. Tobacco smoke constituents other than nicotine or its metabolites may account for the relationship between smoking and pancreatic cancer.

  • 3. Araghi, Marzieh
    et al.
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Lundberg, Michael
    Liu, Zhiwei
    Ye, Weimin
    Lager, Anton
    Engström, Gunnar
    Manjer, Jonas
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Knutsson, Anders
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Gylling, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle
    Bellocco, Rino
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Smokeless tobacco (snus) use and colorectal cancer incidence and survival: Results from nine pooled cohorts2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 741-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: Although smoking is considered to be an established risk factor for colorectal cancer, the current evidence on the association between smokeless tobacco and colorectal cancer is scant and inconclusive. We used pooled individual data from the Swedish Collaboration on Health Effects of Snus Use to assess this association.

    METHODS: A total of 417,872 male participants from nine cohort studies across Sweden were followed up for incidence of colorectal cancer and death. Outcomes were ascertained through linkage to health registers. We used shared frailty models with random effects at the study level to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    RESULTS: During 7,135,504 person-years of observation, 4170 men developed colorectal cancer. There was no clear association between snus use and colorectal cancer overall. Exclusive current snus users, however, had an increased risk of rectal cancer (HR 1.40: 95% CI 1.09, 1.79). There were no statistically significant associations between snus use and either all-cause or colorectal cancer-specific mortality after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, from a large sample, do not support any strong relationships between snus use and colorectal cancer risk and survival among men. However, the observed increased risk of rectal cancer is noteworthy, and in merit of further attention.

  • 4. Axelsen, Mette
    et al.
    Danielsson, Maria
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sjöberg, Agneta
    Eating habits and physical activity: Health in Sweden: The National Public Health Report 2012. Chapter 82012In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, no 9 Suppl, p. 164-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although eating habits in Sweden have largely deteriorated since 1980, some improvements have been observed in the most recent years. Between 1980 and 2010, the consumption of sweets rose from 10 to 15 kilos per person per year, while consumption of soft drinks increased from 30 to 90 litres. The average amount of energy consumed rose by 11 per cent, probably contributing to an increase in the number of overweight people.

    Moreover, our energy intake is almost 10 per cent higher compared to 1980. Protein intake has shown a particularly stable rise. Swedes continue to eat too little fruit, vegetables and fish, according to the Swedish National Food Agency’s dietary recommendations. Fewer than one person in ten eats fruit and vegetables five times a day. Women have better eating habits than men, well-educated people have better eating habits than the less well-educated, and male workers on low incomes eat the least amount of fruit and vegetables.

    The eating habits of children have improved in recent years. More children eat fruit and vegetables, and the consumption of soft drinks and sweets declined markedly between 2001 and 2005. However, children continue to consume excessive amounts of sweets, soft drinks, ice cream, snacks and pastry. On average, children drank 2 decilitres of soft/fruit drinks a day and ate 1.5 hectograms of sweets a week in 2003. Children who regularly eat breakfast often have better eating habits than other young people.

    The desire to lose weight is fairly prevalent. Just over half the adult population have tried to lose weight or plan to do so. Nowadays, there are a number of methods for losing weight, and the debate between those who are for or against fat in the diet has become polarised. Most of these methods, however, involve increasing one’s consumption of vegetables, fruit and pulses and lowering one’s consumption of chocolate, sweets, soft drinks and snacks.

    Physical activity has many positive effects on health and helps prevent the most common diseases. People who are least fit have the most to gain in terms of improved health by increasing their physical activity.

    Physical inactivity during leisure time is more widespread among men than women. It is three times more common among women and men born outside Europe than among native-born Swedes. Physical inactivity has become less common among women in all socioeconomic groups according to the Survey of Living Conditions. In the case of men physical inactivity has only decreased among upper-level white-collar employees. Several other studies show no appreciable improvement, inactivity during leisure time is just as common today as it was 20 years ago.

    Approximately two-thirds of adults are physically active for at least half an hour every day. The level of activity may be described as at least moderate, thus fulfilling the minimum recommended physical activity requirement. According to the Västerbotten Health Studies, the proportion of the population who are moderately active has declined in recent years. On the other hand, the amount of intense physical activity has risen, particularly among women. A higher level of physical activity is recommended for children and young people. However, this recommendation is only met by 10–20 per cent of children in Sweden, a lower figure than in most other European countries.

  • 5.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lönnberg, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Impact of a combined community and primary care prevention strategy on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a cohort analysis based on 1 million person-years of follow-up in Västerbotten County, Sweden, during 1990-20062015In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, no 12, article id e009651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) by comparing all eligible individuals (target group impact) according to the intention-to-treat principle and VIP participants with the general Swedish population.

    DESIGN: Dynamic cohort study.

    SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 40, 50 or 60 years, residing in Västerbotten County, Sweden, between 1990 and 2006 (N=101 918) were followed from their first opportunity to participate in the VIP until age 75, study end point or prior death.

    INTERVENTION: The VIP is a systematic, long-term, county-wide cardiovascular disease (CVD) intervention that is performed within the primary healthcare setting and combines individual and population approaches. The core component is a health dialogue based on a physical examination and a comprehensive questionnaire at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years.

    PRIMARY OUTCOMES: All-cause and CVD mortality.

    RESULTS: For the target group, there were 5646 deaths observed over 1 054 607 person-years. Compared to Sweden at large, the standardised all-cause mortality ratio was 90.6% (95% CI 88.2% to 93.0%): for women 87.9% (95% CI 84.1% to 91.7%) and for men 92.2% (95% CI 89.2% to 95.3%). For CVD, the ratio was 95.0% (95% CI 90.7% to 99.4%): for women 90.4% (95% CI 82.6% to 98.7%) and for men 96.8% (95% CI 91.7 to 102.0). For participants, subject to further impact as well as selection, when compared to Sweden at large, the standardised all-cause mortality ratio was 66.3% (95% CI 63.7% to 69.0%), whereas the CVD ratio was 68.9% (95% CI 64.2% to 73.9%). For the target group as well as for the participants, standardised mortality ratios for all-cause mortality were reduced within all educational strata.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that the VIP model of CVD prevention is able to impact on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality when evaluated according to the intention-to-treat principle.

  • 6.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Dahlström, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindholm, Lars Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lönnberg, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hallström, Sara
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Persson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    From efficacy in trials to effectiveness in clinical practice: The Swedish Stroke Prevention Study2016In: Blood Pressure, ISSN 0803-7051, E-ISSN 1651-1999, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 206-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood pressure treatment has shown great efficacy in reducing cardiovascular events in randomized controlled trials. If this is effective in reducing cardiovascular disease in the general population, is less studied. Between 2001 and 2009 we performed an intervention to improve blood pressure control in the county of Vasterbotten, using Sodermanland County as a control. The intervention was directed towards primary care physicians and included lectures on blood pressure treatment, a computerized decision support system with treatment recommendations, and yearly feed back on hypertension control. Each county had approximately 255000 inhabitants. Differences in age and incidence of cardiovascular disease were small. During follow-up, more than 400000 patients had their blood pressure recorded. The mean number of measurements was eight per patient, yielding a total of 3.4 million blood pressure recordings. The effect of the intervention will be estimated combining the blood pressure data collected from the electronic medical records, with data on stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality from Swedish health registers. Additional variables, from health registers and Statistics Sweden, will be collected to address for confounders. The blood pressure data collected within this study will be an important asset for future epidemiological studies within the field of hypertension.

  • 7. Carlsson, S
    et al.
    Andersson, T
    Araghi, M
    Galanti, R
    Lager, A
    Lundberg, M
    Nilsson, P
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Pedersen, N L
    Trolle-Lagerros, Y
    Magnusson, C
    Smokeless tobacco (snus) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes: results from five pooled cohorts2017In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 281, no 4, p. 398-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Smoking and nicotine exposure increase insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Swedish smokeless tobacco (snus) is high in nicotine, and its use is prevalent in Scandinavian countries, but few studies have investigated snus use in relation to diabetes risk.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between snus use and risk of type 2 diabetes using pooled data from five cohorts.

    METHODS: Analyses were based on prospective studies conducted between 1990 and 2013 including 54 531 never-smoking men and 2441 incident cases of type 2 diabetes identified through screening, self-reporting and hospital and prescription registries. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed and adjusted for age, body mass index, educational level, alcohol consumption and physical activity.

    RESULTS: Compared to never users, the HR of type 2 diabetes was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.00-1.32) in current users of snus. In individuals consuming 5-6 boxes per week, the HR was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.07-1.87); in those consuming ≥7 boxes per week, the HR was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.17-2.41). Each additional box of snus consumed per week yielded an HR of 1.08 (95% CI: 1.01-1.16).

    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that high consumption of snus is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The risk was similar to that in smokers, implying that smokers will not reduce their risk of type 2 diabetes by changing to snus use. The results also support the notion that nicotine increases the risk of type 2 diabetes.

