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  • 1. Accinelli, Cesare
    et al.
    Saccà, Maria Ludovica
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Mencarelli, Mariangela
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Olsen, Björn
    Dissipation and removal of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) in different aquatic environments2010Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, nr 8, s. 891-897Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu) has received recent attention due to the potential use as a first-line defense against H5N1 and H1N1 influenza viruses. Research has shown that oseltamivir is not removed during conventional wastewater treatments, thus having the potential to enter surface water bodies. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the fate and the removal of oseltamivir in two surface water ecosystems of Japan and in a municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Northern Italy. Persistence of oseltamivir in surface water ranged from non-detectable degradation to a half-life of 53d. After 40d, <3% of radiolabeled oseltamivir evolved as (14)CO(2). The presence of sediments (5%) led to a significant increase of oseltamivir degradation and mineralization rates. A more intense mineralization was observed in samples of the wastewater treatment plant when applying a long incubation period (40d). More precisely, 76% and 37% of the initial radioactivity applied as (14)C-oseltamivir was recovered as (14)CO(2) from samples of the biological tank and effluent water, respectively. Two bacterial strains growing on oseltamivir as sole carbon source were isolated and used for its removal from synthetic medium and environmental samples, including surface water and wastewater. Inoculation of water and wastewater samples with the two oseltamivir-degrading strains showed that mineralization of oseltamivir was significantly higher in both inoculated water and wastewater, than in uninoculated controls. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR analysis showed that Tamiflu would not affect the microbial population of surface water and wastewater.

  • 2.
    Ahlm, Clas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Koskinen, Lars Ove
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Monsen, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Brain abscess caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus2000Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 562-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish tourist was admitted to a Cuban hospital due to epileptic seizures caused by brain tumors. Upon return to Sweden and admission to our hospital, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated. He was later considered to be free of MRSA but then developed a brain abscess from which MRSA was isolated.

  • 3. Axelsson-Olsson, Diana
    et al.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Broman, Tina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Protozoan Acanthamoeba polyphaga as a potential reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni.2005Ingår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, Vol. 71, nr 2, s. 987-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We showed by a laboratory experiment that four different Campylobacter jejuni strains are able to infect the protozoan Acanthamoeba polyphaga. C. jejuni cells survived for longer periods when cocultured with amoebae than when grown in culture alone. The infecting C. jejuni cells aggregated in amoebic vacuoles, in which they were seen to be actively moving. Furthermore, a resuscitation of bacterial cultures that were previously negative in culturability tests was observed after reinoculation into fresh amoeba cultures. After spontaneous rupture of the amoebae, C. jejuni could be detected by microscopy and culturability tests. Our results indicate that amoebae may serve as a nonvertebrate reservoir for C. jejuni in the environment.

  • 4.
    Bergström, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Mikrobiologi.
    Olsén, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Burman, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Mikrobiologi.
    Gothefors, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    University of Uppsala.
    Jonsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Mikrobiologi.
    Mejlon, Hans A
    University of Uppsala.
    Molecular characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi isolated from Ixodes ricinus in northern Sweden1992Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 181-188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ixodes ricinus ticks, harbouring Borrelia burgdorferi, were found in an area in northern Sweden, not thought to be endemic for Lyme borreliosis. This investigation took place at Norrbyskär, an island situated in the Bothnian Gulf, 63 degrees 33'N/19 degrees 52'E. One of 42 nymphal and 8/43 adult I. ricinus ticks collected carried spirochetes as seen by phase contrast microscopy. Pure bacterial cultures were obtained from 2 of the ticks. Western blot analysis using species-specific monoclonal antibodies showed that the isolated spirochetes were B. burgdorferi. The identity of the isolated spirochetes was confirmed by DNA amplification using B. burgdorferi OspA and flagellin gene specific oligonucleotides as well as partial DNA sequencing of the respective OspA and flagellin genes. The 2 isolated spirochaete populations were different as shown by their protein profiles in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gels. Moreover, the demonstration of Lyme borreliosis in a patient from the island of Norrbyskär indicates the need for clinical consideration of this disease in northern Sweden.

  • 5.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Broman, Tina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Palmgren, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Niskanen, Taina
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    In search of human-associated bacterial pathogens in Antarctic wildlife: report from six penguin colonies regularly visited by tourists.2005Ingår i: Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 430-2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the potential role of Antarctic tourism in the introduction of human-associated pathogens into Antarctic wildlife. We collected and analyzed 233 fecal samples from eight bird species. The samples were collected at six localities on the Antarctic Peninsula, which often is visited by tourists. Every sample was investigated for pathogens of potential human origin: Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., and Yersina spp. None of these bacteria was found. Our data suggest that the tourism industry so far has achieved its goal of not introducing pathogens into the Antarctic region. There is, however, an urgent need to further investigate the situation in areas closer to permanent Antarctic settlements.

  • 6. Bonnedahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Drobni, Mirva
    Gauthier-Clerc, Michel
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Granholm, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Kayser, Yves
    Melhus, Asa
    Kahlmeter, Gunnar
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala universitet.
    Dissemination of Escherichia coli with CTX-M type ESBL between humans and yellow-legged gulls in the south of France2009Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, nr 6, s. e5958-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extended Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae started to appear in the 1980s, and have since emerged as some of the most significant hospital-acquired infections with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella being main players. More than 100 different ESBL types have been described, the most widespread being the CTX-M beta-lactamase enzymes (bla(CTX-M) genes). This study focuses on the zoonotic dissemination of ESBL bacteria, mainly CTX-M type, in the southern coastal region of France. We found that the level of general antibiotic resistance in single randomly selected E. coli isolates from wild Yellow-legged Gulls in France was high. Nearly half the isolates (47.1%) carried resistance to one or more antibiotics (in a panel of six antibiotics), and resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin and streptomycin was most widespread. In an ESBL selective screen, 9.4% of the gulls carried ESBL producing bacteria and notably, 6% of the gulls carried bacteria harboring CTX-M-1 group of ESBL enzymes, a recently introduced and yet the most common clinical CTX-M group in France. Multi locus sequence type and phylogenetic group designations were established for the ESBL isolates, revealing that birds and humans share E. coli populations. Several ESBL producing E. coli isolated from birds were identical to or clustered with isolates with human origin. Hence, wild birds pick up E. coli of human origin, and with human resistance traits, and may accordingly also act as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance with a potential to re-infect human populations.

