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  • 1.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    Department of Systems Biology, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity2016Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, nr 1, s. 79-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low concentrations of the odorant n-butanol.

    Methods: We exposed 18 participants with MCS and 18 non-ill controls to a low concentration of the odorantn-butanol using an exposure chamber. The first 10 min constituted blank exposure, after which then-butanol concentration increased and reached a plateau at 11.5 mg/m3.

    Results: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses.

    Conclusions: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ledin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wisting, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The influence of health-risk perception and distress on reactions to low-level chemical exposure2013Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, s. 816-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of the current study was to investigate how perceived health risk of a chemical exposure and self-reported distress are related to perceived odor intensity and odor valence, symptoms, cognitive performance over time as well as reactions to blank exposure. Based on ratings of general distress, 20 participants constituted a relatively low distress group, and 20 other participants a relatively high distress group. Health risk perception was manipulated by providing positively and negatively biased information regarding n-butanol. Participants made repeated ratings of intensity, valence and symptoms and performed cognitive tasks while exposed to 4.7 ppm n-butanol for 60 min (first 10 min were blank exposure) inside an exposure chamber. Ratings by the positive and negative bias groups suggest that the manipulation influenced perceived health risk of the exposure. The high distress group did not habituate to the exposure in terms of intensity when receiving negative information, but did so when receiving positive information. The high distress group, compared with the low distress group, rated the exposure as significantly more unpleasant, reported greater symptoms and performed worse on a cognitively demanding task over time. The positive bias group and high distress group rated blank exposure as more intense. The main findings suggest that relatively distressed individuals are negatively affected by exposures to a greater degree than non-distressed.

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Short-term olfactory sensitization involves brain networks relevant for pain, and indicates chemical intolerance2017Inngår i: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 220, nr 2, s. 503-509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance is a medically unexplained affliction that implies deleterious reactions to non-toxic everyday chemical exposure. Sensitization (i.e. increased reactivity to repeated, invariant stimulation) to odorous stimulation is an important component in theoretical explanations of chemical intolerance, but empirical evidence is scarce. We hypothesized that (1) individuals who sensitize to repeated olfactory stimulation, compared with those who habituate, would express a lower blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) response in key inhibitory areas such as the rACC, and higher signal in pain/saliency detection regions, as well as primary and/or secondary olfactory projection areas; and (2) olfactory sensitization, compared with habituation, would be associated with greater self-reported chemical intolerance. More-over, we assessed whether olfactory sensitization was paralleled by comparable trigeminal processing - in terms of perceptual ratings and BOLD responses. We grouped women from a previous functional magnetic imaging study based on intensity ratings of repeated amyl acetate exposure over time. Fourteen women sensitized to the exposure, 15 habituated, and 20 were considered "intermediate" (i.e. neither sensitizers nor habituaters). Olfactory sensitizers, compared with habituaters, displayed a BOLD-pattern in line with the hypothesis, and reported greater problems with odours in everyday life. They also expressed greater reactions to CO2 in terms of both perceived intensity and BOLD signal. The similarities with pain are discussed.

  • 4. Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Highlighting the large variation in perceived properties of odors over time2017Inngår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. E26-E26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claesson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Brain responses to olfactory and trigeminal exposure in idiopathic environmental illness (IEI) attributed to smells: An fMRI study2014Inngår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 77, nr 5, s. 401-408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) to smells is a prevalent medically unexplained illness. Sufferers attribute severe symptoms to low doses of non-toxic chemicals. Despite the label, IEI is not characterized by acute chemical senses. Theoretical models suggest that sensitized responses in the limbic system of the brain constitute an important mechanism behind the symptoms. The aim was to investigate whether and how brain reactions to low-levels of olfactory and trigeminal stimuli differ in individuals with and without IEI. METHODS: Brain responses to intranasally delivered isoamyl acetate and carbon dioxide were assessed in 25 women with IEI and 26 non-ill controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The IEI group had higher blood-oxygenated-level-dependent (BOLD) signal than controls in the thalamus and a number of, mainly, parietal areas, and lower BOLD signal in the superior frontal gyrus. The IEI group did not rate the exposures as more intense than the control group did, and there were no BOLD signal differences between groups in the piriform cortex or olfactory regions of the orbitofrontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: The IEI reactions were not characterized by hyper-responsiveness in sensory areas. The results can be interpreted as a limbic hyperreactivity and speculatively as an inability to inhibit salient extemal stimuli.