  • 8. Engström, Karin S
    et al.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Department of Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Ulf
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Rentschler, Gerda
    Vessby, Bengt
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Broberg, Karin
    Evaluation of the impact of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes on the association between methylmercury or n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study2011In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 10, p. Article nr 33-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are present in fish, are protective against myocardial infarction. However, fish also contains methylmercury, which influences the risk of myocardial infarction, possibly by generating oxidative stress. Methylmercury is metabolized by conjugation to glutathione, which facilitates elimination. Glutathione is also an antioxidant. Individuals with certain polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes may tolerate higher exposures to methylmercury, due to faster metabolism and elimination and/or better glutathione-associated antioxidative capacity. They would thus benefit more from the protective agents in fish, such as eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and selenium. The objective for this study was to elucidate whether genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes modify the association between eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or methylmercury and risk of first ever myocardial infarction.

    METHODS: Polymorphisms in glutathione-synthesizing (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, GCLC and glutamyl-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, GCLM) or glutathione-conjugating (glutathione S-transferase P, GSTP1) genes were genotyped in 1027 individuals from northern Sweden (458 cases of first-ever myocardial infarction and 569 matched controls). The impact of these polymorphisms on the association between erythrocyte-mercury (proxy for methylmercury) and risk of myocardial infarction, as well as between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and risk of myocardial infarction, was evaluated by conditional logistic regression. The effect of erythrocyte-selenium on risk of myocardial infarction was also taken into consideration.

    RESULTS: There were no strong genetic modifying effects on the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction risk. When eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury were divided into tertiles, individuals with GCLM-588 TT genotype displayed a lower risk relative to the CC genotype in all but one tertile; in most tertiles the odds ratio was around 0.5 for TT. However, there were few TT carriers and the results were not statistically significant. The results were similar when taking plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid, erythrocyte-selenium and erythrocyte-mercury into account simultaneously.

    CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant genetic modifying effects were seen for the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction. Still, our results indicate that the relatively rare GCLM-588 TT genotype may have an impact, but a larger study is necessary for confirmation.

  • 9. Feldman, Adina L
    et al.
    Griffin, Simon J
    Ahern, Amy L
    Long, Grainne H
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Impact of weight maintenance and loss on diabetes risk and burden: a population-based study in 33,184 participants2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Weight loss in individuals at high risk of diabetes is an effective prevention method and a major component of the currently prevailing diabetes prevention strategies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the public health potential for diabetes prevention of weight maintenance or moderate weight loss on a population level in an observational cohort with repeated measurements of weight and diabetes status.

    METHODS: Height, weight and diabetes status were objectively measured at baseline and 10 year follow-up in a population-based cohort of 33,184 participants aged 30-60 years between 1990 and 2013 in Västerbotten County, Sweden. The association between risk of incident diabetes and change in BMI or relative weight was modelled using multivariate logistic regression. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were used to assess population impact of shift in weight.

    RESULTS: Mean (SD) BMI at baseline was 25.0 (3.6) kg/m(2). Increase in relative weight between baseline and follow-up was linearly associated with incident diabetes risk, odds ratio (OR) 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.06) per 1% change in weight. Compared to weight maintenance (±1.0 kg/m(2)), weight gain of > +1.0 kg/m(2) was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes, OR 1.52 (95% CI 1.32, 1.74), representing a PAF of 21.9% (95% CI 15.8, 27.6%). For moderate weight loss (-1.0 to -2.0 kg/m(2)) the OR was 0.72 (95% CI 0.52, 0.99).

    CONCLUSIONS: Weight maintenance in adulthood is strongly associated with reduced incident diabetes risk and there is considerable potential for diabetes prevention in promoting this as a whole population strategy.

  • 10. Feldman, Adina L.
    et al.
    Griffin, Simon J.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Screening for type 2 diabetes: do screen-detected cases fare better?2017In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 60, no 11, p. 2200-2209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate whether diabetes cases detected through screening have better health outcomes than clinically detected cases in a population-based cohort of adults who were eligible to be screened for diabetes at 10 year intervals.

    METHODS: The Västerbotten Intervention Programme is a community- and individual-based public health programme in Västerbotten County, Sweden. Residents are invited to clinical examinations that include screening for diabetes by OGTTs at age 30, 40, 50 and 60 years (individuals eligible for screening, n = 142,037). Between 1992 and 2013, we identified 1024 screen-detected cases and 8642 clinically detected cases of diabetes using registry data. Clinically detected individuals were either prior screening participants (n = 4506) or people who did not participate in screening (non-participants, n = 4136). Study individuals with diabetes were followed from date of detection until end of follow-up, emigration, death or incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), renal disease or retinopathy event, and compared using Cox proportional hazard regression adjusted for calendar time, age at detection, year of detection, sex and socioeconomic status.

    RESULTS: The average age at diabetes diagnosis was 4.6 years lower for screen-detected individuals compared with clinically detected individuals. Overall, those who were clinically detected had worse health outcomes than those who were screen-detected (HR for all-cause mortality 2.07 [95% CI 1.63, 2.62]). Compared with screen-detected study individuals, all-cause mortality was higher for clinically detected individuals who were screening non-participants (HR 2.31 [95% CI 1.82, 2.94]) than for those clinically detected who were prior screening participants (HR 1.70 [95% CI 1.32, 2.18]). Estimates followed a similar pattern for CVD, renal disease and retinopathy.

    CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Individuals with screen-detected diabetes were diagnosed earlier and appeared to fare better than those who were clinically detected with regard to all-cause mortality, CVD, renal disease and retinopathy. How much of these associations can be explained by earlier treatment because of screening rather than healthy user bias, lead time bias and length time bias warrants further investigation.

  • 11.
    Feldman, Adina L
    et al.
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge.
    Long, Gráinne H
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Griffin, Simon J
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Change in lifestyle behaviors and diabetes risk: evidence from a population-based cohort study with 10 year follow-up2017In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 14, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Promoting positive changes in lifestyle behavior in the whole population may be a feasible and effective approach to reducing type 2 diabetes burden, but the impact of population shifts of modifiable risk factors remains unclear. Currently most of the evidence on modifiable lifestyle behavior and type 2 diabetes risk on a population level comes from studies of between-individual differences. The objective of the study was to investigate the association and potential impact on disease burden for within-individual change in lifestyle behavior and diabetes risk.

    METHODS: Population-based prospective cohort study of 35,680 participants aged 30-50 at baseline in 1990-2003 in Västerbotten County, Sweden (follow-up until 2013). Five self-reported modifiable lifestyle behaviors (tobacco use, physical activity, alcohol intake, dietary fiber intake and dietary fat intake) were measured at baseline and 10 year follow-up. Lifestyle behaviors were studied separately, and combined in a score. Incident diabetes was detected by oral glucose tolerance tests. Multivariate logistic regression models and population attributable fractions (PAF) were used to analyze the association between change in lifestyle behavior between baseline and 10 year follow-up, and risk of incident diabetes.

    RESULTS: Incident diabetes was detected in 1,184 (3.3%) participants at 10 year follow-up. There was a reduced diabetes risk associated with increase in dietary fiber intake, odds ratio (OR) 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66, 0.96) for increase of at least one unit standard deviation (3.0 g/1,000 kcal) of the baseline distribution, PAF 16.0% (95% CI 4.2, 26.4%). Increase in the lifestyle behavior score was associated with reduced diabetes risk, OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.85, 0.99) per unit increase of the score.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results support a causal link between lifestyle behavior and type 2 diabetes incidence. A small shift in lifestyle behaviors, in particular intake of dietary fiber, has the potential to reduce diabetes burden in the population and might be a suitable target for public health intervention.

  • 12. Ghandour, Rula
    et al.
    Mikki, Nahed
    Abu Rmeileh, Niveen M E
    Jerdén, Lars
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Jan W
    Husseini, Abdullatif
    Complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ramallah and al-Bireh: The Palestinian Diabetes Complications and Control Study (PDCCS).2018In: Primary Care Diabetes, ISSN 1751-9918, E-ISSN 1878-0210, article id S1751-9918(18)30195-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing pandemic that will lead, if not managed and controlled, to frequent complications, poor quality of life, and high rates of disability and death. Little is known about T2DM complications in Palestine. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of T2DM complications in Ramallah and al-Bireh governorate of Palestine.

    METHODS: The study was conducted in eleven primary healthcare clinics offering services for persons with T2DM. Macrovascular complications were assessed using the Diabetes complication index. Microvascular complications were measured by physical examinations and laboratory tests. Questionnaires, laboratory tests, and physical examinations were used to assess socio-demographic characteristics, co-morbidities and other risk factors.

    RESULTS: 517 adult men and nonpregnant women participated in the study (166 men, 351 women). The response rate was 84%. Mean age and mean duration of diabetes were 58.1 and 9.4 years respectively. Prevalence of diagnosed microvascular and macrovascular complications was 67.2% and 28.6% respectively. 78.2% of the participants had poor glycemic control (HbA1c≥7.0%).

