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  • 1. Backlund, Sara
    et al.
    Nordström, Johanna
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Sexuella problem är vanliga vid antidepressiv behandling: Vad vet allmänläkarna om denna biverkan, och hur hanteras den?2005Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 102, nr 9, s. 650-653Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Minst 5 procent av Sveriges befolkning behandlasmed något antidepressivt läkemedel, i de flesta fallmed s k SSRI-preparat (selektiva serotoninåterupptagshämmare).Över hälften av dessa patienter drabbasav sexuella biverkningar, främst nedsatt orgasmförmågaoch minskad lust.Antidepressiva läkemedels behandlingseffekter är iallmänhet goda, men de sexuella biverkningarna tordebidra till sämre behandlingsföljsamhet. I artikelnrefereras studier som specifikt undersökt sexuella biverkningarutlösta av antidepressiva läkemedel samtstrategier för att motverka dessa.I en enkät till allmänläkare framkom att medvetenhetenom problemet är god och att de flesta informerarsina patienter om sexuella biverkningar. Det behövsdock ökad kunskap om de nya antidepressiva medlenseffekter och bieffekter samt om alternativa behandlingsstrategierför att minska eller undgå sexuellaproblem vid farmakologisk behandling av depressionoch ångest.

  • 2.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Naesström, Matilda
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Deep brain stimulation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial forebrain bundle in a patient with major depressive disorder and anorexia nervosa2017Ingår i: Clinical Case Reports, E-ISSN 2050-0904, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 679-684Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Key Clinical Message Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be considered in severe cases of therapy-refractory major depressive disorder (MDD). However, DBS for MDD is still an experimental therapy. Therefore, it should only be administered in clinical studies driven by multidisciplinary teams, including surgeons with substantial experience of DBS in the treatment of other conditions.

  • 3.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Sjöberg, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Hansson, Maja
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Hariz, Marwan I
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Deep brain stimulation in the treatment of depression2011Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 123, nr 1, s. 4-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:  To present the technique of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and to evaluate the studies conducted on DBS in the treatment of therapy-refractory major depressive disorder (MDD).

    Method:  A review of the literature on DBS in the treatment of MDD was conducted.

    Results:  The results of DBS in MDD have been presented in 2 case reports and 3 studies of 47 patients operated upon in 5 different target areas. Positive effects have been presented in all studies and side effects have been minor. DBS in the nucleus accumbens resulted in a mean reduction of Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) of 36% after 1 year and 30% of the 10 patients achieved remission. DBS in the internal capsule/ventral striatum resulted in a reduction of 44% after 1 year, and at the last evaluation after in mean 2 years, 40% of the 15 patients were in remission. The 20 patients with subcallosal cingulated gyrus DBS had a reduction of HDRS of 52% after 1 year, and 35% were within 1 point from remission or in remission.

    Conclusion:  DBS is a promising treatment for therapy-refractory MDD. The published experience is, however, limited, and the method is at present an experimental therapy.

  • 4.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hansson, Maja
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Hariz, Marwan I
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Deep brain stimulation in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder2013Ingår i: World Neurosurgery, ISSN 1878-8750, E-ISSN 1878-8769, Vol. 80, nr 6, s. e245-e253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a treatment for severe cases of therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and promising results have been reported. The literature might, however, be somewhat unclear, considering the different targets used, and due to repeated inclusion of individual patients in multiple publications. The aim of this report was to review the literature on DBS for OCD.

    METHODS: The modern literature concerning studies conducted on DBS in the treatment of OCD was reviewed.

    RESULTS: The results of DBS in OCD have been presented in 25 reports with 130 patients, of which, however, only 90 contained individual patients. Five of these reports included at least 5 individual patients not presented elsewhere. Sixty-eight of these patients underwent implantation in the region of the internal capsule/ventral striatum, including the nucleus accumbens. The target in this region has varied between groups and over time, but the latest results from bilateral procedures in this area have shown a 50% reduction of OCD scores, depression, and anxiety. The subthalamic nucleus has been suggested as an alternative target. Although beneficial effects have been demonstrated, the efficacy of this procedure cannot be decided, because only results after 3 months of active stimulation have been presented so far.

    CONCLUSIONS: DBS is a promising treatment for therapy-refractory OCD, but the published experience is limited and the method is at present an experimental therapy.

