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  • 1. Alghadir, A. H.
    et al.
    Anwer, S.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Al-Eisa, E. S.
    Effect of quadriceps and hamstrings muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men2017In: Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions - JMNI, ISSN 1108-7161, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 176-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study compared the effect of quadriceps and hamstring muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men.

    Methods: Thirty healthy young men (18-30 years) participated in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups (n=10 each): quadriceps cooling (QC), hamstring cooling (HC), or control group (no cooling). Participants in the QC and HC groups received 20 minutes of cooling using a cold pack (gel pack), placed on the anterior thigh (from the apex of the patella to the mid-thigh) and the posterior thigh (from the base of the popliteal fossa to the mid-thigh), respectively. Balance score including unilateral stance was measured at baseline and immediately after the application of the cold pack.

    Results: No significant difference in the balance score was noted in any group after the application of the cold pack (p>0.05). Similarly, no significant differences in post-test balance score were noted among the three groups (p>0.05).

    Conclusions: Cooling of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles has no immediate effect on standing balance in healthy young men. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the long-term effects of cooling these muscles on standing balance.

  • 2. Alghadir, A. H.
    et al.
    Anwer, S.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Z. A.
    Effect of localised vibration on muscle strength in healthy adults: a systematic review2018In: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 18-24Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate the effects of local vibration on muscle strength in healthy adults.

    Data sources The electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using a combination of the following keywords: vibration, vibration therapy, power, maximal voluntary contraction, performance, rate of force development and vibratory exercise. In addition, the Medical Subject Headings 'vibration', 'strength' and 'exercise' were used. The bibliographical search was limited to articles published in English.

    Study selection Trials that evaluated the effect of localised vibration on muscle strength in healthy humans were included.

    Data extraction Two independent evaluators verified the quality of the selected studies using the PEDro Scale and the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias. Muscle strength was calculated for each intervention.

    Results In total, 29 full-text studies were assessed for eligibility. Eighteen studies did not match the inclusion criteria, and were excluded. The 11 studies included in this review had an average PEDro score of 5.36/10. Most of the studies reported significant improvements in muscle strength after the application of local vibration. There was considerable variation in the vibration training parameters and target muscle location.

    Conclusions The use of local vibration on the target muscle can enhance muscle strength in healthy adults. Further well-designed controlled studies are required to confirm the effect of local vibration training on muscle strength. 

  • 3. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Aly, Farag
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Effect of face veil on ventilatory function among Saudi adult females2012In: Pakistan journal of medical sciences print, ISSN 1682-024X, E-ISSN 1681-715X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 71-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The use of face veil called "niqab" by women to cover their faces at public places is a common practice in some Muslim communities. The long-term effect of niqab use on ventilatory function (VF) has not previously been reported. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare VF between niqab wearing and non-niqab wearing healthy Saudi females. Methodology: Thirty eight healthy adult Saudi females participated in this study. Nineteen subjects were regular niqab users and the other nineteen were either not using niqab at all or used it for less than one hour per day. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC (%), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were recorded using a digital spirometer. Results: Mean values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC (%) and MVV for niqab wearers were significantly lower than the corresponding values for non-niqab wearers. Significant negative correlation was found between the FVC and FEV1 values and the number of hours of the use of face veil per day. Conclusions: Long-term use of traditional niqab use can affect VF.

  • 4. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Aly, Farag
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Sex-Based Differences in Lung Functions of Saudi Adults2012In: Journal of Physical Therapy Science, ISSN 0915-5287, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 5-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Background] Sex-based differences in lung function are known. [Purpose] To investigate sex-based differences in ventilatory function among Saudi adults, anti to relate it to their level of physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy healthy Saudi adult subjects (35 males and 35 females) participated in this study. Measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEVI). FEVI/FVC%, and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were made. In addition, physical activity scores (MET-minutes/week) were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). [Results] The studied parameters were significantly higher for males than for females. The female values were significantly lower even after the male values were adjusted to compensate for gender-based anatomical and physiological differences in lung capacity. The MET-minutes/week was significantly higher for males than for females, but it was not significantly correlated with the pulmonary function parameters of either gender. [Conclusions] There are sex-based differences in lung function parameters of Saudi adults, with higher values for males. This difference in lung function tests between the genders is greater than the known anatomical and physiological differences in the respiratory systems of males and females. Saudi males are more physically active than females but no significant correlation between pulmonary function parameters and physical activity score was found for either gender.