    CONCLUSION: Significant proportions of persons with T2DM had macro- and microvascular complications and poor metabolic control. These findings are important for policy development and the planning of health services.

  • 13.
    Granlund, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ramnemark, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Vitamin D is associated with lower limb muscle strength and grip strength in Middle Eastern and African-born immigrants in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Granlund, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Ramnemark, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with nutrition, travelling and clothing habits in an immigrant population in Northern Sweden2016In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 373-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To study prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in immigrants from Africa and the Middle East living in Umeå, Sweden.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional population based.

    SETTING: Umeå, Sweden (63° N).

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Immigrants aged 25-65 years from nine countries in Africa or the Middle East (n=1306) were invited. A total of 111 men and 106 women (16.5%) completed the study. S-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was measured with HPLC. Anthropometry, medical, socioeconomic and lifestyle data were registered.

    RESULTS: Vitamin D status was insufficient or deficient in 73% of the participants. Specifically, 12% had vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D3<25 nmol/l), and only 3.7% had optimal vitamin D status (25(OH)D3 75-125 nmol/l). Mean 25(OH)D3 level was 41.0 nmol/l (±16.6) with no difference between sexes. Levels of 25(OH)D3 were lower (P=0.030) and vitamin D deficiency was twice as common in immigrants from Africa compared with those from the Middle East. In the multiple regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with low fatty fish intake (OR 4.31, 95% CI 1.61-11.55), not travelling abroad (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.18-11.96) and wearing long-sleeved clothes in summer (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.09-9.12).

    CONCLUSIONS: The majority of immigrants from Africa and the Middle East who live in northern Sweden have vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Our results are consistent with sun exposure and a diet with high intake of fatty fish being most important in avoiding vitamin D deficiency.

  • 15.
    Granlund, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Ramnemark, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Associations between vitamin D status and anxiety, depression and health related quality of life in an immigrant population. A cross-sectional study from SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16. Handberg, A
    et al.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hallmans, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Attermann, J
    Eriksson, J W
    Soluble CD36 (sCD36) Clusters with Markers of Insulin Resistance, and High sCD36 Is Associated with Increased Type 2 Diabetes Risk.2010In: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, ISSN 1945-7197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context and Objective: Soluble CD36 (sCD36) may be an early marker of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate sCD36 as a predictor of type 2 diabetes and to study its relationship with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetSy). Design, Setting, Participants, and Outcome Measures: We conducted a case-referent study nested within a population-based health survey. Baseline variables included sCD36, body mass index, blood pressure, blood lipids, adipokines, inflammatory markers, and beta-cell function. A total of 173 initially nondiabetic cohort members who developed type 2 diabetes during 10 yr of follow-up were matched (1:2) with referents. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to hypothesize affiliation of sCD36 to the MetSy components. Results: Doubling of baseline sCD36 increases the odds ratio for diabetes development by 1.24 in the general study population and by 1.45 in the female population (P < 0.025). Comparing upper sCD36 quartiles with lower, odds ratio for diabetes was 4.6 in women (P = 0.001), 3.15 in men (P = 0.011), and 2.6 in obese individuals (P < 0.025). Multivariate analysis shows that sCD36 does not predict diabetes independent of fasting plasma glucose and insulin. Factor analysis of 15 variables generates a six-factor model explaining 66-69% of total variance, where sCD36, body mass index, insulin, proinsulin, and leptin were assigned to the obesity/insulin resistance cluster. Conclusions: Upper quartile sCD36 is associated with elevated diabetes risk independent of age, gender, and obesity. Baseline sCD36 does not, however, predict diabetes independent of fasting glucose and insulin. sCD36 clusters with important markers of insulin resistance and MetSy that are key predictors of type 2 diabetes.

  • 17.
    Hemberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Holmberg, H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nordin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Tobacco use is not associated with groin hernia repair, a population-based study2017In: Hernia, ISSN 1265-4906, E-ISSN 1248-9204, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 517-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The pathogenesis of groin hernia is not fully understood and some suggested risk factors are debatable. This population-based study evaluates the association between groin hernia repair and tobacco use. Method An observational study based on register linkage between the Swedish Hernia Register and the Vasterbotten Intervention Program (VIP). All primary groin hernia repairs performed from 2001 to 2013 in the county of Vasterbotten, Sweden, were included. Results VIP provided data on the use of tobacco in 102,857 individuals. Neither smoking nor the use of snus, increased the risk for requiring a groin hernia repair. On the contrary, heavy smoking decreased the risk for men, HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.58-0.96), as did having a BMI over 30 kg/m 2 HR (men) 0.33 (95% CI 0.27-0.40). Conclusion Tobacco use is not a risk factor for requiring a groin hernia repair, whereas having a low BMI significantly increases the risk.

  • 18.
    Hernestål-Boman, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Medicine, Sunderby Hospital, Luleå, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jan W
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg and AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Johansson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Signs of dysregulated fibrinolysis precede the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a population-based study2012In: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 11, p. 152-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetic patients experience stimulated coagulation and dysfibrinolysis, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This imbalance may precede the manifest diagnosis. We investigated whether elevated antigen levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the tPA/PAI-1 complex, or von Willebrand Factor (VWF) precede type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis, and whether this elevation occurs before increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) in individuals who later develop T2DM.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective incident case-referent study within the Vasterbotten Intervention Programme. Cardiovascular risk factor data as well as FPG and 2hPG and blood samples for future research were collected at a baseline health examination between 1989 and 2000, (n= 28 736). During follow-up in January 2001, 157 cases had developed T2DM. Referents without T2DM were matched for sex, age, and year of participation (n=277). Subgroup analysis was performed for cases with normal baseline glucose levels (FPG <6.1 mmol/L and 2hPG < 8.9 mmol/L) and cases with elevated levels (FPG 6.1-6.9 mmol/L and/or 2hPG 8.9-12.1 mmol/L).

    Results: After adjusting for BMI, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, systolic blood pressure and levels of C-reactive protein and triglycerides, independent associations were found between incident T2DM and elevated levels of tPA (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.23), PAI-1 (OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.14-2.28), and tPA/PAI-1 complex (OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.56-3.84). In participants with normal glucose levels, PAI-1 (OR=2.06, 95% CI 1.10 - 3.86) exhibited an independent relationship with incident T2DM after the adjustments.

    Conclusions: Elevated levels of fibrinolytic variables precede the manifestation of T2DM after adjusting for metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and can be detected several years before changes in glucose tolerance.

  • 19.
    Häggström, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Divorcing in middle age and its effects on BMIManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20. Imseeh, Sawsan
    et al.
    Mikki, Nahed
    Ghandour, Rula
    Giacaman, Rita
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jerden, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Husseini, Abdullatif
    Self-care and glycaemic control: a cross-sectional study2013In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 382, p. 19-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Jacobson, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Larsson, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Idrottsmedicin.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Leptin independently predicts development of future sepsis and determines survival in the acute phaseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine if levels of the adipocyte-derived hormones leptin and adiponectin (adipokines) predict sepsis development and if intra-individual changes in circulating levels from baseline to the acute phase affect outcome.

    Method: A nested case-referent study within the framework of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS) and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC). Patients aged 18 years or more with documented sepsis within 24 hours after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) were included if they had participated in a health survey and donated blood samples prior to the sepsis event, and if possible also had stored plasma from the acute phase. Two matched referents free of known sepsis were selected for each case. Baseline and acute phase plasma leptin and adiponectin levels were determined. The associations between adipokines and sepsis and its severity and outcome were determined.

    Results: We identified 57 men and 97 women with a first-time sepsis event 6.5 years (median with IQR 7.7) after participation in the health survey, and 83% of them had also samples from the acute septic phase. Hyperleptinemia associated with a future sepsis event (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.04-3.00, P=0.03), with stronger associations with severe sepsis and septic shock than with sepsis. High leptin levels were also associated with hospital death in the fully adjusted model. Leptin remained associated with sepsis in men (P=0.02), but not in women (P=0.36), after stratification and adjustment for BMI. In the acute phase, leptin increased more in men than in women (P=0.001), and high leptin levels were associated with increased risk for in-hospital death in women (OR 4.18, 95%CI 1.17-15.00, P=0.03), while being protective in men (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.48, P=0.01). Adiponectin did not associate with sepsis or outcome.

    Conclusions: Hyperleptinemia independently predicted the development of sepsis, and an unfavourable outcome in men. Adiponectin was not associated with sepsis development.

  • 22.
    Jacobson, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Åberg, Anna-Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) predicts sepsis and associates with sepsis-related in-hospital mortality differentially in men and womenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine if levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) predict sepsis development and if intra-individual changes in circulating levels from baseline to the acute septic phase associate with in-hospital mortality.

    Method: A nested case-referent study within the framework of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS) and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC). Patients aged 18 years or more with documented sepsis within 24 hours after admission to the intensive care unit were included if they had participated in a health survey and donated blood samples prior to the sepsis event. A subset of these patients had stored plasma also from the acute phase. Two matched referents free of known sepsis were selected for each case. Baseline and acute phase plasma MBL levels were determined. The association between MBL and sepsis, sepsis severity and in-hospital mortality were determined.

