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  • 1. Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work.

  • 2.
    Ankarhem, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Biofuels and the forest sector: An econometric model of the Swedish forest sector2000In: Global concerns for forest resource utilization: Sustainable use and management ; Selected Papers from the International Symposium of the Foresea Miyazaki 1998, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers , 2000, p. 361-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Axelsson, RogerUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.Brännlund, RunarUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The theory and practice of environmental and resource economics: essays in honour of Karl-Gustaf Löfgren2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4. Balk, Berth M.
    et al.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. SLU.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shwana
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Environmental Performance in Swedish Manufacturing 1913-19902006In: The theory and practice of environmental and resource economics: essays in honour of Karl-Gustaf Löfgren / [ed] Thomas Aronsson, Roger Axelsson, Runar Brännlund, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2006, p. 287-306Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Berkley, CA, USA.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Spindell Berck, Cyndi
    Attorney and Public Policy Analyst, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Green regulations in California and Sweden2011In: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, E-ISSN 1939-0467, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 49-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    California and Sweden are both leaders in green regulations and actions. In both there is a substantial political base for environmental regulation, yet the path to regulation in these two political entities is quite different. California emphasizes command and control regulations while Sweden makes heavy use of taxes. We show that both underlying economic factors and the constraints of the larger systems in which these economies are embedded contribute to their choice of control methods.

  • 6.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Balancing industrial and recreational use of forests: A review of empirical studies2008In: CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, Vol. 3, p. 027-035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The value of the forest and how it should be utilized is the subject of a heated debate. The objective of this study is to review the literature on the benefits and costs of forest conservation and the adaptations of forest management practices, to improve the forest landscape for recreation. The overview focuses mainly on studies in the Nordic countries published in the last 15 years. The benefit studies provide distinct conclusions regarding the preferences of recreational users: they tend to prefer old growth rather than young forests, and favour a mixture of conifers and broadleaves over a pure conifer stand. On the cost side, there seems to be a consensus that forest conservation for recreation or biodiversity purposes has an opportunity cost in terms of foregone timber revenues. However, there is no evidence from the reviewed studies that such a conservation policy would hamper economic growth in the regions that are directly subject to the policy. On the contrary, there is some evidence that conservation can have a positive effect on local economies, mostly the result of an economic diversification towards tourism and commercial recreation. Overall, there is a striking lack of connection between the benefits and costs of forest conservation. Very few benefit studies make the extra effort to estimate the cost of the changes in forest management that the respondents in the non-market valuation studies are asked to value. Thus, one suggestion for future research is to improve the use of various methods in practical applications to ensure that guidance is comprehensive for policy decision-making.

  • 7.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Rationality, fairness and the cost of distrust2012In: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 345-349Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Fiskefria områden ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv: en konceptuell analys2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med föreliggande rapport är att på ett övergripande och konceptuellt plan beskriva innebörden av en samhällsekonomisk nytto- och kostnadsanalys, eller samhällsekonomisk bedömning, och hur en sådan kan och bör genomföras för att analysera samhällsnyttan av fiskefria områden. Vidare syftar rapporten till att exemplifiera vilken typ av empiriska data och metoder som finns tillgängliga för en sådan analys med hjälp av den fritidsfiskeundersökning som årligen görs i regi av Hav och Vattenmyndigheten.

  • 9.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Geijer, Erik
    SLU.
    Spridningseffekter och målkonflikter2014In: Samhällsekonomiska analyser av miljöprojekt: en vägledning / [ed] Kriström, Bengt & Bonta Bergman, M., Naturvårdsverket , 2014, p. 261-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    A new approach for analyzing multiple bounded WTP data - Certainty dependent payment card intervals.2007Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Konjunkturinstitutet, Miljöekonomiska enheten.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Betalningsviljan för att skapa och bevara livskraftiga rovdjursstammar i den Svenska faunan2008In: Ekonomisk debatt, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 43-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi analyserar betalningsviljan bland svenska folket för att skapa och bevara livskraftiga rovdjursstammar i Sverige. Våra resultat visar att en knapp majoritet av svenska folket inte är villig att betala någonting för rovdjurspolitiken, men att den aggregerade betalningsviljan i samhället ändå är betydande. Enligt våra skattningar är den ungefär 10,5–12,2 miljarder kr. Våra resultat visar också att betalningsviljan skiljer sig åt mellan olika regioner i Sverige; den är högst i Stockholm och lägst i vargregioner. Vi kan här inte utesluta att kostnaderna är större än betalningsviljan, men visar att det finns en solid grund för ett nödvändigt kompensationssystem.

