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  • 1.
    Buttner, Barbara E.
    et al.
    Department of Food Science, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Witthoft, Cornelia M.
    Department of Food Science, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Effect of type of heat treatment of breastmilk on folate content and pattern2014In: Breastfeeding medicine, ISSN 1556-8253, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breastmilk is the recommended aliment for preterm infants. Milk banks provide donated breastmilk for the neonatal care of preterm infants when mother's own milk is not is available. To avoid pathogen transmission, donated breastmilk is heat-treated according to different procedures before administration. There is varying information on the effect of heat treatment on folate in breastmilk. Sufficient folate intake, however, is essential for normal growth and brain development. This study determined and compared the effects of different heat treatments on breastmilk folate content and pattern of individual folate forms. Materials and Methods: Donated Swedish breastmilk samples were heat-treated according to three procedures: two low temperature treatments (57 degrees C, 23 minutes; 62.5 degrees C, 12 minutes) and a rapid high temperature treatment (heating to 73 degrees C in boiling water). The folate content and pattern were determined before and after treatment by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The folate content in 38 untreated Swedish breastmilk samples was 15046nmol/L. Two different folate vitamers were detected: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (78 +/- 7%) and tetrahydrofolate (22 +/- 7%). Heat treatment affected only tetrahydrofolate stability and decreased folate content by 15-24%; however, the effects on folate content did not differ among the investigated heat treatment procedures. Conclusions: Folate losses during heat treatment of human milk were considered acceptable. Yet, native folate content of heat-treated, non-fortified breastmilk supplied only 25% of the recommended daily intake for preterm infants.

  • 2.
    Gyll, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Ridell, Karin
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Akeson, Pia Karlsland
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Vitamin D status and dental caries in healthy Swedish children2018In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 17, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vitamin D is crucial for mineralized tissue formation and immunological functions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and dental status in healthy children with vitamin D supplementation in infancy and at 6 years of age.

    Method: Eight-year-old children who had participated, in a vitamin D intervention project when they were 6 years old were invited to participate in a dental follow-up study. They had fair or darker skin complexion and represented two geographically distant parts of Sweden. 25-hydroxy vitamin D in serum had been measured at 6 years of age and after a 3-month intervention with 25, 10 or 2 (placebo) mu g of vitamin D-3 per day. Two years later, caries and enamel defects were scored, self-reported information on e.g., oral behavior, dietary habits and intake of vitamin D supplements was collected, and innate immunity peptide LL37 levels in saliva and cariogenic mutant streptococci in tooth biofilm were analyzed. The outcome variables were caries and tooth enamel defects.

    Results: Dental status was evaluated in 85 of the 206 children in the basic intervention study. Low vitamin D levels were found in 28% at baseline compared to 11% after the intervention, and 34% reported continued intake of vitamin D supplements. Logistic regression supported a weak inverse association between vitamin D status at 6 years of age and caries 2 years later (odds ratio 0.96; p = 0.024) with minor attenuation after an adjustment for potential confounders. Multivariate projection regression confirmed that insufficient vitamin D levels correlated with caries and higher vitamin D levels correlated with being caries-free. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with saliva LL37 levels.

    Conclusion: An association between vitamin D status and caries was supported, but it was not completely consistent. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with LL37 expression.

  • 3.
    Hansson, L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lind, T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Increased abdominal fat mass and high fat consumption in young school children with congenital heart disease: results from a case-control study2020In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background We have previously found that infants with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) experience growth failure despite high-energy dietary supplementation. This is a follow-up and comparison with healthy controls at 9 years of age regarding body composition and macronutrient intake, especially in relationship to the diet provided during infancy. Methods Anthropometric changes in 10 children with CHD at 12 months and at 4 and 9 years of age were analysed as Z-scores. To assess body composition and food intake at 9 years of age, a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and a 3-day food diary were completed and compared with age- and gender-matched controls using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test for matched pairs. Results Growth changes from 12 months to 9 years, converted to Z-scores for weight for height and height for age, were significantly different within the group of children with complex CHD, although no growth differences were seen in comparison with healthy controls at 9 years of age. However, the children with CHD had statistically higher abdominal fat mass index and higher daily intake of fat, particularly from saturated fatty acid in g kg(-1) compared to controls. Conclusions At 9 years of age, children with complex CHD with growth failure and high fat intake in infancy have normalised growth but increased abdominal fat mass and higher intake of saturated fatty acid compared to their peers. Nutritional monitoring in early childhood may detect unhealthy diet quality and prevent later health risks in this group.

  • 4.
    Hansson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Fluid restriction negatively affects energy intake and growth in very low birthweight infants with haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 11, p. 1985-1992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: We explored if fluid restriction in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants with a haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) affected energy and protein intakes and growth.

    Methods: Retrospectively, we identified 90 VLBW infants that were admitted to Umea University Hospital, Sweden, between 2009 and 2012: 42 with and 48 without haemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA). Anthropometric, fluid, energy and protein intake data during the first 28 days of life were expressed as z‐scores.

    Results: In the 42 infants diagnosed with hsPDA, fluid intake was restricted after diagnosis, resulting in a decrease in energy and protein intake. No decrease was observed in the other 48 infants in the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that the z‐score of weight change depended on both ductus arteriosus status and energy intake; thus, infants with hsPDA did not grow as expected with the energy provided to them.

    Conclusion: Energy and protein intake was diminished in prematurely born infants with hsPDA when fluid was restricted after diagnosis. The initial reduction in intakes may have contributed to the lower postnatal growth observed in these infants.

  • 5.
    Hansson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Stecksén-Blicks, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Dietary intake in infants with complex congenital heart disease: a case-control study on macro- and micronutrient intake, meal frequency and growth2016In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Children with severe congenital heart disease (CHD) need considerable nutritional support to reach normal growth. The actual intake of macro- and micronutrients in outpatient CHD infants over a 6-month period in infancy is not described in the literature. The present study aimed to prospectively investigate the distribution between macro- and micronutrient intake, meal frequency and growth in children with CHD.