  • 5. Alghadir, Ahmad H.
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Effect of three different jaw positions on postural stability during standing2015In: Functional Neurology, ISSN 0393-5264, E-ISSN 1971-3274, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 53-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies in the literature show that jaw and neck regions are linked anatomically, biomechanically and neurologically. Voluntary clenching has been shown to improve muscle strength and performance of various motor tasks. Information from the neck sensory-motor system is reported to be important for posture. Hence it is reasonable to believe that activation of the jaw sensory-motor system has the potential to modulate posture. In a sample of 116 healthy subjects, we compared center of gravity (COG) velocity during quiet standing on a foam surface during three test positions: i) resting jaw, ii) open jaw, and iii) clenching; these were tested in two conditions: with eyes open and with eyes closed. The COG velocity decreased significantly during clenching in comparison to both open and resting jaw positions (p<0.0001). This suggests that the jaw sensory-motor system can modulate postural mechanisms. We conclude that jaw clenching can enhance postural stability during standing on an unstable surface in both the presence and absence of visual input in healthy adults and suggest that this should be taken into consideration in treatment and rehabilitation planning for patients with postural instability.

  • 6. Alghadir, Ahmad H.
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Effect of tongue position on postural stability during quiet standing in healthy young males2015In: Somatosensory & motor research, ISSN 0899-0220, E-ISSN 1369-1651, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 183-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Role of the neck and jaw sensory motor system in control of body balance has been established. Tongue is an integral part of jaw sensory motor system and helps in execution of purposeful and precise motor tasks like eating, drinking and speaking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of tongue position on the postural control system. Materials and method: We compared the mean center of gravity (COG) velocity during quiet standing on an unstable surface with eyes closed during two test conditions: (i) with habitual jaw resting position and (ii) with instructed tongue positioned against the upper incisors. One hundred and sixteen normal healthy male subjects (average age 31.56 +/- 8.51 years and height 170.86 +/- 7.26 cm) participated in the study. Their COG velocity (deg/s) was measured using the NeuroCom (R) Balance Master version 8.5.0 (Clackamas, OR, USA). Results and conclusions: The results show that COG velocity decreased significantly while tongue was positioned against upper incisors in comparison to the habitual jaw resting position. Our findings suggest that the tongue positioning can modulate postural control mechanisms. Tongue positioning against the upper incisors can enhance the postural stability during upright standing on an unstable surface and in the absence of vision in healthy young adults. Our findings can be of value for evaluation and rehabilitation protocols for postural control dysfunction.

  • 7. Alghadir, Ahmad H.
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Al-Eisa, Einas S.
    Effect of voluntary teeth clenching and sitting posture on maximal static force of limb muscles2019In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 774-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: People clench their teeth to activate facial, neck and abdominal muscles when they need to generate heavy muscle force against large resistance like lifting heavy objects, in order to gain possible ergogenic advantage. These are termed as remote voluntary contractions. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of voluntary teeth clenching on maximal voluntary contraction of extensors and flexors of the knee, shoulder and elbow joints of the dominant side during slouch and unsupported upright sitting.

    METHODS: One hundred healthy young male adults (mean age 23.3 years) participated in this study. Maximal voluntary contraction was measured using a hand-held dynamometer.

    RESULTS: Jaw clenching caused different ergogenic effect during slouch versus unsupported sitting postures. The data revealed that during unsupported upright sitting, the effect of jaw clenching consistently results in larger maximal voluntary contraction of both extensor and flexor muscles of all the three studied joints. However, during slouch sitting, only the maximal voluntary contraction of extensors of elbow and flexors of knee were larger with clenched teeth position.

    CONCLUSIONS: Jaw clenching can affect the maximal voluntary contraction of limb muscles which is sitting posture dependent. Jaw clenching can consistently facilitate certain muscles of the upper and lower limbs to generate greater force production during upright sitting.

