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  • 1.
    Blomqvist, Linnéa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hedström, Jenny
    Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Swede.
    Care and Silence in Women's Everyday Peacebuilding in Myanmar2021In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 223-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws on feminist perspectives on the everyday to explore women’s everyday experiences of peace in Kayah state in Myanmar. We locate the daily practices women engage in to maintain life and minimise violence, making visible women’s contributions to everyday peace. In addition, we examine the ways in which women are disproportionally affected by war and prevented from benefitting from post-war changes. Our findings demonstrate that practices of care and silence are key avenues for women’s everyday peacebuilding, through which women sustain peace, ensure survival, and minimise violence in their families and wider communities. At the same time, however, these practices are conditioned by and may contribute to gendered insecurity and marginalisation for women. Through this focus, our analysis shows how women’s positioning in gendered relations of power may both enable their agency in peacebuilding and reinforce their gendered inequality and marginalisation in the post-war period. We conclude that while everyday peace practices may hold the potential for positive change, these can also contribute to the reproduction of inequality, oppression and structural violence.

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  • 2.
    Boulanger Martel, Simon Pierre
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jarstad, Anna
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Zahar, Marie-Joëlle
    Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Peace with adjectives: conceptual fragmentation or conceptual innovation?2024In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 26, no 2, article id viae014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What strategies can be employed to conceptualize peace? In recent years, scholars have introduced an impressive array of “peace with adjectives” in order to make sense of some of the normative and empirical underpinnings of peace. Negative, positive, everyday, virtual, illiberal, partial, insecure, relational, emancipatory, agonistic, and feminist are some of the qualifiers that have been associated with the concept. While the growing attention to conceptualization is a welcomed development, we argue that the proliferation of new terms has led to increased fragmentation in the field of peace studies. Conceptual fragmentation impedes cumulative knowledge production and generates missed opportunities for fruitful discussions across theoretical and conceptual divides. In this article, we aim to provide more clarity to our field by mapping existing peace conceptualizations and identifying the strategies employed by scholars to construct innovative new terms. In our review, we identify 61 concepts and suggest that these conceptual innovations in peace research belong to one of three analytical strategies: developing diminished subtypes, conceptual narrowing, and conceptual expansion. Building on this categorization, we make recommendations for how peace researchers can enhance clarity and deepen constructive discussions between different conceptual approaches.

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  • 3.
    Cardenas, Magda Lorena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Building Peace in the Shadow of War: Women-to-Women Diplomacy as Alternative Peacebuilding Practice in Myanmar2021In: Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, ISSN 1750-2977, E-ISSN 1750-2985, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 347-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional assumptions locating peacebuilding temporally after violence have largely prevented exploration of how peacebuilding is practiced amidst conditions of ongoing violence. This article addresses this gap by analysing how Myanmar women's activists have devised strategies in pursuit of peace, amidst ongoing armed conflict, from the 1990s and onwards. The findings demonstrate that women's inter-ethnic cooperation contributed to transform conflict divides long before the initiation of formal national peace negotiations in 2011. Further, theorizing these peacebuilding practices, the article provides new insights into the dynamics of women's peace activism of relevance beyond the case of Myanmar.

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  • 4.
    Cardeño, Coline Esther
    et al.
    Independent Scholar, Germany.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    'Jihad is Planted in Our Hearts': International Aid, Rebel Institutions and Women's Participation in the Bangsamoro2023In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the encounter between the Women, Peace and Security agenda and rebel institutions in Mindanao. The analysis highlights that activities aiming to support women’s participation in peacebuilding often exist in parallel with and fail to fully recognise women’s existing forms of mobilisation within Non-State Armed Groups. This gap is bridged by civil society brokers who are associated with armed groups but speak the language of international peacebuilding frameworks. The findings point to the important role of such intermediaries in translating international norms, and to rebel groups and institutions as arenas for women’s political mobilisation and empowerment.