    METHODS: At 6, 9 and 12 months of age, a 3-day food diary and anthropometric data were collected in 11 infants with severe CHD and 22 healthy age- and feeding-matched controls. Macro- and micronutrient intake, meal frequency and growth were calculated.

    RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, CHD infants had a statistically significantly higher intake of fat at 9 months of age (4.8 versus 3.6 g kg(-1) day(-1) ), a higher percentage energy (E%) from fat, (40.6% versus 34.5%) and a lower E% from carbohydrates (46.1% versus 39.6%) at 12 months of age, and a lower intake of iron (7.22 versus 9.28 mg day(-1) ) at 6 months of age. Meal frequency was significantly higher at 6 and 9 months of age (P < 0.01). Mean Z-score weight for height, weight for age and body mass index for age were significant lower (P < 0.01) at all time points.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite a higher intake of energy from fat and a higher meal frequency, the intake does not meet the needs for growth, and the results may indicate a low intake of micronutrients in CHD infants.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Venables, Michelle
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Active Image-Assisted Food Records in Comparison to Regular Food Records: A Validation Study against Doubly Labeled Water in 12-Month-Old Infants2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 1904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overreporting of dietary intake in infants is a problem when using food records (FR), distorting possible relationships between diet and health outcomes. Image-assisted dietary assessment may improve the accuracy, but to date, evaluation in the pediatric setting is limited. The aim of the study was to compare macronutrient and energy intake by using an active image-assisted five-day FR against a regular five-day FR, and to validate image-assistance with total energy expenditure (TEE), was measured using doubly labeled water. Participants in this validation study were 22 healthy infants randomly selected from the control group of a larger, randomized intervention trial. The parents reported the infants’ dietary intake, and supplied images of main course meals taken from standardized flat-surfaced plates before and after eating episodes. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated separately using regular FR and image-assisted FRs. The mean (± standard deviations) energy intake (EI) was 3902 ± 476 kJ/day from the regular FR, and 3905 ± 476 kJ/day from the FR using active image-assistance. The mean EI from main-course meals when image-assistance was used did not differ (1.7 ± 55 kJ, p = 0.89) compared to regular FRs nor did the intake of macronutrients. Compared to TEE, image-assisted FR overestimated EI by 10%. Without validation, commercially available software to aid in the volume estimations, food item identification, and automation of the image processing, image-assisted methods remain a more costly and burdensome alternative to regular FRs in infants. The image-assisted method did, however, identify leftovers better than did regular FR, where such information is usually not readily available. View Full-Text

  • 7.
    Johansson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Lindberg, Lene
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Protein-Reduced Complementary Foods Based on Nordic Ingredients Combined with Systematic Introduction of Taste Portions Increase Intake of Fruits and Vegetables in 9 Month Old Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods but under-consumed among infants and children. Approaches to increase their intake are urgently needed. This study investigated the effects of a systematic introduction of taste portions and a novel protein-reduced complementary diet based on Nordic foods on fruit and vegetable intake, growth and iron status to 9 months of age. Healthy, term infants (n = 250) were recruited and randomly allocated to either a Nordic diet group (NG) or a conventional diet group (CG). Infants were solely breast- or formula-fed at study start. From 4 to 6 months of age, the NG followed a systematic taste portions schedule consisting of home-made purées of Nordic produce for 24 days. Subsequently, the NG was supplied with baby food products and recipes of homemade baby foods based on Nordic ingredients but with reduced protein content compared to the CG. The CG was advised to follow current Swedish recommendations on complementary foods. A total of 232 participants (93%) completed the study. The NG had significantly higher intake of fruits and vegetables than the CG at 9 months of age; 225 ± 109 g/day vs. 156 ± 77 g/day (p < 0.001), respectively. Energy intake was similar, but protein intake was significantly lower in the NG (−26%, p < 0.001) compared to the CG. This lower protein intake was compensated for by higher intake of carbohydrate from fruits and vegetables. No significant group differences in growth or iron status were observed. The intervention resulted in significantly higher consumption of fruits and vegetables in infants introduced to complementary foods based on Nordic ingredients.

  • 8. Johansson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Nordström, Lisbeth
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lustfyllda mellanmål: för svårt sjuka barn2011Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9. Karlsand-Åkesson, Pia
    et al.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    D-vitaminbrist hos barn: vanligare än vi trott2012In: Barnläkaren, ISSN 1651-0534, no 5, p. 15-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10. Karlsland Åkeson, Pia
    et al.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Silfverdal, Sven-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Serum Vitamin D Depends Less on Latitude Than on Skin Color and Dietary Intake During Early Winter in Northern Europe2016In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 643-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if dietary vitamin D intake is adequate for sufficient vitamin D status during early winter in children living in Sweden, irrespective of latitude or skin color.

    METHODS: As part of a prospective, comparative, two-center intervention study in northern (63°N) and southern (55°N) Sweden, dietary intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH) D), associated laboratory variables, and socio-demographic data were studied in 5 to 7-year-old children with fair and dark skin in November and December.

    RESULTS: 206 children with fair/dark skin were included, 44/41 and 64/57 children in northern and southern Sweden, respectively. Dietary vitamin D intake was higher in northern than southern Sweden (p=0.001), irrespective of skin color, partly due to higher consumption of fortified foods, but only met 50-70% of national recommendations (10 μg/day). S-25(OH) D was higher in northern than southern Sweden, in children with fair (67 vs. 59 nmol/L; p < 0.05) and dark skin (56 vs. 42 nmol/L; p < 0.001). S-25(OH) D was lower in dark than fair skinned children at both sites (p < 0.01), and below 50 nmol/L in 40 and 75% of dark-skinned children in northern and southern Sweden, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient vitamin D status was common during early winter in children living in Sweden, particularly in those with dark skin. Although, higher dietary vitamin D intake in northern than southern Sweden attenuated the effects of latitude, a northern country of living combined with darker skin and vitamin D intake below recommendations are important risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency.