    Results: We identified 57 men and 95 women with a first-time sepsis event 6.5 years (median with IQR 7.7) after participation in a health survey, of which 127 also had samples from the acute septic phase. High baseline levels predicted future sepsis (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.26), but were not associated with severity of sepsis or in-hospital fatality. Both high MBL levels in the acute phase (OR 4.94, 95% CI 1.44-16.89), and an increase from base line to the acute phase (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.19-11.28) were associated with increased risk for in-hospital death in women, but not in men (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.18-2.88). Low levels at baseline were not associated with future sepsis. Neither low levels at baseline, nor in the acute phase were associated with sepsis severity or in-hospital mortality.

    Conclusions: High pre-sepsis levels predicted a future sepsis event, and an increase from baseline to the acute phase as well as high levels in the acute phase associated with an unfavourable outcome in women.

  • 23.
    Jacobsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Larsson, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Leptin independently predicts development of sepsis and its outcome2017In: Journal of Inflammation, ISSN 1476-9255, E-ISSN 1476-9255, Vol. 14, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition and obesity is related to the clinical outcome. The underlying reasons are incompletely understood, but the adipocyte derived hormones leptin and adiponectin may be involved.

    Methods: Patients aged 18 years or more with documented first time sepsis events were included in a nested case-referent study if they had participated in previous health surveys. Two matched referents free of known sepsis were identified. Circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin were determined in stored plasma, and their impact on a future sepsis event and its outcome was evaluated.

    Results: We identified 152 patients (62% women) with a sepsis event and a previous participation in a health survey. Eighty-three % had also blood samples from the acute event. Hyperleptinemia at health survey associated with a future sepsis event (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.04-3.00) and with hospital death. After adjustment for BMI leptin remained associated with sepsis in men, but not in women. High levels in the acute phase associated with increased risk for in hospital death in women (OR 4.18, 95% CI 1.17-15.00), while being protective in men (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.48). Furthermore, leptin increased more from baseline to the acute phase in men than in women. Adiponectin did not predict sepsis and did not relate to outcome.

    Conclusions: Hyperleptinemia independently predicted the development of sepsis and an unfavourable outcome in men, and inertia in the acute response related to worse outcome.

  • 24.
    Krachler, Benno
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Jan W
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Fatty acid profile of the erythrocyte membrane preceding development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.2008In: Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD, ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 503-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The respective roles of dietary fatty acids in the pathogenesis of diabetes are as yet unclear. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition may provide an estimate of dietary fatty acid intake. This study investigates the relation between EMFA composition and development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a nested case-referent design we studied 159 individuals tested as non-diabetic at baseline who after a mean observation time of 5.4+/-2.6years were diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and 291 sex- and age-matched referents. Higher proportions of pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were associated with a lower risk of diabetes. In accordance with earlier findings, higher proportions of palmitoleic (16:1 n-7), dihomo-gamma-linolenic (20:3 n-6) and adrenic (22:4 n-6) acids were associated with increased risk, whereas linoleic (18:2 n-6) and clupanodonic (22:5 n-3) acids were inversely associated with diabetes. After adjustment for BMI, HbA1c, alcohol intake, smoking and physical activity the only significant predictors were 15:0 and 17:0 as protective factors and 22:4 n6 as risk factor. CONCLUSION: In accordance with previous studies, our results indicate that EMFA-patterns predict development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The inverse association with two saturated fatty acids, previously shown to reflect consumption of dairy products, is a new finding.

  • 25. Lassale, Camille
    et al.
    Tzoulaki, Ioanna
    Moons, Karel G. M.
    Sweeting, Michael
    Boer, Jolanda
    Johnson, Laura
    Huerta, José María
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Freisling, Heinz
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    van der A, Daphne L.
    Arriola, Larraitz
    Benetou, Vassiliki
    Boeing, Heiner
    Bonnet, Fabrice
    Colorado-Yohar, Sandra M.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Eriksen, Anne K.
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Grioni, Sara
    Johansson, Matthias
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Katsoulis, Michail
    Katzke, Verena
    Key, Timothy J.
    Matullo, Giuseppe
    Melander, Olle
    Molina-Portillo, Elena
    Moreno-Iribas, Concepción
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Overvad, Kim
    Panico, Salvatore
    Quirós, J. Ramón
    Saieva, Calogero
    Skeie, Guri
    Steffen, Annika
    Stepien, Magdalena
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Tumino, Rosario
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Verschuren, W. M. Monique
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele
    Riboli, Elio
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Danesh, John
    Butterworth, Adam S.
    Separate and combined associations of obesity and metabolic health with coronary heart disease: a pan-European case-cohort analysis2018In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 397-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The hypothesis of 'metabolically healthy obesity' implies that, in the absence of metabolic dysfunction, individuals with excess adiposity are not at greater cardiovascular risk. We tested this hypothesis in a large pan-European prospective study.

    Methods and results: We conducted a case-cohort analysis in the 520 000-person European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study ('EPIC-CVD'). During a median follow-up of 12.2 years, we recorded 7637 incident coronary heart disease (CHD) cases. Using cut-offs recommended by guidelines, we defined obesity and overweight using body mass index (BMI), and metabolic dysfunction ('unhealthy') as ≥ 3 of elevated blood pressure, hypertriglyceridaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hyperglycaemia, and elevated waist circumference. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) within each country using Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazard regressions, accounting for age, sex, centre, education, smoking, diet, and physical activity. Compared with metabolically healthy normal weight people (reference), HRs were 2.15 (95% CI: 1.79; 2.57) for unhealthy normal weight, 2.33 (1.97; 2.76) for unhealthy overweight, and 2.54 (2.21; 2.92) for unhealthy obese people. Compared with the reference group, HRs were 1.26 (1.14; 1.40) and 1.28 (1.03; 1.58) for metabolically healthy overweight and obese people, respectively. These results were robust to various sensitivity analyses.

    Conclusion: Irrespective of BMI, metabolically unhealthy individuals had higher CHD risk than their healthy counterparts. Conversely, irrespective of metabolic health, overweight and obese people had higher CHD risk than lean people. These findings challenge the concept of 'metabolically healthy obesity', encouraging population-wide strategies to tackle obesity.

  • 26.
    Lilja, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    The iImpact of Leptin and Adiponectin on incident type 2 Diabetes is modified by sex and insulin resistance2012In: Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, ISSN 1540-4196, E-ISSN 1557-8518, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adiponectin and leptin and their ratio have been associated with incident type 2 diabetes (T2DM), although the data presented are conflicting and the populations studied have been small. In this large, prospective, nested, case referent study, we hypothesized that these associations are sex specific and may be modified by insulin resistance. Methods: Men and women aged 30-60 years with incident T2DM (n = 640) and a prior health survey within the Vasterbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) and matched referents (n = 1564) were identified. Using conditional logistic regression analyses, we tested whether baseline plasma adiponectin and leptin levels and their ratio independently predicted incident T2DM, stratified for gender and insulin resistance. Results: Adjusted for traditional risk factors, fourth-quartile levels of adiponectin were associated with a reduced risk of T2DM in men [odds ratio (OR) 0.55 (0.36-0.86)] and women [OR 0.47 (0.27-0.83)]. Quartile four of the leptin/adiponectin ratio predicted T2DM in both men [OR 3.08 (1.68-5.67)] and women [OR 3.31 (1.56-7.03)], whereas quartile-four levels of leptin predicted T2DM only in men [OR 2.30 (1.32-4.02)]. When stratified for insulin sensitivity and adjusted for body mass index (BMI), loge-transformed leptin predicted T2DM in insulin-sensitive men [OR 1.56 (1.13-2.17)] but not in insulin-resistant men [OR 1.03 (0.76-1.39)]. The effect of adiponectin and the leptin/adiponectin ratio was not influenced by the insulin sensitivity status. Conclusions: Leptin in men and adiponectin in both sexes were independent predictors of T2DM. The association was modified by the degree of insulin sensitivity. The leptin/adiponectin ratio may add predictive information beyond the separate hormones.

  • 27.
    Lilja, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    The impact of leptin and adiponectin on incident type 2 diabetes is modified by sex and insulin resistanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Adiponectin and leptin and their ratio have been associated with incident type 2 diabetes (T2DM), although presented data are conflicting and populations studied have been small. In this large prospective nested case referent study, we hypothesised that these associations are sex-specific and may be modified by insulin resistance.

    Methods Men and women aged 30–60 years with incident T2DM (n=640) and a prior health survey within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP), and matched referents (n=1564) were identified. Using conditional logistic regression analyses, we tested whether baseline plasma adiponectin and leptin levels and their ratio independently predicted incident T2DM, stratified for gender and insulin resistance.