  • 8. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. King Saud Univ, Coll Appl Med Sci, Rehabil Res Chair, POB 10219, Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Effect of upright and slouch sitting postures and voluntary teeth clenching on hand grip strength in young male adults2017In: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-8127, E-ISSN 1878-6324, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 961-965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Estimation of handgrip strength (HGS) is routinely used by clinicians and epidemiologists for objective assessment of functional status of hand and upper extremity. It is also used as an indirect indicator of overall physical strength and health status in variety of clinical situations and chronic general medical conditions. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to examine the effects of upright and slouch sitting postures and voluntary teeth clenching on hand grip strength in healthy young male subjects. METHODS: One hundred healthy young males (aged 18-30 years) participated in this study. The HGS was measured using a commercially available dynamometer for the dominant hand. The HGS was measured during four test conditions; (a) slouch sitting without teeth contact, (b) slouch sitting with teeth clenching, (c) upright sitting without teeth contact, and (d) upright sitting with teeth clenching. RESULTS: The HGS values were significantly higher during slouch than upright sitting posture, both during similar and opposite teeth related conditions (p < 0.001). Teeth clenching had no effect on the in HGS values during slouch or upright sitting posture (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to upright sitting, higher HGS values can be obtained during slouch sitting in young healthy males. Teeth clenching does not affect the HGS values during slouch or upright sitting posture.

  • 9. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia2015In: Journal of Physical Therapy Science, ISSN 0915-5287, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 1107-1112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Purpose] Musculoskeletal disorders are common causes of work-related disability in different professions involving the frequent practice of lifting, stooping, twisting, prolonged sitting, or standing. The dental profession is one such profession. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia, the factors associated with them, and their consequences and to propose preventive measures for them.

    [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered online questionnaire was sent to 225 members of the Saudi Dental Association. It included questions on demographic and professional characteristics, general medical history, and history of work-related musculoskeletal disorders before and after joining the dental profession.

    [Results] The questionnaire was completed by 65% of the respondents. Among them 85% reported that they had developed some pain due to work after joining the dental profession, and 42% reported that they were suffering pain at the time of the survey. Besides lower back, shoulder, and neck regions, the hands, upper back, and other regions like the elbows, buttocks, thighs, leg, and feet were areas in which they pain.

    [Conclusion] The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia is high, affecting their daily activities, sometimes even forcing them to change their work setting. Age, gender, specialty of work, work setting, number of contact hours with patients, etc., were all found to be related to their work-related pain. We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics, counseling, proper techniques of patient handling, etc., during the training of dental professionals so that they can work efficiently.

  • 10. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. King Saud Univ, Coll Appl Med Sci, Rehabil Res Chair, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Al-Eisa, Einas
    Work-Related Low Back Pain Among Physical Therapists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia2017In: Workplace Health & Safety, ISSN 2165-0799, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 337-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem. Professions like physical therapy (PT), involving frequent lifting, bending, or standing, are at risk for developing LBP. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of work-related LBP and factors associated with and consequences of work-related LBP among physical therapists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered online questionnaire (i.e., demographic data, history of LBP before and after working as a physical therapist, work setting, and effect on daily activities) was sent to 600 members of the Saudi PT association. Data were analyzed using the Pearson chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test. Eighty-eight percent of potential respondents completed the questionnaire. Of these, 89.65% of the therapists reported LBP after beginning their PT practice, and 35.6% reported LBP at the time of this survey. Gender, PT specialty, and duration of contact with patients were all found to be related to LBP. The prevalence of work-related LBP among physical therapist in Riyadh was high, affecting patient care and daily activities of the therapists. Both primary and secondary prevention strategies (e.g., introduce ergonomics into PT curricula, reduce therapist stress, and promote teamwork) are needed to decrease LBP among therapists, so they can effectively care for patients.

  • 11. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. King Saud Univ, Coll Appl Med Sci, Dept Rehabil Sci, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed
    Anwer, Shahnawaz
    Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia2015In: Journal of Physical Therapy Science, ISSN 0915-5287, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1621-1623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor's degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor's degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities.