  • 6.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wikdahl, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Comorbidity of Airway Inflammatory Diseases in Chemical and Building-Related Intolerance2018Inngår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 60, nr 4, s. 295-300Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study investigated comorbidity in chemical intolerance (CI) and building- related intolerance (BRI) with (i) chronic sinusitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allergic and nonallergic asthma and allergic rhinitis, and (ii) airway inflammatory symptoms. Methods: Data from two population-based questionnaire surveys, the Västerbotten and Österbotten Environmental Health Studies, were used. The participants were categorized as CI or BRI and referents, and binary logistic regression analysis was applied. Results: Prevalence rates for the case groups were 7.2% to 40.0% for diseases and 24.3% to 68.9% for symptoms, whereas adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 3.4 to 26.1 for diseases and 3.3 to 17.0 for symptoms, all being significantly higher than unity. Prevalence rates and ORs were in general higher in BRI than in CI. Conclusion: Inflammatory airway diseases and symptoms are associated with CI and BRI, which encourages further research regarding underlying mechanisms and treatments.

  • 7.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Symptoms from masked acrolein exposure suggest altered trigeminal reactivity in chemical intolerance2017Inngår i: Neurotoxicology, ISSN 0161-813X, E-ISSN 1872-9711, Vol. 60, s. 92-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chemical intolerance (CI) is a widespread occupational and public health problem characterized by symptoms that reportedly result from low-levels of chemical exposure. The mechanisms behind CI are unknown, however modifications of the chemical senses (rather than toxic processes) have been suggested as key components. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with self-reported CI report more sensory irritation during masked acrolein exposure compared to controls without CI. Methods: Individuals with CI (n = 18) and controls without CI (n = 19) were exposed in an exposure chamber. Each participant took part in two exposure conditions – one with heptane (the masking compound), and one with heptane and acrolein at a dose below previously reported sensory irritation thresholds. The exposures lasted for 60 min. Symptoms and confidence ratings were measured continuously throughout the exposure as were measurements of electrodermal activity and self-reported tear-film break-up time. Participants were blind to exposure condition. Results: Individuals with CI, compared with controls reported greater sensory irritation in the eyes, nose and throat when exposed to acrolein masked with heptane. There was no difference during exposure to heptane. Conclusions: Masked exposure to acrolein at a concentration below the previously reported detection threshold is perceived as more irritating by individuals with CI compared with controls. The results indicate that there is altered trigeminal reactivity in those with CI compared to controls.

  • 8.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.
    Swedish Metabolomics Centre (SMC), Umeå, Sweden.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Swedish Metabolomics Centre (SMC), Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Annika I.
    Swedish Metabolomics Centre (SMC), Umeå, Sweden.
    A standardized protocol for comparable analysis of GSH/GSSG by UHPLC-ESI-MSMS for human plasma2019Inngår i: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 1104, s. 67-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Variability in the levels of GSH and GSSG in plasma is suggested to derive from inadequate pre-processing methods. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for comparable and reliable measurements of GSH/GSSG. Venous blood from 8 healthy individuals were collected and divided into 7 different pre-processing procedures. For three of the samples an extraction mixture was added after 0 (baseline), 4 and 8 min and for three of the samples the extraction mixture was added at different times during defrost. A worst case scenario where a sample was left in a cool box during 6 h was also included. The samples were analyzed with UHPLC-ESIMSMS. A large difference in the levels of GSH and GSSG were identified and it was clearly associated with the sample handling procedures. A sample left untreated for 4 min will have significantly reduced amount of GSH. Stability tests showed that the level of GSH was reduced after 3 months in -80 degrees C.

  • 9.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fowler, Christopher J.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Perceived stress, sensory irritation and levels of prostaglandin F2 alpha in plasma after acrolein exposure: a pilot study2017Inngår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. E28-E28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Häggström, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Fowler, Christopher J.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Levels of oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related lipids in plasma before and after low-level exposure to acrolein in healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance2017Inngår i: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, ISSN 0952-3278, E-ISSN 1532-2823, Vol. 121, s. 60-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxylipins and endocannabinoids play important biological roles, including effects upon inflammation. It is not known whether the circulating levels of these lipids are affected by inhalation of the environmental pollutant acrolein. In the present study, we have investigated the consequences of low-level exposure to acrolein on oxylipin, endocannabinoid and related lipid levels in the plasma of healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance (CI), an affliction with a suggested inflammatory origin. Participants were exposed twice (60 min) to heptane and a mixture of heptane and acrolein. Blood samples were collected before exposure, after and 24 h post-exposure. There were no overt effects of acrolein exposure on the oxylipin lipidome or endocannibinoids detectable in the bloodstream at the time points investigated. No relationship between basal levels or levels after exposure to acrolein and CI could be identified. This implicates a minor role of inflammatory mediators on the systemic level in CI.