  • 12.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the value of large predators in Sweden: a regional stratified contingent valuation analysis2007In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 88, no 4, p. 1066-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes with an applied policy analysis of the predator preservation policy in Sweden. We estimate the overall mean willingness to pay (WTP) for preserving the four large predators in the Swedish fauna by applying the contingent valuation method. Using survey data from 2004 we find that 50 percent of the Swedish population is willing to contribute financially toward implementation of the predator policy package, and that the estimated overall mean WTP is approximately SEK 290. Further, we test for spatial differences in attitudes and WTP and find that respondents in Stockholm have the highest overall mean WTP, while respondents living in wolf-territories have the lowest. Our mean WTP measure is flawed with upward bias, since we cannot estimate the willingness to accept for those with clearly negative preferences regarding the predator policy package (e.g. hunters). In this paper, we set their WTP equal to zero. Thus, we cannot rule out the possibility that the mean willingness to pay is, in fact, negative, i.e. the social-value of implementing the predator policy is negative. Finally, the estimates of the overall WTP are sensitive to response-uncertainty. When the respondents indicate uncertainty about their valuation, they tend to state higher values.

  • 13.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    An electricity market in transition: demand flexibility and preference heterogeneity2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent report to the Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (Broberg et al., 2014) consumer behavior and consumer flexibility concerning energy use were analyzed. Two main conclusions were drawn. First, electricity consumption follows a regular pattern over the day, week, and year, which to a large extent reflects household living patterns and climate variations over the year. Second, the average household needs a substantial economic compensation to voluntarily reschedule its electricity use away from peak demand hours. The required compensations were found to be far higher than the economic incentives households face today when exposed to real-time pricing. In addition, it was found that households are more flexible in the use of electricity for heating than in the use of electrical appliances. Finally, households were found to be more flexible during the morning peak hours than during the evening hours. These findings led to the overall conclusion that both the possibilities and incentives are such that we cannot expect any substantial change in energy use patterns from technical reforms that creates incentives for demand response in line with the current price variation on the wholesale market for electricity.

    In the above-mentioned report we also analyzed people’s attitudes towards information dissemination. We concluded that many households do not wish to have their electricity use scrutinized by experts and other households. We found that people, on average, required a compensation to allow such information sharing. Again, new technologies open for various demand response policies, although it does not necessarily imply substantially higher demand flexibility. New technologies need to be combined with consumer interest to be successful in a market economy.

    The overall objective of the current report is to further scrutinize consumer behavior and flexibility. The first part focuses on Swedish households’ choice of electricity supplier contracts. Specifically, we analyze what types of households choose a fixed price contract. 1 The choice of contract implicitly reveals a consumer’s flexibility since a fixed price contract works as an insurance against price variation. So, by studying what type of households chose a fixed price contract we are able to infer on which type of households are relatively inflexible. This part of the analysis is policy relevant since it touches on the question of what to expect from real-time pricing reforms. A central question is whether a household who uses relatively more electricity is more likely to have a fixed price contract. If this is the case, future access to real-time pricing and a greater price variation may not be a guarantee for a substantial increase in demand response as important consumers (from a policy perspective) are more likely to insure against such circumstances. From this perspective the market for price insurances (fixed price contracts) is a market for inflexibility.

    While the analysis above considers the effectiveness of future energy policies to promote demand response, it is also relevant to study the question of how the peak demand problem may develop over time. This question is explicitly addressed in the current report by studying how consumer behavior varies across income levels. The existing literature suggests that electricity consumption is positively related to income, although the income elasticity 2 is fairly small. However, almost all studies concerning income effects have studied aggregate electricity use on monthly or yearly basis. The present study departs from the existing literature by studying how daily household electricity use patterns vary across income levels. This approach is novel since it allows us to analyze how the peak load problem may develop in the future as a result of higher income levels, which is commonly expected.

    By studying the choice of electricity contracts and by estimating hourly income elasticities, the report approach demand flexibility in an indirect way. In the third analysis of the report we address these issues again, although with a somewhat more direct approach. The choice experiment part in Broberg et al. (2014), which focused on the economic incentives needed in order to change people’s energy consumption in a predefined way, is now deepened. The focus is on how socio-economic factors such as e.g. age, gender, education and income may explain preference heterogeneity among the Swedish population. Energy related factors such as living conditions and heating systems are also considered in the analysis. This analysis will inform us about what types of households are inclined to reschedule their energy use when given relatively small economic incentives, and what household’s that are relatively inflexible and thus require large compensations to change their behavior. We also study preference heterogeneity regarding information dissemination in purpose of anonymous peer comparisons.