  • 11.
    Karlsson Videhult, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    West, Christina E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Impact of probiotics during weaning on the metabolic and inflammatory profile: follow-up at school age2015In: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, ISSN 0963-7486, E-ISSN 1465-3478, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 686-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesised that feeding the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 (LF19) (dep. nr LMG P-17806) during weaning would program the metabolic and inflammatory profile and studied its association with previously assessed body composition. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 179 infants were randomised to daily feeding of cereals with or without LF19 10 8 CFU from 4 to 13 months of age. At age 8-9 years, 120 children were reassessed. Using high-sensitivity multiplex immunoassay technology and ELISA, we found that overweight/obese children had increased plasma C-peptide, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) after overnight fasting compared with normal weight children, independently of LF19. After excluding the obese, leptin and hsCRP were still increased, revealing an aberrant metabolic and inflammatory state already in overweight, pre-pubertal children. Higher body mass index z-score, sagittal abdominal diameter, truncal and total body fat % were associated with an aberrant metabolic and inflammatory profile, emphasising the need for early prevention strategies although no programming effect of LF19 was observed.

  • 12.
    Karlsson Videhult, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    West, Christina E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Probiotics during weaning: a follow-up study on effects on body composition and metabolic markers at school age2015In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 355-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: An aberrant gut microbiome has been suggested to contribute to the worldwide epidemic of obesity. In animal models, the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 (LF19) induced upregulation of genes involved in energy homoeostasis, reduced body fat and altered the serum (S) lipoprotein profile. In our previous report, feeding LF19 to infants during weaning impacted the global plasma metabolome. LF19 lowered palmitoleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid associated with hypertriglyceridemia and increased visceral adiposity. Therefore, we assessed if feeding LF19 from 4 to 13 months of age would have long-term effects on body composition, growth and metabolic markers.

    METHODS: Of 179 children included in our baseline study, 120 entered the follow-up at 8-9 years of age, n = 58 in the probiotic and n = 62 in the placebo group. Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometrics of the child and accompanying parent(s) were assessed. S-lipids, insulin, glucose and transaminases were determined after overnight fasting.

    RESULTS: LF19 did not affect body mass index z-score, sagittal abdominal diameter, fat-free mass, fat mass index, truncal fat %, android or gynoid fat % and had no long-term impact on any of the assessed metabolic markers (p > 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Feeding LF19 during infancy did not modulate body composition, growth or any of the assessed metabolic markers at school age. The steady increase in probiotic products targeting infants and children calls for long-term follow-up of initiated probiotic intervention studies.

  • 13.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Johansson, Ulrica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lindberg, Lene
    Lonnerdal, Bo
    Tennefors, Catharina
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Study protocol: optimized complementary feeding study (OTIS): a randomized controlled trial of the impact of a protein-reduced complementary diet based on Nordic foods2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: What we eat as infants and children carries long-term consequences. Apart from breastfeeding, the composition of the complementary diet, i.e. the foods given to the infant during the transition from breast milk/infant formula to regular family foods affects the child's future health. A high intake of protein, a low intake of fruits, vegetables and fish and an unfavorable distribution between polyunsaturated and saturated fats are considered to be associate with health risks, e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia later in life.

    Methods: In a randomized, controlled study from 6 to 18months of age we will compare the currently recommended, Swedish complementary diet to one based on Nordic foods, i.e. an increased intake of fruits, berries, vegetables, tubers, whole-grain and game, and a lower intake of sweets, dairy, meat and poultry, with lower protein content (30% decrease), a higher intake of vegetable fats and fish and a systematic introduction of fruits and greens. The main outcomes are body composition (fat and fat-free mass measured with deuterium), metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers (associated with the amount of body fat) in blood and urine, gut microbiota (thought to be the link between early diet, metabolism and diseases such as obesity and insulin resistance) and blood pressure.We will also measure the participants' energy and nutrient intake, eating behavior and temperament through validated questionnaires, acceptance of new and unfamiliar foods through video-taped test meals and assessment of cognitive development, which we believe can be influenced through an increased intake of fish and milk fats, notably milk fat globule membranes (MFGM).

    Discussion: If the results are what we expect, i.e. improved body composition and a less obesogenic, diabetogenic and inflammatory metabolism and gut microbiota composition, a more sustainable nutrient intake for future health and an increased acceptance of healthy foods, they will have a profound impact on the dietary recommendations to infants in Sweden and elsewhere, their eating habits later in life and subsequently their long-term health.

    Trial registration: NCT02634749. Registration date 18 December 2015.

  • 14. McClorry, Shannon
    et al.
    Slupsky, Carolyn M.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Akeson, Pia Karlsland
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in Swedish children may be negatively impacted by BMI and serum fructose2020In: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, ISSN 0955-2863, E-ISSN 1873-4847, Vol. 75, article id 108251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In regions where sunlight exposure is limited, dietary vitamin D intake becomes important for maintaining status. However, Swedish children have been shown to have deficient or marginal status during the winter months even if the recommended dietary intake is met. Since low vitamin D status has been associated with several disease states, this study investigated the metabolic changes associated with improved vitamin D status due to supplementation.

    During the 3 winter months, 5-7-year-old children (n=170) in northern (limed, 63 degrees N) and southern (Malmo, 55 degrees N) Sweden were supplemented daily with 2 (placebo), 10 or 25 mu g of vitamin D. BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ), S-25(OH)D concentrations, insulin concentrations and the serum metabolome were assessed at baseline and follow-up.

    S-25(OH)D concentrations increased significantly in both supplementation groups (P<.001). Only arginine and isopropanol concentrations exhibited significant associations with improvements in S-25(OH)D. Furthermore, the extent to which S-25(OH)D increased was correlated with a combination of baseline BAZ and the change in serum fructose concentrations from baseline to follow up (P=.012). In particular, the change in S-25(OH)D concentrations was negatively correlated (P=.030) with the change in fructose concentrations for subjects with BAZ >= 0 and consuming at least 20 mu g vitamin D daily. These results suggest that although the metabolic changes associated with improved vitamin D status are small, the effectiveness of dietary supplementation may be influenced by serum fructose concentrations.