  • 7.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Palmgren, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Naturvetenskapliga institutionen, Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Salmonella in migrating birds - myth or reality?Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Broman, Tina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Dahlgren, D
    Carlsson, I
    Eliasson, I
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Diversities and similarities in PFGE profiles of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from migrating birds and humans.2004Ingår i: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, Vol. 96, nr 4, s. 834-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9. Bröjer, Caroline
    et al.
    Järhult, Josef D
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Olsen, Björn
    Gavier-Widén, Dolores
    Pathobiology and virus shedding of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (a/h1n1) infection in mallards exposed to oseltamivir2013Ingår i: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, ISSN 0090-3558, E-ISSN 1943-3700, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 103-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in wild birds are important as they can constitute the basis for the development of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses or form part of human-adapted strains with pandemic potential. However, the pathogenesis of LPAI viruses is not well characterized in dabbling ducks, one of the natural reservoirs of LPAI viruses. Between 21 September 2009 and 21 December 2009, we used real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to study Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) infected with an influenza A/H1N1 virus isolated from a wild Mallard in Sweden. The ducks were either inoculated intraesophageally ("artificial infection") or infected by virus shed by other ducks in the experiment ("contact infection"). The ducks were subjected to three low concentrations (80 ng/L, 1 μg/L, and 80 μg/L) of the active metabolite of oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)), oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), which resulted in the development of the viral resistance mutation H274Y at 1 and 80 μg/L. The LPAI virus infection was localized to the intestinal tract and cloacal bursa except in one Mallard. The exception was a duck euthanized 1 day postinoculation, whose infection was located solely in the lung, possibly due to intratracheal deposition of virus. The intestinal infection was characterized by occasional degenerating cells in the lamina propria and presence of viral antigen as detected by IHC, as well as positive q-PCR performed on samples from feces and intestinal contents. Histopathologic changes, IHC positivity, and viral shedding all indicated that the infection peaked early, around 2 days postinfection. Furthermore, more viral antigen and viral RNA were detected with IHC and q-PCR in the proximal parts early in the infection. There was no obvious difference in the course of the infection in artificial versus contact infection, when the level of OC was increased from 80 ng/L to 1 μg/L (based on IHC and q-PCR), when the level of OC was increased to 80 μg/L, or when the resistance mutation H274Y developed (based on q-PCR).

  • 10.
    Comstedt, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Asokliene, Loreta
    Eliasson, Ingvar
    Olsen, Björn
    Wallensten, Anders
    Bunikis, Jonas
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Complex population structure of Lyme borreliosis group spirochete Borrelia garinii in subarctic Eurasia.2009Ingår i: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, nr 6, s. e5841-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Borrelia garinii, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in Europe and Asia, is naturally maintained in marine and terrestrial enzootic cycles, which primarily involve birds, including seabirds and migratory passerines. These bird groups associate with, correspondingly, Ixodes uriae and Ixodes ricinus ticks, of which the latter species may bite and transmit the infection to humans. Studies of the overlap between these two natural cycles of B. garinii have been limited, in part due to the absence of representative collections of this spirochete's samples, as well as of the lack of reliable measure of the genetic heterogeneity of its strains. As a prerequisite for understanding the epidemiological correlates of the complex maintenance of B. garinii, the present study sought to assess the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of this species' strains from its natural hosts and patients with Lyme borreliosis from subarctic Eurasia. We used sequence typing of the partial rrs-rrl intergenic spacer (IGS) of archived and prospective samples of B. garinii from I. uriae ticks collected predominantly on Commander Islands in North Pacific, as well as on the islands in northern Sweden and arctic Norway. We also typed B. garinii samples from patients with Lyme borreliosis and I. ricinus ticks infesting migratory birds in southern Sweden, or found questing in selected sites on the islands in the Baltic Sea and Lithuania. Fifty-two (68%) of 77 B. garinii samples representing wide geographical range and associated with I. ricinus and infection of humans contributed 12 (60%) of total 20 identified IGS variants. In contrast, the remaining 25 (32%) samples recovered from I. uriae ticks from a few islands accounted for as many as 10 (50%) IGS types, suggesting greater local diversity of B. garinii maintained by seabirds and their ticks. Two IGS variants of the spirochete in common for both tick species were found in I. ricinus larvae from migratory birds, an indication that B. garinii strains are exchanged between different ecological niches. Notably, B. garinii variants associated with I. uriae ticks were found in each of the six clusters, representing two phylogenetic lineages of this species identified among the studied samples. Our findings suggest that B. garinii in subarctic Eurasia comprises two partially overlapping populations with different levels of genetic heterogeneity, presumably, due to distinctive selective pressures on the spirochete in its marine and terrestrial enzootic cycles.

  • 11.
    Comstedt, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Garpmo, Ulf
    Marjavaara, Lisette
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Mejlon, Hans
    Barbour, Alan G
    Bunikis, Jonas
    Migratory passerine birds as reservoirs of Lyme borreliosis in Europe.2006Ingår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, Vol. 12, nr 7, s. 1087-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To define the role of birds as reservoirs and disseminators of Borrelia spirochetes, we characterized tick infestation and reservoir competence of migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1,120 immature Ixodes ricinus ticks were removed from 13,260 birds and assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Borrelia, followed by DNA sequencing for species and genotype identification. Distributions of ticks on birds were aggregated, presumably because of varying encounters with ticks along migratory routes. Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were detected in 160 (1.4%) ticks. Borrelia garinii was the most common species in PCR-positive samples and included genotypes associated with human infections. Infestation prevalence with infected ticks was 5 times greater among ground-foraging birds than other bird species, but the 2 groups were equally competent in transmitting Borrelia. Migratory passerine birds host epidemiologically important vector ticks and Borrelia species and vary in effectiveness as reservoirs on the basis of their feeding behavior.

  • 12. Debruyne, Lies
    et al.
    Broman, Tina
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Olsen, Björn
    On, Stephen L W
    Vandamme, Peter
    Campylobacter subantarcticus sp nov., isolated from birds in the sub-Antarctic region2010Ingår i: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, ISSN 1466-5026, E-ISSN 1466-5034, Vol. 60, s. 815-819Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Six Gram-stain-negative, spiral-shaped, microaerobic isolates were obtained during a sampling from wild birds in the sub-Antarctic region. Based on initial observations, these isolates were classified as Campylobacter lari-like. The isolates were further characterized by whole-cell protein and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, which revealed that they were distinct from C. lari and all other known species of the genus Campylobacter. Here, we present comprehensive phylogenetic, genomic and phenotypic evidence that these isolates represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter subantarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R-3023T (=LMG 24377T =CCUG 38513T).