  • 11.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lidén, Edvard
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The role of perceived pollution and health risk perception in annoyance and health symptoms: a population-based study of odorous air pollution2013Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 86, nr 3, s. 367-374Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Health effects associated with air pollution at exposure levels below toxicity may not be directly related to level of exposure, but rather mediated by perception of the air pollution and by top-down processing (e.g., beliefs that the exposure is hazardous). The aim of the study was to test a model that describes interrelations between odorous air pollution at non-toxic exposure levels, perceived pollution, health risk perception, annoyance and health symptoms.

    METHODS: A population-based questionnaire study was conducted in a Swedish community of residents living near a biofuel facility that emitted odorous substances. Individuals aged 18-75 years were selected at random for participation (n = 1,118); 722 (65 %) agreed to participate. Path analyses were performed to test the validity of the model.

    RESULTS: The data support a model proposing that exposure level does not directly influence annoyance and symptoms, and that these relations instead are mediated by perceived pollution and health risk perception.

    CONCLUSIONS: Perceived pollution and health risk perception play important roles in understanding and predicting environmentally induced annoyance and health symptoms in odorous environments at non-toxic levels of exposure.

  • 12.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lind, Nina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Human exposure to acrolein: Time -dependence and individual variation in eye irritation2016Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, ISSN 1382-6689, E-ISSN 1872-7077, Vol. 45, s. 20-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Human exposure to acrolein: Time-dependence and individual variation in eye irritation2016Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, ISSN 1382-6689, E-ISSN 1872-7077, Vol. 45, s. 20-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine the time dependence on sensory irritation detection following exposure to threshold levels of acrolein, in humans. The exposures occurred in an exposure chamber and the subjects were breathing fresh air through a mask that covered the nose and mouth. All participants participated in four exposure conditions, of which three consisted of a mixture of acrolein and heptane and one of only heptane. Exposure to acrolein at a concentration half of the TLV-C lead to sensory irritation. The perceived sensory irritation resulted in both increased detectability and sensory irritation after about6.8 min of exposure in 58% of the participants. The study confirm the previously suggested LOAEL of about 0.34 mg/m3for eye irritation due to acrolein exposure. The sensory irritation was still significant 10 min after exposure. These results have implications for risk assessment and limit setting in occupational hygiene.

  • 14.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gender differences in nasal chemesthesis: a studyof detection and perceived intensity2011Inngår i: Chemosensory Perception, ISSN 1936-5802 (Print) 1936-5810 (Online), Vol. 4, nr 1/2, s. 25-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Women are generally more intolerant than men to ambient substances, for which sensory irritation plays an important role. The aim of the present study was to compare women and men with respect to response bias and sensitivity in irritation detection and to irritation intensity. Twelve women and 12 men were exposed to six concentrations of amyl acetate generated by a dynamic olfactometer. Each concentration was presented eight times in randomized order. Clean-air presentations were interrandomized among the series of amyl acetate stimuli to assess and control for response bias. Ratings of irritation intensity were performed with a Borg CR-100 scale. No gender difference in overall irritation detection sensitivity was found, but a significantly steeper psychometric detection function for women implies keener detectability at relatively high concentrations and poorer detectability at low concentrations. A higher false-alarm rate and higher intensity ratings for blank stimuli for women compared to men did almost reach statistical significance. The data showed no overall gender difference in irritation intensity, but a less steep power function for irritation intensity for women, with relatively weak concentrations being perceived as stronger by women than by men. The results suggest no overall gender difference in irritation detectability, but a larger increase in detectability among women across the stimulus span. The tendency of gender differences in response bias implies differences in strategies when detecting possible health hazards. These strategies together with weak concentrations being perceived as stronger may contribute to women being more intolerant than men to ambient substances.

  • 15.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Effects on perceived air quality and symptoms of exposure to microbially produced metabolites and compounds emitted from damp building materials2009Inngår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 102-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigated perceived air quality and health effects fromexposure to low to high levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emittedfrom damp building materials and a mixture of molds growing on the materials.A mixture of Wallemia sebi, Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium chrysogenum,Ulocladium botrytis, and Aspergillus versicolor was inoculated on pine wood andparticle board. In Study 1, each of 27 participants took part in two exposureconditions, one with air from molds growing on building materials (low levels ofemissions from the building materials and the mold mixture) and one with blankair, both conditions during 60 min. In Study 2, each of 24 participants wasexposed (10 min) four times in a 2 · 2 design randomly to air from moldybuilding materials (high levels) and blank, with and without nose-clip. Theparticipants rated air quality and symptoms before, during, and after eachexposure. Self-reported tear-film break-up time and attention and processingspeed (Study 1) was also measured. Exposure to high VOC levels increased thereports of perceived poor air quality, and in the condition without nose-clipenhanced skin symptoms were also noted. No such outcome was observed whenexposing the participants to low VOC levels.