  • 15.
    Persson, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Nordström, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Winberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    West, Christina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Vitamin D deficiency at the Arctic Circle a study in food-allergic adolescents and controls2013In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 102, no 6, p. 644-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim At the extremes of latitude, UVB intensity is insufficient for adequate vitamin D synthesis in winter. Fatty fish, vitamin D enriched milk, margarine and eggs are main dietary sources of vitamin D. Their elimination may increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency. The aim was to assess vitamin D status in food-allergic adolescents eliminating milk, egg and/or fish compared with adolescents on normal diets. Methods In winter, vitamin D intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in 20 food-allergic adolescents and 42 controls in the population-based Obstructive Lung Disease In Northern Sweden (OLIN) cohort studies. Vitamin D supplementation was queried. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] and S-parathormone (S-PTH) levels were determined. Results Mean (SD) dietary vitamin D intake was 7.9 (3.6) g/day in allergic adolescents and 7.8 (3.4) in controls (p>0.05). Mean (SD) S-25(OH)D levels in supplement consumers were 44 (18) nmol/L compared with 35 (10) in non-consumers (p=0.03). S-25(OH)D and S-PTH levels were similar in food-allergic adolescents and controls (p>0.05). Eighty-two percentage had deficient S-25(OH)D levels <50nmol/L, and none reached levels >75nmol/L. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was as common in food-allergic adolescents as in controls although the vitamin D intake met national recommendations. Large-scale studies on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this region are needed.

  • 16.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lundgren, Pia
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellström, Ann
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Low energy intake during the first 4 weeks of life increases the risk for severe retinopathy of prematurity in extremely preterm infants2016In: Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, ISSN 1359-2998, E-ISSN 1468-2052, Vol. 101, no 2, p. F108-F113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Poor weight gain during the first weeks of life in preterm infants is closely associated with the risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and insufficient nutrition might be an important contributing factor. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of energy and macronutrient intakes during the first four weeks of life on the risk for severe ROP.

    Study design: Population-based study including all Swedish extremely preterm infants born before 27 gestational weeks during a 3-year period. Each infant was classified according to the maximum stage of ROP in either eye as assessed prospectively until full retinal vascularization. Detailed daily data of actual intakes of enteral and parenteral nutrition as well as growth data were obtained from hospital records.

    Results: Of the included 498 infants, 172 (34.5 %) had severe ROP (stages 3-5) and 96 (19.3 %) were treated. Energy and macronutrient intakes were less than recommended and the infants showed severe postnatal growth failure. Higher intakes of energy, fat and carbohydrates, but not protein, were significantly associated with a lower risk of severe ROP. Adjusting for morbidity, an increased energy intake of 10kcal/kg/d was associated with a 24 % decrease in severe ROP (p<0.01).

    Conclusions: We showed that energy intake during the first four weeks of life was an independent risk factor for severe ROP. This implies that provision of adequate energy from parenteral and enteral sources during the first four weeks of life may be an effective method for reducing the risk of severe ROP in extremely preterm infants.

  • 17.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Norman, Mikael
    Engström, Eva
    Hellström, Ann
    Fellman, Vineta
    Olhager, Elisabeth
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Micronutrient Intakes Affect Early Growth in Extremely Preterm Infants: Preliminary Results from a Swedish Cohort2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Extremely preterm infants generally experience postnatal growth failure. It is still unclear if this is related to micronutrient intakes.

    Aim: To investigate the effect of micronutrient intakes (calcium, zinc, iron, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, folate and vitamin B12) on growth during the first 28 days of life in extremely preterm infants.

    Method: From the EXPRESS cohort (all infants born < 27 gestational weeks between 2004-2007 in Sweden), those who survived the first 28 days were included (n=524). Daily parenteral and enteral intakes and anthropometric measurements were retrieved from hospital records.

    Results: Preliminary analyses of data from 333 infants (mean±SD gestational age 25.2±1.0 weeks, birth weight 753±168g) showed that macronutrient intakes were lower than recommended (energy 98±13kcal/kg/day, protein 2.9±0.4g/kg/day). Infants showed postnatal growth failure: mean standard deviation scores decreased by 2.2 for weight, 2.3 for length and 1.4 for head circumference. Intakes of micronutrients were generally low, e.g. adjusted enteral intakes of calcium were 66.6±21.4 mg/kg/day. The exception was iron, with a high parenteral intake of 2.7±1.6 mg/kg/day, mainly from blood transfusions. Adjusting for protein intake and other confounders, calcium intakes were positively correlated with head growth (r=+0.19, p=0.006) and iron intakes were negatively correlated with length gain (r=-0.18, p=0.009).

    Conclusions: Low calcium intakes and high iron intakes were associated with poor growth with regard to head circumference and length, respectively. If these results are confirmed, optimized micronutrient intakes may improve early growth in extremely preterm infants.

  • 18.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Intakes of micronutrients are associated with early growth in extremely preterm infants2016In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 885-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to describe micronutrient intakes and explore possible correlations to growth during the first 70 days of life in extremely preterm infants.

    Methods: Retrospective population-based study including extremely preterm infants (<27 weeks) born in Sweden during 2004-2007. Detailed nutritional and growth data were derived from hospital records.

    Results: Included infants (n = 531) had a mean gestational age of 25 weeks and 2 days and a mean birth weight of 765 g. Estimated and adjusted intakes of calcium, phosphorus magnesium, zinc, copper, selenium, vitamin D, and folate were lower than estimated requirements, whereas intakes of iron, vitamin K, and several water-soluble vitamins were higher than estimated requirements. High iron intakes were explained by blood transfusions. During the first 70 days of life, taking macronutrient intakes and severity of illness into account, folate intakes were positively associated with weight (P = 0.001) and length gain (P = 0.003) and iron intake was negatively associated with length gain (P = 0.006).

    Conclusions: Intakes of several micronutrients were inconsistent with recommendations. Even when considering macronutrient intakes and severity of illness, several micronutrients were independent predictors of early growth. Low intake of folate was associated with poor weight and length gain. Furthermore, high iron supply was associated with poor growth in length and head circumference. Optimized early micronutrient supply may improve early growth in extremely preterm infants.

  • 19.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Intakes of micronutrients is associated with early growth in extremely preterm infants: a population-based studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To describe micronutrient intakes and explore possible correlations to growth during the first 70 days of life in extremely preterm infants.