  • 5.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    [Anxiety and depression as a hidden problem in primary health care. Only one case in four identified].1997Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 94, nr 49, s. 4612-4, 4617Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Of 374 unselected primary care patients assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, 11.8 per cent rated themselves as suffering from anxiety, and 3.7 per cent as depressed. Clinically, 8 per cent were diagnosed as cases of anxiety, and 4 per cent as cases of depression, but agreement was very poor between these cases and those elicited with the HAD scale, only 25 per cent of the latter being identified by the primary care physicians. One third of the patients with a clinical diagnosis of anxiety and 47 per cent of those with diagnosed depression were offered appropriate treatment, usually medication with a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) and consultation with a medical social worker. The results were consistent with the expected prevalences, thus indicating anxiety and depression to be markedly under-diagnosed and under-treated, and suggest that there is a manifest need of consultation facilities and of further education among primary care physicians.

  • 6.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    [Most depressed patients can be treated in primary health care].2000Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, nr 11, s. 1244-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    About 15% of primary care attenders suffer from depression, yet only a minority are identified and treated. It is of major importance to spread knowledge of the prevalence of depression and tools for recognizing the disorder. Most patients can be successfully treated in a primary care setting. Studies have shown that educational efforts and close cooperation between psychiatrists and general practitioners (GP's) lead to an increase in the proportion of depressed patients that are identified and properly treated. The use of diagnostic self-reports can facilitate this process for the GP. It is crucial to identify and treat the disorder early on, in order to improve prognosis, decrease the risk of complications and reduce costs for society and the health care system. The article reviews recent studies concerning depression in primary care, describes relevant diagnostic tools and discusses treatment strategies, including self-care and St Johns' wort.

  • 7.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    [Sexual dysfunction is common during treatment with antidepressive agents].1998Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 95, nr 26-27, s. 3061-3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Transsexualism and personality: methodological and clinical studies on gender identity disorders1994Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients suffering from transsexualism (TS) who apply for sex reassignment surgery (SRS) go through a complex evaluation process before being accepted for treatment. In general, the results from SRS are satisfying. However, further knowledge is needed to clearly delineate transsexualism from other related gender identity disorders (GID) and to improve the selection of candidates for SRS. Personality has for a long time been considered as the key concept for that purpose but systematic studies using reliable instruments are lacking. The present study aims at improving the assessment procedure, validating the concept of transsexualism and studying the outcome of SRS and important prognostic factors.

    Two methodological studies deal with the development and validation of two self-report instruments based on DSM-III-R: SCID screen covering Axis II personality disorders/traits and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF-scale, Axis V). SCID screen diagnoses of personality disorders (PD) were compared with diagnoses from independent structured interviews by means of the SCID-II. The overall kappa in identifying a PD was 0.78 varying from 0.34 to 0.81 for the specific PDs when cut-off was adjusted. When applied to a group of GID-patients SCID screen diagnoses agreed well with clinical diagnoses (kappa 0.77). Self-report of the GAF also proved to be a reliable (overall Pearson r=0.62) and useful method and the study lends further support to the validity of Axis V.

    In three papers a group of 19 transsexuals was studied by means of a) SCID screen to examine their personality in a dimensional and traditional categorical way, b) the GAF-scale to study psychosocial functioning, c) Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) to examine self-image and d) Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) to analyze psychological defense structures from a psychodynamic perspective. Patients with atypical gender identity disorders (GIDAANT) and patients with borderline personality disorders as well as healthy subjects were used as contrast groups. Among the transsexuals 10 out of 19 had an additional axis I disorder and 37% had at least one PD, predominantly within cluster B. When analyzed dimensionally according to SCID screen, frequent subthreshold personality pathology was found and biological women fulfilled more axis II criteria than men. TS had less axis I and II pathology compared with GIDAANT and psychiatric patients. According to SASB, TS had a positive self-image with both self-control and spontaneous self and predominating self-love. They appeared significantly more healthy on self-image measures than GIDAANT patients. The DMT revealed a different pattern; TS patients were more disturbed in several areas than patients with borderline personality disorder. TS showed no ”emotional investment” and poorer reality orientation in contrast to both healthy controls and the borderline group but shared a similar pregenital pathology with the borderline patients.

    Finally, five-year outcome was studied among the transsexuals from a multidimensional approach (e.g. work, interpersonal relations, partnership, subjective opinion) and related to index- measurements on DSM-III-R, SCID screen, GAF, SASB and DMT. Based on combined outcome variables, 68% of the subjects were judged to have improved and 16% had an unsatisfactory outcome. One single case regretted the sex change. SCID screen pathology and SASB disturbances emerged as significant predictors for negative outcome, as well as male biological sex and lack of partnership. It was concluded, that although outcome is in general very favorable, the instruments under investigation, in particular SCID screen and SASB, revealed valuable prognostic information and they are suggested to become part of the future routine assessment of candidates for SRS.