  • 13. Elfving, Karin
    et al.
    Olsen, Björn
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Mejlon, Hans
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Dissemination of spotted fever rickettsia agents in Europe by migrating birds2010Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. e8572-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Migratory birds are known to play a role as long-distance vectors for many microorganisms. To investigate whether this is true of rickettsial agents as well, we characterized tick infestation and gathered ticks from 13,260 migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1127 Ixodes spp. ticks were removed from these birds and the extracted DNA from 957 of them was available for analyses. The DNA was assayed for detection of Rickettsia spp. using real-time PCR, followed by DNA sequencing for species identification. Rickettsia spp. organisms were detected in 108 (11.3%) of the ticks. Rickettsia helvetica, a spotted fever rickettsia associated with human infections, was predominant among the PCR-positive samples. In 9 (0.8%) of the ticks, the partial sequences of 17kDa and ompB genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia monacensis, an etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever-like illness, previously described in southern Europe as well as to the Rickettsia sp.IrITA3 strain. For 15 (1.4%) of the ticks, the 17kDa, ompB, gltA and ompA genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia sp. strain Davousti, Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis, all closely phylogenetically related, the former previously found in Amblyomma tholloni ticks in Africa and previously not detected in Ixodes spp. ticks. The infestation prevalence of ticks infected with rickettsial organisms was four times higher among ground foraging birds than among other bird species, but the two groups were equally competent in transmitting Rickettsia species. The birds did not seem to serve as reservoir hosts for Rickettsia spp., but in one case it seems likely that the bird was rickettsiemic and that the ticks had acquired the bacteria from the blood of the bird. In conclusion, migratory passerine birds host epidemiologically important vector ticks and Rickettsia species and contribute to the geographic distribution of spotted fever rickettsial agents and their diseases.

  • 14.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haemig, Paul D
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Antiviral oseltamivir is not removed or degraded in normal sewage water treatment: implications for development of resistance by influenza A virus2007Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, nr 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Oseltamivir is the main antiviral for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza. The increase in oseltamivir resistance reported recently has therefore sparked a debate on how to use oseltamivir in non pandemic influenza and the risks associated with wide spread use during a pandemic. Several questions have been asked about the fate of oseltamivir in the sewage treatment plants and in the environment. We have assessed the fate of oseltamivir and discuss the implications of environmental residues of oseltamivir regarding the occurrence of resistance. A series of batch experiments that simulated normal sewage treatment with oseltamivir present was conducted and the UV-spectra of oseltamivir were recorded. Findings: Our experiments show that the active moiety of oseltamivir is not removed in normal sewage water treatments and is not degraded substantially by UV light radiation, and that the active substance is released in waste water leaving the plant. Our conclusion is that a ubiquitous use of oseltamivir may result in selection pressures in the environment that favor development of drug-resistance.

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  • 15. Fouchier, Ron A M
    et al.
    Munster, Vincent
    Wallensten, Anders
    Bestebroer, Theo M
    Herfst, Sander
    Smith, Derek
    Rimmelzwaan, Guus F
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Osterhaus, Albert D M E
    Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls.2005Ingår i: J Virol, ISSN 0022-538X, Vol. 79, nr 5, s. 2814-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In wild aquatic birds and poultry around the world, influenza A viruses carrying 15 antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 antigenic subtypes of neuraminidase (NA) have been described. Here we describe a previously unidentified antigenic subtype of HA (H16), detected in viruses circulating in black-headed gulls in Sweden. In agreement with established criteria for the definition of antigenic subtypes, hemagglutination inhibition assays and immunodiffusion assays failed to detect specific reactivity between H16 and the previously described subtypes H1 to H15. Genetically, H16 HA was found to be distantly related to H13 HA, a subtype also detected exclusively in shorebirds, and the amino acid composition of the putative receptor-binding site of H13 and H16 HAs was found to be distinct from that in HA subtypes circulating in ducks and geese. The H16 viruses contained NA genes that were similar to those of other Eurasian shorebirds but genetically distinct from N3 genes detected in other birds and geographical locations. The European gull viruses were further distinguishable from other influenza A viruses based on their PB2, NP, and NS genes. Gaining information on the full spectrum of avian influenza A viruses and creating reagents for their detection and identification will remain an important task for influenza surveillance, outbreak control, and animal and public health. We propose that sequence analyses of HA and NA genes of influenza A viruses be used for the rapid identification of existing and novel HA and NA subtypes.

  • 16. Gillman, Anna
    et al.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Holmberg, Fredrik
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Tolf, Conny
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Olsen, Björn
    Jarhult, Josef D.
    Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Strain with an H274Y Mutation in Neuraminidase Persists without Drug Pressure in Infected Mallards2015Ingår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 81, nr 7, s. 2378-2383Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl, and emerging human IAVs often contain gene segments from avian viruses. The active drug metabolite of oseltamivir (oseltamivir carboxylate [OC]), stockpiled as Tamiflu for influenza pandemic preparedness, is not removed by conventional sewage treatment and has been detected in river water. There, it may exert evolutionary pressure on avian IAV in waterfowl, resulting in the development of resistant viral variants. A resistant avian IAV can circulate among wild birds only if resistance does not restrict viral fitness and if the resistant virus can persist without continuous drug pressure. In this in vivo mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) study, we tested whether an OC-resistant avian IAV (H1N1) strain with an H274Y mutation in the neuraminidase (NA-H274Y) could retain resistance while drug pressure was gradually removed. Successively infected mallards were exposed to decreasing levels of OC, and fecal samples were analyzed for the neuraminidase sequence and phenotypic resistance. No reversion to wild-type virus was observed during the experiment, which included 17 days of viral transmission among 10 ducks exposed to OC concentrations below resistance induction levels. We conclude that resistance in avian IAV that is induced by exposure of the natural host to OC can persist in the absence of the drug. Thus, there is a risk that human-pathogenic IAVs that evolve from IAVs circulating among wild birds may contain resistance mutations. An oseltamivir-resistant pandemic IAV would pose a substantial public health threat. Therefore, our observations underscore the need for prudent oseltamivir use, upgraded sewage treatment, and surveillance for resistant IAVs in wild birds.

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  • 17. Gillman, Anna
    et al.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nordh, Johan
    Bröjer, Caroline
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Järhult, Josef D
    Resistance Mutation R292K Is Induced in Influenza A(H6N2) Virus by Exposure of Infected Mallards to Low Levels of Oseltamivir2013Ingår i: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 8, s. e71230-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is problematic as these drugs constitute the major treatment option for severe influenza. Extensive use of the NAI oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) results in up to 865 ng/L of its active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) in river water. There one of the natural reservoirs of influenza A, dabbling ducks, can be exposed. We previously demonstrated that an influenza A(H1N1) virus in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to 1 µg/L of OC developed oseltamivir resistance through the mutation H274Y (N2-numbering). In this study, we assessed the resistance development in an A(H6N2) virus, which belongs to the phylogenetic N2 group of neuraminidases with distinct functional and resistance characteristics. Mallards were infected with A(H6N2) while exposed to 120 ng/L, 1.2 µg/L or 12 µg/L of OC in their sole water source. After 4 days with 12 µg/L of OC exposure, the resistance mutation R292K emerged and then persisted. Drug sensitivity was decreased ≈13,000-fold for OC and ≈7.8-fold for zanamivir. Viral shedding was similar when comparing R292K and wild-type virus indicating sustained replication and transmission. Reduced neuraminidase activity and decrease in recovered virus after propagation in embryonated hen eggs was observed in R292K viruses. The initial, but not the later R292K isolates reverted to wild-type during egg-propagation, suggesting a stabilization of the mutation, possibly through additional mutations in the neuraminidase (D113N or D141N) or hemagglutinin (E216K). Our results indicate a risk for OC resistance development also in a N2 group influenza virus and that exposure to one NAI can result in a decreased sensitivity to other NAIs as well. If established in influenza viruses circulating among wild birds, the resistance could spread to humans via re-assortment or direct transmission. This could potentially cause an oseltamivir-resistant pandemic; a serious health concern as preparedness plans rely heavily on oseltamivir before vaccines can be mass-produced.