    Results Adjusted for traditional risk factors, fourth-quartile levels of adiponectin were associated with a reduced risk of T2DM in men (OR 0.55 [0.36–0.86]) and women (OR 0.47 [0.27–0.83]). Quartile four of the leptin/adiponectin ratio predicted T2DM in both men (OR 3.08 [1.68–5.67]) and women (OR 3.31 [1.56–7.03]), while quartile-four levels of leptin predicted T2DM only in men (OR 2.30 [1.32–4.02]). When stratified for insulin sensitivity and adjusted for BMI, loge-transformed leptin predicted T2DM in insulin-sensitive men (OR 1.56 [1.13–2.17]) but not in insulin-resistant men (OR 1.03 [0.76–1.39]). The effect of adiponectin and the leptin/adiponectin ratio was not influenced by the insulin sensitivity status.

    Conclusions Leptin in men and adiponectin in both sexes were independent predictors of T2DM. The association was modified by the degree of insulin sensitivity. The leptin/adiponectin ratio may add predictive information beyond the separate hormones

  • 28.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Increasing glucose concentrations and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in northern Sweden, 1990-20072010In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 3, p. Article nr 5222-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prevalence of diabetes in the world is projected to rise from 2.8% in the year 2000 to 4.4% in 2030, an increase suggesting an ongoing global epidemic of diabetes.

    Objective: To examine time trends in fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations, prevalence and 10-year cumulative incidence of diabetes, and the role of education in these trends. Design: Each year the Vasterbotten Intervention Programme invites all 40, 50, and 60-year-old individuals to a health survey, which includes a cardiovascular risk factor screening and oral glucose tolerance test. The cross-sectional part of the study is based on health examinations conducted between 1990 and 2007 (n = 102,822). The prospective subset (panel dataset) of the study is based on individuals who have had two health examinations 10 years apart and were not defined as having diabetes at their first health examination (n = 23,546).

    Results: Between 1990 and 2007, the mean population fasting glucose concentration increased 0.5 mmol/L. Comparing the prevalence in 1990-1995 with 2002-2007 demonstrated a significant 44% increase in men (p < 0.001) and a significant 17% increase in women (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic status, here represented by education, clearly influenced both prevalence and incidence of diabetes and glucose concentration. In all time periods and in all age groups, individuals with low education were more likely to have or get diabetes. The 10-year risk of developing diabetes was four to five times higher in the oldest age group (50-60 years) compared with the youngest (30-40 years). A 30% reduction in the 10-year risk of developing diabetes was found in women (p < 0.001) between 2000-2003 and 2004-2007.

    Conclusions: Despite a clear increase in glucose concentrations and diabetes prevalence between 1990 and 2007, especially in men, there was a decline in the 10-year risk of developing diabetes in women between 2000-2003 and 2004-2007.

  • 29.
    Lindholm, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stenling, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    A cost-effectiveness analysis of a community based CVD program in Sweden based on a retrospective register cohort2018In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, article id 452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several large scale community-based cardiovascular disease prevention programs were initiated in the 80s, and one was the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, Sweden. As an initial step in 1985, a pilot study was introduced in the Norsjö municipality that combined individual disease prevention efforts among the middle-aged population with community-oriented health promotion activities. All citizens at 30, 40, 50, and 60 years of age were invited to a physical examination combined with a healthy dialogue at the local primary health care centre. Västerbotten Intervention Program is still running following the same lines and is now a part of the ordinary public health in the county. The purpose of this study is to estimate the costs of running Västerbotten Intervention Programme from 1990 to 2006, versus the health gains and savings reasonably attributable to the program during the same time period. Methods: A previous study estimated the number of prevented deaths during the period 1990-2006 which can be attributed to the programme. We used this estimate and calculated the number of QALYs gained, as well as savings in resources due to prevented non-fatal cases during the time period 1990 to 2006. Costs for the programmes were based on previously published scientific articles as well as current cost data from the county council, who is responsible for the programme. Result: The cost per QALY gained from a societal perspective is SEK 650 (Euro 68). From a health care sector perspective, the savings attributable to the VIP exceeded its costs. Conclusion: Our analysis shows that Västerbotten Intervention Programme is extremely cost-effective in relation to the Swedish threshold value (SEK 500000 per QALY gained or Euro 53,000 per QALY gained). Other research has also shown a favorable effect of Västerbotten Intervention Programme on population health and the health gap. We therefore argue that all health care organizations, acting in settings reasonably similar to Sweden, have good incentive to implement programs like Västerbotten Intervention Programme.

  • 30.
    Lindvall, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jenkins, Paul
    Emmelin, Maria
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Social Med & Global Hlth.
    Scribani, Melissa
    Bassett Healthcare Network Res Inst.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Primary weight maintenance: an observational study exploring candidate variables for intervention2013In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 12, p. 97-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have focused on weight maintenance following weight loss, i.e. secondary weight maintenance (SWM). The long-term results of SWM have been rather modest and it has been suggested that preventing initial weight gain, i.e. primary weight maintenance (PWM), may be more successful. Therefore, developing a prevention strategy focused on PWM, enabling normal weight or overweight individuals to maintain their weight, would be of great interest. The aim of this study was to identify attitudes, strategies, and behaviors that are predictive of PWM in different age, sex and BMI groups in Northern Sweden. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to 3497 individuals in a Swedish population that had two measured weights taken ten years apart, as participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Subjects were between 41-63 years of age at the time of the survey, had a baseline BMI of 20-30, and a ten year percent change in BMI greater than -3%. The respondents were divided into twelve subgroups based on baseline age (30, 40 and 50), sex and BMI (normal weight and overweight). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation, and linear regression were performed to identify independent predictors of PWM. RESULTS: Of the 166 predictors tested, 152 (91.6%) were predictive of PWM in at least one subgroup. However, only 7 of these 152 variables (4.6%) were significant in 6 subgroups or more. The number of significant predictors of PWM was higher for male (35.8) than female (27.5) subgroups (p=0.044). There was a tendency (non significant) for normal weight subgroups to have a higher number of predictors (35.3) than overweight subgroups (28.0). Adjusted R-squared values ranged from 0.1 to 0.420. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of PWM predictors identified, and accompanying high R-squared values, provide a promising first step towards the development of PWM interventions. The large disparity in the pattern of significant variables between subgroups suggests that these interventions should be tailored to the person's demographic (age, sex and BMI). The next steps should be directed towards evaluation of these predictors for causal potential.

  • 31.
    Lindvall, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jenkins, Paul
    Scribani, Melissa
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Larsson, Christel
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Comparisons of weight change, eating habits and physical activity between women in Northern Sweden and Rural New York State-results from a longitudinal study2015In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 14, article id 88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Ljungberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lipoprotein(a) and the Apolipoprotein B/A1 Ratio Independently Associate With Surgery for Aortic Stenosis Only in Patients With Concomitant Coronary Artery Disease2017In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 6, no 12, article id e007160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Aortic stenosis (AS) has different clinical phenotypes, including AS with or without concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD). It is unknown whether these phenotypes share the same risk factors. In particular, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and apolipoproteins (Apo) are associated with AS, but it is unknown whether these associations differ among phenotypes. In this prospective analysis we examined the impact of Lp(a) and Apo in subgroups of patients with AS.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 336 patients (mean age at survey 56.7 years, 48% female) who underwent surgery for AS after a median 10.9 years (interquartile range 9.3 years), participants in 1 of 3 large population surveys. For each patient, 2 matched referents were allocated. Lp(a) and Apo were analyzed in the baseline samples. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate risks related to a 1 (ln) standard deviation increase in Lp(a) and the ratio of Apo B to Apo A1 (Apo B/A1 ratio). High levels of Lp(a) predicted surgery for AS in 203 patients with concomitant CAD (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals]) (1.29 [1.07-1.55]), but not in 132 patients without CAD (1.04 [0.83-1.29]) in the fully adjusted model. Similarly, a high Apo B/A1 ratio predicted surgery in patients with concomitant CAD (1.43 [1.16-1.76]) but not in those without CAD (0.87 [0.69-1.10]).

    CONCLUSIONS: High levels of Lp(a) and a high Apo B/A1 ratio were associated with surgery for AS in patients with concomitant CAD but not in those with isolated AS. This finding may lead to a new avenue of research for targeted risk factor interventions in this population.