  • 12. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Zaheen
    Al-Eisa, Einas
    Effect of sitting postures and shoulder position on the cervicocephalic kinesthesia in healthy young males2016In: Somatosensory & motor research, ISSN 0899-0220, E-ISSN 1369-1651, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 93-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about head orientation, position, and movement with respect to the trunk relies on the visual, vestibular, extensive muscular, and articular proprioceptive system of the neck. Various factors can affect proprioception since it is the function of afferent integration, and tuning of muscular and articular receptors. Pain, muscle fatigue, and joint position have been shown to affect proprioceptive capacity. Thus, it can be speculated that changes in body posture can alter the neck proprioception. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of body posture on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in healthy subjects. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was measured by the kinesthetic sensibility test in healthy young adults while in (a) habitual slouched sitting position with arms hanging by the side (SS), (b) habitual slouched sitting position with arms unloaded (supported) (SS-AS), and (c) upright sitting position with arms hanging by the side (US) during maximum and 30 degree right, left rotations, flexion, and extension. Thirty healthy male adults (mean age 27.83; SD 3.41) volunteered for this study. The least mean error was found for the SS-AS position (0.48; SD 0.24), followed by SS (0.60; SD 0.43) and US (0.96; SD 0.71), respectively. For all test conditions, there was significant difference in mean absolute error while head repositioning from maximum and 30 degree rotation during SS and SS-AS positions (p<0.05). In conclusion, body posture can affect the proprioception function of the neck. Supporting the upper extremities in such a way that their weight is unloaded, which leads to reduction in the tension between the neck and shoulder girdle, can improve cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The findings of this study can be implemented in people who have to do repeated arm and neck movements, by using ergonomically effective chairs with proper arm supports. This might help in prevention and treatment of neck pain.

  • 13. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Whitney, S. L.
    Iqbal, Zaheen
    Effect of chewing on postural stability during quiet standing in healthy young males2015In: Somatosensory & motor research, ISSN 0899-0220, E-ISSN 1369-1651, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 72-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: There is an important role of the neck sensory motor system in control of body posture and balance, and it is reasonable to believe that the jaw sensory motor system can directly and indirectly influence the modulation of the postural control system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible effects of dynamic jaw position while chewing on the postural control system. Materials and methods: We compared the mean center of gravity (COG) velocity during quite standing on a foam surface with eyes closed during three test conditions: (i) with resting jaw position, (ii) with open jaw position, and (iii) while chewing standard bolus of chewing gum. One hundred and sixteen normal healthy male subjects (average age 31.56 +/- 8.51 years; height 170.86 +/- 7.26 cm) were recruited for the study. Their COG velocity (deg/s) was measured using the NeuroCom (R) Balance Master Version 8.5.0 (Clackamas, OR, USA). Statistical analysis: Data was tested by the Friedman test. Results and conclusions. The results show that COG velocity decreased significantly while chewing in comparison to both open and resting jaw position (p < 0.0001). Our finding corroborates previous studies and suggests that the jaw sensory motor system can modulate postural control mechanisms. Gum chewing activity can enhance the postural stability during upright standing on an unstable surface and in the absence of visual input in healthy young adults. Our results should be taken into consideration in treatment and rehabilitation planning for patients with postural instability.

  • 14. Almosa, Naif
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Incidence of orthodontic brackets detachment during orthodontic treatment: A systematic review2018In: Pakistan journal of medical sciences print, ISSN 1682-024X, E-ISSN 1681-715X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 744-750Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of orthodontic brackets detachment during orthodontic treatment.

    Methods: Using electronic databases; eligible studies up to January 2018 were retrieved, independently reviewed, and screened. The Coleman Methodology Scoring System (CMS) and Cochrane Collaboration's tool were used to assess quality and risk of bias in the included studies.

    Results: Of the seventeen studies included in the final synthesis, thirteen were categorized as randomized clinical trials (RCTs), one prospective cohort and retrospective survey each, whereas two studies could not be categorized. The number of patients in the selected studies ranged between 19 and 153; the mean age was between 10.5 to 38.7 years, and male to female ratio was 353:495. Almost all studies had a high risk of bias, and more than half of the studies had CMS score of 70 or above. The numbers of brackets examined in the studies ranged between 361 and 3336. The incidence of brackets detachment ranged from 0.6 to 28.3%.

    Conclusions: The incidence of brackets detachment during orthodontic treatment is high.