  • 16.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Symptom-trigger factors other than allergens in asthma and allergy2016Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, ISSN 0960-3123, E-ISSN 1369-1619, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 448-457Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several environmental exposures of particular relevance for indoor air quality, such as exposure to odorants, may be associated with asthma and allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate attribution of symptoms and behavioral disruptions to various chemical and physical environmental sources in persons with self-reported asthma and allergy. Data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study, were used to compare persons with asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, multiple diagnoses of asthma/allergy and no asthma or allergy. Persons with asthma and multiple diagnoses reported odorous/pungent and buildingrelated environmental factors to trigger symptoms to a larger extent than did the reference group, mainly due to perfume and odors from flowers. They also reported behavioral disruptions and affective reactions to odorous/ pungent environments. These findings increase the understanding of the role of odorants in symptom development and thereby the prevention of health problems in asthma and allergy in indoor air.

  • 17.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Physical and chemical trigger factors in environmental intolerance2018Inngår i: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 221, nr 3, s. 586-592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Individuals with environmental intolerance (EI) react to exposure from different environmental sources at levels tolerated by most people and that are below established toxicological and hazardous thresholds. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attributing symptoms to chemical and physical sources in the environment among individuals with different forms of self-reported EI and in referents.

    Methods: Cross-sectional data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 3406), were used and individuals with self-reported EI to chemicals, buildings, electromagnetic fields and sounds as well as a group with multiple EIs were identified. The Environmental-Symptom Attribution Scale was used to quantify degree to which health symptoms are attributed to 40 specific environmental exposures and sources, with subscales referring to the four types of EI.

    Results: All EI groups, except the group with building related intolerance (BRI), reported more symptoms from the expected sources compared to the referents. In addition, individuals with chemical and sound intolerance reported symptoms from building related trigger factors, and individuals with electromagnetic hypersensitivity reported symptoms from chemical trigger factors.

    Conclusions: The study suggests that individuals with BRI react to fewer and more specific trigger factors than do individuals with other EIs, and that it is important to ask about different sources since three of the EI groups attribute their symptoms to a wide variety of sources in addition to the sources to which their EI implicates.

  • 18.
    Dalton, Pamela
    et al.
    Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, USA.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Horenziak, Steve
    The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, USA.
    The Impact of Indoor Malodor: Historical Perspective, Modern Challenges, Negative Effects, and Approaches for Mitigation2020Inngår i: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikkel-id 126Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Malodors, odors perceived to be unpleasant or offensive, may elicit negative symptoms via the olfactory system’s connections to cognitive and behavioral systems at levels below the known thresholds for direct adverse events. Publications on harm caused by indoor malodor are fragmented across disciplines and have not been comprehensively summarized to date. This review examines the potential negative effects of indoor malodor on human behavior, performance and health, including individual factors that may govern such responses and identifies gaps in existing research. Reported findings show that indoor malodor may have negative psychological, physical, social, and economic effects. However, further research is needed to understand whether the adverse effects are elicited via an individual’s experience or expectations or through a direct effect on human physiology and well-being. Conversely, mitigating indoor malodor has been reported to have benefits on performance and subjective responses in workers. Eliminating the source of malodor is often not achievable, particularly in low-income communities. Therefore, affordable approaches to mitigate indoor malodor such as air fresheners may hold promise. However, further investigations are needed into the effectiveness of such measures on improving health outcomes such as cognition, mood, and stress levels and their overall impact on indoor air quality.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19. Dantoft, Thomas M.
    et al.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Engkilde, Kaare
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hellgren, Lars I.
    Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 2, artikkel-id e013879Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants. The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom=-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n=-butanol exposure.

    Design: Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure.

    Settings: Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper.

    Participants: 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls.

    Outcome measures: 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels.

    Results: MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls.