  • 9.
    Bodlund, Owe
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Andersson, S O
    Mallon, L
    Effects of consulting psychiatrist in primary care. 1-year follow-up of diagnosing and treating anxiety and depression.1999Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 153-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological screening of anxiety and depressive disorders in primary care and evaluation of how these patients are identified and treated. Follow-up after 1 year of psychiatric consultation/liaison (C/L) and educational activities. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: In the baseline study 374 unselected and consecutive patients, and in the follow-up study 254 patients (response rate 94.5% and 90.3%, respectively) answered the screening instrument HAD scale (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale). The HAD results were compared to clinical diagnosis and treatment according to the medical records. Differences after 1 year were analysed. RESULTS: At follow-up the prevalence of anxiety had increased from 11.8% to 16.5% (p < 0.05), and of depression from 3.7% to 4.7% (NS) according to HAD. Also, at the follow-up more cases of anxiety disorders were clinically diagnosed--13% vs 8%--as well as an increased number of cases of depressive disorders--7.9% vs 4.0%. The agreement between HAD diagnosis and clinical judgement had increased significantly (p < 0.001) for anxiety disorders from 37% to 70%, and for depression from 20% to 45%. Treatment prevalence had also improved (p < 0.001) at the follow-up for anxiety disorders from 33% to 55% and for depression from 47% to 80%. In total, 4.0% of the baseline and 11.4% of the follow-up population were treated for anxiety and/or depression. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depressive disorders are prevalent in primary care. However, only a minority of these patients are identified and treated. Psychiatric consultant support seems to be effective in improving GP's diagnostic and therapeutic skills thus enabling these widespread disorders to be identified at an early stage and properly treated.

  • 10.
    Bodlund, Owe
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Self-image and personality traits in gender identity disorders: an empirical study.1994Ingår i: Journal of sex & marital therapy, ISSN 0092-623X, E-ISSN 1521-0715, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 303-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-image and personality traits, measured by SASB and SCID screen respectively, were compared between transsexuals, patients diagnosed as Gender Identity Disorders of Adolescence and Adulthood, Non-transsexual Type (GIDAANT), and normal controls. Transsexual and GIDAANT patients differed significantly in both their self-image and personality traits. While both the transsexuals' and controls' self-images were positive with self-love, the GIDAANT patients had a negative self-image. On the SCID screen, the GIDAANT group fulfilled 39.8% of all axis II criteria; transsexuals fulfilled 28.6% versus 17.1% for the control group. Mean GAF scores (axis V) were 62, 70, and 83, respectively. For all patients a more negative self-image was significantly related to lower social functioning according to GAF and to more personality pathology according to SCID screen. The prevalence of additional clinical axis I and II disorders was about twice as high among GIDAANT patients as among transsexuals. Although the two conditions are closely related, we found more differences than similarities in the studied aspects and a clear tendency that the GIDAANT patients had more psychopathology overall. Although the transsexuals also differed significantly in some aspects from the controls, they showed less personality pathology and they had a normal self-image. Negative self-image, high degree of fulfilled axis II criteria, and low GAF scores seem to be corresponding factors and in this study clearly differentiate transsexuals from GIDAANT patients.

  • 11.
    Bodlund, Owe
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Grann, Martin
    Ottosson, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Svanborg, C
    Validation of the self-report questionnaire DIP-Q in diagnosing DSM-IV personality disorders: a comparison of three psychiatric samples.1998Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 97, nr 6, s. 433-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The DSM-IV section of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire (DIP-Q) was used to screen for personality disorders in 448 subjects from three clinical samples (general and forensic psychiatric patients and candidates for psychotherapy) and a sample of 139 healthy volunteers. Differences between the samples with regard to patterns of personality pathology in relation to concurrent Axis I disorders and sociodemographic variables were analysed. The prevalence of personality disorders according to DIP-Q was 14% among the healthy volunteers, compared to 59% in the general psychiatric sample, 68% in the forensic psychiatric sample and up to 90% among psychotherapy candidates. Moreover, from a dimensional perspective (i.e. the number of fulfilled Axis II criteria), all clinical groups differed significantly from the control group in all specified personality dimensions and clusters. Dimensional DIP-Q cluster scores also discriminated significantly between the three clinical samples. Unexpectedly, the odds ratio for an Axis II disorder was nearly five times higher among psychotherapy applicants than among general psychiatric patients, independent of concomitant Axis I disorders, gender or age. The strongest association between DIP-Q score and Axis I disorders was found for depressive disorders, which more than doubled the odds ratio for a personality disorder diagnosis. This association could result from high true comorbidity, but could also be due to the fact that a concomitant depressive state can increase self-reported personality difficulties. The high prevalence among psychotherapy candidates may to some extent reflect help-seeking exaggeration of problems. These are aspects to consider when using the DIP-Q, which overall appears to discriminate well between different samples.