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  • 5.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Insecurity, Dispossession, Depletion : Women’s Experiences of Post-War Development in Myanmar2020In: European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, E-ISSN 1743-9728, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 379-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the gendered dynamics of Myanmar’s post-war economic reforms through an analysis of women’s experiences of development in Kayah (Karenni) state. In Myanmar, ceasefires and a reduction of armed violence combined with state-driven economic liberalization reforms are conditioned by, but also contribute to remake, gendered relations of power, privilege and marginalization. While new land legislation and development projects have contributed to loss of land and livelihoods among rural populations in general, our study demonstrates that women living in conflict-affected border areas are disproportionally affected. Drawing on interviews and participant observation, we show how this is directly related to an overarching gendered political economy defined by legacies of conflict, discrimination and uneven processes of development, which positions women as particularly vulnerable to new forms of insecurity, dispossession and depletion generated by post-war economic transformations. We argue that the political and economic legacies of war in the state has produced a gendered division of labor that positions women as responsible for unpaid and underpaid informal and social reproductive labor, weakens women’s access to land, and results in physical, material, and emotional depletion. Through this focus, our study adds to research on development and economic restructuring in post-war contexts in general, and to emergent scholarship on Myanmar’s economic reforms in particular.

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  • 6.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of War Studies and Military History, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Introduction: political transitions and gendered transformations in Myanmar2023In: Waves of upheaval: political transitions and gendered transformations in Myanmar / [ed] Jenny Hedström; Elisabeth Olivius, NIAS Press, 2023, p. 1-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 7.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of War Studies, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The politics of sexual violence in the Kachin conflict in Myanmar2021In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 374-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict-related sexual violence has been the focus of significant international activism and policy attention. International legal norms and frameworks have evolved to recognize it as a war crime, and a representation of sexual violence as a “weapon of war” is now widely endorsed. This article examines how international norms about conflict-related sexual violence are adopted and utilized in multiple ways in the armed conflict in Kachin state in northern Myanmar. Throughout decades of civil war, international norms on sexual violence have constituted key resources for international advocacy and awareness raising by local women’s rights activists. Further, activists have drawn on international norms to effect changes in gendered relations of power within their own communities. However, international norms on sexual violence in conflict have also been effectively used as tools for ethno-nationalist identity politics, rallying support behind the armed insurgency and mobilizing women’s unpaid labor in the service of war. Thus, international norms on conflict-related sexual violence have simultaneously opened up space for women’s empowerment and political agency and reproduced gendered forms of insecurity and marginalization. Exploring these contradictions and complexities, this analysis generates novel insights into the politics of international norms in contexts of armed conflict.

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  • 8.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of War Studies and Military History, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tracing temporal conflicts in transitional Myanmar: life history diagrams as methodological tool2022In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 495-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article adds to the emerging ‘temporal turn’ in peace studies by addressing methodological questions about how temporality can be captured and explored in empirical studies. Developing our methodological tools for exploring time and temporality, we argue, is critical to move beyond the supposed linear temporality of peace processes, and make visible alternative temporal frameworks that shape everyday experiences and contestations around peace in conflict-affected contexts. Drawing on a study of two conflict-affected areas in Myanmar, we contribute towards this aim through a discussion of how life history diagrams helped us trace temporal conflicts between overarching narratives of political transition and everyday experiences of insecurity. This facilitated a deeper understanding of how relationships between war and peace, and between past, present and future, were manifested and made sense of in people’s everyday lives. Our use of life history diagrams revealed temporal conflicts between the dominant, linear temporality of the Myanmar transition, and more complex and cyclical temporal frameworks people used to describe their realities. Life history diagrams also facilitated narratives that troubled an events-based temporality focused on macro-political shifts such as ceasefire agreements and elections, and instead foregrounded everyday experiences of continuous insecurity and struggle.

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  • 9.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of War Studies and Military History, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olivius, ElisabethUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Waves of upheaval: political transitions and gendered transformations in Myanmar2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first comprehensive account of the multifaceted processes of gendered transformation that took place in Myanmar between 2011 and 2021, and which continues to shape events today. The period began with the end of direct military rule and the transition to a hybrid, semi-democratic regime, precipitating far-reaching political, economic and social changes across Myanmar. To date, the gendered dynamics and effects of this transition have not yet received sustained scholarly attention. Remedying this gap, this book provides a much-needed historical corrective through a careful, nuanced analysis of the gendered dynamics of transitional politics, institutions and policymaking; feminist resistance, mobilization, and movement building; and their effects on labor, land, and everyday lives. Although the February 2021 military coup brought an end to this decade of experimentation and transition, in the richness of its analysis and detail, the book offers a deeper understanding of the current political situation in Myanmar. The gendered changes that the transition brought about have shaped both the current configuration of masculinized, military dictatorship, as well as the unprecedented role played by women in resistance to military rule after the 2021 coup. This analysis of the gendered dynamics and effects of the recent decade of political transition in Myanmar is therefore critical for understanding current events, as well as the ways in which Myanmar’s political landscape might continue to be reshaped.