  • 33.
    Ljungberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Albertsson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Holmer, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Their Relation to Future Surgery for Valvular Heart Disease or Ascending Aortic Disease: A Case-Referent Study2017In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 6, no 5, article id e005133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Risk factors for developing heart valve and ascending aortic disease are based mainly on retrospective data. To elucidate these factors in a prospective manner, we have performed a nested case-referent study using data from large, population-based surveys. Methods and Results: A total of 777 patients operated for heart valve disease or disease of the ascending aorta had previously participated in population-based health surveys in Northern Sweden. Median time (interquartile range) from survey to surgery was 10.5 (9.0) years. Primary indications for surgery were aortic stenosis (41%), aortic regurgitation (12%), mitral regurgitation (23%), and dilatation/dissection of the ascending aorta (17%). For each case, referents were allocated, matched for age, sex, and geographical area. In multivariable models, surgery for aortic stenosis was predicted by hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus, and active smoking. Surgery for aortic regurgitation was associated with a low cholesterol level, whereas a high cholesterol level predicted surgery for mitral regurgitation. Hypertension, blood pressure, and previous smoking predicted surgery for disease of the ascending aorta whereas diabetes mellitus was associated with reduced risk. After exclusion of cases with coronary atherosclerosis, only the inverse associations between cholesterol and aortic regurgitation and between diabetes mellitus and disease of the ascending aorta remained. Conclusions: This is the first truly prospective study of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and their association with valvular heart disease and disease of the ascending aorta. We confirm the strong association between traditional risk factors and aortic stenosis, but only in patients with concomitant coronary artery disease. In isolated valvular heart disease, the impact of traditional risk factors is varying.

  • 34.
    Ljungberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Arterial hypertension and elevated diastolic blood pressure is associated with developing aortic stenosis requiring surgery in persons less than 60 years of ageManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Due to age-related differences in aortic valve structure, it is likely that the pathophysiology of aortic stenosis and associated risk factors differ between age groups. Here we prospectively studied the influence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on aortic stenosis development among patients without concomitant coronary artery disease, and stratified for age. 

    Methods: This study included 131 patients from previous population-based surveys, who underwent surgery for aortic stenosis and had no visible coronary arteriosclerosis upon preoperative coronary angiogram. The younger group included 49 patients of <60 years old at surgery: median age, 54.4 years; median follow-up, 8.7 years. The older group included 82 patients of ≥60 years old at surgery: median age, 71.3 years; median follow-up, 11.0 years. For each case, we selected four referents matched for age, gender, and geographic area. To identify predictors for surgery, we used multivariable conditional logistic regression with a model including arterial hypertension, cholesterol levels, diabetes, BMI, and smoking. 

    Results:  Future surgery for aortic stenosis was associated with arterial hypertension and elevated levels of diastolic blood pressure in the younger group (odds ratio, 3.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.45–7.93, and odds ratio 1,60; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–2.37, respectively), and with only impaired fasting glucose tolerance in the older group (odds ratio, 3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–8.76). 

    Conclusion: Arterial hypertension and elevated diastolic blood pressure are associated with a risk for aortic stenosis development in subjects below 60 years of age. Strict blood pressure control in this group are strongly advocated to avoid other cardiovascular diseases correlated to hypertension. If hypertension and elevated diastolic blood pressure are risk for developing aortic stenosis need further investigations. Notably, elevated fasting glucose levels were related to aortic stenosis in older adults without concomitant coronary artery disease. 

  • 35. Long, G H
    et al.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Griffin, S J
    Simmons, R K
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Healthy behaviours and 10-year incidence of diabetes: a population cohort study2015In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 71, p. 121-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between meeting behavioural goals and diabetes incidence over 10years in a large, representative Swedish population.

    METHODS: Population-based prospective cohort study of 32,120 individuals aged 35 to 55years participating in a health promotion intervention in Västerbotten County, Sweden (1990 to 2013). Participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, clinical measures, and completed diet and activity questionnaires. Poisson regression quantified the association between achieving six behavioural goals at baseline - body mass index (BMI) <25kg/m(2), moderate physical activity, non-smoker, fat intake <30% of energy, fibre intake ≥15g/4184kJ and alcohol intake ≤20g/day - and diabetes incidence over 10years.

    RESULTS: Median interquartile range (IQR) follow-up time was 9.9 (0.3) years; 2211 individuals (7%) developed diabetes. Only 4.4% of participants met all 6 goals (n=1245) and compared to these individuals, participants meeting 0/1 goals had a 3.74 times higher diabetes incidence (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.50 to 5.59), adjusting for sex, age, calendar period, education, family history of diabetes, history of myocardial infarction and long-term illness. If everyone achieved at least four behavioural goals, 14.1% (95% CI: 11.7 to 16.5%) of incident diabetes cases might be avoided.

    CONCLUSION: Interventions promoting the achievement of behavioural goals in the general population could significantly reduce diabetes incidence.

  • 36. Long, Gráinne H.
    et al.
    Simmons, Rebecca K.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Ageing and Living Conditions Programme.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Griffin, Simon J.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Temporal shifts in cardiovascular risk factor distribution2014In: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0749-3797, E-ISSN 1873-2607, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 112-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Complementary strategies to shift risk factor population distributions and target high-risk individuals are required to reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

    PURPOSE: To examine secular changes in glucose and CVD risk factors over 20 years during an individual and population-based CVD prevention program in Västerbotten County, Sweden.

    METHODS: Population-based health promotion intervention was conducted and annual invitation for individuals turning 40, 50, and 60 years to attend a health assessment, including an oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical measures, and a questionnaire. Data were collected between 1991 and 2010, analyzed in 2012 and available for 120,929 individuals. Linear regression modeling examined age-adjusted differences in CVD risk factor means over time. Data were direct-age-standardized to compare disease prevalence.

    RESULTS: Between 1991-1995 and 2006-2010, mean age-adjusted cholesterol (men=-0.53, 95% CI=-0.55, -0.50 mmol/L; women=-0.48, 95% CI=-0.50, -0.45 mmol/L) and systolic blood pressure declined (men=-3.06, 95% CI=-3.43, -2.70 mm Hg; women=-5.27, 95% CI=-5.64, -4.90 mm Hg), with corresponding decreases in the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Mean age-adjusted 2-hour plasma glucose (men=0.19, 95% CI=0.15, 0.23 mmol/L; women=0.08, 95% CI=0.04, 0.11 mmol/L) and BMI increased (men=1.12, 95% CI=1.04, 1.21; women=0.65, 95% CI=0.55, 0.75), with increases in the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and obesity.

    CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the potential of combined individual- and population-based approaches to CVD risk factor control and highlight the need for additional strategies addressing hyperglycemia and obesity.

  • 37.
    Nafziger, Anne N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Lindvall, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Jenkins, Paul L
    Pearson, Thomas A
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Who is maintaining weight in a middle-aged population in Sweden? A longitudinal analysis over 10 years.2007In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 7, p. 108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity has primarily been addressed with interventions to promote weight loss and these have been largely unsuccessful. Primary prevention of obesity through support of weight maintenance may be a preferable strategy although to date this has not been the main focus of public health interventions. The aim of this study is to characterize who is not gaining weight during a 10 year period in Sweden.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were conducted in adults aged 30, 40, 50 and 60 years during the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in Sweden. Height, weight, demographics and selected cardiovascular risk factors were collected on each participant. Prevalences of obesity were calculated for the 40, 50 and 60 year olds from the cross-sectional studies between 1990 and 2004. In the longitudinal study, 10-year non-gain (lost weight or maintained body weight within 3% of baseline weight) or weight gain (&gt; or = 3%) was calculated for individuals aged 30, 40, or 50 years at baseline. A multivariate logistic regression model was built to predict weight non-gain.

    RESULTS: There were 82,927 adults included in the cross-sectional studies which had an average annual participation rate of 63%. Prevalence of obesity [body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2 &gt; or = 30] increased from 9.4% in 1990 to 17.5% in 2004, and 60 year olds had the highest prevalence of obesity. 14,867 adults with a BMI of 18.5-29.9 at baseline participated in the longitudinal surveys which had a participation rate of 74%. 5242 adults (35.3%) were categorized as non-gainers. Older age, being female, classified as overweight by baseline BMI, later survey year, baseline diagnosis of diabetes, and lack of snuff use increased the chances of not gaining weight.

    CONCLUSION: Educational efforts should be broadened to include those adults who are usually considered to be at low risk for weight gain--younger individuals, those of normal body weight, and those without health conditions (e.g. diabetes type 2) and cardiovascular risk factors--as these are the individuals who are least likely to maintain their body weight over a 10 year period. The importance of focusing obesity prevention efforts on such individuals has not been widely recognized.

  • 38.
    Neumann, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Center of Evidence-Based Healthcare, University Hospital, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schoffer, Olaf
    Klug, Stefanie J.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The cost-effectiveness of interventions targeting lifestyle change for the prevention of diabetes in a Swedish primary care and community based prevention program2017In: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 905-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Policymakers need to know the cost-effec-tiveness of interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a T2D prevention initiative targeting weight reduction, increased physical activity and healthier diet in persons in pre-diabetic states by comparing a hypothetical intervention versus no intervention in a Swedish setting. Methods: A Markov model was used to study the cost-effectiveness of a T2D prevention program based on lifestyle change versus a control group where no prevention was applied. Analyses were done deterministically and probabilistically based on Monte Carlo simulation for six different scenarios defined by sex and age groups (30, 50, 70 years). Cost and quality adjusted life year (QALY) differences between no intervention and intervention and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated and visualized in cost-effectiveness planes (CE planes) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEA curves). Results: All ICERs were cost-effective and ranged from 3833 € /QALY gained (women, 30 years) to 9215 € /QALY gained (men, 70 years). The CEA curves showed that the probability of the intervention being cost-effective at the threshold value of 50,000 € per QALY gained was very high for all scenarios ranging from 85.0 to 91.1%. Discussion/conclusion: The prevention or the delay of the onset of T2D is feasible and cost-effective. A small investment in healthy lifestyle with change in physical activity and diet together with weight loss are very likely to be cost-effective.

