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  • 1. Andersson, B Erik
    et al.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tornberg, Karin
    Schnürer, Ylva
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Öberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Mattiasson, Bo
    Incomplete degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil inoculated with wood-rotting fungi and their effect on the indigenous soil bacteria2003Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 1238-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil artificially contaminated with fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benz[a]anthracene was inoculated with the wood-rotting fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Antrodia vaillantii. During 12 weeks of incubation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation and the formation of persistent degradation products were monitored by chemical analysis. In addition, the effect on the indigenous soil bacteria was studied by plate count techniques and by measuring the concentration of bacteria-specific phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). In both soils inoculated with fungi, the PAH degradation was enhanced compared to the control soil without fungi. The white-rot fungus P. ostreatus accelerated the degradation rate radically the first weeks, while the effect of the brown-rot fungus was more pronounced at later stages during the 12-week study. In a soil with no amendments, the final degradation result was similar to that in the soil with added fungi, although the degradation pattern for the individual PAHs was different. Furthermore, the degradation by P. ostreatus was accompanied by an accumulation of PAH metabolites, that is, 9-fluorenone, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, and two compounds identified as 4-hydroxy-9-fluorenone and 4-oxapyrene-5-one, that was not seen in the other soils. The inoculation with the white-rot fungus also had a large negative effect on the indigenous soil bacteria. This could be an important drawback of using the white-rot fungus P. ostreatus in soil bioremediation since a sequential fungal–bacterial degradation probably is needed for a complete degradation of PAHs in soil. In the soil inoculated with A. vaillantii, on the other hand, no metabolites accumulated, and no negative effects were observed on the indigenous microorganisms.

  • 2. Arp, Hans Peter H.
    et al.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Enell, Anja
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France: their soil-porewater partitioning behavior, bioaccumulation in Enchytraeus crypticus, and bioavailability2014Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, nr 19, s. 11187-11195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil quality standards are based on partitioning and toxicity data for laboratory-spiked reference soils, instead of real world, historically contaminated soils, which would be more representative. Here 21 diverse historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France were obtained, and the soil-porewater partitioning along with the bioaccumulation in exposed worms (Enchytraeus crypticus) of native polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were quantified. The native PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and, for the first time to be included in such a study, oxygenated-PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs (N-PACs). The passive sampler polyoxymethylene (POM) was used to measure the equilibrium freely dissolved porewater concentration, C-pw, of all PACs. The obtained organic carbon normalized partitioning coefficients, K-TOC, show that sorption of these native PACs is much stronger than observed in laboratory-spiked soils (typically by factors 10 to 100), which has been reported previously for PAHs but here for the first time for oxy-PAHs and N-PACs. A recently developed K-TOC model for historically contaminated sediments predicted the 597 unique, native K-TOC values in this study within a factor 30 for 100% of the data and a factor 3 for 58% of the data, without calibration. This model assumes that TOC in pyrogenic-impacted areas sorbs similarly to coal tar, rather than octanol as typically assumed. Black carbon (BC) inclusive partitioning models exhibited substantially poorer performance. Regarding bioaccumulation, C-pw combined with liposome-water partition coefficients corresponded better with measured worm lipid concentrations, C-lipid (within a factor 10 for 85% of all PACs and soils), than C-pw combined with octanol-water partition coefficients (within a factor 10 for 76% of all PACs and soils). E. crypticus mortality and reproducibility were also quantified. No enhanced mortality was observed in the 21 historically contaminated soils despite expectations from PAH spiked reference soils. Worm reproducibility weakly correlated to C-lipid of PACs, though the contributing influence of metal concentrations and soil texture could not be taken into account. The good agreement of POM-derived C-pw with independent soil and lipid partitioning models further supports that soil risk assessments would improve by accounting for bioavailability. Strategies for including bioavailability in soil risk assessment are presented.

  • 3.
    Badea, Silviu
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Liljelind, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    The influence of soil composition on the leachability of selected hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from soils using a batch leaching test2013Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 254, s. 26-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of soil composition (peat and clay content) on the leachability was investigated in batch leaching experiments for chemically diverse hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs: PCP, PAHs, HCB, HCHs, PCBs, and TCDD/Fs). An experimental design was applied to generate 8 diverse soil matrices, and the results were evaluated by orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS), as well as compound specific response surface models. Overall, the distribution coefficients (log Kd) of model HOCs were in the range of approx. 2.0–5.7. The Kd-values of HCHs, phenanthrene and PCP were positively correlated with the peat content. Kd-values of benzo(a)anthracene, HCB, and PCB 47 were positively correlated with both peat and clay content. The Kd-values of 1,3,6,8-TCDD and 1,3,6,8-TCDF were positively correlated with peat content but negatively correlated with clay content, while for PCB 153 and PCB 155 the correlations were reversed. The correlation between the Kd-values and the compounds’ Kow-values was linearly for compounds with log Kow <6. For HOCs with log Kow > 6, the Kd-values were leveling off, possibly due to small particles in the leachates. Our study demonstrated how complex interaction between both the organic matter and clay components influences the leachability of HOCs in a compound-specific manner.

  • 4.
    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Liljelind, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Assessment of the release of organic contaminants from soil using a batch leaching test2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Mustafa, Majid
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Leachability and desorption of PCBs from soil and their dependency on pH and dissolved organic matter2014Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 499, s. 220-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    pH affects both soil–water partitioning coefficient (Kd) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), thereby influencing PCBs' leachability from contaminated soils. To explore these incompletely understood interactions, the leachability of 11 selected PCBs in a naturally aged soil was investigated in pH static leaching tests spanning a wide pH range (2 to 9). The Kd was calculated for each of the PCBs, based on their observed concentrations in the soil and leachates obtained from each test. The concentration and composition of DOM in each leachate were also determined, the latter using FTIR spectroscopy. Correlations between the DOM's FTIR spectra and Kd values were investigated by orthogonal projections to latent structures. The log Kd-values varied among the PCB congeners and were most variable at low pH, but the values for all studied congeners decreased with increasing pH, by up to 3 log units (for PCB 187). In the pH 5–7 interval, an abrupt decrease in log Kd values with increases in pH was observed, although the total organic carbon content remained relatively stable. The FTIR data indicate that fulvic and humic acids in DOM partially deprotonate as the pH rises from 5 to 7.

