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  • 1.
    Duong Phan, Ngoc Chau
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Weidemann, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Accurate sampling of PCDD/F in high temperature flue-gas using cooled sampling probes2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, no 7, p. 832-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a laboratory-scale combustion reactor, flue-gas samples were collected at two temperatures in the post-combustion zone, 700 °C and 400 °C, using two different water-cooled sampling probes. The probes were the cooled probe described in the European Standard method EN-1948:1, referred to as the original probe, and a modified probe that contained a salt/ice mixture to assist the cooling, referred to as the sub-zero probe. To determine the efficiency of the cooling probes, internal temperature measurements were recorded at 5 cm intervals inside the probes. Flue-gas samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Samples collected at 700 °C using the original cooling probe showed higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs compared to samples collected using the sub-zero probe. No significant differences were observed between samples collected at 400 °C. The results indicated that artifact formation of PCDD/Fs readily occurs during flue-gas sampling at high temperatures if the cooling within the probe is insufficient, as found for the original probe at 700 °C. It was also shown that this problem could be alleviated by using probes with an enhanced cooling capacity, such as the sub-zero probe.

    Although this may not affect samples collected for regulatory purposes in exit gases, it is of great importance for research conducted in the high-temperature region of the post-combustion zone. 

  • 2.
    Weidemann, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Waste incineration residues: Persistent organic pollutants in flue gas and fly ash from waste incineration2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern societies produce large quantities of municipal solid waste (MSW), which is commonly disposed of by incineration. This has several advantages: it reduces the waste’s volume and sterilizes it while also enabling energy recovery. However, MSW incineration has some notable disadvantages, the most widely debated of which is probably the production and release of persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), biphenyls (PCB) and naphthalenes (PCN). Of the 210 PCDF and PCDD congeners, 17 are toxic, with hormone-disrupting and carcinogenic properties. Twelve of the 209 PCB congeners and at least 2 of the 75 PCN also exhibit such properties. These POP form in the post-combustion zones of MSW incineration plants and are removed from the flue gas using filtering devices that trap them in the fly ash

    This thesis concerns the formation and degradation of POP in processes related to MSW incineration. The first paper describes a case study in which PCDD were forming in filters designed to remove them from flue gases, causing emission-related issues in a full-scale MSW incineration plant. It was shown that the PCDD formation was probably due to chlorophenol condensation on the filters’ surfaces.

    The second paper describes the validation of a cooling probe designed to prevent POP formation during high temperature (>450 °C) flue gas sampling. The results obtained also confirmed that PCDF and PCDD formation takes place at temperatures below 600 °C.

    In the third paper, three different fly ashes were subjected to thermal treatment under an inert atmosphere in a rotary kiln and in sealed ampoules at 400 °C. The concentrations, degrees of chlorination and congener profiles of the POP in the treated ashes and emitted gases were compared to those for the untreated ashes. The trends observed for PCDF mirrored those for PCN, while the trends for PCDD closely resembled those for PCB. The PCDF congener profiles of the kiln ash were similar regardless of the initial ash composition, suggesting that the mechanisms of PCDF formation were similar in all cases.

    The fourth paper describes the surface characterization of the three fly ashes studied in paper three by SEM, EDX, XPS and XRD. In addition, the thermal desorption and subsequent degradation of POP from the ashes was studied at temperatures of 300-900 °C. The composition of the gases released as the temperature increased differed between the ashes and depended on their composition. Doping experiments using isotopically labelled PCDF and PCDD suggests that PCDD desorbed at lower temperatures than PCDF.

    This thesis examines several problems relating to POP formation during MSW incineration, from sampling to the ultimate fate of incineration residues. The results obtained illustrate the wide range of processes that contribute to thermal POP formation and degradation during and after MSW incineration.

  • 3.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Allegrini, E.
    Fruergaard Astrup, T.
    Hulgaard, T.
    Riber, C.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 49, p. 110-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD/F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - <0.09 mm, 0.09-0.355 mm, and >0.355 mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355 mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin content. While the total mass of the coarse fraction in this boiler was relatively small, sieving could reduce the amount of ash containing toxic PCDD/F by around 0.5 kg per tonne input waste or around 15% of the collected boiler ash from the convection pass. The mid-size fraction in this study covered a wide size range (0.09-0.355 mm) and possibly a low toxicity fraction could be identified by splitting this fraction into more narrow size ranges. The ashes exhibited uniform PCDD/F homologue patterns which suggests a stable and continuous generation of PCDD/F.