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  • 18. Gillman, Anna
    et al.
    Nykvist, Marie
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wille, Michelle
    Daggfeldt, Annika
    Bröjer, Caroline
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Acquires Resistance-Related Neuraminidase I222T Substitution When Infected Mallards Are Exposed to Low Levels of Oseltamivir in Water2015Ingår i: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 59, nr 9, s. 5196-5202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl, and new human IAVs often contain gene segments originating from avian IAVs. Treatment options for severe human influenza are principally restricted to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), among which oseltamivir is stockpiled in preparedness for influenza pandemics. There is evolutionary pressure in the environment for resistance development to oseltamivir in avian IAVs, as the active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) passes largely undegraded through sewage treatment to river water where waterfowl reside. In an in vivo mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) model, we tested if low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus might become resistant if the host was exposed to low levels of OC. Ducks were experimentally infected, and OC was added to their water, after which infection and transmission were maintained by successive introductions of uninfected birds. Daily fecal samples were tested for IAV excretion, genotype, and phenotype. Following mallard exposure to 2.5 μg/liter OC, the resistance-related neuraminidase (NA) I222T substitution, was detected within 2 days during the first passage and was found in all viruses sequenced from subsequently introduced ducks. The substitution generated 8-fold and 2.4-fold increases in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for OC (P < 0.001) and zanamivir (P = 0.016), respectively. We conclude that OC exposure of IAV hosts, in the same concentration magnitude as found in the environment, may result in amino acid substitutions, leading to changed antiviral sensitivity in an IAV subtype that can be highly pathogenic to humans. Prudent use of oseltamivir and resistance surveillance of IAVs in wild birds are warranted.

  • 19.
    Gylfe, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Strasevicius, Darius
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Marti Ras, Nuria
    Weihe, Pál
    Noppa, Laila
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Östberg, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Baranton, Guy
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from puffins (Fratercula arctica) and seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae) on the Faeroe Islands1999Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 890-896Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first report on the isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from seabirds on the Faeroe Islands and the characteristics of its enzootic cycle. The major components of the Borrelia cycle include the puffin (Fratercula arctica) as the reservoir and Ixodes uriae as the vector. The importance of this cycle and its impact on the spread of human Lyme borreliosis have not yet been established. Borrelia spirochetes isolated from 2 of 102 sampled puffins were compared to the borreliae previously obtained from seabird ticks, I. uriae. The rrf-rrl intergenic spacer and the rrs and the ospC genes were sequenced and a series of phylogenetic trees were constructed. Sequence data and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis grouped the strains together with Borrelia garinii. In a seroepidemiological survey performed with residents involved in puffin hunting on the Faeroe Islands, 3 of 81 serum samples were found to be positive by two commonly used clinical tests: a flagellin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. These three positive serum samples also had high optical density values in a whole-cell ELISA. The finding of seropositive Faeroe Islanders who are regularly exposed to I. uriae indicate that there may be a transfer of B. garinii by this tick species to humans.

  • 20. Haemig, Paul
    et al.
    Sjöstedt de Luna, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Grafström, Anton
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Lithner, Stefan
    Linneaus University.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI), Solna.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linneaus University.
    Kindberg, Jonas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Stedt, Johan
    Linnaeus University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Forecasting risk of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE): Using data from wildlife and climate to predict next year’s number of human victims2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 43, s. 366-372Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the past quarter century, the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has increased in most European nations. However, the number of humans stricken by the disease varies from year to year. A method for predicting major increases and decreases is needed. Methods: We assembled a 25-y database (1984–2008) of the number of human TBE victims and wildlife and climate data for the Stockholm region of Sweden, and used it to create easy-to-use mathematical models that predict increases and decreases in the number of humans stricken by TBE. Results: Our best model, which uses December precipitation and mink (Neovison vison, formerly Mustela vison) bagging figures, successfully predicted every major increase or decrease in TBE during the past quarter century, with a minimum of false alarms. However, this model was not efficient in predicting small increases and decreases. Conclusions: Predictions from our models can be used to determine when preventive and adaptive programmes should be implemented. For example, in years when the frequency of TBE in humans is predicted to be high, vector control could be intensified where infested ticks have a higher probability of encountering humans, such as at playgrounds, bathing lakes, barbecue areas and camping facilities. Because our models use only wildlife and climate data, they can be used even when the human population is vaccinated. Another advantage is that because our models employ data from previously-established databases, no additional funding for surveillance is required.

  • 21. Hernandez, Jorge
    et al.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Eliasson, Ingvar
    Wallensten, Anders
    Comstedt, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Granholm, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Melhus, Asa
    Olsen, Björn
    Drobni, Mirva
    Globally disseminated human pathogenic Escherichia coli of O25b-ST131 clone, harbouring bla(CTX-M-15), found in Glaucous-winged gull at remote Commander Islands, Russia2010Ingår i: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 329-332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With focus on environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance among clinically relevant bacteria, such as the rising ESBL type of resistance among Escherichia coli, we investigated antibiotic resistance levels in wild birds in the Commander Islands and Kamchatka, Russia. Despite overall low resistance levels in randomly selected E. coli (one from each sample), we found multi-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli harbouring bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-15) using selective screening. Among these multi-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli we found one bla(CTX-M-15) harbouring strain belonging to the O25b-ST131 clone, recognized for its clonal disseminated worldwide as a human pathogen. The potential in acquiring resistant bacteria of human origin, especially highly pathogenic clones, as well as downstream consequences of that, should not be underestimated but further investigated.