    Conclusions: MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20. Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    et al.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Brix, Susanne
    Inflammatory Mediator Profiling of n-butanol Exposed Upper Airways in Individuals with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikkel-id e0143534Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine baseline and low dose n-butanol-induced upper airway inflammatory response profiles in MCS subjects versus healthy controls. Method Eighteen participants with MCS and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Epithelial lining fluid was collected from the nasal cavity at three time points: baseline, within 15 minutes after being exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol in an exposure chamber and four hours after exposure termination. A total of 19 cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Furthermore, at baseline and during the exposure session, participants rated the perceived intensity, valence and levels of symptoms and autonomic recordings were obtained. Results The physiological and psychophysical measurements during the n-butanol exposure session verified a specific response in MCS individuals only. However, MCS subjects and healthy controls displayed similar upper airway inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05) at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences. Conclusion We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom-eliciting exposure to low dose n-butanol, implying that upper airways of MCS subjects are functionally intact at the level of cytokine and chemokine production and secretory capacity. This suggests that previous findings of increased cytokine plasma levels in MCS are unlikely to be caused by systemic priming via excessive upper airway inflammatory processes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21. Glader, A
    et al.
    Claesson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Glas, B
    Liljelind, I
    Eriksson, K
    Nyback, M-H
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Byggnadsrelaterad ohälsa : Kompetensutveckling inom hälsovården2014Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett stort behov av utbildning om inomhusmiljö och byggnadsrelaterad ohälsa, både inom ramen för grundläggande yrkesutbildningar och som fortbildningskurser för yrkesverksamma. Hälsoproblem som beror på dålig inomhusluft på arbetsplatsen utreds av företagshälsovården. Dock har de som jobbar inom företagshälsovård idag inte alltid tillräcklig kunskap om inomhusmiljö och byggnadsrelaterad ohälsa och saknar ofta beredskap att som sakkunniga delta i utredningar på arbetsplatser. För att förbättra vården bör personalen utbildas om bl.a. riskfaktorer för dålig inomhusluft, vanliga hälsobesvär och inverkan på arbetsförmåga och produktivitet, de psykosociala faktorernas betydelse samt ansvarsfrågor och hälsoekonomiska konsekvenser. Öppna digitala lärresurser (OER) och kurser på nätet (MOOCs) kan med fördel användas vid fortbildning av vårdpersonal. Nätbaserad utbildning underlättar för vårdpersonalen att själv kunna välja tidpunkt och målsättning. Därtill utgör OER även ett hjälpmedel för att utveckla kunskapsöverföringen mellan Sverige och Finland.

  • 22. Karvala, Kirsi
    et al.
    Sainio, Markku
    Palmquist, Eva
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Building-Related Environmental Intolerance and Associated Health in the General Population2018Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, nr 9, artikkel-id 2047Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    People frequently attribute adverse symptoms to particular buildings when exposure to pollutants is low, within nonhazardous levels. Our aim was to characterize building-related intolerance (BRI) in the general population. Data were derived from two population-based questionnaire surveys, the Vasterbotten and osterbotten Environmental Health Study. We identified cases of BRI if respondents reported symptoms emerging from residing in certain buildings, when most other people had none. The questionnaires covered lifestyle factors, perceived general health, BRI duration and symptom frequency, the emotional and behavioral impact of BRI, coping strategies, and physician-diagnosed diseases. From the total of 4941 participants, we formed two case groups, 275 (5.6%) fulfilled criteria for self-reported BRI, and 123 (2.5%) for BRI with wide-ranging symptoms. Individuals in both case groups were significantly more often female, single, and perceived their general health as poorer than the referents, i.e., those reporting no BRI symptoms. The mean duration of BRI was 12 years. In both case groups, avoidance behavior was found in over 60%, and nearly half of the sample had sought medical care. BRI with wide-ranging symptoms was associated with elevated odds for all studied comorbidities (somatic and psychiatric diseases and functional somatic syndromes). The perceived health of individuals with BRI is poorer and comorbidities are more frequent than among referents. BRI seems to be similar to other environmental intolerances and shares features with functional somatic syndromes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Lind, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Millqvist, Eva
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Coping and Social Support in Asthma and Allergy: The Västerbotten Environmental Health Study2015Inngår i: Journal of Asthma, ISSN 0277-0903, E-ISSN 1532-4303, Vol. 52, nr 6, s. 622-629Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Asthma and allergy are stressful conditions that require coping strategies and social support to reduce stress and enhance health-promoting behavior. However, research is limited regarding coping and social support in asthma and allergy. The aim was to better understand use of different coping strategies and perceived social support in low and high severity (exacerbation frequency) of asthma and allergy. Methods: Population-based data were used to provide ratings of coping strategies (Study I) and social support (Study II) from 124 and 94 participants, respectively, with asthma and/or allergy, categorized as low or high in severity. Problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies were assessed as well as emotional, instrumental and informative social support from seven sources. Results: Study I showed that avoiding certain environments (problem-based coping) and trying to accept one’s situation (emotion-based) were the most commonly used coping strategies. These behaviors did not differ due to severity. Study II showed that more emotional than instrumental and informative support was perceived. The highest rated support sources were the partner, family members, and the healthcare system. More social support was reported in low compared to high asthma/allergy severity. Conclusion: The most commonly used coping strategies in the population of persons with these four types of asthma and allergy are avoiding certain environments and trying to accept one’s situation. More emotional support than instrumental and informative is perceived to be received, and most of the support is received from one’s partner and other family members, and least from authorities and patient associations/support groups.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Lindahl, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akhtar Khan, Muhammad
    Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, FI-80220 Joensuu, Finland.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Development of a method for the determination of naphthalene and phenanthrene in workplace air using diffusive sampling and thermal desorption GC-MS analysis2011Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 681-687Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusive sampling methods have been validated for the determination of naphthalene and phenanthrene in workplace air. The diffusive sampler tested was the Perkin Elmer ATD tube, and the analysis was performed with thermal desorption, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometric detection. The sampling methods were validated in controlled test atmospheres, mainly according to the protocol proposed in the European standard EN 838. For the determination of naphthalene, the diffusive sampling rate was 0.41 ml min21 with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 19%. The mean sampling rate for phenanthrene was 0.49 ml min21 with a CV of 21%. Field tests confirmed the naphthalene results but could not be used to confirm the phenanthrene results. The method is not recommended for phenanthrene sampling unless the method has been tested in the specific environment and the results confirm the laboratory tests.