  • 12.
    Bodlund, Owe
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Häggström, Lars
    [SSRI resistant depression. Supplementation with noradrenergic pharmaceuticals can be a good alternative].2004Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 101, nr 36, s. 2712-4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    About five percent of the Swedes are treated with antidepressants, mostly SSRI:s. One third of those are non-responders. In that situation augmentation with a noradrenergic drug, such as reboxetine, can be a successful treatment strategy. This paper discusses clinical and scientific experiences of combinating SSRI:s and NRI:s.

  • 13.
    Bodlund, Owe
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Transsexualism--general outcome and prognostic factors: a five-year follow-up study of nineteen transsexuals in the process of changing sex.1996Ingår i: Archives of Sexual Behavior, ISSN 0004-0002, E-ISSN 1573-2800, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 303-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nineteen transsexuals, approved for sex reassignement, were followed-up after 5 years. Outcome was evaluated as changes in seven areas of social, psychological, and psychiatric functioning. At baseline the patients were evaluated according to axis I, II, V (DSM-III-R), SCID screen, SASB (Structural Analysis of Social Behavior), and DMT (Defense Mechanism Test). At follow-up all but 1 were treated with contrary sex hormones, 12 had completed sex reassignment surgery, and 3 females were waiting for phalloplasty. One male transsexual regretted the decision to change sex and had quit the process. Two transsexuals had still not had any surgery due to older age or ambivalence. Overall, 68% (n = 13) had improved in at least two areas of functioning. In 3 cases (16%) outcome were judged as unsatisfactory and one of those regarded sex change as a failure. Another 3 patients were mainly unchanged after 5 years. Female transsexuals had a slightly better outcome, especially concerning establishing and maintaining partnerships and improvement in socio-economic status compared to male transsexuals. Baseline factors associated with negative outcome (unchanged or worsened) were presence of a personality disorder and high number of fulfilled axis II criteria. SCID screen assessments had high prognostic power. Negative self-image, according to SASB, predicted a negative outcome, whereas DMT variables were not correlated to outcome.

  • 14.
    Bodlund, Owe
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Ekselius, L
    Lindström, E
    von Knorring, Lars
    Axis V--Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Evaluation of a self-report version.1994Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 90, nr 5, s. 342-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines a self-report version of the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale according to Axis V (GAF self-report). The sample (n = 73) was a psychiatric outpatient population from a catchment area clinic. Patients with psychotic and organic mental disorders were not included. The diagnostic distribution on Axis I was similar to the findings from previous studies. Axis II disorders were identified among 47%, of whom a majority also had a concomitant Axis I disorder. The mean GAF expert score was 66.5 (range: 48-86). High complexity and severity of disorders and a high number of fulfilled Axis II criteria were significantly associated with low GAF scores. Independent expert ratings on GAF were correlated with the GAF self-report overall at r = 0.62, varying from 0.45 to 0.91 between different diagnostic groups. In general, the patients scored themselves lower (mean: -4.4 units) than expert ratings. Patients with depressive symptoms from an adjustment disorder or mood disorder were most prone to underestimation. Women also tended to score themselves lower than experts did. Conclusively, the GAF self-report turned out to be a valid and reliable unidimensional instrument measuring psychological, social and occupational functioning. The GAF is easy to handle, and with a self-report version as a complement, Axis V could be more frequently used in future clinical practice and research.