  • 22. Hernandez, Jorge
    et al.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Stedt, Johan
    Bengtsson, Stina
    Porczak, Aleksandra
    Granholm, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    Olsen, Björn
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Drobni, Mirva
    Characterization and Comparison of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Resistance Genotypes and Population Structure of Escherichia coli Isolated from Franklin's Gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and Humans in Chile2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 9, s. e76150-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the general level of antibiotic resistance with further analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence, as well as the population structure of E. coli in fecal flora of humans and Franklin's gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) in central parts of Chile. We found a surprisingly high carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli among the gulls 112/372 (30.1%) as compared to the human population 6/49 (12.2%.) Several of the E. coli sequence types (STs) identified in birds have previously been reported as Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) human pathogens including the ability to produce ESBLs. This means that not only commensal flora is shared between birds and humans but also STs with pathogenic potential. Given the migratory behavior of Franklin's gulls, they and other migratory species, may be a part of ESBL dissemination in the environment and over great geographic distances. Apart from keeping the antibiotic use low, breaking the transmission chains between the environment and humans must be a priority to hinder the dissemination of resistance.

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  • 23. Herrmann, Björn
    et al.
    Persson, Heléna
    Jensen, Jens-Kjeld
    Joensen, Høgni Debes
    Klint, Markus
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Chlamydophila psittaci in Fulmars, the Faroe Islands.2006Ingår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 330-2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in 10% of 431 fulmars examined from the Faroe Islands. Analysis of ompA showed a sequence almost identical to that of the type strain. The origin of C. psittaci outbreaks in fulmars is discussed. Despite a high level of exposure, the risk for transmission of C. psittaci to humans is low.

  • 24. Hurt, A. C.
    et al.
    Hansbro, P. M.
    Selleck, P.
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Minton, C
    Hampson, A. W.
    Barr, I. G.
    Isolation of avian influenza viruses from two different transhemispheric migratory shorebird species in Australia2006Ingår i: Archives of Virology, ISSN 0304-8608, E-ISSN 1432-8798, Vol. 151, nr 11, s. 2301-2309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shorebirds on their southerly migration from Siberia to Australia, may pass through Asian regions currently experiencing outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza. To test for the presence of avian influenza viruses in migratory shorebirds arriving in Australia during spring 2004, 173 cloacal swabs were collected from six species. Ten swabs were positive for influenza A, with H4N8 viruses detected in five red-necked stints and H11N9 viruses detected in five sharp-tailed sandpipers. No H5N1 viruses were detected. All isolated viruses were non-pathogenic in domestic chickens. These results further demonstrate the potential for migratory shorebirds to carry and potentially spread influenza viruses.

  • 25. Jarnheimer, Per-åke
    et al.
    Ottoson, Jakob
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Stenström, Thor-axel
    Johansson, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Winner, Mari-mall
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in a Hospital Sewage Line; Occurrence, Distribution and Impact on Bacterial Resistance2004Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 36, nr 10, s. 752-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In hospital sewage lines, human faecal bacteria are exposed to antibiotics, posing a risk for selection of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. We constructed a system for continuous sampling in a hospital sewage line that allowed us to study longitudinal establishment of bacteria, concentrations of antibiotics, and selection of bacterial resistance in waste water, sediment and biofilm. The focus in this study was on fluoroquinolones, a widely used group of antibiotics with increasing resistance problems. We found low levels of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in waste water but high concentrations in sediment. Despite the high levels of fluoroquinolones bound to sediment, we did not find any development of resistance against fluoroquinolones in Enterobacteriacae spp. and faecal enterococci isolated from sediment.

  • 26. Järhult, Josef D
    et al.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Wahlgren, John
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Orozovic, Goran
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Brojer, Caroline
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lennerstrand, Johan
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Olsen, Björn
    Environmental levels of the antiviral oseltamivir induce development of resistance mutation H274Y in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards2011Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 9, s. e24742-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Oseltamivir (Tamiflu (R)) is the most widely used drug against influenza infections and is extensively stockpiled worldwide as part of pandemic preparedness plans. However, resistance is a growing problem and in 2008-2009, seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 virus strains in most parts of the world carried the mutation H274Y in the neuraminidase gene which causes resistance to the drug. The active metabolite of oseltamivir, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and surface water and has been detected in aquatic environments where the natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can be exposed to the substance. To assess if resistance can develop under these circumstances, we infected mallards with influenza A/H1N1 virus and exposed the birds to 80 ng/L, 1 mu g/L and 80 mu g/L of OC through their sole water source. By sequencing the neuraminidase gene from fecal samples, we found that H274Y occurred at 1 mu g/L of OC and rapidly dominated the viral population at 80 mu g/L. IC(50) for OC was increased from 2-4 nM in wild-type viruses to 400-700 nM in H274Y mutants as measured by a neuraminidase inhibition assay. This is consistent with the decrease in sensitivity to OC that has been noted among human clinical isolates carrying H274Y. Environmental OC levels have been measured to 58-293 ng/L during seasonal outbreaks and are expected to reach mu g/L-levels during pandemics. Thus, resistance could be induced in influenza viruses circulating among wild ducks. As influenza viruses can cross species barriers, oseltamivir resistance could spread to human-adapted strains with pandemic potential disabling oseltamivir, a cornerstone in pandemic preparedness planning. We propose surveillance in wild birds as a measure to understand the resistance situation in nature and to monitor it over time. Strategies to lower environmental levels of OC include improved sewage treatment and, more importantly, a prudent use of antivirals.

  • 27.
    Larsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Comstedt, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Olsen, Björn
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    First record of Lyme disease Borrelia in the Arctic2007Ingår i: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 453-456Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The epidemiology and ecology of Lyme disease is very complex, and its reported geographical distribution is constantly increasing. Furthermore, the involvement of birds in long distance dispersal and their role as reservoir hosts is now well established. In this study, we have shown that sea birds in the Arctic region of Norway carry Ixodes uriae ticks infected with Lyme disease Borrelia garinii spirochetes. Interestingly, DNA sequencing showed that these isolates are closely related to B. garinii previously isolated from birds, as well as from clinical specimens in northern Europe.

  • 28.
    Lindberg, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Jarnheimer, Per-Åke
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Determination of antibiotic substances in hospital sewage water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and group analogue internal standards2004Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 57, nr 10, s. 1479-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for determination of antibiotics in hospital sewage water has been developed and validated. Analogue internal standards for fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, β-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporines), nitroimidazoles and tetracyclines were successfully used for calibration and shown to generally improve precision compared to external calibration. Matrix components caused ion suppression/enhancement effects during the MS detection for all analytes studied. Two effects were observed: general suppression and short-term variations in the MS response.

    In the hospital sewage water large temporal variations in the analyte concentration were observed during the course of the sampling period (seven grab samples in 13 h). Analyte concentrations varied within the following ranges (in μg l−1): ciprofloxacin, 3.6–101.0; metronidazole, 0.1–90.2; sulfamethoxazole, 0.4–12.8; ofloxacin, 0.2–7.6; trimethoprim, 0.6–7.6; and doxycycline, 0.6–6.7.