  • 6.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Kitti, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Assessment of the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from gasworks soil using different extraction solvents and techniques2004Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 1861-1866Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was designed to assess the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present at a gasworks site to different soil remediation techniques. The study examined the effect on PAH availability of using different organic solvents, the degree of pretreatment, and the extraction time. In total, 25 PAHs (with two to six fused rings) and five carbonyl derivatives were measured. The results indicated that the PAHs and their derivatives were bound loosely to the surface of the studied soil and that there were no significant kinetic boundaries associated with the extraction of the PAHs. Furthermore, it was concluded that the studied soil was not suitable for bioremediation, as the concentration of PAHs with low molecular weight were limited. However, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with methanol as the solvent extracted 97% of all PAHs and PAH-derivatives, indicating that extraction may be effective as part of a soil remediation technique for old gasworks soils.

  • 7.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Sehlin, E
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Assessment of bioavailability of PAHs by comparison of uptake in earthworm (Eisenia foetida) and different echniques including leaching, HPCD, SPME and SPMD2005Ingår i: Organohalogen Compounds, s. 2580-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Sehlin, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Andersson, Patrik L
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Comparison of techniques for estimating PAH bioavailability: uptake in Eisenia fetida, passive samplers and leaching using various solvents and additives.2007Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 145, nr 1, s. 154-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different techniques for assessing the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. This was done by comparing the amounts (total and relative) taken up by the earthworm Eisenia fetida with the amounts extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), leaching with various solvent mixtures, leaching using additives, and sequential leaching. Bioconcentration factors of PAHs in the earthworms based on equilibrium partitioning theory resulted in poor correlations to observed values. This was most notable for PAHs with high concentrations in the studied soil. Evaluation by principal component analysis (PCA) showed distinct differences between the evaluated techniques and, generally, there were larger proportions of carcinogenic PAHs (4–6 fused rings) in the earthworms. These results suggest that it may be difficult to develop a chemical method that is capable of mimicking biological uptake, and thus estimating the bioavailability of PAHs.

    The total and relative amounts of PAHs extracted by abiotic techniques for assessing the bioavailability of PAHs was found to differ from the amounts taken up by Eisenia fetida.

    Keywords: Bioavailability; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Earthworms; Leaching; Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; Solid-phase microextraction; Semi-permeable membrane device

  • 9. de Wit, Cynthia
    et al.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Gustavsson, N
    Hakner, S
    Hanberg, A
    Stiernström, S
    Breitholtz, M
    Oavsiktligt bildade ämnens hälso- och miljörisker ­ en kunskapsöversikt2007Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 10.
    Do, Lan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Optimization of selective pressurized liquid extraction for extraction and in-cell clean-up of PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments2013Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, nr 9, s. 2414-2419Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of methods for selective extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from soils and sediments, using pressurized liquid extraction with in-cell clean-up (SPLE). Two binary solvent mixtures, viz. dichloromethane/n-heptane (DCM/Hp), and diethylether/n-heptane (DEE/Hp), were evaluated. The SPLE extraction conditions were optimized using central composite face (CCF) design. Three factors were investigated: extraction temperature (60-160°C), number of extraction cycles (1-3) and time per cycle (2-18min). The results showed that DCM/Hp (1/1, v/v) and DEE/Hp (1/2, v/v) were the best extraction solvent compositions and that the extraction temperature was a critical factor that needed careful optimization to achieve high extraction efficiency without co-extraction of sulfuric acid. Under the optimal conditions, the SPLE methods provided results with good accuracy and precision. For the sandy soil certified reference material (CRM-529) the quantification results ended up in the range 82-110% as compared to the concentrations obtained by a reference method based on Soxhlet extraction and external column clean-up. Furthermore, for a clay soil (CRM-530) and a sediment reference material (WMS-01), the accuracy (trueness) of the TEQ values were +11% (DCM/Hp) and +8% (DEE/Hp) for CRM-530, +8% and -7% for WMS-01, respectively. The individual congener concentrations also agreed well with the certified values. These findings show that SPLE is a promising method for combined extraction and clean-up of PCDD/Fs in soil/sediment samples.

  • 11.
    Do, Lan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Xuan, Thong H.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Modular pressurized liquid extraction for simultaneous extraction, clean-up and fractionation of PCDD/Fs in soil, sediment and sludge samples2013Ingår i: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, nr 5, s. 1231-1237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modular pressurized liquid extraction (M-PLE) procedures were developed for simultaneous extraction, clean-up and fractionation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) in soil, sediment and sludge samples. The procedures utilize two coupled extraction cells: an upstream cell filled with the sample and layers of silica and acid- and base-modified silica, and a downstream cell filled with activated carbon. The silica layers were added to remove polar or hydrolysable matrix components, and the carbon to perform planarity-based fractionation. Two solvent systems (dichloromethane–heptane, DCM–Hp and diethyl ether–heptane, DEE–Hp) and two activated carbon loads (1% and 3% carbon on Celite) were evaluated using certified reference materials (CRM-529 and WMS-01) and materials from previous inter-calibration studies. Using any of the four procedures, data statistically equivalent to the certified or reference values were obtained. The M-PLE procedure using DCM–Hp and 1% carbon sometimes extracted the reference materials more efficiently than the reference methods, while the DEE–Hp procedure extracted them equally efficient, offering an alternative with less environmental impact. The methods with 1% carbon on Celite produced sufficiently pure extracts for sample loads up to one gram, but for greater sample loads the higher carbon load (3% carbon on Celite) was required to avoid breakthrough of target analytes. The new streamlined procedures are fast, cost-efficient, involve relatively low environmental impact (in the case of DEE–Hp) and are well suited for high-throughput analysis of solid samples, e.g. in connection with environmental monitoring campaigns and major soil remediation efforts.