  • 4.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Carlin, Danielle J.
    Collina, Elena
    Cormier, Stephania A.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gullett, Brian K.
    Johansson, Christer
    Lucas, Donald
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ortuno, Nuria
    Sallam, Asmaa A.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 8141-8159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in UmeAyen, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  • 5.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Buss, Wolfram
    Edo, Mar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Masek, Ondrej
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Influence of pyrolysis temperature and production unit on formation of selected PAHs, oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, PCDDs, and PCDFs in biochar-a screening study2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 3933-3940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of reactor type and operating conditions of the pyrolysis unit on the final concentration of toxic contaminants in biochar remains unclear. Therefore, we determined the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs), nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in biochars produced from three different feedstocks (softwood, wheat straw, and anaerobic digestate). Different scaled pyrolysis units (one batch and two continuous units) at two different temperatures (550 and 700 degrees C) were considered. The results revealed that the type of biomass had a significant influence on the PAH, oxy-PAH, and N-PAC content of the biochars. The configuration and type of the pyrolysis unit influenced only the wheat straw pyrolyzed at 550 degrees C. PCDDs and PCDFs occurred at very low levels in the biochars. In terms of PAH, PCDD, and PCDF content, the biochars assessed in this study represent a low risk to the environment, regardless of the temperature and type and size of the pyrolysis unit.

  • 6.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Industrial Doctoral School, Umeå University.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Behavior of PCDF, PCDD, PCN and PCB during low temperature thermal treatment of MSW incineration fly ash2015In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 279, p. 180-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For both economic and ecological reasons better knowledge of effects of incinerating waste on its persistent organic pollutant (POP) contents is needed. Thus, ash from three municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants was collected and analyzed for elemental composition, carbon speciation and POP (PCDF, PCDD, PCN and PCB) contents. The ash was then subjected to two thermal treatments: a small batch treatment (3 g) in sealed glass ampoules and a large batch treatment (0.7 kg, in a kiln) under oxygen-deficient conditions. The POP contents of the ash (and the gas phase generated by the large batch treatment) were subsequently re-analyzed. Finally, principal component analysis of congener profiles were used to clarify the POPs' behavior in the treated ash. The results indicate that the thermal treatments had similar effects on PCDDs and PCBs, which apparently degraded but did not reform. They also had similar effects on PCDFs and PCNs, which were degraded but selectively reformed (both during and after the treatment). Furthermore, the ash composition did not significantly influence the homologue-specific congener patterns of the formed PCDFs and PCNs, but they had markedly lower chlorination degrees than those in the untreated ash and their overall toxicity was reduced by the kiln treatment, regardless of post-kiln concentrations and ash composition. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Industrial Doctoral School, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Thermal decomposition of municipal solid waste fly ash and desorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans from fly ash surfaces2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 22, p. 22843-22851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surfaces of fly ashes from three Swedish MSW incinerating plants were extensively characterized to better predict their involvement in the generation of persistent organic pollutants. The ashes were then subjected to thermal treatment at 400 °C in sealed glass ampoules to track the decomposition polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD and PCDF). Temperature programmed desorption experiments in the 30–900 °C range also enabled monitoring of thermally decomposing ashes by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as thermally desorbing effluent gases by mass spectrometry. In addition, one ash was doped with 13C-labelled PCDD and PCDF to evaluate the potential of the experimental setup for elucidating the thermal desorption of the organic molecules. It was found that in ashes with high carbon content PCDD and PCDF decomposition were led pronounced, and that PCDD degraded more readily than PCDF.

  • 8.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Thermal desorption and degradation of municipal solid waste incineration fly ashManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bristav, Henrik
    Umeå Energi AB, Box 224, SE-901 05 Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    In-filter PCDF and PCDD formation at low temperature during MSWI combustion2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 102, p. 12-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study investigated PCDF and PCDD emissions from a 65 MW waste-to-energy plant to identify why an air pollution control system remodeling to accommodate increased production resulted in increased TEQ concentrations. Pre- and post-filter gases were collected simultaneously in four sample sets with varying filter temperatures and with/without activated carbon injection. Samples were analyzed to determine total PCDF and PCDD concentrations, as well as homologue profiles, and concentrations of individual congeners (some remained co-eluted). The total post filter PCDD concentrations where found to increase while the concentrations of PCDF and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners declined. An investigation of the individual congener concentrations revealed that the increase of PCDD concentrations were due to a few congeners, suggesting a single formation route. The study also concludes that vital information about the formation could be obtained by not restricting the analysis to just the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. 

  • 10.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå Energi AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Niinipuu, Mirva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Industrial Doctoral School, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Using carbonized low-cost materials for removal of chemicals of environmental concern from water2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 16, p. 15793-15801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption on low-cost biochars would increase the affordability and availability of water treatment in, for example, developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the precursor materials and hydrochar surface properties that yield efficient removal of compounds of environmental concern (CEC). We determined the adsorption kinetics of a mixture containing ten CECs (octhilinone, triclosan, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxasole, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac, paracetamol, diphenhydramine, fluconazole, and bisphenol A) to hydrochars prepared from agricultural waste (including tomato- and olive-press wastes, rice husks, and horse manure). The surface characteristics of the hydrochars were evaluated via diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2-adsorption. Kinetic adsorption tests revealed that removal efficiencies varied substantially among different materials. Similarly, surface analysis revealed differences among the studied hydrochars and the degree of changes that the materials undergo during carbonization. According to the DRIFTS data, compared with the least efficient adsorbent materials, the most efficient hydrochars underwent more substantial changes during carbonization.

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