  • 39.
    Neumann, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Cancer Epidemiology, University Cancer Center, University Hospital, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schoffer, Olaf
    Cancer Epidemiology, University Cancer Center, University Hospital, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Klug, Stefanie J.
    Cancer Epidemiology, University Cancer Center, University Hospital, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Risk equations for the development of worsened glucose status and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Swedish intervention program2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, article id 1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies investigated transitions and risk factors from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, there is a lack of information on the probabilities to transit from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to different pre-diabetic states and from these states to T2D. The objective of our study is to estimate these risk equations and to quantify the influence of single or combined risk factors on these transition probabilities. Methods: Individuals who participated in the VIP program twice, having the first examination at ages 30, 40 or 50 years of age between 1990 and 1999 and the second examination 10 years later were included in the analysis. Participants were grouped into five groups: NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IGT, IFG&IGT or T2D. Fourteen potential risk factors for the development of a worse glucose state (pre-diabetes or T2D) were investigated: sex, age, education, perceived health, triglyceride, blood pressure, BMI, smoking, physical activity, snus, alcohol, nutrition and family history. Analysis was conducted in two steps. Firstly, factor analysis was used to find candidate variables; and secondly, logistic regression was employed to quantify the influence of the candidate variables. Bootstrap estimations validated the models. Results: In total, 29 937 individuals were included in the analysis. Alcohol and perceived health were excluded due to the results of the factor analysis and the logistic regression respectively. Six risk equations indicating different impacts of different risk factors on the transition to a worse glucose state were estimated and validated. The impact of each risk factor depended on the starting or ending pre-diabetes state. High levels of triglyceride, hypertension and high BMI were the strongest risk factors to transit to a worsened glucose state. Conclusions: The equations could be used to identify individuals with increased risk to develop any of the three pre-diabetic states or T2D and to adapt prevention strategies.

  • 40.
    Neumann, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Cancer Epidemiology, University Cancer Center, University Hospital.
    Schoffer, Olaf
    Cancer Epidemiology, University Cancer Center, University Hospital.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Klug, Stefanie J
    Cancer Epidemiology, University Cancer Center, University Hospital.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Health-related quality of life for pre-diabetic states and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study in Västerbotten Sweden2014In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) decreases health-related quality of life, but there is a lack of information about the health status of people in pre-diabetic states. However, information on health utility weights (HUWs) for pre-diabetic states and T2D are essential to estimate the effect of prevention initiatives. We estimated and compared HUWs for healthy individuals, those with pre-diabetes and those with T2D in a Swedish population and evaluated the influence of age, sex, education and body mass index on HUWs.

    Methods: Participants of the Västerbotten Intervention Program, Sweden, between 2002 and 2012, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test or indicated they had T2D and who filled in the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) were included. Individuals were categorized as healthy, being in any of three different pre-diabetic states, or as T2D. The pre-diabetic states are impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or a combination of both (IFG&IGT). The SF-6D index was used to convert SF-36 responses to HUWs. HUWswere stratified by age, sex, education and body mass index. Beta regression analyses were conducted to estimate the effect of multiple risk factors on the HUWs.

    Results: In total, 55 882 individuals were included in the analysis. The overall mean HUW was 0.764. The mean HUW of healthy individuals was 0.768, 0.759 for those with IFG, 0.746 for those with IGT, 0.745 for those with IFG&IGT, and 0.738 for those with T2D. In the overall model, all variables except underweight vs. normal weight were significantly associated with HUW. Younger age, male sex, and higher education were associated with increased HUW. Normal weight, or being overweight was associated with elevated HUW, while obesity was associated with lower HUW.

    Conclusions: Healthy individuals had higher HUWs than participants with T2D, while individuals with IFG, IGT or IFG&IGT had HUWs that ranged between those for NGT and T2D. Therefore, preventing the development of pre-diabetic states would improve health-related quality of life in addition to lowering the risk of developing T2D.

  • 41.
    Ng, Nawi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Trends of blood pressure levels and management in Västerbotten County, Sweden, during 1990-20102012In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 5, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Availability of longitudinal data on hypertension and blood pressure levels are important to assess changes over time at the population level. Moreover, detailed information in different population sub-groups is important to understand inequity and social determinants of blood pressure distribution in the population.

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to: (1) describe the trends of population blood pressure levels in men and women between different educational levels and geographic areas in Sweden during 1990-2010; (2) identify prevalences of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control in the population; and (3) assess the 10-year risk of developing hypertension among individuals with normal and high normal blood pressures.

    Methods: This study is based on data from the Vasterbotten Intervention Program (VIP) in Vasterbotten County, Sweden. The cross-sectional analysis includes 133,082 VIP health examinations among individuals aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years from 1990 to 2010. The panel analysis includes 34,868 individuals who were re-examined 10 years after the baseline examination. Individuals completed a self-administered health questionnaire that covers demographic and socio-economic information, self-reported health, and lifestyle behaviours. Blood pressure measurement was obtained prior to the questionnaire. In the cross-sectional analysis, trends of blood pressure by sex, and between educational groups and geographic areas are presented. In the panel analysis, the 10-year risk of developing hypertension is estimated using the predicted probability from logistic regression analysis for each sex, controlling for age and educational level.

    Results: The prevalence of hypertension decreased from 1990 to 2010; from 43.8 to 36.0% (p<0.001) among men, and 37.6 to 27.5% among women (p<0.001). Individuals with basic education had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension compared to those with medium or high education. Although the decreases were observed in all geographic areas, individuals in rural inland areas had a much higher prevalence compared to those who lived in Umea City. The proportion of hypertensive women who were aware of their hypertension (61.7%) was significantly higher than men (51.6%). About 34% of men and 42% of women with hypertension reported taking blood pressure medication. Over time, awareness and control of hypertension improved (from 46.5% in 1990 to 69% in 2010 and from 30 to 65%, respectively). The gaps between educational groups diminished. This study shows a significantly higher risk of developing hypertension for men and women with high normal blood pressure compared to those with normal blood pressure at baseline in all age cohorts and educational groups. The average risks of developing hypertension among men with high normal blood pressure were 21.5, 45.8, and 56.3% in the 30, 40, and 50-year cohorts, respectively. Corresponding numbers for women were 22.6, 47.4, and 57.9%.

    Conclusions: Levels of blood pressure and hypertension decreased significantly among the Vasterbotten population in the last 21 years. Hypertension management has improved and there is increased awareness, treatment, and control of blood pressure. Despite these achievements, the persisting social gaps in blood pressure levels and management demand further investigation and action from policy makers. Future research should attempt to identify and address the root causes of these health inequities to ensure better and equal health for the whole population.

  • 42.
    Ng, Nawi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Johnson, Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    A reversal of decreasing trends in population cholesterol levels in Västerbotten County, Sweden2012In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 5, p. 10367-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: High cholesterol is identified as a major risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Monitoring trends of cholesterol levels and comparing trends across population groups are important to assess population distribution and risks related to cholesterol change over time. Cholesterol surveillance data are lacking, even in high-income countries.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the trends in cholesterol and triglyceride levels in different population groups and to estimate the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Västerbotten County, Sweden during 1990-2010.

    DESIGNS AND METHODS: Since 1990, 133,082 individuals living in Västerbotten County, Northern Sweden, invited on their 30th, 40th, 50th and 60th birthdays, participated in the Västerbotten Intervention Program. Ten years after baseline data collection, 34,868 individuals were surveyed for a second time. In addition to a self-administered health questionnaire (that included information on socioeconomic status, demographics, self-reported health and lifestyle behaviours), blood cholesterol and triglyceride were examined.

    RESULTS: The level and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia decreased significantly from 1990 to 2007, but the trends began to increase during 2008-2010 in men, women, and in all educational groups. Men had significantly higher serum triglyceride levels than women and their cholesterol levels were similar to those of the women. This study shows that those with basic education and who live in rural inlands had consistently higher triglyceride level than those who live in the city and have higher educational attainments. People with basic education are also at higher risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia at 10-year follow-up; the risk is much higher among the older cohorts, particularly women. During 1990-2010, the proportion of participants who reported treatment with lipid-lowering agents increased from 1.1% to 9.6% among men and 0.5% to 5.3% among women. About 60% of those treated achieved treatment goals for cholesterol or triglycerides.

    CONCLUSIONS: The increasing trend in cholesterol level in the Västerbotten population during 2008-2010 needs to be closely monitored. Addressing the unequal distribution of cholesterol, as well as other risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, high blood glucose, among those with basic education, and particularly among populations in rural areas are important to prevent higher burdens of chronic non-communicable diseases in this population.