  • 12.
    Do, Thanh Lan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Selective pressurized liquid extraction of PCDD/Fs in soil: Optimization using experimental design2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 13. Dreij, Kristian
    et al.
    Jarvis, Ian
    Bergvall, Christoffer
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Roger, Westerholm
    Stenius, Ulla
    Influence of interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on health effects2012Ingår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, s. S35-S35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14. Dreij, Kristian
    et al.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Le Bihanic, Florane
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Polycyclic aromatic compounds in urban soils of Stockholm City: Occurrence, sources and human health risk assessment2020Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 182, artikel-id 108989Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are ubiquitous pollutants that are found everywhere in our environment, including air, soil and water. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations, distribution, sources and potential health risk of 43 PACs in soils collected from 25 urban parks in Stockholm City, Sweden. These PACs included 21 PAHs, 11 oxygenated PAHs, 7 methylated PAHs, and 4 azaarenes whose concentrations ranged between 190 and 54 500, 30.5-5 300, 14.9-680, and 4.17-590 ng/g soil, respectively. Fluoranthene was found at the highest levels ranging between 17.7 and 9800 ng/g, benzo[a]pyrene between 9.64 and 4600 ng/g, and the highly potent carcinogen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene up to 740 ng/g. The most abundant oxy-PAH was 6H-benzo[cd] pyren-6-one (2.09-2300 ng/g). Primary sources of PAHs were identified by use of diagnostic ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization modelling and found to be pyrogenic including vehicle emissions and combustion of biomass. Estimating the incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRS) associated with exposure to PAHs in these soils indicated that the PAH levels in some parks constitute a considerable increased risk level for adults and children (total ILCR > 1 x 10(-4)). Compared to worldwide urban parks contamination, we conclude that the PAC soil levels in parks of Stockholm City in general are low, but that some parks are more heavily contaminated and should be considered for clean-up actions to limit human health risks.

  • 15. Enell, Anja
    et al.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Wik, Ola
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Combining Leaching and Passive Sampling To Measure the Mobility and Distribution between Porewater, DOC, and Colloids of Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in Historically Contaminated Soil2016Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, nr 21, s. 11797-11805Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Different methods to quantify soil porewater concentrations of contaminants will provide different types of information. Passive sampling measurements give freely dissolved porewater concentrations (C-pw,C-free), while leaching tests provide information on the mobile concentration (C-pw,C-leach), including contaminants associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles/colloids in the porewater. This study presents a novel combination of these two measurements, to study the sorption and mobility of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) in 10 historically contaminated soils. The PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs, and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs. Observed C-pw,C-leach was up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than C-pw,C-free; implying large biases when C-pw,C-leach is used to assess bioavailability or soil partitioning. Sorption of PACs to DOC and POC was important for the mobility of compounds with log K-OW > 4. Average DOC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-DOC) correlated well with KOW (log K-DOC = 0.89 x log K-OW +1.03 (r(2) = 0.89)). This relationship is likely more accurate for historically contaminated soils than previously published data, which suffer from artifacts caused by problems in measuring C-pw,C-free correctly or not using historically contaminated soils. POC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-POC) were orders of magnitude larger than corresponding K-DOC, suggesting sorption to mobile particles/colloids is the dominant mechanism for PAC mobility.

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  • 16.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Öberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Tysklind, Mats
    Chemical analysis in soil remediation - original contaminants and products of transformation2003Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Jonsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lind, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Dioxin removal from contaminated soils by ethanol washing2010Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, ISSN 0304-3894, Vol. 179, nr 1-3, s. 393-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential utility of ethanol washing for remediating soils contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), as a cost-efficient alternative to conventional remediation methods of PCDD/F-contaminated soils. Initially, screening experiments were performed with a two-level full factorial design to examine the effects of temperature, extraction time and ethanol concentration on the removal efficiency. The screening experiments showed that the ethanol concentration was the most important parameter. In addition, repeated washing cycles considerably improved the results. Ethanol washing conditions were then selected (10 wash cycles with 75% ethanol at 60 °C), and applied to four soils with different soil characteristics and contamination levels to test the robustness of the selected method. Treatment efficiencies of 81% and 85% were obtained for a lightly contaminated sandy–silty soil and a highly contaminated clay soil rich in graphite particles, respectively. Even higher treatment efficiencies (≥97%) were obtained for two other highly contaminated soils, one of which contained high amounts of organic matter. PCDD/Fs were found to both dissolve in the solvent and migrate into it as species adsorbed to particles. The relative contributions of these mechanisms and the overall efficiency of the removal seem to depend on contaminant concentration, the types of carbon in the soil matrix and the particle size distribution. The study shows that ethanol washing has effective remediation potential for a variety of PCDD/F-contaminated soils.

     

  • 18.
    Jonsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Persson, Ylva
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Frankki, Sofia
    van Bavel, Bert
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils by Fenton's reagent: A multivariate evaluation of the importance of soil characteristics and PAH properties2007Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, Vol. 149, nr 1, s. 86-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated how the chemical degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged soil samples from various contaminated sites is influenced by soil characteristics and by PAH physico-chemical properties. The results were evaluated using the multivariate statistical tool, partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS). The PAH-contaminated soil samples were characterised (by pH, conductivity, organic matter content, oxide content, particle size, specific surface area, and the time elapsed since the contamination events, i.e. age), and subjected to relatively mild, slurry-phase Fenton's reaction conditions. In general, low molecular weight PAHs were degraded to a greater extent than large, highly hydrophobic variants. Anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and pyrene were more susceptible to degradation than other, structurally similar, PAHs; an effect attributed to the known susceptibility of these compounds to reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The presence of organic matter and the specific surface area of the soil were clearly negatively correlated with the degradation of bi- and tri-cyclic PAHs, whereas the amount of degraded organic matter correlated positively with the degradation of PAHs with five or six fused rings. This was explained by enhanced availability of the larger PAHs, which were released from the organic matter as it degraded. Our study shows that sorption of PAHs is influenced by a combination of soil characteristics and physico-chemical properties of individual PAHs. Multivariate statistical tools have great potential for assessing the relative importance of these parameters.

  • 19. Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Enell, Anja
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Determination of polyoxymethylene (POM) - water partition coefficients for oxy-PAHs and PAHs2015Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 119, s. 1268-1274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) are a class of ubiquitously occurring pollutants of which little is known. They can be co-emitted with PAHs or formed from PAHs in the environment. The environmental fate and risk of oxy-PAHs are difficult to assess due to a lack of methods to quantify their pore water concentrations. One sampler that can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants is polyoxymethylene (POM). In this study, POM - water partition coefficients (K-POM) were determined for 11 oxy-PAHs. K-POM values of 8 PAHs with similar hydrophobicities as the oxy-PAHs were determined for comparison. Results showed that log K-POM values ranged from 2.64 to 4.82 for the PAHs (2-4 rings), similar to previously determined values. LogK(pom) values for investigated oxy-PAHs ranged from 0.96 to 5.36. The addition of carbonylic oxygen on a parent PAH generally lowered K-POM by 0.5 to 1.0 log units, which is attributable to the presence of carbonylic oxygens increasing water solubility. The K-POM values presented here will facilitate simultaneous assessments of freely dissolved water concentrations of oxy-PAHs and PAHs in environmental media.