  • 29. Ludovica Saccà, Maria
    et al.
    Accinelli, Cesare
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Olsen, Björn
    Environmental fate of the antiviral drug Tamiflu in two aquatic ecosystems2009Ingår i: Chemosphere, Vol. 75, nr 1, s. 28-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The antiviral drug Tamiflu (Oseltamivir Phosphate, OP), has been indicated by the World Health Organization as a first-line defense in case of an avian influenza pandemic. Recent studies have demonstrated that Oseltamivir Carboxylate (OC), the active metabolite of the prodrug OP, has the potential to be released into water bodies. The present laboratory study focused on basic processes governing the environmental fate of OC in surface water from two contrasting aquatic ecosystems of northern Italy, the River Po and the Venice lagoon.

    Results of this study confirmed the potential of OC to persist in surface water. However, addition of 5% of sediments resulted in rapid OC degradation. Estimated half-life of OC in water/sediment of the River Po was 15 days. After three weeks of incubation at 20 °C, more than 8% of 14C-OC evolved as 14CO2 from water/sediment samples of the River Po and Venice lagoon. At the end of the 21-day incubation period, more than 65% of the 14C-residues were recovered from the liquid phase of both Po and Venice water/sediment samples. OC was moderately retained onto coarse sediments from the two sites. In water/sediment samples of the River Po and Venice lagoon treated with 14C-OC, more than 30% of the 14C-residues remained water-extractable after three weeks of incubation. The low affinity of OC to sediments suggests that presence of sediments would not reduce its bioavailability to microbial degradation.

  • 30. Munster, Vincent J
    et al.
    Veen, Jan
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Vogel, Rob
    Osterhaus, Albert D M E
    Fouchier, Ron A M
    Towards improved influenza A virus surveillance in migrating birds.2006Ingår i: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 24, nr 44-46, s. 6729-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has seen a marked increase in highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks around the world. This increase and the zoonotic potential of some of the HPAI viruses are of great concern to animal and public health as well as biodiversity. It is now well recognized that global influenza virus surveillance in wild birds can play a key role in the early recognition of and preparation for these threats. Here we summarize the most important results from our wild bird surveillance studies in Northern Europe over the last 8 years and conclude that surveillance studies in wild birds are indeed useful to generate prototypic vaccine candidates and to design and evaluate diagnostic tests, prior to the occurrence of outbreaks in animals and humans. Through this 8-year experience we also identified gaps in our knowledge on influenza A viruses and their natural hosts which may help to assist in the design of improved surveillance studies. This is particularly relevant if wild bird surveillance studies are used as an "early warning system" for the arrival of the H5N1 HPAI virus in a country or region and to assess the risk posed by these viruses in general.

  • 31.
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Birds and Borrelia1995Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lyme disease causing spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is transmitted by ticks within the genus Ixodes. These ticks are liberal host seekers and parasitise mammals, birds and reptiles.

    Prior to this study, the distribution of I. ricinus ticks and Lyme disease was thought to be restricted to the southern half of Sweden. On the island Norrbyskär, located in the Bothnian Gulf, there were reports of a high incidence of tick infestation on humans. To investigate the occurrence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in these ticks and to characterise presumptive isolates at the molecular level we sampled a number of I. ricinus ticks. Three different isolates were obtained from two different ticks, NBS16 from a nymph and NBS23a and NBS23b from an adult female tick.

    The seabird associated tick I. uriae is circumpolar distributed in both hemispheres. On the island Bonden, which house one of the largest seabird colonies in the Baltic Sea, I. uriae were collected and surveyed for spirochaetes. One isolate of B. burgdorferi s.l. was obtained. This B. burgdorferi s.l. isolate is identical to the Lyme disease Borrelia strain NBS16 isolated from Norrbyskär.

    To investigate the role of seabirds in the epidemiology of B. burgdorferi s.l., I. uriae were collected from seabird colonies in the southern and northern hemispheres. Borrelia DNA was extracted from the ticks and from cultured spirochaetes. Sequence analysis of the flagellin gene revealed that the DNA obtained was from B. garinii, regardless of the geographical origin of the sample. Identical fla gene fragments in ticks collected in both hemispheres indicate a transhemispheric exchange of B. garinii. A marine ecological niche and epidemiological route for Lyme disease Borrelia are proposed.

    The prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. infected ticks on migrating passerine birds was studied. A total of 22, 998 birds were caught and examined for ticks. The presence of spirochaetes in the 967 collected ticks was determined by DNA amplification by PCR on all ticks. To determine which B. burgdorferi s.l. species were present, classification was performed by DNA amplification using species-specific 16S rDNA primers and by DNA sequencing. Flagellin gene sequences of all species of B. burgdorferi s.l. previously recorded in Europe were found. B. garinii was the most prevalent. These data support the notion that passerine birds are at least partly responsible for the distribution of Lyme disease Borrelia spirochaetes in Europe.

    To elucidate the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in subarctic regions, strains isolated from I. ricinus and I. uriae ticks found on islands in the northern Atlantic and Baltic Sea were characterised molecularly. All isolates were verified as B. garinii by 16S-rRNA gene analysis and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for the outer surface proteins A and C. Three ribotypes (RT's) of B. garinii were found. The I. ricinus associated RT1 is phenotypically the most heterogeneous. RT2 is restricted to the islands in the northern Baltic Sea, whereas RT3 was also recovered from ticks found on islands in the North Atlantic. The heterogeneity of the B. garinii population in the Baltic Sea might be influenced by two geographically opposite directions, North Atlantic (RT3) and Euroasia (RT1).

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  • 32.
    Olsen, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Munster, Vincent J
    Wallensten, Anders
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Osterhaus, Albert D M E
    Fouchier, Ron A M
    Global patterns of influenza a virus in wild birds.2006Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 312, nr 5772, s. 384-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza of the H5N1 subtype in Asia, which has subsequently spread to Russia, the Middle East, Europe, and Africa, has put increased focus on the role of wild birds in the persistence of influenza viruses. The ecology, epidemiology, genetics, and evolution of pathogens cannot be fully understood without taking into account the ecology of their hosts. Here, we review our current knowledge on global patterns of influenza virus infections in wild birds, discuss these patterns in the context of host ecology and in particular birds' behavior, and identify some important gaps in our current knowledge.