    In the final part of the report we deepen our analysis of households’ demand for information about their own and others electricity use. Besides creating incentives for demand response, new technologies included in the smart grid concept also make it possible for policy makers to use tailored information to help consumers to use energy more efficiently. A number of studies highlight inefficiencies in the households’ use of energy (see e.g. Broberg and Kazukauskas, 2014). One highlighted reality is that people seem to pay little attention to energy issues. Of course, if people pay little attention to the price of electricity, the effectiveness of policy measures that work through the pricechannel is limited. In this part of the report we address four basic questions of great relevance for energy efficiency policies worldwide. The questions are (1) What knowledge do people have about the marginal cost of electricity use in terms of everyday electrical appliances? (2) Are the cost perceptions biased and in what direction? (3) Do inattention to energy issues play a significant role in this bias? (4) Do households want information that may help them de-bias their perceptions about energy costs and use?

    The report is structured such that section 2 gives a brief background on the issues analyzed in the report. The following sections correspond to the issues outlined in the introduction. Section 7 works to tie the analyses together and conclude our results

  • 14.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    En elmarknad i förändring: är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten ”En elmarknad i förändring – Är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?” tittar en forskargrupp vid Centrum för Miljö- och Naturresursekonomi (CERE) vid Handelshögskolan, Umeå Universitet på konsumenternas nuvarande och framtida roll på elmarknaden. Rapporten är beställd av Energimarknadsinspektionen.

  • 15.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Editorial2011In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 335-336Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Grön skatteväxling: framgångsväg eller återvändsgränd?2006 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Konkurrenseffekter av Europas klimat och energipolitik2008In: EU och den globala klimatfrågan / [ed] Per Cramér, Sverker Gustavsson, Lars Oxelheim, Stockholm: Santérus , 2008, 1, p. 51-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Miljöpolitik utan kostnader?: en kritisk granskning av Porterhypotesen2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Huvudsyftet med denna studie är att sammanfatta kunskapsläget kring sambanden mellan miljöpolitik och konkurrenskraft. En central fråga i studien är vilka effekter miljöpolitiken kan tänkas ha på de företag och eller branscher som regleras, och vad som eventuellt är specifikt med miljöregleringars effekter.

    Studiens huvudsyfte är mycket nära kopplat till den intensiva diskussion som förts de senaste 10 åren kring vad som brukar kallas "Porterhypotesen". Porterhypotesen är en hypotes om att ökade miljökrav i form av miljöregleringar ger upphov till "vinster" (ut-över miljöintäkterna) som mer än väl uppväger de kostnader som normalt förknippas med miljöregleringar.

    Därmed kan man säga att studien mer specifikt syftar till att ge en någorlunda systematisk genomgång av denna s.k. "Porter-hypotes" och dess giltighet för framförallt Sverige. Den grund-läggande frågeställningen är således om det finns några vetenskap-liga belägg till stöd för hypotesen. Och om så är fallet, gäller detta enbart inom miljöpolitikens område? Ett allmänt stöd för Porter-hypotesen skulle ha mycket vittgående konsekvenser på utform-ning av politiken inom samhällets alla områden, men även på synen om den fria marknadens förmåga att bidra till en effektiv resurs-allokering.

  • 19.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Principiella utgångspunkter i klimatpolitiken och klimatpolitikens kostnader2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 4, p. 8-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från klimatproblemets art följer ett antal generella slutsatser, men även principer, som borde vara vägledande i klimatpolitiken. En sådan generell slutsats är att mål och medel i princip inte kan separeras. En annan slutsats är att man inte allmänt kan  säga att likformiga sektorsspecifika eller landspecifika utsläppsmål är kostnadseffektiva. De principiella slutsatserna understryker vikten av kostnadseffektivitet om styrande princip i klimatpolitiken. Vad gäller kostnaden för den svenska klimatpolitiken innebär de målnivåer som nu diskuteras mycket stora ingrepp, och därmed betydande konsekvenser, på samhällsekonomin, om inte en stor del av reduktionen tillåts ske i andra länder.