    Methods: Retrospective population-based study including extremely preterm infants (<27 weeks) born in Sweden during 2004-2007. Detailed nutritional and growth data were derived from hospital records.

    Results: Included infants (n=531), had a mean gestational age of 25 weeks+2 days and a mean birth weight of 765 g. Intakes of calcium, phosphorus magnesium, zinc, copper, iodine, vitamin D and folate were lower than estimated requirements while intakes of iron, vitamin K and several water-soluble vitamins were higher than estimated requirements. High iron intakes were explained by blood transfusions. During the first 70 days of life, taking macronutrient intakes and severity of illness into account, folate intakes were positively correlated with weight (p=0.001) and length gain (p=0.003) and iron intake was negatively associated with length gain (p=0.006).

    Conclusions: Intakes of many micronutrients were insufficient. Even when considering macronutrient intakes and severity of illness, several micronutrients were independent predictors of early growth. Low intakes of folate were associated with poor weight and length growth. Further, high iron intakes were associated with poor length and head circumference growth. Optimized early micronutrient intakes may improve early growth in extremely preterm infants.

  • 20.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Engström, Eva
    Fellman, Vineta
    Hellström, Ann
    Källén, Karin
    Norman, Mikael
    Olhager, Elisabeth
    Serenius, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Nutrient intakes independently affect growth in extremely preterm infants: results from a population-based study2013In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 102, no 11, p. 1067-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To explore associations between energy and macronutrient intakes and early growth in extremely low gestational age (ELGA) infants.

    Methods Retrospective population-based study of all ELGA infants (<27weeks) born in Sweden during 2004-2007. Detailed data on nutrition and anthropometric measurements from birth to 70days of postnatal age were retrieved from hospital records.

    Results Study infants (n=531) had a meanSD gestational age of 25.3 +/- 1.1weeks and a birth weight of 765 +/- 170g. Between 0 and 70 days, average daily energy and protein intakes were 120 +/- 11kcal/kg and 3.2 +/- 0.4g/kg, respectively. During this period, standard deviation scores for weight, length and head circumference decreased by 1.4, 2.3 and 0.7, respectively. Taking gestational age, baseline anthropometrics and severity of illness into account, lower energy intake correlated with lower gain in weight (r=+0.315, p<0.001), length (r=+0.215, p<0.001) and head circumference (r=+0.218, p<0.001). Protein intake predicted growth in all anthropometric outcomes, and fat intake was positively associated with head circumference growth.

    Conclusion Extremely low gestational age infants received considerably less energy and protein than recommended and showed postnatal growth failure. Nutrient intakes were independent predictors of growth even after adjusting for severity of illness. These findings suggest that optimized energy and macronutrient intakes may prevent early growth failure in these infants.

  • 21.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Intake and macronutrient content in human milk given to extremely preterm infantsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Human milk (HM) is the preferred basis of nutrition for infants, including those born prematurely. Information on macronutrient content in HM is necessary to optimize nutritional support of preterm infants.

    Objectives: To describe the types and amounts of enteral feeds given to Swedish extremely preterm infants during hospitalization and to investigate the energy and macronutrient content in HM given to these infants.

    ­Methods: A population-based study of Swedish extremely preterm infants (n=586) born before 27 gestational weeks. Data on ingested volumes of different milks during hospitalization and analyses of macronutrient content in HM samples were obtained from hospital records. Nutritional content of HM was determined by mid-infrared spectrophotometry analysis.

    Results: During the first four weeks of life, 99% of the infants were exclusively fed HM and at four weeks of life, 70% of the infants received only mother’s own milk (MOM). Nutritional content in 821 MOM samples were analyzed. Protein content in MOM decreased significantly from 2.2g to 1.2g/100 mL during the first 112 postpartum days, while fat and energy content were highly variable within and between MOM samples. Additionally, 354 samples of donor milk were analyzed. Content of protein, fat and energy in pooled donor milk (n=129) were lower compared to single donor milk.

    Conclusions: Swedish extremely preterm infants receive MOM to a large extent during hospitalization. Protein, carbohydrates and energy in MOM changed significantly with time. Weekly analyses of MOM during the first month of lactation would allow a more individualized nutritional support to these vulnerable infants.

  • 22.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Intake and macronutrient content of human milk given to extremely preterm infants2014In: Journal of Human Lactation, ISSN 0890-3344, E-ISSN 1552-5732, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 442-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Human milk (HM) is the preferred basis of nutrition for infants, including those born prematurely. Information on HM macronutrient content is necessary to optimize nutritional support of preterm infants. Objectives: This study aimed to describe the types and amounts of enteral feeds given to Swedish extremely preterm infants during hospitalization and to investigate the energy and macronutrient contents in HM given to these infants. Methods: A population-based study of Swedish extremely preterm infants (n = 586) born before 27 gestational weeks was conducted. Data on ingested volumes of different milk during hospitalization and analyses of macronutrient content in HM samples were obtained from hospital records. Nutritional content of HM was determined by mid-infrared spectrophotometry analysis. Results: During the first 4 weeks of life, 99% of the infants were exclusively fed HM, and at 4 weeks of life, 70% of the infants received only mother’s own milk (MOM). Nutritional content in 821 MOM samples was analyzed. Protein content in MOM decreased significantly from 2.2 to 1.2 g/100 mL during the first 112 postpartum days, whereas fat and energy content were highly variable within and between MOM samples. In addition, 354 samples of donor milk were analyzed. Content of protein, fat, and energy in pooled donor milk (n = 129) was lower compared to single donor milk. Conclusion: Swedish extremely preterm infants receive MOM to a large extent during hospitalization. Protein, carbohydrates, and energy in MOM changed significantly with time. Weekly analyses of MOM during the first month of lactation would allow more individualized nutritional support for these vulnerable infants.

  • 23. Söderberg, Lotta
    et al.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Åkeson, Pia Karlsland
    Sandström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children2017In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5-7-year-old children (n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 mu g/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and -4.6 mu g/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and -865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children.