  • 33.
    Palmgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Aspán, A.
    Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, K.
    Broman, Tina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Blomquist, L.
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Mikrobiologi.
    Sellin, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Wollin, R.
    Department of Bacteriology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Salmonella carriage in European Black headed gulls (Larus ridibundus) in SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Palmgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Aspán, Anna
    SVA.
    Broman, Tina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Bengtsson, Kennet
    Blomquist, Lennart
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Sellin, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Wollin, Ralf
    SVA.
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Salmonella in Black-headed gulls ( Larus ridibundus); prevalence, genotypes and influence on Salmonella epidemiology.2006Ingår i: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 134, nr 3, s. 635-644Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During a period of 3 years, 1998-2000, 1047 faecal swabs from Black-headed gulls were sampled at one location in Southern Sweden. Salmonella spp. was found in 28 individuals (2.7%) and the dominating serotype found was S. Typhimurium (83%). Twenty-five per cent of the Salmonella-infected gulls were later recaptured and re-sampled. We found that Salmonella infection in Black-headed gulls was of short duration, and that infection in this bird species was predominantly expressed as carriage without disease manifestations. All S. Typhimurium isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance profiling and molecular characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and IS200 polymerase chain reaction. The S. Typhimurium gull isolates were compared to human and domestic animal isolates of the same serotype and phage type. We found genetic relatedness of S. Typhimurium DT195 isolates from gulls, domestic animals and humans, indicating that Black-headed gulls might play a role in the spread of S. Typhimurium in Sweden.

  • 35.
    Palmgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Broman, Tina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Research Institute for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, Färjestaden, Sweden and Department of Animal Ecology, Ecology Building, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Lindberg, Peter
    Department of Zoology, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Aspán, Anna
    Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar. Research Institute for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, Färjestaden, Sweden.
    Salmonella Amager, Campylobacter jejuni, and urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter found in free-flying peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in Sweden2004Ingår i: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, ISSN 0090-3558, E-ISSN 1943-3700, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 583-587Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rare species with small population sizes are vulnerable to perturbations such as disease, inbreeding, or random events. The threat arising from microbial pathogens could be large and other species could act as reservoirs for pathogens. We report finding three enteric bacterial species, Salmonella Amager, Campylobacter jejuni, and urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter, in nestling free-flying peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in Sweden in 2000. Campylobacter jejuni isolates exhibited marked genetic similarities to an isolate from a human, providing a possible association between a human-associated strain of this bacterium and peregrine falcons.

  • 36.
    Palmgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    McCafferty, D.
    British Antarctic SurŠey, National EnŠironment Research Council, Cambridge, UK.
    Aspán, A.
    Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Broman, Tina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Sellin, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Wollin, R.
    Department of Bacteriology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Mikrobiologi.
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar. Department of Infectious Diseases, Kalmar County Hospital, S-381 95 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Salmonella in sub-Antarctica: low heterogeneity in salmonella serotypes in South Georgian seals and birds2000Ingår i: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 125, nr 2, s. 257-262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of human visitors to Antarctica is increasing rapidly, and with it a risk of introducing infectious organisms to native animals. To study the occurrence of salmonella serotypes in sub- Antarctic wildlife, faecal samples were collected from gentoo penguins, macaroni penguins, gray-headed albatrosses, black-browed albatrosses and Antarctic fur seals on Bird Island in the South Georgian archipelago during the austral summer of 1996 and 1998. In 1996, S. havana, S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis were isolated from 7% of gentoo penguins and 4% of fur seals. In 1998, however, 22% of fur seals were found to be infected with S. havana, S. enteritidis and S. newport. All isolates, except one, showed identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-patterns within each serotype, irrespective of sampling year and animal reservoir. No significant antibiotic resistance was found. The very low heterogeneity in the salmonella isolates found could either indicate a high genetic adaptation of the bacteria to the environment or a recent introduction of salmonella into the area.

  • 37.
    Palmgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Sellin, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Mikrobiologi.
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Enteropathogenic Bacteria in Migrating Birds Arriving in Sweden1997Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 565-568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Birds have been thought to play a role in transmitting infectious agents like influenza, Borrelia and Salmonella. To investigate the role of migrating birds in the dispersal of enteropathogenic bacteria, stool samples from 151 wild birds (50 gulls and 101 passerines) just entering Sweden from their winter grounds were analysed for Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and EHEC O157:H7. The thermophilic isolated enteropathogens found were further analysed by antibiograms. Among the 50 gulls examined, we found 2 isolates of Salmonella typhimurium with multiple antibiotic resistance. Three isolates of C. jejuni were found in the 101 stool samples from passerines. We did not isolate EHEC O157:H7 in any of the bird stools examined.

  • 38. Singer, Andrew C.
    et al.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Khan, Ghazanfar A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fedorova, Ganna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bowes, Michael J.
    Olsen, Björn
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Compliance to Oseltamivir among two populations in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom affected by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, November 2009: a waste water epidemiology study2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 4, artikel-id e60221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antiviral provision remains the focus of many pandemic preparedness plans, however, there is considerable uncertainty regarding antiviral compliance rates. Here we employ a waste water epidemiology approach to estimate oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) compliance. Oseltamivir carboxylate (oseltamivir's active metabolite) was recovered from two waste water treatment plant (WWTP) catchments within the United Kingdom at the peak of the autumnal wave of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Predictions of oseltamivir consumption from detected levels were compared with two sources of national government statistics to derive compliance rates. Scenario and sensitivity analysis indicated between 3-4 and 120-154 people were using oseltamivir during the study period in the two WWTP catchments and a compliance rate between 45-60%. With approximately half the collected antivirals going unused, there is a clear need to alter public health messages to improve compliance. We argue that a near real-time understanding of drug compliance at the scale of the waste water treatment plant (hundreds to millions of people) can potentially help public health messages become more timely, targeted, and demographically sensitive, while potentially leading to less mis- and un-used antiviral, less wastage and ultimately a more robust and efficacious pandemic preparedness plan.

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  • 39. Singer, Andrew C
    et al.
    Järhult, Josef D
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Khan, Ghazanfar A
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fedorova, Ganna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bowes, Michael J
    Olsen, Björn
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Intra- and inter-pandemic variations of antiviral, antibiotics and decongestants in wastewater treatment plants and receiving rivers2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 9, s. e108621-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), were measured weekly at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England during the month of November 2009, the autumnal peak of the influenza A[H1N1]pdm09 pandemic. The aim was to quantify the pharmaceutical response to the pandemic and compare this to drug use during the late pandemic (March 2010) and the inter-pandemic periods (May 2011). A large and small wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled in November 2009 to understand the differential fate of the analytes in the two WWTPs prior to their entry in the receiving river and to estimate drug users using a wastewater epidemiology approach. Mean hourly OC concentrations in the small and large WWTP's influent were 208 and 350 ng/L (max, 2070 and 550 ng/L, respectively). Erythromycin was the most concentrated antibiotic measured in Benson and Oxford WWTPs influent (max = 6,870 and 2,930 ng/L, respectively). Napthazoline and oxymetazoline were the most frequently detected and concentrated decongestant in the Benson WWTP influent (1650 and 67 ng/L) and effluent (696 and 307 ng/L), respectively, but were below detection in the Oxford WWTP. OC was found in 73% of November 2009's weekly river samples (max = 193 ng/L), but only in 5% and 0% of the late-and inter-pandemic river samples, respectively. The mean river concentration of each antibiotic during the pandemic largely fell between 17-74 ng/L, with clarithromycin (max = 292 ng/L) and erythromycin (max = 448 ng/L) yielding the highest single measure. In general, the concentration and frequency of detecting antibiotics in the river increased during the pandemic. OC was uniquely well-suited for the wastewater epidemiology approach owing to its nature as a prodrug, recalcitrance and temporally-and spatially-resolved prescription statistics.