  • 25.
    Nordin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lantto, L.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Young women's mental health in northern Sweden2016Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, s. S3-S3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Aldrin, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Effects of Negative Affectivity and Odor Valence on Chemosensory and Symptom Perception and Perceived Ability to Focus on a Cognitive Task2017Inngår i: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, nr 3-4, s. 431-446Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to gain understanding for the impact of negative affectivity (NA) and odor valance on perceptual aspects during low-level odorous exposure. Fifty-five young adults who were either relatively low or high in NA (anxiety, depression, and somatization) were randomized for exposure to either limonene (pleasant odor) or pyridine (unpleasant odor). In an exposure chamber, they took part in baseline, blank and stable exposure sessions, during which they rated odor intensity, impact on ability to focus on an imagined cognitive task, and intensity of symptoms. The results showed higher ratings of negative impact on ability to focus during exposure to the unpleasant odor compared with the pleasant odor, and an association between NA and symptom intensity, with 18% of the variance in symptom intensity explained by somatization. The association between NA and symptom intensity was found to be driven by the factor sex. These results imply (a) that prior findings of odorous exposure that interfere negatively with work performance may be due to impact of an unpleasant odor on ability to focus on cognitive tasks and (b) that there are associations between NA, sex, and symptoms that may partly be referred to attentiveness to and interpretation of bodily sensations.

  • 27.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sommar, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andree, Jakob
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundqvist, Klas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Impact of Health-Risk Perception on Odor Perception and Cognitive Performance2013Inngår i: Chemosensory Perception, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 190-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indications of adverse effects of nontoxic malodorous chemical exposure on work performance and safety and the role of health-risk perception on odor perception motivated the present study of the impact of health-risk perception on odor perception and cognitive performance. Healthy young adults were informed that they were to be exposed to an odorous substance that is either potentially health-enhancing (positive information bias, n = 24) or hazardous (negative information bias, n = 25). The two groups, screened for loss in odor-detection sensitivity, were matched for age, sex, chemical intolerance, and negative affectivity. During each of 14 trials of exposure to 433 mg/m(3) of n-butanol, the participants rated the intensity and valence of odor perception and performed a cognitive task that taxed working memory and attention. The results showed that the negative-bias group rated the odor perception as more unpleasant than did the positive-bias group during the entire session, but significantly more unpleasant only during the first half of the session. The negative-bias group was also found to perform significantly poorer on the cognitive task during both halves of the session. No effect of information bias was found on perceived odor intensity. The results provide experimental support for the hypotheses that belief that exposure to an odorous chemical is hazardous contributes to the odor perception being more unpleasant and to poorer cognitive performance.

  • 28.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stress and odor sensitivity in persons with noise sensitivity2013Inngår i: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 15, nr 64, s. 173-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has indicated that sensory sensitivity/intolerance to a specific modality may be part of a more general environmental hypersensitivity, and possibly mediated by stress. This study investigated the relationship between noise sensitivity, perceived stress, and odor sensitivity in a group of men. A quasi-experimental design was used. One-hundred and thirty-four male undergraduate students completed Weinsteins noise sensitivity scale from which a low-sensitivity group (n = 16) and a high-sensitivity (n = 16) group were formed. These two groups were screened for loss in auditory and olfactory detection sensitivity, and completed the perceived stress questionnaire (PSQ) and the chemical sensitivity scale (CSS). One-way analysis of variance and Spearman correlational analyses were performed. Significantly higher scores on the PSQ (P < 0.05) and the CSS (P < 0.05) were found in the high noise-sensitivity group compared to the low noise-sensitivity group. These findings raise the question of whether the relation between noise and odor sensitivity reflects a general environmental sensitivity.