  • 24.
    Videhult, Frida K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    West, Christina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Body mass but not vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral content and density in young school children in northern Sweden2016In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, article id 30045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High latitude of residence where sun exposure is limited affects vitamin D status. Although vitamin D levels have been associated with poor bone health, cut-off values for optimising bone health are yet to be decided. Objective: To assess vitamin D intake and status among young school children living at latitude 63-64 degrees N, in northern Sweden and to examine the association between vitamin D status and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Design: In a cross-sectional study, diet was assessed by a 4-day food diary and a food frequency questionnaire in 8- to 9-year-old children (n = 120). Energy, vitamin D, and calcium intakes were calculated. Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer for 7 days. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25[OH]D) levels were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (n = 113). BMC and BMD were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Height and weight were measured by standard procedures and BMI z-score was calculated using WHO AnthroPlus programme. Results: The majority of children, 91%, did not reach the recommended vitaminDintake of 7.5 mu g/day and 50% had insufficient S-25[OH]D levels defined as <50 nmol/l. The highest concentrations of S-25[OH]D were observed during the summer months (p = 0.01). Body mass (p < 0.01) but not S-25[OH]D was associated with measures of BMC and BMD. Furthermore, boys had higher total BMC (p = 0.01), total body less head BMC (p = 0.02), fat free mass (p < 0.01), and a higher degree of physical activity (p = 0.01) compared to girls. Conclusions: Body mass was related to BMC and BMD measures in a population of prepubertal school children living at high latitudes in Sweden. Despite insufficient S-25[OH]D levels and low vitamin D intake, this did not appear to affect bone parameters. Prospective studies with repeated assessment of vitamin D status are needed to examine cut-off values for optimising bone health.

  • 25. Åkeson, Pia Karlsland
    et al.
    Åkesson, Kristina E
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Silfverdal, Sven-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Vitamin D Intervention and Bone: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Fair- and Dark-skinned Children at Northern Latitudes2018In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 388-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate vitamin D status and effects of vitamin D intervention on bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in children with fair and dark skin in Sweden during winter.

    Methods: In a 2-center prospective double-blinded randomized intervention study 5- to 7-year-old children (n = 206) with fair and dark skin in Sweden (55 degrees N-63 degrees N) received daily vitamin D supplements of 25 mu g, 10 mu g, or placebo (2 mu g) during 3 winter months. We measured BMD and BMC for total body (TB), total body less head (TBLH), femoral neck (FN), and spine at baseline and 4 months later. Intake of vitamin D and calcium, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25 [OH]D), and related parameters were analyzed.

    Results: Despite lower S-25(OH)D in dark than fair-skinned children, BMD of TB (P = 0.012) and TBLH (P = 0.002) and BMC of TBLH (P = 0.04) were higher at baseline and follow-up in those with dark skin. Delta (Delta) BMD and BMC of TB and TBLH did not differ between intervention and placebo groups, but FN-BMC increased more among dark-skinned children in the 25 mu g (P = 0.038) and 10 mu g (P = 0.027) groups compared to placebo. We found no associations between Delta S-25(OH)D, P-parathyroid hormone, P-alkaline phosphatase, and Delta BMD and BMC, respectively.

    Conclusions: BMD and BMC remained higher in dark- than fair-skinned children despite lower vitamin D status. Even though no difference in general was found in BMD or BMC after vitamin D intervention, the increase in FN-BMC in dark-skinned children may suggest an influence on bone in those with initially insufficient vitamin D status.

  • 26.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Glucos galactos malabsorbtion (GGM)2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Health implications of dietary intake in infancy and early childhood2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Swedish children are the healthiest in Europe. Through regular visits to well-baby clinics, infants and young children are checked and parents given information and advice on diet and other relevant matters for their child. For a long time, adequate nutrition during infancy and childhood has been focused on encouraging proper nutrition, preventing malnutrition and deficiency states, and obtaining optimal growth. Today, malnutrition and deficiency states in infants and children are rare. But other public health problems have arisen. Nutrition early in life is now thought to influence health and diseases even in adulthood. Thus promotion of a healthy diet in early life is important for preventing public health diseases such as iron deficiency, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and dental caries.

    Aims: This study investigates health implications of dietary intake in infancy and early childhood. More specific focus was on the associations between dietary fat intake and serum lipid levels in infants, early dietary intake, iron status, dental caries, and Body Mass Index (BMI) at 4 years of age. In addition, hereditary factors and changes over time were evaluated.

    Methods: Before 6 month of age, 300 healthy infants were recruited from well-baby clinics in Umeå. This thesis is based on secondary analysis of a prospective study in these infants run from 6-18 months and a follow-up of 127 of the children at 4 years. Between 6-18 months and at 4 years, dietary intakes were assessed, anthropometric measures performed, and venous blood samples taken. At 4 years, a dental examination was also performed and anthropometric data and blood samples were collected from parents and included in the study.

    Results: All but two infants were ever breastfed and at 6 months 73% were still breastfed. The quality of dietary fat was not within national recommendations. At 4 years, intake of vitamin D and selenium were below and intake of sugar and sweet products above the recommendations. In girls, but not boys, higher polyunsaturated fatty acid intake was associated with lower levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels. Iron status of the children was generally good and no child had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Children’s haemoglobin (Hb) levels tracked from infancy to 4 years and correlated with their mother’s Hb. Fortified infant products and meat were important sources of iron at both 12 months and 4 years. Children with frequent intake of cheese had less caries in this population with low caries prevalence. We found higher protein intake over time to be associated with higher Body Mass Index (BMI) at 4 years and high BMI at 4 years was associated with high BMI at 6 mo. There was also an association between the BMI of the child and that of its parents.

    Conclusions: BMI of the child and parents (especially the father), and iron status at 6 months were predictors of these variables at 4 years of age. The quality rather than the quantity of dietary fat in infancy affected serum lipid values. Even in a healthy and well-nourished group of Swedish infants and young children, quality of food and intake of nutrients are important for current and later health of the child.