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  • 10. Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kay Soe, Valentina
    Women's Rights: Change and Continuity2021In: Myanmar: Politics, Economy and Society / [ed] Simpson, Adam & Farelly, Nicholas, London & New York: Routledge, 2021, p. 186-203Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines how the status of women has evolved against a background of absolute exclusion during military rule to a semi-civilian government with a female de-facto head of state. Despite this shift, gender inequality persists across the country at all levels. Why is this, and how are women organising themselves to confront the inequalities that they face? This chapter provides an analysis of change and continuity in terms of both opportunities and challenges for realising gender equality in Myanmar. Taking the situation of women during military rule as a starting point the analysis moves on to explore women’s experiences of the transition and their attempts at leveraging political openings for gender equality under the current government, before concluding with a discussion of future challenges and opportunities for women’s equality in Myanmar. Honing in on women’s political activism, past and present, this chapter allows close examination of what has changed and what has remained the same for women in Myanmar.

  • 11.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of War Studies and Military History, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Phyo, Zin Mar
    Troubling the transition: gendered insecurity in the borderlands2023In: Waves of upheaval: political transitions and gendered transformations in Myanmar / [ed] Jenny Hedström; Elisabeth Olivius, NIAS Press, 2023, p. 180-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 12.
    Hedström, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Soe, Kay
    Women in Myanmar: change and continuity2024In: Myanmar: politics, economy and society / [ed] Adam Simpson; Nicholas Farrelly, Routledge, 2024, 2, p. 220-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender inequalities have persisted across macro-political changes in Myanmar. The decade of reforms provided more opportunities for women, but the 2021 military coup reinstated an almost exclusively male-dominated decision-making structure in the country. While Myanmar is home to numerous ethnic groups with diverse cultures, norms and traditions, the work of women activists and scholars has revealed widespread patterns of discrimination against women. Notably, this reality contrasts sharply with a popular official rhetoric about Burmese women’s ‘inherent equality’ with men – a narrative that has arguably done more to bolster the legitimacy of Myanmar’s governments than to improve women’s lives. This chapter provides an analysis of change and continuity in terms of both opportunities and challenges for realising women’s equality in Myanmar. Taking the situation of women during military rule before 2011 as a starting point, the analysis next moves on to exploring women’s experiences of the transition and their attempts at leveraging political openings for gender equality under the NLD government. We then explore the effects of the 2021 military coup on women, before concluding with a discussion of future challenges and opportunities for women’s rights in Myanmar.

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  • 13.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Three approaches to peace: a framework for describing and exploring varieties of peace2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, peace and conflict studies have devoted more attention to conflict than to peace, and despiteits centrality, peace itself has been under-conceptualized. In this paper, we propose a theoretical frameworkand methodologies to make peace beyond the absence of war researchable. The framework is designed to capture varieties of peace between and beyond dichotomous conceptions of positive versus negative peace, or successful versus failed peace processes. To capture the complexity of peace in its empirical diversity, our framework approaches peace in three different ways: as a situation or condition in a particular locality; as a web of relationships; and as ideas or discourses about what peace is or should be. These approaches provide different avenues for researching peace, and taken together they provide a fuller picture of what peace is, how it is manifested, experienced, and understood. We argue that this framework provides a way forward in advancing conceptual understandings and empirical analyses of peace that can facilitate systematic, comparative, qualitative analyses while at the same time accounting for the complex, multifaceted nature of peace.

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  • 14.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala University.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Department of Government, Uppsala University.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kostić, Roland
    The Hugo Valentin Centre and Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Peace agreements in the 1990s: what are the outcomes 20 years later?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, a number of protracted armed conflicts were finally ended. This period can be described as a paradigmatic shift with regards to how armed conflicts are brought to an end. When the logic of the Cold War no longer hindered the United Nations (UN) to intervene, the number of UN peace operations rose dramatically and became more comprehensive. In addition, conflicts increasingly ended through negotiated settlements rather than military victory. The peace processes of the 1990s gave rise to great optimism that negotiations and peacebuilding efforts, often with considerable international involvement, would bring sustainable peace to war-affected countries. The outcomes of these peace processes, however, appears to be far from unanimously positive. Today, 20 years after the war endings of the 1990s, it is therefore imperative to critically analyze and evaluate these peace processes and their long-term results. What is the situation like today in countries where conflicts ended in the 1990s? What has become of the peace? In this paper, the long-term outcomes of peace processes that took place in the 1990s are evaluated through brief analyses of a number of cases,demonstrating that the nature and quality of peace today show great diversity. The paper also includes a conceptualization of the "peace triangle" aimed at distinguishing between different forms of peace, as well as a study of the relationship between peacebuilding and democracy in UN peace operations in the 1990s, concluding that outcomes with regards to democratic development in the intervened countries are generally poor.