  • 15. Anwer, Shahnawaz
    et al.
    Alghadir, Ahmad
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Al-Eisa, Einas
    Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis2016In: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 145-151Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Several studies have reported the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength. This systematic review investigates the current evidence regarding the effects of WBV training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Data sources We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, PEDro, and Science citation index for research articles published prior to March 2015 using the keywords whole body vibration, vibration training, strength and vibratory exercise in combination with the Medical Subject Heading 'Osteoarthritis knee'. Study selection This meta-analysis was limited to randomized controlled trials published in the English language. Data extraction The quality of the selected studies was assessed by two independent evaluators using the PEDro scale and criteria given by the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions (ISMNI) for reporting WBV intervention studies. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool for domain-based evaluation. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength was calculated for each intervention. Results Eighteen studies were identified in the search. Of these, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of these four studies reached high methodological quality on the PEDro scale. Out of the four studies, only one study found significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength gains following WBV compared to the control group. Conclusions In three of the four studies that compared a control group performing the same exercise as the WBV groups, no additional effect of WBV on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee OA was indicated.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Jaw-neck dysfunction in whiplash-associated disorders2007In: Archives of Oral Biology, ISSN 0003-9969, E-ISSN 1879-1506, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 404-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports data from recent studies on integrative jaw-neck motor control in healthy subjects and disturbed jaw-neck behaviour in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The results show that neck function is an integral part of natural jaw behaviour, and that neck injury can impair jaw function and therefore disturb eating behaviour. We also show preliminary results from implementation of a new approach for rehabilitation of jaw-neck dysfunction and pain in WAD.

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Musculoskeletal Disordes in the Jaw-Face and Neck2005In: Conn´s Current Therapy: Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Jaw-Face and Neck, Saunders Elsevier , 2005, p. 1128-1133Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Because different diseases in the jaw-orofacial region may give rise to similar symptoms, proper examination and diagnosis must precede treatment. Musculoskeletal disorders in the jaw-face region, generally termed craniomandbular disorders (CMD), are as prevalent as the two major dental diseases, caries and periodontitis, and constitute a signifiant health problem. There is a strong female preponderance among patients seeking care for CMD, and symptoms and signs are more frequent, severe, and longer-lasting in women than in men. Between 65% and 95% of CMD patients who seek care for the first time are reported to improve. A new concept for natural jaw function suggests that ”functional jaw movements” are the result of jointly activated jaw and neck muscles, leading to simultaneous movements in the temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital, and cervical spine joints, and that these jaw and head-neck movements have neural commands in common, are preprogammed, and are innate. Accordingly, natural jaw function, by definition, includes integrative jaw-neck behavior. A new explanatory model for the development of pain and dysfunction in the jaw-face in subjects with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) proposes because natural jaw actions require a healthy state of the temporomandibular. atlanto-occipital, and cervical spine joints, it can be assumed that an injury to or disease of any of these three joint systems might derange natural jaw motor control. Based on findings of disturbed jaw-neck function in WAD, a new treatment model is suggested for patients with jaw-face pain and dysfunction and WAD. The rationale behind this approach is that intervention of jaw function by definition includes neck function. Results from implementation of this treatment model, showing improvement of magnitude and speed for both mandibular and head-neck movements, are reported. Finally, an appropriate term for the clinical condition comprising both jaw-face and head-neck pain and dysfunction is cervicocraniomandibular disorders (CCMD).