  • 28.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Studiebesök på the Royal London Hospital2008In: Dietistaktuellt, ISSN 1102-9285, Vol. XIX, no 2, p. 24-25/27Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Fett i barnets kost: kvalitet minst lika viktigt som kvantitet2011In: Nordisk Nutrition, ISSN 1654-8337, no 1, p. 31-34Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels in 4-year-old children are associated with parental levels and track over time2011In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 463-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Objectives: There are only a few studies linking dietary fat intake to serum lipid levels in young children. Our objective was to prospectively evaluate serum lipid levels from infancy to early childhood, and to explore their possible association with dietary, growth and parental factors.

    Subjects/Methods: Children (n=127) followed from early infancy were examined for serum lipid levels, anthropometry and dietary intake at 4 years of age. We also studied possible associations with parental anthropometric and blood biochemistry data collected from 122 mothers' and 118 fathers' when children were 4 years of age.

    Results: Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio (apo B/apo A-1) showed significant tracking from infancy to 4 years. Furthermore, children's TC levels correlated with paternal TC level from 6 months to 4 years, but with maternal only at 4 years. In girls, both LDLC and HDLC correlated with parental LDLC and HDLC. In all children, intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) was higher than recommended, and in 90% of the children polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake was lower than recommended.

    Conclusions: Serum lipid levels values tracked from infancy to 4 years and were associated with parental values. Higher serum lipid levels at 4 years compared with 6-18 months of age may result from changes in the quality of dietary fat. We therefore suggest that intake of dietary fat in 4-year-old children should be more focused on quality. Furthermore, as there were strong associations between the child and parental serum lipid levels this supports the view that family-based rather than individual intervention is preferable.

  • 31.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    BMI at 4 years of age is associated with previous and current protein intake and with paternal BMI2010In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 138-145Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:To evaluate possible associations between body mass index (BMI) at 4 years of age, current and previous dietary intakes and parental BMI.Methods:A follow-up of dietary intake and anthropometry in 127 4-year-old children corresponding to 54% of children who completed an initial intervention study at 18 months of age.Results:Fourteen percent of the girls and 13% of the boys were overweight (age-adjusted BMI>/=25) and 2% of the girls and 3% of the boys were obese (age-adjusted BMI>/=30). Thirty-four percent and 9% of the fathers and 19 and 7% of the mothers were overweight and obese, respectively. BMI at 6-18 months was a strong predictor of BMI at 4 years. Univariate regression analyses revealed that intake of protein in particular, and also of total energy and carbohydrates at 17/18 months and at 4 years, was positively associated with BMI at 4 years. Although BMI at 6-18 months was the strongest predictor of BMI at 4 years, in the final multivariate models of the child's BMI, protein intake at 17-18 months and at 4 years, energy intake at 4 years and the father's-but not the mother's-BMI were also independent contributing factors.Conclusions:Among these healthy children, BMI at 4 years of age tracked from 6 to 18 months of age and were associated with previous and current protein intake as well as parental BMI, particularly that of the father.

  • 32.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Dietary fat in infancy should be more focused on quality than on quantity2008In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 62, no 9, p. 1058-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The primary aim was to assess, the association of the quantity and quality of dietary fat intake from 6 to 12 months of age and serum lipids at 12 months.

    Subjects/Methods: Three hundred healthy term Swedish infants were recruited in a longitudinal prospective study at the age of 6 months; 276 remained in the study at 12 months. Food records and anthropometric data were collected monthly from 6 to 12 months; serum lipids were analysed at 6 and 12 months.

    Results: Swedish infants had a total fat intake within the Nordic recommendations, but intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was low (5.6 percent of total energy (E%)) and intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) was high (15.1 E%). Higher PUFA intake was associated with lower total serum cholesterol (TC, B=−0.13, P=0.003), lower low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, B=−0.12, P=0.004) and apolipoprotein B (B=−0.03) (P=0.034) in girls but not in boys. When data from the present study were compared to data from similar studies in Finland and Iceland, it appears that the quality of the dietary fat has greater impact on serum lipid levels than the quantity of fat in the diet.

    Conclusions: Higher PUFA and lower SAFA intakes may reduce TC and LDL-C early in life, particularly in girls. Further, with respect to lowering serum lipid concentrations in early childhood it seems appropriate to set focus on fat quality rather than the quantity.

  • 33.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Iron status and its relations to diet, growth and heredity in 4-years old, well-nourished Swedish children2007In: European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Bäckman, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Diet intake and caries prevalence in four-year-old children living in a low-prevalence country.2007In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventive measures have dramatically decreased the prevalence of dental caries in children. However, risk factors for the disease in children living in low-prevalence areas remain elusive. In the present study we evaluated associations between dental caries, saliva levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, and diet with special emphasis on the intake of fermentable carbohydrates and dairy products in 4-year-old children living in an area where the overall caries prevalence was low. Dietary intake was recorded in 234 infants as part of the Study of Infant Nutrition in Umea, Sweden (SINUS). Of these the parents of 124 children gave consent to participate in a follow-up at 4 years of age. Dietary intake, height and weight, dental caries, oral hygiene, including tooth brushing habits, presence of plaque and gingival inflammation, fluoride habits and numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in saliva were recorded. Using multivariate stepwise logistic regression, caries experience was negatively associated with intake frequency of cheese (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.44-0.98) and positively associated with the salivary level of mutans streptococci (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.21-2.03). Caries experience was not correlated with intake frequency or amounts of carbohydrate-containing foods, with any other particular food, or with daily intake of energy, carbohydrate or any other macro- or micronutrient. We conclude that cheese intake may have a caries-protective effect in childhood populations where the overall caries prevalence and caries experience are low and the children are regularly exposed to fluoride from toothpaste.