  • 20.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Räcker skogen till?2007In: En kunskapresa i Linnés anda: mat, råvaror och energi, Stockholm: Formas , 2007Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Samband mellan energieffektivisering och andra övergripande mål ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The tax systems options and tasks within environmental policy2009In: The Non-Fiscal Purposes of Taxation.: Yearbook For Nordic Tax Research / [ed] Bolander, J., Copenhagen: Djof , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Amin, Karimu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Patrik, Söderholm
    Convergence in carbon dioxide emissions and the role of growth and institutions: a parametric and non-parametric analysis2017In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 359-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emission for a panel of 124 countries taking into account the impact of economic growth and the quality of government institutions. The analysis builds on both parametric and non-parametric panel data techniques, and we examine the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with institutional quality as one of the independent variables influencing both emissions and output growth. The results reveal evidence in support of β-convergence of per capita CO2 emissions for the global sample, and for the sub-samples comprising OECD versus non-OECD countries and high- versus low-income countries, respectively. There is, however, heterogeneity in β-convergence and it tends to vary with the level of the initial per capita CO2 emissions. We also report evidence of a negative direct effect of institutional quality on growth in per capita CO2emissions, especially for the global and high-income samples. However, institutional quality also promotes economic growth, thus generating a positive indirect effect on emissions growth. Overall the empirical results suggest a positive net effect of institutional quality on growth in per capita CO2 emissions in the global sample. Finally, the non-parametric approach reveals some evidence of bias in the parametric approach, in particular in the case of the estimates for the convergence parameter at either end of the distribution.

  • 24.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Boisvert, Richard N.
    Cornell University, USA.
    The Use of Biomass to Produce Electricity2011In: EuroChoices, ISSN 1478-0917, E-ISSN 1746-692X, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 26-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass to produce electricity has received much less attention than biofuels in the EU and the US. However, the production of bioelectricity has been increasing, especially in Europe. Bioelectricity has an advantage over some other renewable sources, such as wind or solar, in maintaining the ability of generators to respond more easily to fluctuating electricity demand. However, with current prices for other primary fuels there is limited availability of biomass supplies at prices generators are willing to pay. Bioelectricity production is influenced by policies for promoting the use of renewable energy and other policies, such as those relating to greenhouse gas emissions. Various incentive schemes are in place in the EU and US, such as feed-in tariffs that guarantee favourable purchase prices for renewables, and Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) requiring that renewables constitute minimum percentages of electricity generation or Green Certificates which promote the use of renewables. The future development of bioelectricity will be determined by the form and magnitude of policy incentives and by prices for fossil fuels. Feedstock availability will only be assured if there are coordinated efforts at regional and local levels to develop the transportation and other infrastructure needed to create well-functioning biomass markets.

  • 25.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Reaching conflicting environmental goals: Balancing industrial and recreational use of forests. A review of empirical studies.2008In: CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Institutionen för skogsekonomi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet SLU.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    En samhällsekonomisk bedömning av intensivodling av skog2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SLU har av Jordbruksdepartementet fått i uppdrag att utreda effekterna av "intensivodling" av skog på skogsmark med låga naturvärden samt på nedlagd åkermark. I uppdraget ingår även att belysa de samhällsekonomiska konsekvenserna av "intensivodling", men även att genomföra en samhällsekonomisk kostnads-intäktsanalys av intensivodlingsåtgärder.

    Syftet med denna rapport är att bidra med ett underlag till en samhällsekonomisk bedömning av intensivodling av skog. Detta görs dels i form av en konsekvensanalys av relativt konceptuell karaktär i syfte att belysa möjliga effekter på prisbildning och marknadsutbud, dels att genomföra en samhällsekonomisk kostnads- och intäktsanalys som beaktar såväl marknadsprissatta som icke marknadsprissatta nyttigheter och onyttigheter.

    Den mer konceptuella konsekvensanalysen visar att intensivodling i den skala som diskuteras kan få relativt stora marknadseffekter via relativprisförändringar på lång sikt. Givet allt annat oförändrat kan man förvänta sig att nettointäkten (pris minus avverkningskostnad) faller till följd av intensivodling. Resultaten antyder att priserna på såväl timmer som massaved kan falla kraftigt, vilket naturligtvis får återverkningar på skogsägarnas ekonomi. I ett scenario där framtida efterfrågan på skogsprodukter ökar relativt kraftigt motverkas denna effekt. Delar av de åtgärder som "intensivodling" innebär är redan idag tillåtna. En naturlig fråga som uppstår är därmed varför åtgärderna inte genomförs. Ett möjligt, och enkelt, svar på detta är att skogsägarna inte finner det lönsamt, eller snarare att den förväntade lönsamheten inte är tillräckligt hög. Det kan med andra ord vara så att skogsägarna inte tror att framtida efterfrågeökningar kan leda till prishöjningar som gör "intensivodling" lönsamt.

    Vad gäller effekterna på andra näringar och sysselsättning kan man förvänta sig en ökad sysselsättning inom skogsbruket. Men analysen visar även att man inte kan utesluta att sysselsättningen inom turistsektorn minskar som en följd av förändringar i landskapbild och andra för turismen negativa sidoeffekter.