  • 20. Lemieux, C L
    et al.
    Long, A
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Lambert, I B
    White, P A
    A novel mutagenic potency ratio method to assess the excess lifetime cancer risk of complex PAH mixtures in contaminated soils2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting Abstract

  • 21. Lemieux, Christine L
    et al.
    Long, Alexandra S
    Lambert, Iain B
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    White, Paul A.
    Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils Determined Using Bioassay-Derived Levels of Benzo[a]pyrene Equivalents2015Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 1797-1805Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we evaluate the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) posed by 10 PAH-contaminated soils using (i) the currently advocated, targeted chemical-specific approach that assumes dose additivity for carcinogenic PAHs and (ii) a bioassay-based approach that employs the in vitro mutagenic activity of the soil fractions to determine levels of benzo[a]pyrene equivalents and, by extension, ELCR. Mutagenic activity results are presented in our companion paper.1 The results show that ELCR values for the PAH-containing fractions, determined using the chemical-specific approach, are generally (i.e., 8 out of 10) greater than those calculated using the bioassay-based approach; most are less than 5-fold greater. Only two chemical-specific ELCR estimates are less than their corresponding bioassay-derived values; differences are less than 10%. The bioassay-based approach, which permits estimation of ELCR without a priori knowledge of mixture composition, proved to be a useful tool to evaluate the chemical-specific approach. The results suggest that ELCR estimates for complex PAH mixtures determined using a targeted, chemical-specific approach are reasonable, albeit conservative. Calculated risk estimates still depend on contentious PEFs and cancer slope factors. Follow-up in vivo mutagenicity assessments will be required to validate the results and their relevance for human health risk assessment of PAH-contaminated soils

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  • 22. Lemieux, Christine L.
    et al.
    Long, Alexandra S.
    Lambert, Iain B.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    White, Paul A.
    In Vitro Mammalian Mutagenicity of Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures in Contaminated Soils2015Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 1787-1796Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study employed an in vitro version of the lacZ transgenic rodent mutation assay to assess the mutagenicity of nonpolar neutral and semipolar aromatic soil fractions from 10 PAH-contaminated sites, and evaluated the assumption of dose additivity that is routinely employed to calculate the risk posed by PAH mixtures. Significant mutagenic activity was detected in all nonpolar neutral fractions, and 8 of 10 semipolar aromatic fractions (nonpolar > semipolar). Mutagenic activity of synthetic PAH mixtures that mimic the PAH content of the soils (i.e., 5-PAH or 16-PAH mix) were greater than that of the PAH-containing soil fractions, with 5-PAH mix >16-PAH-mix. Predictions of mutagenic activity, calculated as the sum of the contributions from the mutagenic mixture components, were all within 2-fold of the observed activity of the nonpolar neutral fractions, with one exception. Observed differences in mutagenic activity are likely the result of dynamic metabolic processes, involving a complex interplay of AhR agonsim and saturation of metabolic machinery by competitive inhibition of mixture components. The presence of hitherto unidentified polar compounds present in PAH-contaminated soils may also contribute to overall hazard; however, these compounds are generally not included in current contaminated site risk assessment protocols

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  • 23. Lemieux, Christine L
    et al.
    Lynes, Krista D
    White, Paul A
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Öberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lambert, Iain B
    Mutagenicity of an aged gasworks soil during bioslurry treatment2009Ingår i: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, ISSN 0893-6692, E-ISSN 1098-2280, Vol. 50, nr 5, s. 404-412Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated changes in the mutagenic activity of organic fractions from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during pilot-scale bioslurry remediation. Slurry samples were previously analyzed for changes in PAH and polycyclic aromatic compound content, and this study examined the correspondence between the chemical and toxicological metrics. Nonpolor neutral and semipolar aromatic fractions of samples obtained on days 0, 3, 7, 24, and 29 of treatment were assayed for mutagenicity using the Salmonella mutation assay. Most samples elicited a significant positive response on Salmonella strains TA98, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without S9 metabolic activation; however, TA100 failed to detect mutagenicity in any sample. Changes in the mutagenic activity of the fractions across treatment time and metabolic activation conditions suggests a pattern of formation and transformation of mutagenic compounds that may include a wide range of PAH derivatives such as aromatic amines, oxygenated PAHs, and S-heterocyclic compounds. The prior chemical analyses documented the formation of oxygenated PAHs during the treatment (e.g., 4-oxapyrene-5-one), and the mutagenicity analyses showed high corresponding activity in the semipolar fraction with and without metabolic activation. However, it could not be verified that these specific compounds were the underlying cause of the observed changes in mutagenic activity. The results highlight the need for concurrent chemical and toxicological profiling of contaminated sites undergoing remediation to ensure elimination of priority contaminants as well as a reduction in toxicological hazard. Moreover, the results imply that remediation efficacy and utility be evaluated using both chemical and toxicological metrics.

  • 24. Lemieux, Christine
    et al.
    Lambert, Iain
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    White, Paul
    Mutagenic Hazards of Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures in Contaminated Soil2008Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 978-990Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to evaluate hazard/risk assessment methods for complex environmental mixtures that involve a targeted, priority chemical approach based on the cumulative hazard/risk of known mixture components or analyses of sufficiently similar mixtures. Ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils were separated into non-polar and semi-polar fractions, and both fractions elicited positive responses on the Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Targeted and non-targeted methods of hazard prediction routinely provided overestimations of observed mutagenic activities for the non-polar soil fractions, suggesting non-additive interactions of PAHs in complex mixtures. This suggests that current risk assessment methods for complex mixtures may provide conservative estimates for soils contaminated with priority PAHs alone. However, significant underestimations of total risk will be obtained if the soils also contain unidentified PAHs, as well as polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and related compounds that contribute to the total mutagenic activity. Furthermore, estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk associated with the non-dietary ingestion of the PAH-contaminated soils studied here indicate that a traditional risk assessment model based on identified priority PAHs and an assumption of additivity, generally provides an underestimate of the risk associated with the non-polar soil fractions (in comparison with bioassay-derived risk estimates). Additional cancer risk may be associated with the more polar compounds that are also found at these contaminated sites, and that are rarely included in the standard risk assessment methodology.