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Musculoskeletal disorders in the jaw-face and neck: Temporomandibular Disorders2006In: Conn´s Current Therapy, Saunders Elsevier , 2006, p. 1197-1202Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ; Rehabilitation Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Backén, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Informatics, County Council of Västerbotten, Umeå, Sweden.
    Instant reduction in postural sway during quiet standing by intraoral dental appliance in patients with Whiplash associated Disorders and non-trauma neck pain2019In: Archives of Oral Biology, ISSN 0003-9969, E-ISSN 1879-1506, Vol. 97, p. 109-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study tested the hypothesis that modulation of jaw sensorimotor control by intraoral dental appliance can reduce postural sway during quiet standing and hence improve standing balance, in patients with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and non-trauma neck pain. Design: Postural sway during quiet standing with feet together was examined in 54 WAD patients (40 females) and 10 non-trauma patients (8 females) using wireless 3D movement recording technique. Recordings were performed alternating without and with intraoral dental appliance, and with closed eyes and open eyes, respectively. In this protocol the participants served as their own controls. A reference group of 30 healthy subjects (17 females) was also recorded. Each recording lasted 120 s, followed by 3-5 min of rest. Speed, acceleration and perimeter of postural sway area were documented. Results: In the patients, but not in the healthy group, the intraoral dental appliance instantly and significantly reduced standing postural sway in recordings with closed and open eyes. Conclusions: The prompt reduction in standing postural sway from intervention by intraoral dental appliance i.e. improved standing balance, suggests a potent effect on the postural control system by modulation of the jaw sensorimotor system, probably involving reflex transmission. The result opens for new insight into mechanisms behind postural control and the pathophysiology of balance disorders, and adds to the knowledge on plasticity of the nervous system. It may help developing new procedures for assessment and management of impaired balance in WAD and non-trauma neck pain patients.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Deranged jaw-neck motor control in whiplash-associated disorders2004In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings of simultaneous and well coordinated head-neck movements during single as well as rhythmic jaw opening-closing tasks has led to the conclusion that functional jaw movements´are the result of activation of jaw as well as neck muscles, leading to simultaneous movements in the temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital and cervical spine joints. It can therefore be assumed that disease or injury to any of these joint systems would disturb natural jaw function. To test this hypothesis, amplitudes, temporal coordination, and spatiotemporal consistency of concomitant mandibular and head-neck movements during single maximal jaw opening-closing tasks were analysed in 25 individuals suffering from whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) using optoelectronic movement recording technique. In addition, the relative durations for which the head position was equal to, leading ahead of, or lagging behind the mandibular position during the entire jaw opening-closing cycle were determined. Compared with healthy individuals, the WAD group showed smaller amplitudes, and changed temporal coordination between mandibular and head-neck movements. No divergence from healthy individuals was found for the spatiotemporal consistency or for the analysis during the entire jaw opening-closing cycle. These findings in the WAD group of a ´faulty, but yet consistent, jaw-neck behaviour may reflect a basic importance of linked control of the jaw and neck sensory-motor systems. In conclusion, the present results suggest that neck injury is associated with deranged control of mandibular and head-neck movements during jaw opening-closing tasks, and therefore might compromise natural jaw function.

  • 21.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Head Immobilization can Impair Jaw Function2006In: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 85, no 11, p. 1001-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Findings that jaw-opening/-closing relies on both mandibular and head movements suggest that jaw and neck muscles are jointly activated in jaw function. This study tested the hypothesis that rhythmic jaw activities involve an active repositioning of the head, and that head fixation can impair jaw function. Concomitant mandiular and head-neck movements were recorded during rhythmic jaw activities in 12 healthy adults, with and without fixation of the head. In four participants, the movement recording was combined with simultaneous registration of myoelectric activity in jaw and neck muscles. The results showed neck muscle activity during jaw opening with and without head fixation. Notably, head fixation led to reduced mandibular movements and shorter duration of jaw-opening/-closing cycles. The findings suggest recruitment of neck muscles in jaw activities, and that head fixation can impair jaw function. The results underline the jaw and neck neuromuscular relationship in jaw function.

  • 22.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Unger, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Wahlgren, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Doorn, Jan van
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Deep brain stimulation of caudal zona incerta and subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson’s disease: effects on diadochokinetic rate2011In: Parkinson’s Disease, ISSN 2042-0080, Vol. 2011, p. 605607-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypokinetic dysarthria observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) affects the range, speed, and accuracy of articulatory gestures in patients, reducing the perceived quality of speech acoustic output in continuous speech. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) and of the caudal zona incerta (cZi-DBS) are current surgical treatment options for PD. This study aimed at investigating the outcome of STN-DBS (7 patients) and cZi-DBS (7 patients) in two articulatory diadochokinesis tasks (AMR and SMR) using measurements of articulation rate and quality of the plosive consonants (using the percent measurable VOT metric). The results indicate that patients receiving STN-DBS increased in articulation rate in the Stim-ON condition in the AMR task only, with no effect on production quality. Patients receiving cZi-DBS decreased in articulation rate in the Stim-ON condition and further showed a reduction in production quality. The data therefore suggest that cZi-DBS is more detrimental for extended articulatory movements than STN-DBS.