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  • 15.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Barnes, Philippa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Department of Government, Uppsala University and Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen .
    Varieties of peace: presentation of a research program2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Varieties of Peace research program aims to analyze long-term effects of peace processes in conflicts that ended in the 1990s. The central research questions are: What characterizes peace after the peace processes initiated in the 1990s and how does it vary? How can this variation be described and explained? Peace processes have been studied using short time perspectives, usually in "lessons-learned" evaluations five years after conflict termination, and usually with theories of conflict as a starting point. The Varieties of Peace research program is an ambitious initiative, which starts from a theoretical understanding of peace, its quality and character, and views peace and peace processes as dynamic and transformative. It will investigate and evaluate different types of peace processes from a comparative perspective and 25–30 years after they started, with the ambition of producing generalizable knowledge about peace, what it is and how it can be achieved. As a starting point, the program studies explanatory factors in five areas: 1) the actions, capacity and resilience of civil society, 2) the interests and strategies of the elites, 3) the aims and character of the agreements, 4) the societies' institutions and resilience, and 5) international involvement. These issues will be studies in at least ten projects, with the ambition to capture and explain variation, internal dynamics and ultimately the results and effects of peace processes, studied over a longer period of time. The Varieties of Peace program is funded by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond: the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences, 2017-2024. For more info, please visit our webpage at www.varietiesofpeace.net.

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  • 16.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Beyond awareness:: learning from local experiences to move forward in fighting human trafficking : a regional study of local perceptions of human trafficking in South and Southeast Asia2018Report (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Beyond the Buzzwords: Approaches to Gender in Humanitarian Aid2016Report (Other academic)
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  • 18.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Claiming rights in exile: women's insurgent citizenship practices in the Thai-Myanmar borderlands2019In: Citizenship Studies, ISSN 1362-1025, E-ISSN 1469-3593, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 761-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines insurgent citizenship practices employed by activists in the exiled Burmese women's movement from the 1990s and onwards. Consisting of political exiles, refugees and ethnic insurgents, this movement has successfully used the transnational, transitory space of the borderlands to constitute its participants as political subjects with legitimate claims to rights, citizenship and leadership. Drawing on interviews, this analysis interrogates women's activism through the lens of insurgent citizenship practices. Thus, how have Burmese women's activists claimed rights and lived citizenship in exile? Three main strategies are examined: firstly, women activists have positioned themselves as political actors and authorities through involvement in governance and humanitarian aid delivery in refugee camps. Secondly, they have claimed rights and political subjectivity through engagement with international norms, networks and arenas. Thirdly, they have claimed citizenship and political influence in oppositional nation-making projects through engaging with and negotiating ethno-nationalist armed struggles. The analysis highlights the multifaceted nature of women's insurgent citizenship practices, showing how they navigate multiple marginalized subject positions, direct their rights claims towards multiple governing authorities, and enact multiple political communities.

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  • 19.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Constructing Humanitarian Selves and Refugee Others: Gender Equality and the Global Governance of Refugees2016In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 270-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contributing to ongoing debates about what happens when feminism is institutionalized in global governance, this article examines how gender equality is given meaning and applied in humanitarian aid to refugees, and what the implications are with regard to the production of subjectivities and their positioning in relations of power. Drawing on Foucauldian and postcolonial feminist perspectives, the analysis identifies two main representations of what it means to promote gender equality in refugee situations. Gender equality is represented as a means to aid effectiveness through the strategic mobilization of refugee women’s participation, and as a project of development, involving the transformation of “traditional” or “backward” refugee cultures into modern societies. The subject positions that are produced categorically cast refugees as either passive or problematic subjects who need to be rescued, protected, assisted, activated, controlled and reformed through humanitarian interventions, while humanitarian workers are positioned as rational administrators and progressive agents of social transformation. In effect, gender equality is used to sustain power asymmetries in refugee situations and to reproduce global hierarchies.