  • 25. Lemieux, CL
    et al.
    Lambert, IBGagne, RTysklind, MatsUmeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.Lundstedt, StaffanUmeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.Douglas, GRWhite, PA
    The mutagenic hazards of complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil2006Konferensmeddelanden, proceedings (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bandowe, B. A. M.
    Wilcke, W.
    Boll, E.
    Christensen, J. H.
    Vila, J.
    Grifoll, M.
    Faure, P.
    Biache, C.
    Lorgeoux, C.
    Larsson, M.
    Frech Irgum, Knut
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ivarsson, P.
    Ricci, M.
    First intercomparison study on the analysis of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs) in contaminated soil2014Ingår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 57, s. 83-92Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs) are toxic, highly leachable and often abundant at sites that are also contaminated with PAHs. However, due to lack of regulations and standardized methods for their analysis, they are seldom included in monitoring and risk-assessment programs. This intercomparison study constitutes an important step in the harmonization of the analytical methods currently used, and may also be considered a first step towards the certification of reference materials for these compounds. The results showed that the participants were able to determine oxy-PAHs with accuracy similar to PAHs, with average determined mass fractions agreeing well with the known levels in a spiked soil and acceptable inter- and intra-laboratory precisions for all soils analyzed. For the N-PACs, the results were less satisfactory, and have to be improved by using analytical methods more specifically optimized for these compounds.

  • 27.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Öberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Degradation and formation of polycyclic aromatic compounds during bioslurry treatment of an aged gasworks soil2003Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 22, nr 7, s. 1413-1420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals of this study were to investigate the relative degradation rates of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in contaminated soil, and to assess whether persistent oxidation products are formed during their degradation. Samples were taken on five occasions during a pilot-scale bioslurry treatment of soil from a former gasworks site. More than 100 PACs were identified in the soil, including unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs (alkyl-PAHs), heterocyclic PACs, and oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs), such as ketones, quinones, and coumarins. During the treatment, the low molecular weight PAHs and heterocyclics were degraded faster than the high molecular weight compounds. The unsubstituted PAHs also appear to have degraded more quickly than the corresponding alkyl-PAHs and nitrogen-containing heterocyclics. No new oxidation products that were not present in the untreated soil were identified after the soil treatment. However, oxy-PAHs that were present in the untreated soil were generally degraded more slowly than the parent compounds, suggesting that they were formed during the treatment or that they are more persistent. Two oxidation products, 1-acenaphthenone and 4-oxapyrene5-one, were found at significantly higher concentrations at the end of the study. Because oxy-PAHs can be acutely toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic, we suggest that this group of compounds should also be monitored during the treatment of PAH-contaminated soil.

  • 28.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Öberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Simultaneous extraction and fractionation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives in soil using selective pressurized liquid extraction.2006Ingår i: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, Vol. 78, nr 9, s. 2993-3000Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a selective pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method which can extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivatives (oxy-PAHs) from contaminated soil and simultaneously separate them into two fractions was developed. The method uses extraction cells packed with a chromatographic adsorbent and extraction solvents of increasing polarity. Several experiments were conducted on both spiked and authentic contaminated soil samples. Different types of adsorbents, combinations of extraction solvents, and extraction temperatures were tested in order to find a method that could fulfill the purpose of the study. The final method was based on extraction cells packed with 2% deactivated silica gel. The PAHs were extracted with cyclohexane/dichloromethane (9:1) at 120 degrees C, after which the oxy-PAHs where extracted with cyclohexane/dichloromethane (1:3) at 150 degrees C. The PAHs and oxy-PAHs were efficiently separated into two fractions, and only trace amounts of some compounds were found in the inappropriate fraction. The recoveries of the PAHs were mostly above 70% and of the oxy-PAHs, above 90%. The linearity of the method was good, and the calibration curves for most compounds had a regression coefficient better than 0.99 and an intercept close to the origin of coordinates. When the selective PLE method was applied to seven authentic soil samples, the results were found to be in good agreement with those of a reference method based on Soxhlet extraction and silica gel cleanup and also in good agreement with the certified reference values available for one of the soils. The selective PLE method is faster and consumes less solvent than a traditional method based on separate extraction and fractionation steps. The selective PLE method is, therefore, suitable for the concurrent analysis of PAHs and oxy-PAHs during large-scale soil contamination studies. This will provide more information about the soil contamination and the levels of toxicity than an ordinary PAH analysis.

  • 29.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Öberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Pressurised liquid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soils2000Ingår i: Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 883, nr 1-2, s. 151-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The reliability and efficiency of the pressurised liquid extraction technique (PLE) for extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil has been investigated. Experimental design was used to study the influence of seven extraction variables (sample load, solvents used, solvent ratios, pressure, temperature, extraction time, and rinse volume). The results show that large sample loads in combination with small solvent volumes may result in low extraction efficiency. They also indicate that the recovery of low-molecular-mass PAHs is reduced by low extraction temperatures. The exact settings of the other variables are, however, less significant for the extraction efficiency. Repeated extractions at optimised settings of the tested variables show that PLE is an exhaustive extraction technique that generally results in high yields. In addition, extraction of a certified reference material (CRM 103-100) revealed that the method is both accurate and precise. Another finding was that adding the internal standard on top of the soil in the extraction cell causes considerable over-estimation of the concentrations when large samples are extracted with small solvent volumes. This is because the PLE-cell resembles a chromatographic column, so compounds added to the top of the soil layer have a longer distance to travel through the soil compared to the average distance of the native compounds, which are distributed evenly throughout the column. We therefore recommend that the internal standard should be added to the extract immediately after the extraction or, alternatively, carefully mixed with the sample prior to extraction.

  • 30.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    White, Paul A
    Lemieux, Christine L
    Lynes, Krista D
    Lambert, Lain B
    Öberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Sources, Fate, and Toxic Hazards of Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at PAH- contaminated Sites2007Ingår i: AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 475–85-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we show that oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) are important cocontaminants that should be taken into account during risk assessment and remediation of sites with high levels of PAHs. The presented data, which have been collected both from our own research and the published literature, demonstrate that oxy-PAHs are abundant but neglected contaminants at these sites. The oxy-PAHs show relatively high persistency and because they are formed through transformation of PAHs, their concentrations in the environment may even increase as the sites are remediated by methods that promote PAH degradation. Furthermore, we show that oxy-PAHs are toxic to both humans and the environment, although the toxicity seems to be manifested through other effects than those known to be important for polycyclic aromatic compounds in general, that is, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Finally, we present data that support the hypothesis that oxy-PAHs are more mobile in the environment than PAHs, due to their polarity, and thus have a higher tendency to spread from contaminated sites via surface water and groundwater. We believe that oxy-PAHs should be included in monitoring programs at PAH-contaminated sites, even if a number of other toxicologically relevant compounds that may also be present, such as nitro-PAHs and azaarenes, are not monitored. This is because oxy-PAH levels are difficult to predict from the PAH levels, because their environmental behavior differs substantially from that of PAHs, and oxy-PAHs may be formed as PAHs are degraded.