  • 43.
    Ng, Nawi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Söderman, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Increasing physical activity, but persisting social gaps among middle-aged people: trends in Northern Sweden from 1990 to 20072011In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 4, p. 6347-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is identified as one important protective factor for chronic diseases. Physical activity surveillance is important in assessing healthy population behaviour over time. Many countries lack population trends on physical activity.

    OBJECTIVE: To present trends in physical activity levels in Västerbotten County, Sweden and to evaluate physical activity among women and men with various educational levels.

    METHODS: opulation-based cross-sectional and panel data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) during 1990-2007 were used. All individuals in Västerbotten County who turned 40, 50, or 60 years old were invited to their local primary health care for a health screening. Physical activity during commuting, recreational activities, physical exercise, and socio-demographic data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were categorised as sedentary, moderate physically active, or physically active.

    RESULTS: The prevalences of physically active behaviours increased from 16 to 24.2% among men and from 12.6 to 30.4% among women. Increases are observed in all educational groups, but gaps between educational groups widened recently. The level of sedentary behaviour was stable over the time period studied. The 10-year follow-up data show that the prevalences of physically active behaviours increased from 15.8 to 21.4% among men and 12.7 to 23.3% among women. However, 10.2% of men and 3.8% of women remained sedentary.

    CONCLUSION: Despite the promising evidence of increasing physical activity levels among the population in Västerbotten County, challenges remain for how to reduce the stable levels of sedentary behaviours in some subgroups. Persisting social gaps in physical activity levels should be addressed further. An exploration of people's views on engaging in physical activity and barriers to doing so will allow better formulation of targeted interventions within this population.

  • 44.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Identifying risk of type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic perspectives from biomarkers to lifestyle2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 2 diabetes is a significant health problem because of its high prevalence and strong association with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. An increase of type 2 diabetes is predicted due to increasing obesity and sedentary lifestyle habits. The development from latent to diagnostic disease spans many years and during this time it is possible to prevent or postpone type 2 diabetes using lifestyle and pharmacological interventions.

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate and describe early patterns and risk indicators of type 2 diabetes. The focus is on type 2 diabetes as one component in metabolic syndrome, i.e. the clustering of several cardiovascular risk markers.

    Two studies based on the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) provided the data; one case-referent study nested within VIP which includes 237 diabetes cases that were clinically diagnosed 5.4 years after the health survey, each with two referents; and one panel study with 5 consecutive annual cohorts including subjects that participated in VIP between1990 and 1994 and returned to a follow-up after 10 years, a total of 16 492 individuals. Associations between risk markers and type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome are evaluated by several statistical techniques. A model of metabolic syndrome is hypothesized.

    A prediction model for developing type 2 diabetes among middle-aged individuals is proposed, where high risk is defined as having at least two out of three risk criteria (fasting plasma glucose ≥6.1 mmol/L, HbA1c ≥4.7% (Swedish Mono-S standard) and BMI ≥27 in men and BMI ≥30 in women). With positive predictive values of 32% in men and 46% in women, this model performs at least as well as other published prediction models. Information on family history of diabetes does not improve the result and the cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test is not needed. Therefore this model should be feasible for use in routine care.

    A model of metabolic syndrome with five composite factors, based on 14 variables including markers produced by adipose tissue and b-cells, suggest that obesity with insulin resistance and b-cell decompensation are the core perturbations in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, while inflammation and dyslipidemia could not be shown to be independent early risk indicators. The composite factors do not improve the prediction as compared to the single markers of fasting glucose, BMI and proinsulin and, possibly blood pressure values.

    Stress (measured as passive or tense working conditions) and weak social support (measured as emotional support), are suggested to be strong risk indicators along with high BMI for type 2 diabetes in women. In men BMI is predictive, but the stress variables are not shown to be associated with future type 2 diabetes. A social gap is indicated by double risk of metabolic syndrome among subjects with low (≤ 9 years at school) compared to high education (≥ 13 years). High consumption of Swedish smokeless tobacco, snuff (>4 cans/week), is independently associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity and hypertriglyceridemia, but not with dysregulation of glucose.

    To conclude, single markers, that are commonly used in daily practice, are useful and sufficient for identification of subjects that are in the early stages of type 2 diabetes. Obesity with insulin resistance and b-cell decompensation are the core perturbations in early development to T2DM. Lifestyle, socioeconomic and psychosocial markers, in addition to biomarkers, are important determinants of future type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, albeit not similarly among men and women.

  • 45.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Vasterbotten Intervention Programme - experiences and implications for population health2016In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 75, p. 31-31, article id 33200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    VIP - structure and support. And why Cochrane evaluations of CVD prevention programs not are applicable on this Swedish concept for CVD prevention2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl_3, p. 204-205Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea behind and use of the so called star profile in Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) will be highlighted. The role of politicians and stake holders for development and sustainability of the VIP, the organized structure for support to the staff who provides VIP, as well as the scientific back-up and adaption of the program according to current medical evidence will be described. Results in terms of participation rates and standardized total and CVD mortality rates in the target population for VIP (participants and non-participants taken together) and among only participants will be reported. Whether for those who are eligible for participation in VIP twice, it is better to participate twice or if participation only once is enough, will be discussed. The Habo and the Västerbotten programs for prevention of CVD will be compared to trials included in Cochrane evaluations of programs for CVD prevention. We will also discuss why these Cochrane evaluations are not applicable to this Swedish concept for population based targeted cardiovascular prevention.

  • 47.
    Norberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lonnberg, Goran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nystrom, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Community participation and sustainability: evidence over 25 years in the Vasterbotten Intervention Programme2012In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 5, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Selection bias and declining participation rates are of concern in many long-term epidemiological studies. The Vasterbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) was launched in 1985 as a response to alarming reports on elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Vasterbotten County in Northern Sweden. The VIP invites women and men to a health examination and health counselling during the year of their 40th, 50th, and 60th birthdays. Objective: To evaluate trends in participation rates and determinants of participation in the VIP from 1990 to 2006. Design: Registry data on socio-economic status from Statistics Sweden, and mortality and hospitalisation data from the National Board of Health and Welfare, both covering the whole Swedish population, were linked to the VIP and analysed for participants and non-participants. Results: During 1990 - 2006, 117,710 individuals were eligible to participate in the VIP, and 40,472 of them were eligible to participate twice. There were 96,560 observations for participants and 61,622 for non-participants. The overall participation rate increased from 56 to 65%. Participants and non-participants had minimal differences in education and age. Initial small differences by sex and degree of urban residence decreased over time. Despite an increasing participation rate in all groups, those with low income or who were single had an approximately 10% lower participation rate than those with high or medium-income or who were married or cohabitating. Conclusion: Sustainability of the VIP is based on organisational integration into primary health care services and targeting of the entire middle-aged population. This enables the programme to meet population expectations of health promotion and to identify high-risk individuals who are then entered into routine preventive health care services. This has the potential to increase participation rates, to minimise social selection bias, and to reinforce other community-based interventions.

  • 48.
    Norberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Danielsson, Maria
    Overweight, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: health in Sweden: the National Public Health Report 2012. Chapter 72012In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, no 9 Suppl, p. 135-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Norberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindahl, B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    A combination of HbA1c, fasting glucose and BMI is effective in screening for individuals at risk of future type 2 diabetes: OGTT is not needed.2006In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 260, no 3, p. 263-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a screening model that predicts high risk of future type 2 diabetes and is useful in clinical practice. DESIGN AND METHODS: Incident case-referent study nested within a population-based health survey. We compared screening models with three risk criteria and calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values and attributable proportion. We used fasting plasma glucose (FPG) alone or with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glycosylated haemoglobin A (HbA1c) (normal range 3.6-5.3%), body mass index (BMI), triglycerides and family history of diabetes (FHD). SETTING: Participants in a health survey at all primary care centres (n=33,336) and subjects with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in primary and hospital care (n=6088) in Umeå during 1989-2001. SUBJECTS: Each of the 164 subjects who developed clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes (median time to diagnosis of 5.4 years) and 304 sex- and age-matched referents without diabetes diagnosis. RESULTS: Screening models with at least one criterion present had sensitivities of 0.90-0.96, specificities of 0.43-0.57 and PPVs of 8-9%. Combinations of the criteria, FPG>or=6.1 mmol L-1 (capillary plasma), HbA1c>or=4.7% and BMI>or=27 in men and BMI>or=30 in women, had sensitivities, specificities and PPVs of 0.66%, 0.93% and 32%, and 0.52%, 0.97% and 46% respectively. Using FHD as one of three risk criteria showed comparable results. Addition of triglycerides or OGTT did not improve the prediction. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of HbA1c, FPG and BMI are effective in screening for individuals at risk of future clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. OGTT or FHD is not necessary.

  • 50.
    Norberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Granlund, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Ramnemark, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    A randomised trial of vitamin D among immigrants in Sweden: response to treatment - a question of starting point and doseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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