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  • 20.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Displacing Equality?: Women’s Participation and Humanitarian Aid Effectiveness in Refugee Camps2014In: Refugee Survey Quarterly, ISSN 1020-4067, E-ISSN 1471-695X, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 93-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In humanitarian aid policy and practice, the importance of women’s participation is strongly emphasised. However, this article argues that women’s participation has become an instrument for optimising the efficiency and effectiveness of humanitarian operations rather than a tool for the promotion of gender equality. Drawing on the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, the article examines how women’s participation is represented and employed as a means to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of humanitarian aid in two refugee camp contexts, in Bangladesh and in Thailand, and asks how such strategies affect the gendered relations of power that shape women’s lives in the camps. Based on interviews with humanitarian workers, the analysis shows that programmes that promote women’s participation as a means for the achievement of other goals can reinforce existing gender inequalities, but also, despite their constraining effects, contribute to open up new opportunities for women. However, equality is treated as a side effect, not a goal in its own right. In conclusion, the article suggests that renewed engagement with the political project of feminism is needed to counter the de-politisation and instrumentalisation of gender in humanitarian aid, and bring the goals of equality and justice back in.

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  • 21.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Gender Equality and Neo-liberal Governmentality in Refugee Camps2013In: St. Antony's International Review (STAIR), ISSN 1746-451X, E-ISSN 1746-4528, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 53-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, humanitarian aid to refugees has increasingly employed neo-liberal forms of governing that are characterized by an emphasis on accountability, measurement of performance, and the decentralization of responsibility for welfare. This paper examines the implications of the neo-liberalization of the international refugee regime for humanitarian aspirations to promote gender equality, and argues that neo-liberal strategies and practices of government fundamentally shape the meaning of gender equality,equality and the organization of its promotion in humanitarian aid to refugees. This paper e analysis draws on a Foucauldian governmentality perspective, and, based on interviews with humanitarian workers, shows how neo-liberal technologies of government are employed in gender equality programmes in refugee camps in Thailand and Bangladesh. The paper concludes that neo-liberal forms of gender equality promotion have a number of problematic effects: the meaning of gender equality becomes superficial and instrumental, and international “expertise” is privileged at the expense of refugee ownership, when gender equality is constructed as a technical, administrative issue rather than an issue of power and politics.

     

     

  • 22.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Governing Refugees through Gender Equality: Care, Control, Emancipation2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, international feminist activism and research has had significant success in pushing gender issues onto the international agenda and into global governance institutions and processes. The goal of gender equality is now widely accepted and codified in international legal instruments. While this appears to be a remarkable global success for feminism, widespread gender inequalities persist around the globe. This paradox has led scholars to question the extent to which feminist concepts and goals can retain their transformative potential when they are institutionalized in global governance institutions and processes. This thesis examines the institutionalization of feminist ideas in global governance through an analysis of how, and with what effects, gender equality norms are constructed, interpreted and applied in the global governance of refugees: a field that has thus far received little attention in the growing literature on feminism, gender and global governance. This aim is pursued through a case study of humanitarian aid practices in refugee camps in Bangladesh and Thailand. The study is based on interviews with humanitarian workers in these two contexts, and its theoretical framework is informed by postcolonial feminist theory and Foucauldian thought on power and governing. These analytical perspectives allows the thesis to capture how gender equality norms operate as governing tools, and situate the politics of gender equality in refugee camps in the context of global relations of power and marginalization. The findings of this thesis show that in the global governance of refugees, gender equality is rarely treated as a goal in its own right. The construction, interpretation and application of gender equality norms is mediated and shaped by the dominant governing projects in this field. Gender equality norms are either advocated on the basis of their usefulness as means for the efficient management of refugee situations, or as necessary components of a process of modernization and development of the regions from which refugees originate. These governing projects significantly limit the forms of social change and the forms of agency that are enabled. Nevertheless, gender equality norms do contribute to opening up new opportunities for refugee women and destabilizing local gendered relations of power, and they are appropriated and used by refugees in ways that challenge and go beyond humanitarian agendas.