  • 31.
    Matscheko, Nadja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Svensson, Linda
    Department of Medical Countermeasures, Division of NBC Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå.
    Harju, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Accumulation and elimination of 16 polycyclic aromatic compounds in the earthworm (Eisenia fetida)2002Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 1724-1729Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Acumulation and elimination of different polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were studied in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated soil from an old gasworks site. In total, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), two N- and S-heterocyclic PACs, and two PAC-quinones were included in the study. Peak-shaped accumulation curves were found for many of the compounds. After 19 d of exposure, the ratio between concentrations in worm lipids and soil organic matter was 0.02 on average. The half-lives of the PACs were relatively long, between 2 and 11d. The elimination rate constants, k2, correlated both with literature-derived octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for PAHs (r2 = 0.93) and the computed polarizability (r2 = 0.88) of all the compounds. The elimination rate constants of PAHs are comparable to those of PCBs found in earlier studies, and the linear regression coefficient, r2, of k2 against Kow for PAHs and PCBs together was 0.93.

  • 32. Mattsson, Åse
    et al.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Stenius, Ulla
    Exposure of HepG2 cells to low levels of PAH-containing extracts from contaminated soils results in unpredictable genotoxic stress responses2009Ingår i: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, ISSN 0893-6692, E-ISSN 1098-2280, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 337-348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminated soil is a serious environmental problem, constituting a risk to humans and the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are often present at contaminated sites. However, risk levels are difficult to estimate because of the complexity of contaminants present. Here, we compare cellular effects of extracts from contaminated soils collected at six industrial settings in Sweden. Chemical analysis showed that all soils contained complex mixtures of PAHs and oxy-PAHs. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were used to investigate DNA damage signaling in HepG2 cells exposed to extracts from these soils. The effects on phosphorylated Mdm2, p53, Erk, H2AX, 53BP1, and Chk2, cell cycle regulating proteins (cyclin D1 and p21), and cell proliferation were compared. We found that most soil extracts induced phosphorylation of Mdm2 at the 2A10 epitope at low concentrations. This is in line with previous studies suggesting that this endpoint reflects readily repaired DNA-damage. However, we found concentration and time-dependent gamma H2AX and 53BP1 responses that were sustained for 48 hr. These endpoints may reflect the presence of different types of persistent DNA-damage. High concentrations of soil extracts decreased cyclin D1 and increased p21 response, indicating cell cycle arrest. Phosphorylation of Mdm2 at Ser 166, which attenuates the p53 response and is induced by many tumor promoters, was induced in a time-dependent manner and was associated with Erk phosphorylation. Taken together, the PAH extracts elicited unpredictable signaling responses that differed between samples. More polar compounds, i.e., oxy-PAHs, also contributed to the complexity.

  • 33. Niziolek-Kierecka, Magdalena
    et al.
    Dreij, Kristian
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Stenius, Ulla
    γH2AX, pChk1, and Wip1 as Potential Markers of Persistent DNA Damage Derived from Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene and PAH-Containing Extracts from Contaminated Soils2012Ingår i: Chemical Research in Toxicology, ISSN 0893-228X, E-ISSN 1520-5010, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 862-872Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during incomplete combustion of organic material and are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. High levels of PAHs are commonly found in soils at industrial sites, thereby constituting a risk for humans and the environment. However, this risk is often difficult to estimate due to the complexity of the contamination. In the present study we investigated the cellular DNA damage response induced by extracts of PAH-contaminated soils collected at various industrial sites in Sweden. The results show that interactions of PAHs in the soil extracts caused activation of DNA damage signaling consistent with persistent DNA damage. Signaling in HepG2 cells exposed to soil PAH extracts corresponding to 1 µM benzo[a]pyrene was similar to that of 0.1 µM dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, a highly carcinogenic PAH known to produce persistent DNA damage. The response involved prolonged activation of DNA damage marker (H2AX), check point kinase (Chk1), and phosphatases (Wip1). Furthermore, blocking DNA damage signaling using specific inhibitors and siRNA showed the important role of signaling through Chk1 for the level of DNA damage. We conclude that the combination of prolonged Chk1 phosphorylation and induced expression of Wip1 might serve as potential markers for persistent DNA damage induced by complex mixtures of environmental PAHs. Discrepancies between mRNA and protein levels of Wip1 in response to soil extracts, in parallel with increased microRNA (miR)-16 levels, suggest a role of miR-16 in the regulation of DNA damage signaling in response to PAHs. Taken together, our data indicate that PAH extracts induce irreparable DNA-damage and that this is consistent with the prolonged activation of DNA-damage signaling.

  • 34.
    Nyström, Robin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Lindgren, Robert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    Westerholm, Roger
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Influence of Wood Species and Burning Conditions on Particle Emission Characteristics in a Residential Wood Stove2017Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 5514-5524Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions from small-scale residential biomass combustion are a major source of indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution, and the performance of stoves, boilers, and fireplaces have been shown to be influenced both by fuel properties, technology, and user behavior (firing procedures). Still, rather scarce information is available regarding the relative importance of these variables for the particle characteristics and emissions of different particulate components, e.g., soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxy-PAH, and metals. In particular, the behavior of different wood fuels under varying firing procedures and combustion conditions has not been studied thoroughly. Therefore, the objective of this work was to elucidate the influence of wood species and combustion conditions on particle emission characteristics in a typical Nordic residential wood stove. The emissions from four different wood species were investigated at two controlled combustion conditions, including nominal and high burn rates, with a focus on physical and chemical properties of the fine particulate matter. Considerably elevated carbonaceous particle emissions (soot and organics) were found during high burn rate conditions, which were associated with a shift in particle number size distribution toward a higher fraction of larger particles. In some cases, as here seen for pine, the specific fuel properties can affect the combustion performance and thereby also influence particle and PAH emissions. For the inorganic ash particles, the content in the fuel, and not burning conditions, was found to be the main determining factor, as seen by the increased emissions of alkali salts for aspen. Wood stove emission data on 11 specific oxy-PAHs, together with 45 PAHs, were combined with controlled variations of burning conditions and fuels. The oxy-PAH/PAH ratio during a high burn rate was observed to increase, suggesting an enrichment of particulate oxy-PAH. Accordingly, the main influence on emission performance and particle characteristics was seen between different burn rates, and this study clearly illustrates the major importance of proper operation to avoid unfavorable burning condition, regardless of the wood species used.