    Resultaten från den samhällsekonomiska analysen visar att intensivodling av skog på skogsmark med låga naturvärden potentiellt kan vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt, dvs. intensivodling kan enligt våra beräkningar leda till högre välfärd, givet vissa antaganden. Avgörande för resultatet är vilka antaganden som görs vad gäller värdering av den skog som kommer att produceras, hur stor kolbindningen blir och hur koldioxid värderas, samt effekterna och värdet på andra ej marknadsprissatta "skogsprodukter" som rekreation, jakt, och kväveläckage.

    De slutsatser som dras kan sammanfattas i följande punkter:

    1. Enligt kalkylen är intensivodling företagsekonomiskt lönsamt vid de priser och kostnader som gäller idag.

    2. Enligt kalkylen är intensivodling inte företagsekonomiskt lönsamt om framtida nettovärde av skogen är 80 procent av dagens värde.

    3. Intensivodling ger upphov till "externa effekter" som inte fångas i den privatekonomiska kalkylen: - Bidrar till minskade koldioxidutsläpp, positivt,

    - bidrar till ökat läckage av kväve till Östersjön, negativt,

    - påverkar skogsmarkens rekreationsvärde och jaktvärde negativt.

    4. Nettovärdet av de externa effekterna är helt avhängigt på vilket sätt förändringar i kolbalansen beräknas, hur koldioxid värderas, samt värderingen av andra externa effekter.

    5. De externa effekter som identifieras är motiv till att införa någon form av styrmedel.

    6. Om skogsägarna får ersättning för den koldioxid man binder och tvingas betala för de negativa externa effekterna kan man inte utesluta att de intensivodlingsåtgärder som diskuteras genomförs av skogsägarna.

    7. Det faktum att intensivodling bidrar till minskade utsläpp av koldioxid är inte något skäl till att specifikt stödja intensivodling. Snarare pekar det på att skogen och skogsbruket skall inordnas i den allmänna klimatpolitiken. Likväl som utsläpp orsakade av förbränning beskattas med en koldioxidskatt (eller måste täckas med utsläppsrätter) så måste skogsbruket ersättas för att man tar upp koldioxid.

  • 27.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The Costs and Benefits of Intensive Forest Management2012In: Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, ISSN 2152-2812, Vol. 3, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach for studying the socio-economic benefits and costs (CBA) of the introduction of intensified management measures in forestry. Besides from valuation of changes in timber production, assessments of different types of externalities are included in the assessment. The model is exemplified with the use of data from a Swedish governmental study undertaken in 2009 which present impacts on the Swedish forest sector if intensified management measures are applied on environmentally low-valued land and abandoned agricultural lands. The CBA shows that intensified management measures typically are private financially profitable. If these measures also become profitable from the society’s point of view depend on the size of the external effects including carbon balance.

  • 28.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Ghalwash, Tarek
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    The income-pollution relationship and the role of income distribution: An analysis of Swedish household data2008In: Resource and Energy Economics, ISSN 0928-7655, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 369-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between pollution and income at household level. The study is motivated by the recent literature emphasizing the importance of income distribution for the aggregate relation between pollution and income. The main findings from previous studies are that if the individual pollution–income relationship is non-linear, then aggregate pollution for, say, a whole country, will depend not only on average income, but also on how income is distributed. To achieve our objective we formulate a model for determining the choice of consumption of goods in different types of household. Furthermore we link the demand model to emission functions for various goods. The theoretical analysis shows that without imposing very restrictive assumptions on preferences and the emission functions, it is not possible to determine a priori the slope or the curvature of the pollution–income relation. The empirical analysis shows that, given the model used, the pollution–income relation has a positive slope in Sweden and is strictly concave for all three pollutants under study (CO2, SO2, NOx), at least in the neighbourhood of the observed income for an average household. We also show that altering the prevailing income distribution, holding average income constant, will affect aggregate emissions in the sense that an equalization of incomes will give rise to an increase in emissions. One implication is then that the development of aggregate pollution due to growth depends not only on the income level, but also on how growth is distributed.