  • 29.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Metric properties and normative data for brief noise and electromagnetic field sensitivity scales2013Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 293-301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Lack of brief questionnaire instruments for quantifying affective reactions to and behavioral disruptions attributed to sounds and electromagnetic fields (EMFs) motivated the present development and metric evaluation of such instruments, called the 11-item Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS-11) and the 11-item Electromagnetic Field Sensitivity Scale (EMFSS-11). Another objective was to establish normative data for these instruments. Method: Data from 3406 individuals who took part in the Vasterbotten Environmental Health Study was used. The participants constitute a random sample of inhabitants in the county of Vasterbotten in Sweden, aged 18 to 79 years, stratified for age and gender. The participants responded to the NSS-11 and EMFSS-11 and to additional questions for evaluation of concurrent validity. Results: The results show satisfying reliability (Cronbach alpha = 0.71-0.85, varying with age group and gender), concurrent validity, and unidimensionality of the NSS-11 and EMFSS-11, and that the scales generate scores with approximately normal distributions, irrespective of age group and gender. Mean scores, standard deviations, and confidence intervals constitute normative data. Conclusions: The favorable metric properties of the NSS-11 and EMFSS-11 in combination with their fast usage suggest that they are particularly useful for assessment in epidemiological studies, and have the advantage of available normative data.

  • 30.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The environmental symptom-attribution scale: metric properties and normative data2013Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 36, s. 9-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to develop, metrically evaluate and establish normative data for the Environmental Symptom-Attribution Scale (ESAS), which is a questionnaire-based instrument for quantifying degree to which health symptoms are attributed to specific environmental exposures and sources. Data were used from 3406 individuals who took part in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden. The responders constitute a random sample, aged 18–79 years. They responded to the ESAS and to questions about physician-based diagnoses for evaluation of concurrent validity of the ESAS. Four dimensions of the ESAS were identified, constituting subscales: the Odorous/Pungent, Building-Related, Sound, and Electromagnetic Field Subscales. A Global Scale is available as well. In general, the distributions of the scores on the scales were positively skewed and leptokurtic in shape. The results demonstrate good reliability and concurrent validity of all five ESAS scales. Percentiles were obtained as normative data. Examples of use of the ESAS applied on individuals are provided. The favorable metric properties of the ESAS and its rapid administration suggest that it is useful for assessment in clinical and epidemiological settings.

  • 31.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    The environmental hypersensitivity symptom inventory: metric properties and normative data from a population-based study2013Inngår i: Archives of Public Health, ISSN 0778-7367, E-ISSN 2049-3258, Vol. 71, nr 18, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: High concomitant intolerance attributed to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, electromagnetic fields (EMF), and everyday sounds calls for a questionnaire instrument that can assess symptom prevalence in various environmental intolerances. The Environmental Hypersensitivity Symptom Inventory (EHSI) was therefore developed and metrically evaluated, and normative data were established. The EHSI consists of 34 symptom items, requires limited time to respond to, and provides a detailed and broad description of the individual's symptomology.

    METHODS: Data from 3406 individuals who took part in the Vasterbotten Environmental Health Study were used. The participants constitute a random sample of inhabitants in the county of Vasterbotten in Sweden, aged 18 to 79 years, stratified for age and gender.

    RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis identified five significant factors: airway symptoms (9 items; Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 coefficient, KR-20, of internal consistency = 0.74), skin and eye symptoms (6 items; KR-20 = 0.60), cardiac, dizziness and nausea symptoms (4 items; KR-20 = 0.55), head-related and gastrointestinal symptoms (5 items; KR-20 = 0.55), and cognitive and affective symptoms (10 items; KR-20 = 0.80). The KR-20 was 0.85 for the entire 34-item EHSI. Symptom prevalence rates in percentage for having the specific symptoms every week over the preceding three months constitute normative data.