  • 35.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Silfverdal, Sven-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Karlsland Åkeson, Pia
    Increased vitamin D intake differentiated according to skin color is needed to meet requirements in young Swedish children during winter: a double-blind randomized clinical trial2017In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dark skin and low exposure to sunlight increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency in children. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the amount of vitamin D needed to ascertain that most children >4 y of age attain sufficient serum25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH) D; i.e., >= 50 nmol/L] during winter regardless of latitude and skin color. Design: In a longitudinal, double-blind, randomized, food-based intervention study, 5- to 7-y-old children from northern (638 degrees N) and southern (558 degrees N) Sweden with fair (n = 108) and dark (n = 98) skin were included. Children, stratified by skin color by using Fitzpa-trick's definition, were randomly assigned to receive milk-based vitamin D-3 supplements that provided 2 (placebo), 10, or 25 mu g/d during 3 winter months. Results: Mean daily vitamin D intake increased from 6 to 17 mu g and 26 mu g in the intervention groups supplemented with 10 and 25 mu g, respectively. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 90.2% (95% CI: 81.1%, 99.3%) of fair-skinned children randomly assigned to supplementation of 10 mu g/d attained sufficient concentrations, whereas 25 mu g/d was needed in dark-skinned children to reach sufficiency in 95.1% (95% CI: 88.5%, 100%). In children adherent to the study product, 97% (95% CI: 91.3%, 100%) and 87.9% (95% CI: 76.8%, 99%) of fair-and dark-skinned children, respectively, achieved sufficient concentrations if supplemented with 10 mu g/d. By using 95% prediction intervals for 30 and 50 nmol S-25(OH) D/L, intakes of 6 and 20 mu g/d are required in fair-skinned children, whereas 14 and 28 mu g/d are required in children with dark skin. Conclusion: Children with fair and dark skin require vitamin D intakes of 20 and 28 mu g/d, respectively, to maintain S-25(OH) D >= 50 nmol/L, whereas intakes of 6 and 14 mu g/d, respectively, are required to maintain concentrations >= 30 nmol/L during winter.

  • 36.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Predictors of iron status in well-nourished 4-y-old children.2008In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 839-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Iron status in childhood is influenced by diet. Other factors affecting iron status at that age are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to evaluate iron status in 4-y-old children, to track that status from infancy to childhood, and to examine the associations of iron status with dietary factors, growth, and heredity. DESIGN: This study consisted of a longitudinal follow-up at age 4 y of children (n = 127) from the cohort of a study that began at age 6 mo. Blood samples and anthropometry were assessed in both children and their parents; food records were collected from children only. RESULTS: Dietary intake was not significantly correlated with hemoglobin concentrations, whereas the consumption of meat products had a positive effect on serum ferritin concentrations and mean corpuscular volume in boys (P = 0.015 and 0.04, respectively). The prevalences of anemia and iron deficiency were low, affecting 2 (1.8%) and 3 (2.8%) children, respectively; no child had iron deficiency anemia. There was significant within-subject tracking of hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume from age 6 mo to 4 y. The mother's but not the father's hemoglobin correlated with the child's hemoglobin over time. CONCLUSIONS: Food choices had little effect on iron status. Hemoglobin concentrations and mean corpuscular volume were tracked from infancy to childhood. In healthy, well-nourished children with a low prevalence of iron deficiency, the mother's hemoglobin was significantly associated with that of her child, but the underlying mechanism is unclear.

  • 37.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Silfverdal, Sven-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Preschool-Age Children in Northern Sweden Are Inadequate After Summer and Diminish Further During Winter2013In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 551-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: Despite studies indicating that vitamin D intake among Swedish children does not meet the recommendation, little is known of their vitamin D status. The aim of the present study was to examine vitamin D status in preschool-age children in relation to vitamin D intake, season, body mass index, and skin color. Methods: Preschool-age children (n = 90; mean age 54 +/- 7.1 months), all living in northern Sweden (latitude 63 degrees north), half of them with fair skin, half with darker complexion, were recruited from well-baby clinics. The study group was examined first in August-September (late summer) and then the following January-February (winter). Skin type, vitamin D intake, anthropometrics, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25[OH] D), and serum parathyroid hormone were assessed. Results: Mean +/- SD S-25(OH) Din summer and winter were 60 +/- 15 nmol/L and 55 +/- 16 nmol/L, respectively (P < 0.001). Fifteen percent and 10% had S-25(OH) D >= 75 nmol/L, and 25% and 40% had S-25(OH) D < 50 nmol/L, respectively. The mean vitamin D intake was higher in dark-skinned compared with fair-skinned children. In spite of this, S-25(OH) D in dark-skinned children was lower compared with fair-skinned children during both seasons. The dietary intake of vitamin D was positively associated with S-25(OH) D levels. Conclusions: Vitamin D status is inadequate in preschool-age children living in northern Sweden, especially in dark-skinned children and during the winter despite vitamin D intakes meeting the recommendations, prompting strategies to improve intake of vitamin D in this population.

  • 38.
    Öhlund, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Dietary shortcomings in children on a gluten-free diet2010In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 294-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Coeliac disease (CD), or permanent gluten intolerance, is one of the most common chronic food-related diseases among children in Europe and the USA. The treatment is lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD) (i.e. the exclusion of wheat, rye and barley from the diet, which are important sources particularly of iron, dietary fibre and vitamin B). The present study aimed to evaluate dietary intakes of energy and nutrients in children and adolescents on GFD and compare these with intake of comparable age groups on a normal diet as well as current recommendations.

    Methods: Thirty children, 4-17 years of age with confirmed CD and on GFD were agreed to participate in this study at the Department of Pediatrics, Umeå University Hospital. Weight and height were used to calculate individual energy requirement according to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004 (NNR-04). Dietary intake was assessed using 5-day food records and household measures were used for quantities. Twenty-five children completed their dietary record.

    Results: Thirteen of the 25 children did not meet the recommended energy intake and the dietary intakes were inadequate regarding quality of macronutrients and quantity of minerals and vitamins. The mean intakes of sucrose and saturated fatty acids were above and the intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin D, magnesium and selenium below the NNR-04. High intakes of sucrose and saturated fat and a low intake of dietary fibre were also noted in a previous national survey on healthy children on a normal diet. The nutrient density of vitamin D, riboflavin, niacin, thiamine, magnesium and selenium were lower among CD children than healthy children but, for iron and calcium, it was higher in CD children.

    Conclusions: Children on GFD appear to follow the same trends as healthy children on a normal diet, with high intakes of saturated fat and sucrose and low intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin D and magnesium compared to recommendations.

1 - 38 of 38
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