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    Governing Refugees through Gender Equality: Care, Control, Emancipation
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  • 23.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Humanitarian assistance and the politics of gender equality: a study of refugee camps on the Thai-Burma border2011In: Building Peace, Creating Conflict?: Conflictual Dimensions of Local and International Peacebuilding / [ed] Hanne Fjelde & Kristine Höglund, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2011, p. 149-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 24.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Migration: Refugee camps: Bangladesh2017In: Encyclopedia of women & Islamic cultures: supplement XVI / [ed] Suad Joseph, Brill Academic Publishers, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This entry focuses on women's situation in refugee camps for Rohingya refugees located in Eastern Bangladesh. It describes the persecution of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar, and their situation as refugees in Bangladesh. In particular, the entry interrogates how humanitarian aid agencies work to address gender inequality and gender violence in the refugee camps. In humanitarian aid practice, violence against Rohingya women is primarily represented and approached as a symptom of religious and cultural backwardness that needs to be addressed through the modernization of refugee subjectivities, attitudes and beliefs. As this entry demonstrates, such approaches have generated conflicts and resistance from refugees, and sometimes obstructed rather than advanced struggles for refugee women's rights.

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  • 25.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political space in refugee camps: enabling and constraining conditions for refugee agency2018In: Political participation in Asia: defining and deploying political space / [ed] Eva Hansson and Meredith L. Weiss, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 169-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of people in Asia live in refugee camps. Given this, what are the opportunities for political participation for refugees living in camps? This chapter addresses this question through an analysis of two refugee camp situations in Asia, in Thailand and Bangladesh. It examines how government policies, humanitarian aid practices, and forms of refugee mobilization and organization shape refugees' opportunities for political participation in these two contexts. The analysis of the cases demonstrates that while refugee camps are sites for repression and control, they can also become sites of resistance and political mobilization.

  • 26.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Refugee men as perpetrators, allies or troublemakers?: Emerging discourses on men and masculinities in humanitarian aid2016In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 56, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of including men and boys in order to successfully promote gender equality has been increasingly emphasized in international policymaking and governance. This article examines emerging discourses on men, masculinities and gender equality in the field of humanitarian aid to refugees. Through an analysis of key policy texts as well as interviews with humanitarian workers, three main representations of the role of refugee men in relation to the promotion of gender equality are identified. Refugee men are represented as perpetrators of violence and discrimination; as powerful gatekeepers and potential allies; and as emasculated troublemakers. These ways of conceptualizing men and masculinity are problematic in ways which significantly limit their potential for the transformation of unequal gender relations: gendered power relations are obscured; refugee men's masculinity is pathologized as “primitive”; and attempts to take the needs of men into account are often turned into an argument against the empowerment of refugee women.

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  • 27.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Refugees, global governance and the local politics of violence against women2017In: Gender, violence, refugees / [ed] Susanne Buckley-Zistel and Ulrike Krause, Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2017, p. 58-77Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores how violence against women is represented and approached in humanitarian aid to refugees. Drawing on an analysis of key humanitarian policy texts and case studies of efforts to address violence in refugee camps in Thailand and Bangladesh, the analysis demonstrates that a representation of violence against women as an expression of the 'underdevelopment' of refugee communities has gained prominence in humanitarian policy and practice. Consequently, changing the cultural norms and practices of refugees as to 'develop' them is seen as the main solution. However, this chapter shows that this approach has generated conflicts and resistance, and sometimes obstructed rather than advanced struggles for refugee women's rights.

  • 28.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Refugees, Humanitarian Aid, and Gender Equality as a Governing Tool2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sites of Repression and Resistance: Political Space in Refugee Camps in Thailand2017In: Critical Asian studies (Print), ISSN 1467-2715, E-ISSN 1472-6033, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 289-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refugee camps are frequently perceived as spaces of emergency and exception. However, they are also spaces where millions of people live their everyday lives, sometimes for extended periods of time. As such, refugee camps are political spaces where struggles over the right to influence life in the camps and shape how they are governed are continuously ongoing. In this context, what are the opportunities for political participation for refugees living in camps? How and to what extent are refugees able to carve out political space where they can engage with and affect their lives and their situations? This paper addresses these questions through an analysis of refugee camps in Thailand. Drawing on Foucauldian analytics, the analysis demonstrates how key strategies employed to govern refugees, namely spatial confinement and development interventions are also creatively subverted by refugees and appropriated as bases for resistance and political mobilization. The article provides new insights into the relationship between power and resistance, demonstrating how specific technologies of governance create opportunities for subversion, reinterpretation, and appropriation.