  • 29.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Gong, Peichen
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Sidibe, Amadou
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Reaching conflicting environmental goals: Participation to forest conservation in National Kabore Tambi Park in Southern Burkina Faso2009In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 468-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective with this study is to investigate how different household characteristics, households' perceptions about the security of land use rights, and the households' proximity to forests affect the individual household's willingness to engage in activities that are meant to promote sustainable forest management in Burkina Faso. To achieve this objective we use a multinomial choice model of engagement (or non-engagement) in forest management activities based on household data from 4 villages surrounding the National Kabore Tambi Park in Burkina Faso. The results show that the participation by household members in forest conservation activities is mainly determined by the three variables that are related to policy: membership in community based forest management associations, security of land use rights, and training. The current training programs focus only on forest conservation practices. To be more efficient it should focus on increasing people's knowledge about the benefits due to conservation and the threats resulting from the lack of forest management. Furthermore the results indicate that improving land use right security would increase farmer's willingness to participate in forest management activities such as community work and forest surveillance. Thus particular attention should be paid to the prevailing system of land rights and its incentives, or disincentives, for promoting sustainable management of the forest resource.

  • 30.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Johansson, Maria
    Karlsson, Jens
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Beware of the wolf: Is animal fear affecting willingness to pay for conservation of largecarnivores?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From an interdisciplinary approach, this study aims at analysing self-reported animal fear, specifically large carnivore fear, in relation to public willingness to financially contribute to fulfil a governmental policy on large carnivore-induced costs. In a survey of 2 455 Swedes, it was found that people whose animal fear was  directed particularly towards large carnivores, were less likely to be willing to pay (WTP), or were likely to be willing to pay a lower amount of money. In the prediction of WTP, the contribution of the fear variables was equally important as the socio-economic factors. From a management point of view it seems urgent to understand what kinds of measures that may reduce human fear of large carnivores. It is also suggested that further studies should include standardised measures of anxiety and fear in order to be able to closer link the results of large carnivore fear to the psychological literature on human fears.

  • 31.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). University of Ghana Business School, Legon, Ghana.
    Convergence in global environmental performance: assessing heterogeneity2018In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 503-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence in environmental/carbon performance by constructing a measure based on production theory, where production processes explicitly result in the production of two outputs; a good output (GDP) and a bad output (CO2). We use the derived measure to test the beta-convergence hypothesis for a panel of 94 countries. The results reveal evidence in support of beta-convergence in environmental, or carbon performance for the entire (global) sample and each of the sub-samples. The evidence points to a slower convergence rate for the high-income countries relative to low-income countries. Moreover, the rate of convergence does not vary with capital in the global sample, but does vary in the high-income sample, possibly reflecting differences in abatement cost induced by differences in the stringency of environmental regulation and enforcement. Additionally, we find evidence of a negative relation between environmental performance and fossil fuel share, both at the global level as well as at the middle and high sub-samples, which tend to vary with capital intensity. As such, the results conform to the results from studies on the dynamics of per capita emissions.

  • 32.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Elmarknaden och elprisets utveckling före och efter avregleringen: ekonometriska analyser2012Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    En effektiv klimatpolitik2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Vad ska vi ha skogen till?2007In: Bioenergi, till vad och hur mycket? / [ed] Johansson, Birgitta, Stockholm: Formas , 2007, p. 297-308Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lozano, S
    Department of Industrial Management, University of Seville, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain.
    Villa, G
    Department of Industrial Management, University of Seville, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain.
    Centralised reallocation of emission permits using DEA2009In: Central European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, Vol. 193, no 3, p. 752-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach to the problem of emission permits reallocation is presented. It can be used with conventional command and control as well as with an allowance market. It uses a centralized point of view, which represents the common good. In the model it is assumed that firms produce two types of outputs: desirable outputs (i.e. good outputs with positive value for consumers) and undesirable outputs (i.e. bad outputs with negative value for consumers, such as emissions of pollutants). The proposed approach has three phases, which correspond to three objectives that are pursued lexicographically. The three objectives are maximizing aggregated desirable production, minimizing undesirable total emissions and minimizing the consumption of input resources. The relative priority of these objectives is defined by the regulator. The whole approach is units-invariant and does not require information on input and output prices. The approach is applied on a dataset from the Swedish pulp and paper industry.

  • 36.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Assessment of green public procurement as a policy tool: Cost-efficiency and competition considerations2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement is officially regarded as an effective means to secure environmental improvement. Estimates by the European Commission indicate that public authorities within the European Union typically purchase goods and services corresponding to approximately 16 percent of GNP per annum. Hence, it is believed, private firms can be stimulated to invest in sustainable production technologies if the market power of public bodies is exerted through Green Public Procurement (GPP) policies. In this paper we assess whether GPP is a cost-efficient policy tool, and if so whether its implementation can, from a welfare perspective, deter or stimulate entry to procurement markets.