  • 35.
    Olofsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Behavior and fate of anthropogenic substances at a Swedish sewage treatment plant2010Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 62, nr 12, s. 2880-2888Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior and fate of anthropogenic substances during sewage treatment were investigated at a sewage treatment plant (STP) in Sweden which uses mechanical, chemical, and biological methods for sewage treatment and anaerobic digestion of sludge. Influent and effluent water, and sludge from two specific treatment sites were sampled. Mass balances were calculated from measured concentrations of various substances and estimates of the mass flows (water, solids) throughout the process. The results show that the metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb) and the majority of PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and PBDEs enter and leave the STP bound to particles. Triclosan and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate adsorb to sludge to a high degree, while the metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn) and organophosphate esters seem to pass through the STP unaffected by the process. Generally, the STP was better in removing lipophilic than water soluble compounds. Most of the substances end up in anaerobically digested sludge in almost the same concentrations as in primary sludge. A fugacity based STP model was evaluated for its ability to predict the behavior and fate of the substances and was found feasible for lipophilic compounds. It did however produce poor predictions for water soluble compounds such as organophosphate esters (overestimated) and antibacterial agents (underestimated).

  • 36. Ong, Ruby
    et al.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Marriott, Philip
    Pressurised liquid extraction–comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for fast-screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil2003Ingår i: Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1019, nr 1-2, s. 221-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) was applied to the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils from Husarviken in Stockholm, Sweden. The extraction step was followed by conventional gas chromatography (GC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) (both with flame ionisation detection) and gas chromatography–quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the results are considered. Qualitatively, results from all chromatographic analyses are in good agreement, and PLE provides a reliable extraction technique with all PAHs extracted in one extraction step; no carry over was observed. With respect to PAH quantification, some variability in results was noted, with better agreement in PAH concentrations for GC and GC×GC measurement, as compared to GC–MS. GC analysis compares favourably with GC×GC apart from the few exceptions where peaks are not fully resolved from other co-extracted analytes, which compromises GC-FID measurement. For example, acenaphthene shows a much higher concentration when measured by GC-FID, demonstrating the superior separating powers of GC×GC; the latter is the preferred technique if precise and accurate quantification of analytes are required. GC–MS results compare reasonably with GC×GC for low-molecular mass PAHs but not for high-molecular mass PAHs; results for GC–MS are consistently higher than those for GC×GC for high-molecular mass PAHs. Since PLE–GC×GC is proposed as a broad screening tool, the demand for precise quantification may be relaxed in the present situation. GC×GC has the added advantage of providing chemical structural information within the two-dimensional contour presentation. Reproducibilities for GC×GC results (peak area) and 2tR were acceptable with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) of 8 and 1%, respectively (at the mg/kg level), and good repeatability within samples was achieved.

  • 37.
    Ortuno, Nuria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Emissions of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and PBDEs from flame-retarded high-impact polystyrene under thermal stress2015Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 123, s. 64-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emissions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and their chlorinated analogues (PCDD/Fs) during the thermal treatment of a high impact polystyrene (HIPS) TV casing were investigated. The halogenated compounds were analyzed in the original material and in the gases emitted during its treatment at temperatures between 50 degrees C and 250 degrees C. DecaBDE was the primary PBDE in the TV casing, which also contained high levels of PBDFs (ppm range). At the lower treatment temperatures, non-modified PBDEs evaporated from the samples. Conversely, at 200 degrees C or above, debromination reactions led to the formation of additional tri- through nonaBDE. The formation of new PBDD/Fs was also detected in the gas phase when the plastic was heated to 200 degrees C or 250 degrees C, with higher yields of furans than dioxins. This appreciably increased the toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels of the gas phase relative to those seen in the untreated sample. In all cases, the levels and TEQ contributions from PCDD/Fs were negligible compared to those for brominated analogues. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 38.
    Persson, Ylva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Öberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Levels and patterns of chloroaromatic compounds in contaminated sawmill soils2005Ingår i: Organohalogen Compounds, s. 2111-4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Persson, Ylva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Nording, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Öberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Kartläggning av klororganiska föreningar vid förorenade klorfenoltomter - Instrumentell analys med GC-MS (Surveying Chloroorganic pollutants at contaminated chlorophenol sites - Instrumental analysis by GC-MS)2005Ingår i: Renare Marks forskarmöte 15 mars 2005, 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40. Sharma, Anoop Kumar
    et al.
    Jensen, Keld Alstrup
    Rank, Jette
    White, Paul A
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Gagne, Remi
    Jacobsen, Nicklas R
    Kristiansen, Jesper
    Vogel, Ulla
    Wallin, Håkan
    Genotoxicity, inflammation and physico-chemical properties of fine particle samples from an incineration energy plant and urban air2007Ingår i: Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Vol. 633, nr 2, s. 95-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) was sampled by use of an electrostatic sampler in an oven hall and a receiving hall in a waste-incineration energy plant, and from urban air in a heavy-traffic street and from background air in Copenhagen. PM was sampled for 1–2 weeks, four samples at each site. The samples were extracted and examined for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, YG1041 and YG5161, for content of inorganic elements and for the presence of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The induction of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and the presence of DNA damage – tested by the comet assay – were determined after 24-h incubations with human A549 lung epithelial cells.

    The PM2.5 concentration was about twofold greater in the oven hall than in the receiving hall. The particle size distribution in the receiving hall was similar to that in street air (maximum mode at about 25 nm), but the distribution was completely different in the oven hall (maximum mode at about 150 nm). Also chemically, the samples from the oven hall were highly different from the other samples.

    PM extracts from the receiving hall, street and background air were more mutagenic than the PM extracts from the oven hall. PM from all four sites caused similar levels of DNA damage in A549 cells; only the oven hall samples gave results that were statistically significantly different from those obtained with street-air samples.