  • 30.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The Ideal Refugees: Gender, Islam, and the Sahrawi Politics of Survival : The Concerned Women of Buduburam: Refugee Activists and Humanitarian Dilemmas2017In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 51, no 3, p. e47-e49Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Three Approaches to Gender in Humanitarian Aid: Findings from a Study of Humanitarian Aid to Refugees in Thailand and Bangladesh2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 32.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Time to go home? The conflictual politics of diaspora return in the Burmese women's movement2019In: Asian Ethnicity, ISSN 1463-1369, E-ISSN 1469-2953, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 148-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initiation of political reforms and a peace process in Myanmar has fundamentally altered the conditions for Burmese diasporic politics, and diaspora groups that have mobilized in Myanmar’s neighbouring countries are beginning to return. This article explores how return to Myanmar is debated within the Burmese women’s movement, a significant and internationally renowned segment of the Burmese diaspora. Does return represent the fulfilment of diasporic dreams; a pragmatic choice in response to less than ideal circumstances; or a threat to the very identity and the feminist politics of the women’s movement? Contrasting these competing perspectives, the analysis offers insights into the ongoing negotiations and difficult choices involved in return, and reveals the process of return as highly conflictual and contentious. In particular, the analysis sheds light on the gendered dimensions of diaspora activism and return, demonstrating how opportunities for women's activism are challenged, debated and reshaped in relation to return.

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  • 33.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Transnationell feministisk aktivism, migration och väpnade konflikter2021In: Feministiska perspektiv på global politik / [ed] Emil Edenborg; Sofie Tornhill; Cecilia Åse, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, p. 169-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    (Un)Governable Subjects: The Limits of Refugee Participation in the Promotion of Gender Equality in Humanitarian Aid2014In: The Journal of Refugee Studies, ISSN 0951-6328, E-ISSN 1471-6925, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 42-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In humanitarian aid to refugees, participatory and community-based approaches are today strongly emphasized as the path towards more efficient protection and assistance. Participation and community mobilization are particularly constructed as a vehicle for the promotion of gender equality. This paper explores how participatory and community-based approaches are used in efforts to promote gender equality in humanitarian aid to Burmese refugees in Thailand and Bangladesh. Refugees in Bangladesh, especially women, are problematized as passive and dependent due to their alleged lack of 'community spirit' and participation. In contrast, the political activism of refugee leaders and women's organizations in Thailand is represented as problematic, illegitimate and unruly. While refugees in Bangladesh do not participate enough, it appears that the refugees in Thailand participate too much. Drawing on interviews with humanitarian workers, this paper examines this paradox through a governmentality perspective, draws out the meanings attached to the concept of participation in humanitarian policy and practice and shows how participation is employed in the government of refugees.

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  • 35.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Book Reviews editorial2021In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 358-360Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Book Reviews editorial2021In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 505-507Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Lee-Koo, Katrina
    Book Reviews editorial2021In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 656-658Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Law School, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Lee-Koo, Katrina
    Department of Politics and International Relations, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Book Reviews editorial2022In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 826-828Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Law School, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Lee-Koo, Katrina
    Department of Politics and International Relations, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Book Reviews editorial2021In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 829-831Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Law School, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Lee-Koo, Katrina
    Department of Politics and International Relations, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Book Reviews editorial2022In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 174-176Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Law School, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Lee-Koo, Katrina
    Department of Politics and International Relations, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Book Reviews editorial2022In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 329-331Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Law School, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Lee-Koo, Katrina
    Department of Politics and International Relations, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Book Reviews editorial2022In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 502-504Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Law School, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Lee-Koo, Katrina
    Department of Politics and International Relations, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Book Reviews editorial2022In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 658-660Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Law School, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Lee-Koo, Katrina
    Department of Politics and International Relations, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Book Reviews editorial2023In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 145-147Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Law School, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Türkiye.
    Lee-Koo, Katrina
    Department of Politics and International Relations, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Book Reviews editorial2023In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 551-553Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Law School, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Lee-Koo, Katrina
    Department of Politics and International Relations, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Book Reviews editorial2023In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 353-355Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Law School, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Lee-Koo, Katrina
    Department of Politics and International Relations, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Book Reviews editorial2023In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 960-962Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demir, Ebru
    Law School, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Lee-Koo, Katrina
    Politics and International Relations, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Book Reviews editorial2023In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 781-783Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ebru, Demir
    Book Reviews editorial2021In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 170-172Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hedström, Jenny
    Gender, development and legacies of war in Myanmar2021Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
12 1 - 50 of 65
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