  • 37.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Assessment of green public procurement as a policy tool: Cost-efficiency and competition considerations2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    A Dynamic Analysis of Interfuel Substitution for Swedish Heating Plants2004In: Energy economics, Vol. 26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). wedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Effekter för den elintensiva industrin av att dessa branscher i olika grad omfattas av kvotplikt inom elcertifikatsystemet2011Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Environmental policy and profitability: Evidence from Swedish industry2010In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 12, no 1-2, p. 59-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of a CO2 tax on profitability by using firm-level data on output and inputs from Swedish industry between 1990 and 2004. The purpose of this exercise is to investigate the validity of the so-called Porter hypothesis. By utilizing a factor-demand modeling approach, and specifying a profit function that has a technology component dependent upon firm-specific effective tax on CO2, we are able to separate out the effect of regulatory pressure on technological progress. The results indicate that there is evidence of a “reversed” Porter effect in most industrial sectors, especially in energy-intensive industries; that is, after controlling for the fuel price effect, technological progress and consequently profits are further negatively affected by the CO2 tax.

  • 41.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Environmental policy without costs?: A review of the Porter hypothesis2009In: International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 1932-1465, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 75-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature connected to the so-called Porter hypothesis; that is, it reviews the literature connected to the relation between environmental policy and competitiveness. According to the conventional wisdom environmental policy, aiming for improving the environment through, for example emission reductions, does imply costs since scarce resources must be diverted from somewhere else. However, this conventional wisdom has been challenged and questioned recently through what has been denoted the “Porter hypothesis”. Advocates of the Porter hypothesis challenge the conventional wisdom on the ground that resources are used inefficiently in the absence of the right kind of environmental regulations, and that the conventional neoclassical view is too static to take inefficiencies into account. The conclusions that can be drawn from this review are: (1) that the theoretical literature can identify the circumstances and mechanisms that must exist for a Porter effect to occur, (2) that these circumstances are rather non-general, hence rejecting the Porter hypothesis in general, and (3) that the empirical literature gives no general support for the Porter hypothesis. Furthermore, a closer look at the “Swedish case” reveals no support for the Porter hypothesis in spite of the fact that Swedish environmental policy the last 15–20 years seems to be in line the prerequisites stated by the Porter hypothesis concerning environmental policy.

  • 42.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Swedish industry and Kyoto:  An assessment of the effects of the European CO2emission permit trading system 2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 4749-4762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assess the effects on Swedish industry input demands and output of different climate policy scenarios connected to energy policy induced by the Kyoto protocol. We use a unique dataset containing firm-level data on outputs and inputs between 1991 and 2001 to estimate a factor demand model, which we use to simulate different policy scenarios. Sector-specific estimation suggests that the proposed quadratic profit function specification exhibits properties and robustness that are consistent with economic theory; that is, all own-price elasticities are negative and all output elasticities are positive. Furthermore, the elasticities show that the input demands are, in most cases, relatively inelastic. Simulation of the model for six different policy scenarios reveal that effects on the Swedish base industry of a EU-level permit-trading system depends on (i) the removal or maintenance of the current CO2 tax, (ii) the price of permits, and (iii) the future price of electricity. Our analysis shows that changes in electricity price may be more important than the price of permits for some sectors.

  • 43.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Carbon intensity in production and the effects of climate policy – evidence from Swedish industry2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 67, p. 844-857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze carbon intensity performance at firm level and the effectiveness of the Swedish CO2 tax. Carbon intensity performance is derived from a production technology and measured as changes in the CO2 emission-output production ratio. As one of the first countries to introduce a CO2 tax in 1991, Sweden serves as an appropriate "test bench" for analyzing the effectiveness of climate policy in general. Firm level data from Swedish manufacturing spanning over the period 1990-2004 is used for the analysis. Results show that EP has improved in all the sectors and there is an evidence of decoupling of output production growth and CO2 emissions. Firms' carbon intensity performance responds both to changes in the CO2 tax and fossil fuel price, but is more sensitive to the tax.

  • 44.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Patrik, Söderholm
    Luleå technical university.
    Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: An environmental index approach2015In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 51, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the paper is to analyze convergence of CO2 emission intensity across manufacturing sectors in Sweden. Our approach differs from previous work on carbon convergence in that it employs a theoretical framework to construct a COperformance index, which explicitly takes into account that industrial firms produce good as well as bad outputs. This index is then used as the dependent variable in a growth-type regression equation. We employ a data set covering 14 industrial sectors over the time period 1990–2008. The results suggest the presence of conditional β-convergence in CO2 performance among the industrial sectors in Sweden. Moreover, the speed of convergence varies significantly in the sense that the higher the capital intensity is, the lower is the convergence rate to the different steady states. This is likely to reflect the importance of – and in part the costs associated with – capital turnover to achieve a transition towards lower CO2 emission paths.