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  • 40. Singer, Andrew C.
    et al.
    Järhult, Josef
    Grabic, Roman
    Fedorova, Ganna
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Bowes, Michael J.
    Olsen, Björn
    Söderström, Hanna
    Compliance to Oseltamivir among two populations in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom affected by Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41. Thegerström, Johanna
    et al.
    Marklund, Britt-Inger
    Hoffner, Sven
    Axelsson-Olsson, Diana
    Kauppinen, Juha
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Mycobacterium avium with the bird type IS1245 RFLP profile is commonly found in wild and domestic animals, but rarely in humans.2005Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 15-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cervical lymphadenitis is the main manifestation of Mycobacterium avium infection in immunocompetent children. Exposure to birds has been discussed as a source of infection. To clarify from where children acquire the infection, M. avium isolates from different origins were analysed with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) on insertion sequence IS1245, and compared by computer cluster correlation analysis. This molecular epidemiological tool has previously revealed a distinction between multiband profiles found mainly in strains from humans, and a 3-band/bird type profile in strains isolated mainly from birds. 32 isolates from children were compared with 28 isolates from adults and 45 isolates from animals. We found that 67% of the animal isolates had the bird type profile, also found in 1 sputum isolate from an adult. Strains from children showed only multiband profiles that did not differ significantly from profiles of isolates from adults. All but 2 bird isolates showed the bird type profile. Neither of the remaining 2, which had multiband profiles, clustered with the isolates from children. Our results indicate that the true reservoir of M. avium is unknown. Thus the question of whether or not M. avium can be incriminated as a zoonotic disease remains unanswered.

  • 42. Waldenström, Jonas
    et al.
    Lundkvist, Ake
    Falk, Kerstin I
    Garpmo, Ulf
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Lindegren, Gunnel
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Mejlon, Hans
    Fransson, Thord
    Haemig, Paul D
    Olsen, Björn
    Migrating birds and tickborne encephalitis virus2007Ingår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 13, nr 8, s. 1215-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During spring and autumn 2001, we screened 13,260 migrating birds at Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden, and found 3.4% were infested with ticks. Four birds, each a different passerine species, carried tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-infected ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Migrating birds may play a role in the geographic dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks.

  • 43. Waldenström, Jonas
    et al.
    Mevius, Dik
    Veldman, Kees
    Broman, Tina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Hasselquist, Dennis
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from wild birds in Sweden.2005Ingår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, Vol. 71, nr 5, s. 2438-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to determine the occurrence and frequency of resistant strains of the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni and to establish baseline MICs in isolates from an environmental reservoir, the resistance profiles of 10 antimicrobial substances were determined for 137 C. jejuni isolates from wild birds in Sweden. Observed MICs were generally low, with only low to moderate incidence of resistance to the tested compounds. One isolate, however, was resistant to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, indicating that quinolone-resistant genotypes of C. jejuni have the potential to spread to wild bird hosts.

  • 44. Wallensten, A
    et al.
    Munster, VJ
    Fouchier, RAM
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar. Research Institute of Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology., Kalmar, Sweden.
    Avian Influenza A virus in ducks migrating through Sweden2004Ingår i: Options for the control of influenza V / [ed] Kawaoka, Y, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004, s. 771-772Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate the prevalence and ecology of the Avian Influenza A virus (AIV) in western Palearctic wild birds, migrating ducks, mainly Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), have been caught in a funnel trap at the Ottenby Bird Observatory on the Swedish Island Oland. After banding and collection of biometrical data, every individual was sampled for AIV Since the fall of 2002, more than 3200 samples from 1900 birds have been collected showing a prevalence of AIV of 12%. Several subtypes have been found, including the low pathogenic H5N2. Some ducks are re-caught both during fall and spring migration, and the recruiting and wintering areas of the birds are known enabling us to draw conclusions about the geographical and reservoir distribution of AIV. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.

  • 45. Wallensten, Anders
    et al.
    Munster, V J
    Elmberg, J
    Osterhaus, A D M E
    Fouchier, R A M
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar. Infektionssjukdomar.
    Multiple gene segment reassortment between Eurasian and American lineages of influenza A virus (H6N2) in Guillemot (Uria aalge).2005Ingår i: Archives of Virology, ISSN 0304-8608, Vol. 150, nr 8, s. 1685-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Guillemots banded in the northern Baltic Sea were screened for influenza A virus (IAV). Three out of 26 sampled birds tested positive by RT-PCR. Two of these were characterized as subtype H6N2. Phylogenetic analyses showed that five gene segments belonged to the American avian lineage of IAVs, whereas three gene segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage. Our findings indicate that avian IAVs may have a taxonomically wider reservoir spectrum than previously known and we present the first report of a chimeric avian IAV with genes of American and Eurasian origin in Europe.

  • 46. Wallensten, Anders
    et al.
    Munster, Vincent J
    Karlsson, Malin
    Lundkvist, Ake
    Brytting, Mia
    Stervander, Martin
    Osterhaus, Albert D M E
    Fouchier, Ron A M
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    High prevalence of influenza A virus in ducks caught during spring migration through Sweden.2006Ingår i: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 24, nr 44-46, s. 6734-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of our ongoing screening of wild birds in Northern Europe, 358 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 203 shelducks (Tadorna tadorna) were caught in southern Sweden during the spring 2003. Faecal samples were analyzed by real time RT-PCR for the presence of influenza A virus. In contrast to what has been found in North American studies; Eurasian spring migrating ducks passing through Sweden had a relatively high prevalence of influenza A virus.

  • 47. Wallensten, Anders
    et al.
    Munster, Vincent J
    Osterhaus, Albert DME
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Broman, Tina
    Fouchier, Ron AM
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Mounting evidence for the presence of influenza A virus in the avifauna of the Antarctic region2006Ingår i: Antarctic Science, ISSN 0954-1020, E-ISSN 1365-2079, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 353-356Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Penguin blood samples collected at Bird Island, sub-Antarctic South Georgia, and faecal samples taken from penguins at several localities along the Antarctic Peninsula were analysed in order to investigate if influenza A virus is present in penguin populations in the South Atlantic Antarctic region. Serology was performed on the blood samples while the faecal samples were screened by a RT-PCR method directed at the matrix protein gene for determining the presence of influenza A virus. All faecal samples were negative by PCR, but the blood samples gave serologic indications that influenza A virus is present amongst these penguin species, confirming previous studies, although the virus has still not been isolated from any bird in the Antarctic region.

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