  • 23.
    Lundgren, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Saeys, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Olofsson, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Doorn, Jan van
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Deep brain stimulation of caudal zona incerta and subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson’s disease: effects on voice intensity2011In: Parkinson’s Disease, ISSN 2042-0080, Vol. 2011, p. 658956-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects speech in small, inconsistent ways. However, voice intensity generally increases. Recently the caudal zona inserta (cZi) has been investigated as an alternate target in DBS treatment of PD. The effects of cZi-DBS on voice intensity have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the voice intensity effects of cZi-DBS and STN-DBS in PD patients. Voice intensity during reading and intensity decay during rapid syllable repetition were measured for eight STN-DBS and eight cZi-DBS patients in a pre-surgical baseline and then on- and off-stimulation 12 months after surgery. Voice intensity on-stimulation was larger than off-stimulation for the STN-DBS patients, but smaller for the cZi-DBS patients. There were no significant changes in intensity decay. The results suggest that cZi and STN are involved differently in neuromuscular control of the speech respiratory subsystem.

  • 24. Omar, Mohammed T. A.
    et al.
    Alghadir, Ahmad H.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Rehabilitation Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Al Baker, Shaheerah
    Hand grip strength and dexterity function in children aged 6-12 years: a cross-sectional study2018In: Journal of Hand Therapy, ISSN 0894-1130, E-ISSN 1545-004X, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 93-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design: Cross-sectional and clinical measurement. Introduction: Assessment of hand function considers an essential part in clinical practice. Purpose of the Study: To develop normative values of hand grip strength and dexterity function for 6-12 year -old children in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Grip strength and dexterity function was measured in 525 children using Grip Track hand dynamometer (JTECH Medical, Midvale, UT, USA) and 9-hole pegboard test respectively. Results: The grip strength and dexterity function was improved as age progressed regardless of gender. Across all age groups, the hand grip strength of boys was significantly higher than girls for dominant hand (31.75 +/- 10.33 vs 28.24 +/- 9.35; P < .001) and nondominant hand (31,01 +/- 10.27 vs 27.27 +/- 9.30; P < .001). The girls performed slightly faster than boys for dominant hand (19.70 vs 20.68; P < .05) and nondominant hand (21.79 vs 23.46; P < .05). In general, girls completed a 9-HPT faster than boys in the 2 of 7 age groups: 11 years (9-HPT scores = 2.10 seconds; P < .01) and 12 years (9-HPT scores = 1.93 seconds; P < .01). Discussion: The overall patterns of hand grip strength and dexterity function observed in the present study are similar to the previous studies that established acceleration of grip strength with advanced age, and faster performance scores in older children than younger children in both genders. Conclusions: Norms of hand grip strength and dexterity enable therapists to identify some developmental characteristics of hand function among Saudi children, determine the presence of impairment, and compare scores from children in different clinical settings.

  • 25. Omar, Mohammed Taher Ahmed
    et al.
    Shaheen, Afaf Ahmed Mohamed
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    A systematic review of the effect of low-level laser therapy in the management of breast cancer-related lymphedema2012In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 2977-2984Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to review the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the management of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). A systematic review of seven databases for clinical trials for LLLT in the management of BCRL published between 1990 and 2011 was performed. A total of eight studies on 230 patients were found. The methodological qualities of the selected studies were assessed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale, and the studies were categorized according to Sackett's levels of evidence. Five studies were graded at evidence level II. Two studies were graded at evidence level III, and the remaining study was graded at evidence level V. There is moderate to strong evidence for the effectiveness of LLLT for the management of BCRL from five small studies of acceptable methodological quality. A dose of 1-2 J/cm(2) per point applied to several points covering the fibrotic area can reduce limb volume following BCRL. Further well-designed, large-scale studies are required to determine more precisely how effective LLLT may be in BCRL.