  • 45.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: an environmental index approach2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the paper is to analyze convergence of CO2 emission intensity across manufacturing sectors in Sweden. Our approach differs from previous work on carbon convergence in that it employs a theoretical framework to construct a CO2 performance index, which explicitly takes into account that industrial firms produce good as well as bad outputs. This index is then used as the dependent variable in a growth-type regression equation. We employ a data set covering 14 industrial sectors over the time period 1990-2008. The results suggest the presence of conditional β-convergence in CO2 performance among the industrial sectors in Sweden. Moreover, the speed of convergence varies significantly in the sense that the higher the capital intensity is, the lower is the convergence rate to the different steady states. This reflects the importance of – and in part the costs associated with – capital turnover to achieve a transition towards lower CO2 emission paths.

  • 46.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Söderholm, patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kampen om skogen: koka, såga, bränna eller bevara?2010Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Evaluating market efficiency without price data: The Swedish market for wood fuel2004In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of this paper is to analyse the price development and price formation for wood fuel used by the Swedish district heating sector. According to Lnner et al., there is a significant potential for increasing the use of wood fuel in Sweden, at a fairly moderate cost. The basic question raised in this paper is then why this potential is not realized. Specifically, a methodology is proposed for testing whether the reason is that market imperfections are present. As a first step the shape of the technology in the Swedish district heating sector is estimated for the period 1989 to 1996. In the second step the estimated technology and the assumption of cost-minimizing firms are combined to calculate shadow prices, i.e. marginal valuation of wood fuel in this sector. If the average shadow price significantly deviates from the average observed price one may conclude that this market is functioning inefficiently due to imperfections. According to constructed bootstrap confidence intervals this difference is significant only for three out of eight years, implying that the quantities of wood fuel traded are too small. For the other years the difference is not significant, implying that one cannot, on statistical grounds, reject the efficient market hypothesis for all years.

  • 48.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Nordström, Jonas
    University of Copenhagen.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå technical university.
    Svedin, Dick
    Mid SwedenUniversity.
    Foreign ownership and its effects on employment and wages: the case of Sweden2016In: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 5, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study how foreign ownership of Swedish companies affects employment and wages. To study these effects, we specify a model based on the assumption that the Swedish labour market can be described as one where trade unions and employers bargain over employment and wages. Our hypothesis is that bargaining power is affected by institutional settings and the ownership of the firm. To test our hypothesis, we used a panel data set of 242 large Swedish manufacturing firms over the period 1980–2005. The results indicate no significant impact of foreign ownership on employment or wages in Sweden

  • 49.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    To tax, or not to tax: preferences for climate policy attributes2012In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 704-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries around the world respond to global warming and its consequences with various policy instruments. In the economic literature, policy instruments have typically been analysed with respect to efficiency, but little effort has been expended to understand public preferences for these instruments. In an internet-based choice experiment to address this shortcoming, Swedes were asked to choose between two alternative hypothetical policy instruments, each of which reduces CO2 emissions by the same amount. The hypothetical policy instruments were characterized by a number of specific attributes. By varying the levels of each of the attributes, respondents indirectly reveal their preferences for these attributes. Half of the respondents are faced with choices labelled ‘tax’ and ‘other’, and the other half are faced with unlabelled choices (hypothetical instruments). The results show that Swedes tend to dislike the term ‘tax’ and show a preference for instruments with a positive effect on environment-friendly technology and climate awareness. A progressive-like cost distribution is preferred to a regressive cost distribution, and the private cost is negatively related to the choice of policy.

  • 50.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sidibe, Amadou
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gong, Peichen
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Participation to forest conservation in National Kabore Tambi Park in Southern Burkina Faso2009In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 468-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective with this study is to investigate how different household characteristics, households' perceptions about the security of land use rights, and the households' proximity to forests affect the individual household's willingness to engage in activities that are meant to promote sustainable forest management in Burkina Faso. To achieve this objective we use a multinomial choice model of engagement (or non-engagement) in forest management activities based on household data from 4 villages surrounding the National Kabore Tambi Park in Burkina Faso. The results show that the participation by household members in forest conservation activities is mainly determined by the three variables that are related to policy: membership in community based forest management associations, security of land use rights, and training. The current training programs focus only on forest conservation practices. To be more efficient it should focus on increasing people's knowledge about the benefits due to conservation and the threats resulting from the lack of forest management. Furthermore the results indicate that improving land use right security would increase farmer's willingness to participate in forest management activities such as community work and forest surveillance. Thus particular attention should be paid to the prevailing system of land rights and its incentives, or disincentives, for promoting sustainable management of the forest resource.

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