    CONCLUSIONS: The EHSI can be recommended for assessment of symptom prevalence in various types of environmental hypersensitivity, and with the advantage of comparing prevalence rates with normality.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Söderholm, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Miljökänslighet – den osynliga folksjukdomen: ett detektivarbete kring orsakerna till miljörelaterad överkänslighet2012Inngår i: Byggnadsrelaterad ohälsa i Kvarkenregionen: nio delprojekt om miljökänslighet, luftkvalitetoch sjuka hus ur ett tvärvetenskapligt perspektiv : slutrapport för projektet Kompetenscentrum Byggnad - Luftkvalitet - Hälsa 2 (KLUCK 2) / [ed] Martina Österberg, Vasa: Yrkeshögskolan Novia , 2012, s. 30-43Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    När man besöker en annan persons hem känner man den vaga lukten av möbler, textilier, matlagning och olika ämnen som många av oss använder – parfymer, rengöringsmedel eller hårprodukter. Efter en stunds vistelse i bostaden registrerar de fl esta människor inte längre lukterna. Men för vissa personer går det precis tvärtom; lukterna försvinner inte utan blir i stället skarpare. De blir allt mer distinkta, till och med påträngande. Någon kanske försöker föra en konversation, men obehaget gör att man inte kan koncentrera sig vad den andra har att säga. I värsta fall drabbas man av huvudvärk, yrsel och andra symptom som gör tillvaron närmast outhärdlig. För en överkänslig person kan vardagen vara fylld av sådana här situationer. Men hur kommer det sig att endast vissa personer drabbas av miljökänslighet?

  • 33.
    Palmquist, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Overlap in prevalence between various types of environmental intolerance2014Inngår i: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 217, nr 4-5, s. 427-434Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental intolerance (EI) is characterized by attribution of several, multisystem symptoms to specific environmental exposures, such as exposure to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and everyday sounds. The symptoms are medically unexplained, non-specific and the symptoms overlap between different types of EI. To approach the issue of underlying mechanisms the matter of overlap in prevalence between intolerances can provide valuable information. The aim of the study was to examine if the overlap between intolerance to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, EMFs and sounds is larger than the expected overlap if no association would exist between them. The study was using cross-sectional data from the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden; a large questionnaire-based survey. 8520 adults (18-79 years) were randomly selected after stratification for age and sex, of whom 3406 (40%) participated. Individuals with the four types of intolerance were identified either through self-report, or by having been physician-diagnosed with a specific EI. The overlaps between the four EIs were greater than predictions based on coincidence for both self-reported and diagnosed cases (except for the overlap between diagnosed intolerance to sounds and EMFs). The results raise the question whether different types of EI share similar underlying mechanisms, or at least that the sufferers of EI share some predisposition to acquire the conditions.

  • 34.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ida, Ask
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prototype stories of life with Chemical Intolerance: when the environment becomes a threat to health and well-being2019Inngår i: Open Psychology, ISSN 2543-8883, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 239-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to explore how individuals living with Chemical Intolerance (CI) describe the onset and progression of CI, and how they live and cope with CI. The participants were recruited via Swedish websites hosted by CI support groups. A postal survey, including a Life history calender, was sent to potential participants. Eleven respondents fitted the consensus-based criteria for CI while not reporting comorbidity. A narrative analysis of their written replies resulted in five prototypical stories based on similarities in the onset and course of CI. All five stories contain descriptions of alienation from society and insufficient social support. Differences in participants’ perceptions of the symptom onset – with regard to suddenness, the point in life and the perceived cause of symptoms – partly corresponded to etiological theories of CI related to stress or inflammation. Further differences between the prototype stories mainly concern the possible effects on health and well-being related to social support and coping. Given these differences, we recommend that medical professionals and others apply a holistic, context-sensitive approach before discouraging or promoting a specific coping strategy in relation to CI.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Veenaas, Cathrin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Glas, Bo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Liljelind, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Differences in chemical composition of indoor air in rooms associated / not associated with building related symptoms2020Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 720, artikkel-id 137444Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building related health effects or symptoms (BRS), known also as sick-building syndrome (SBS), are a phenomenon that is not well understood. In this study, air samples from 51 rooms associated with BRS and 34 control rooms were collected on multi-sorbent tubes and analyzed by a non-target approach using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. The large amount of data gathered was analyzed using multivariate statistics (principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS)).

    This new analysis approach revealed that in rooms where people experienced BRS, petrochemicals and chemicals emitted from plastics were abundant, whereas in rooms where people did not experience BRS, flavor and fragrance compounds were abundant. Among the petrochemicals benzene and 2-butoxyethanol were found in higher levels in rooms where people experienced BRS. The levels of limonene were sometimes in the range of reported odor thresholds, and similarly 3-carene and beta-myrcene were found in higher concentrations in indoor air of rooms where people did not experience BRS. It cannot be ruled out that these compounds may have influenced the perceived air quality. However, the overall variability in air concentrations was large and it was not possible to accurately predict if the air in a particular room could cause BRS or not.

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