  • 26.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Alghadir, A. H.
    Iqbal, Z. A.
    Effect of different head-neck-jaw postures on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense2017In: Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions - JMNI, ISSN 1108-7161, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 341-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck relocation error among healthy subjects.

    Methods: 30 healthy adult male subjects participated in this study. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense was measured while standing, habitual sitting, habitual sitting with clenched jaw and habitual sitting with forward head posture during right rotation, left rotation, flexion and extension using kinesthetic sensibility test.

    Results: Head-neck relocation error was least while standing, followed by habitual sitting, habitual sitting with forward head posture and habitual sitting with jaw clenched. However, there was no significant difference in error between different tested postures during all the movements.

    Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to see the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck position sense among healthy subjects. Assuming a posture for a short duration of time doesn’t affect head-neck relocation error in normal healthy subjects.

  • 27.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Alghadir, Ahmad H.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Effect of jaw functional status on neck muscle endurance2019In: Archives of Oral Biology, ISSN 0003-9969, E-ISSN 1879-1506, Vol. 101, p. 30-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the effect of resting jaw and maximum voluntary clenching on neck flexor and extensor muscle endurance.

    Design: Neck flexor and extensor endurance was measured in a college health clinic in 85 male college students in two test positions: resting jaw (control) and maximum voluntary clenching.

    Results: Mean neck flexor muscle endurance values during resting jaw and maximum voluntary clenching were 70.06 SD 28.24, and 60.03 SD 16.5, seconds respectively. Mean neck extensor muscle endurance values during resting jaw and maximum voluntary clenching were 105.54 SD 29.9, and 98.32 SD 24.54, respectively. Both values were significantly lower while maximum voluntary clenching as compared to resting jaw position (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion: Modification of jaw position can affect neck muscle endurance. Results of this study further supports sensory-motor relation between jaw and neck region.

  • 28.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Impaired positioning of the gape in whiplash-associated disorders.2006In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously introduced a new concept for natural jaw function suggesting that "functional jaw movements" are the result of coordinated jaw and neck muscle activation, leading to simultaneous movements in the temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital and cervical spine joints. Thus, jaw function requires a healthy state of both the jaw and the neck motor systems. The aim of this study was to examine the positioning of the gape in space during maximal jaw opening at fast and slow speed in healthy as well as whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) individuals. A wireless optoelectronic technique for three-dimensional movement recording was used. Subjects were seated in an upright position, with back support up to the mid-scapular level without headrest. The position of the gape in space was defined as the vertical midpoint position of the gape at maximal jaw opening (MP). In healthy, the MP generally coincided with the reference position at the start of jaw opening. In the WAD group, the MP was significantly lower than the reference position. No sex or speed related differences were found. The results suggest that both the width and orientation of the gape in space relies on coordinated jaw and neck muscle activation and mandibular and head-neck movements. This study also suggests an association between neck pain and dysfunction following trauma, and reduced width and impaired positioning of the gape in space. Finally, the MP seems to be a useful marker in evaluation of the functional state of the jaw-neck motor system

  • 29.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology. King Saud University, Saudi Arabia .
    Oluseye, Kamaldeen
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Alghadir, Ahmad
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Perception about the importance and use of therapeutic massage as a treatment modality among physical therapists working in Saudi Arabia2015In: Journal of Physical Therapy Science, ISSN 0915-5287, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1827-1831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Purpose] To report perceptions about the importance and use of therapeutic massage as a treatment modality among physical therapists working in Saudi Arabia. [Subjects and Methods] A 21-item structured questionnaire was used to assess various domains including the demographic and professional characteristics of physical therapists and their perceptions about the importance and use of therapeutic massage in their daily practice. The questionnaire was uploaded online and the web link was sent to 140 members of the Saudi Physical Therapy Association (SPTA). [Results] The overall response rate was 86%. Among the respondents, 31% reported occasional use of therapeutic massage in their clinical practice, and 55% reported to have received formal training for therapeutic massage. Use of therapeutic massage was more common among female physical therapists. [Conclusion] Many physical therapists working in Saudi Arabia consider therapeutic massage to be an important treatment modality, but its use is relatively limited, either due to the time and effort required to dispense it, or the lack of scientific evidence for its efficacy.

1 - 29 of 29
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