    The receiving hall and the urban air samples were similarly inflammatory (relative IL-8 mRNA expression), whereas the oven hall did not cause a statistically significant increase in IL-8 mRNA expression. A principal component analysis separated the oven hall and the receiving hall by the first principal component. These two sites were separated from street and background air with the second principal component. Several clusters of constituents were identified. One cluster consisted of all the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), several groups of metals and one group of the biological endpoints (DNA damage, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression). The PAH and the inorganic content of the air in the receiving hall may be due to vehicle emissions and suspended waste particles. The inorganic content in the street and background air may have been influenced by break wear, road emissions and long-range transport. The results from a partial least-square regression analysis predicted that both PAHs and a group of metals including Fe and Mn contributed to IL-6 and IL-8 induction. Only Mn and Sr were predicted to influence DNA damage statistically significantly. Among the PAHs only chrysene had influence on DNA damage.

    The PM from the oven hall was markedly different from the PM at other locations in particle size distribution, chemical composition and the resulting biological effects when A549 cells were incubated with the PM. These characteristics and observations in the oven hall indicated that the PM source was oven exhaust, which was well combusted.

  • 41. Sindiku, O
    et al.
    Babayemi, J. O
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Osibanjo, O.
    Weber, R
    Watson, A
    Schlummer, M
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs)in e-waste plastic in Nigeria2015Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, nr 19, s. 14515-14529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastics from cathode ray tube (CRT) casings weresampled in Nigeria and analysed for their polybrominateddibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PBDD/F) content.PBDD/Fs, consisting mainly of PBDFs, were detected inBFR containing plastic with a median (mean) concentrationof 18,000 ng/g (41,000 ng/g). The PBDD/Fs levels werehighest in samples containing PBDEs, but the levels ofPBDFs were two orders of magnitude higher than the levelsreported in the technical PBDE mixtures and where frequentlyexceeding 1000 μg/g of PBDE content. These higher levelsare likely to arise from additional transformation of PBDEsduring production, use, recycling, or storage, but the processesresponsible were not identified in this study. PBDD/Fs in CRTcasings containing1,2-bistribromophenoxyethane (TBPE)were dominated by tetrabrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin(TBDDs) with concentrations around 10 μg/g of the TBPEcontent. The PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containingtetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were found at concentrationsaround 0.1 μg/g of TBBPA levels. Casings treated withTBPE or TBBPA often contained PBDEs (and PBDF) as impurities—probably originating from recycled e-waste plastics.It was estimated that the 237,000 t of CRT casings stockpiledin Nigeria contain between 2 and 8 t of PBDD/Fs. The totalPBDD/F contamination in polymers arising from total historicPBDE production/use is estimated in the order of 1000 t. TEQvalues of CRT samples frequently exceeded the Basel Convention’sprovisional low POPs content of 15 ng TEQ/g. Dueto the significant risks to health associated with PBDD/Fs,more detailed studies on the exposure routes from PBDD/Fsin stockpiles are needed.

  • 42.
    van Bavel, Bert
    et al.
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Örebro University.
    Jonsson, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Öberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Chemical methods for remediation of contaminated soil2003Ingår i: COLDREM soil remediation in a cold climate: COLDREM Synthesis Report - Scientific part-, Lund: COLDREM , 2003, s. 146-159Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Carlin, Danielle J.
    Collina, Elena
    Cormier, Stephania A.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Gullett, Brian K.
    Johansson, Christer
    Lucas, Donald
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ortuno, Nuria
    Sallam, Asmaa A.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources2016Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 8141-8159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in UmeAyen, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  • 44. Wikström, Per
    et al.
    Johansson, Thorsten
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Hägglund, Lars
    Forsman, Mats
    Phenotypic biomonitoring using multivariate flow cytometric analysis of multi-stained microorganisms2001Ingår i: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 187–196-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for monitoring phenotypic profiles of pure cultures and complex microbial communities was evaluated. The approach was to stain microorganisms with a battery of fluorescent dyes prior to flow cytometry analysis (FCM) and to analyse the data using multivariate methods, including principal component analysis and partial least squares. The FCM method was quantitatively evaluated using different mixtures of pure cultures as well as microbial communities. The results showed that the method could quantitatively and reproducibly resolve both populations and communities of microorganisms with 5% abundance in a diverse microbial background. The feasibility of monitoring complex microbial communities over time during the biodegradation of naphthalene using the FCM method was demonstrated. The biodegradation of naphthalene occurred to differing extents in microcosms representing three different types of aromatic-contaminated groundwater and a sample of bio-basin water. The FCM method distinguished each of these four microbial communities. The phenotypic profiles were compared with genotypic profiles generated by random-amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. The genotypic profiles of the microbial communities described only the microbial composition, and not their functional change, whereas the phenotypic profiles seemed to contain information on both the composition and the functional change of the microorganisms. Furthermore, event analysis of the FCM data showed that microbial communities with initially differing compositions could converge towards a similar composition if they had a capacity for high levels of degradation, whereas microbial communities with similar initial compositions could diverge if they differed in biodegrading ability.

  • 45. Wincent, Emma
    et al.
    Jonsson, Maria E.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Dreij, Kristian
    Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation and Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish in Response to Soil Extracts Containing Unsubstituted and Oxygenated PAHs2015Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 6, s. 3869-3877Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial sites are polluted by complex mixtures of polycydic aromatic compounds (PACs). Besides polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), these mixtures often contain significant amounts of more polar PACs including oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs). The effects of oxy-PAHs are, however, poorly known. Here we used zebrafish embryos to examine toxicities and transcriptional changes induced by PAC containing soil extracts from three different industrial sites: a gasworks (GAS), a former wood preservation site (WOOD), and a coke oven (COKE), and to PAR and oxy-PAH containing fractions of these. All extracts induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr)-regulated mRNAs, malformations, and mortality. The WOOD extract was most toxic and the GAS extract least toxic. The extracts induced glutathione transferases and heat shock protein 70, suggesting that the toxicity also involved oxidative stress. With all extracts, Ahr2-knock-down reduced the toxicity, indicating a significant Ahr2-dependence on the effects. Ahr2-knock-down was most effective with the PAH fraction of the WOOD extract and with the oxy-PAH fraction of the COKE extract. Our results indicate that oxy-PAH containing mixtures can be as potent Ahr activators and developmental toxicants as PAHs. In addition to Ahr activating potency, the profile of cytochrome P4501 inhibitors may also determine the toxic potency of the extracts.

  • 46.
    Öberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Johansson, M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Karlsson, S
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Lövgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Marklund, Ann
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Nording, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Undergraduate Education in Environmental Chemistry at Umeå University, Sweden2004Ingår i: SETAC 4th World Congress/25th Annual Meeting in North America, 14-18 November, Portland OR, USA, 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract to the Fourth SETAC World Congress, oral presentation.

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