  • 15.
    Bodlund, Owe
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Höjerback, T
    Personality traits and disorders among transsexuals.1993Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 88, nr 5, s. 322-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A group of transsexuals, 9 biological men and 10 women, was assessed according to clinical DSM-III-R diagnosis and a self-report instrument for Axis II diagnoses based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID screen). A control group of 133 individuals was assessed by the same instrument. Combined with a functional criterion according to the Global Assessment of Functioning, the SCID screen showed good agreement with clinical Axis II diagnoses. The overall proportion of Axis II criteria fulfilled, proportion of criteria fulfilled for every single personality disorder and number of personality disorders were calculated from the modified version of the SCID screen. Personality disorders, mainly within cluster B, were identified among 5 of 19 transsexuals, and a majority had multiple personality disorders. Among controls, no personality disorder was identified. Personality traits as measured by the SCID screen revealed significantly more subthreshold pathology among transsexuals than controls in 8 of 12 personality categories. The proportion of overall Axis II criteria fulfilled was 29% among transsexuals versus 17% among controls. Sex differences among transsexuals, the usefulness of the SCID screen and diagnostic problems in DSM-III-R with respect to gender identity disorders are discussed.

  • 16. Ekselius, L
    et al.
    Lindström, E
    von Knorring, L
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Personality disorders in DSM-III-R as categorical or dimensional.1993Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 88, nr 3, s. 183-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the atheoretical approach of the DSM-III-R, the personality disorders have their roots in specific theoretical schools. Due to clinical tradition, analogies with Axis I and the tradition in psychiatry and medicine, the personality disorders are presented as categories although there is more empirical support for a dimensional approach. This study attempted to determine whether the separate personality disorders meet Kendell's criteria for distinct entities, i.e., bimodality with distinct points of rarity. None of the personality disorders met the criteria for a distinct disease entity. Instead, all of the personality disorders presented as continuous, dimensional personality traits present among healthy subjects and more pronounced in patients with mental disorders.

  • 17. Ekselius, L
    et al.
    Lindström, E
    von Knorring, L
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    SCID II interviews and the SCID Screen questionnaire as diagnostic tools for personality disorders in DSM-III-R.1994Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 90, nr 2, s. 120-3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A modified version of the SCID Screen questionnaire covering 103 criteria by means of 124 questions was compared with SCID II interviews in 69 psychiatric patients. The correlation between the number of criteria fulfilled in the SCID II interviews or the questionnaires was 0.84. In the SCID interviews, 54% of the patients had a personality disorder. When the SCID Screen questionnaire was used, 73% had a personality disorder. When the cut-off level for diagnosis was adjusted, the frequency found by means of the SCID screen questionnaire or the interviews was roughly the same, 58% and 54%, respectively. The overall kappa for agreement between the SCID II interviews and questionnaire with adjusted cut-off was 0.78.

  • 18.
    Hansson, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Patient education and group counselling to improve the treatment of depression in primary care: a randomized controlled trial2008Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 105, nr 1-3, s. 235-240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Contactus program for depressed patients in primary care, consists of six lectures about depression, each followed by a group discussion. The aim of this study was to investigate if Contactus can improve treatment outcome in comparison to a control group. METHODS: Forty-six primary care centres in Sweden, each randomly allocated either to the Contactus group or to the control group, included depressed patients, 205 in the Contactus group and 114 in the control group. Besides regular treatment of depression, the Contactus group participated in the educational program. At start and after 6 weeks, patients filled in a questionnaire and the self-reports: HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and GAF-self (Global Assessment of Functioning). RESULTS: After 6 weeks, clinically depressed patients (HAD-depression score >10) had a mean improvement in HAD-D of 4.6 in Contactus vs. 3.0 in controls (p=0.02), and 72% vs. 47% considered themselves to feel better (p=0.01). Increase in GAF score was 11.8 vs. 5.8 (p=0.04), respectively. According to HADS, 55% in Contactus were responders vs. 29% among controls (p=0.006), and 42% vs. 21% (p=0.02) were in remission. LIMITATIONS: Only 40% of the patients in Contactus and 35% among controls were clinically depressed according to the HADS (>10 points) at inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Patient education and group counselling contributes significantly to better improvement among depressed patients. Group treatment is inexpensive and could be implemented in the routine care of depressed patients in primary care.

  • 19.
    Hansson, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Patients' beliefs about the cause of their depression2010Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 124, nr 1-2, s. 54-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patients' beliefs about the cause of their depression can affect their help-seeking behavior, treatment preferences, coping strategies and treatment compliance. There are few studies exploring depressed patients' beliefs about the causes and to our knowledge none in a Swedish population. However, previous studies show that the patients more often mention environmental and psychological causes than biological. The aim of this study was to further explore depressed patients' answers to an open-ended question about the etiology of their depression. METHODS: Primary care patients, participating in a study evaluating patient education, were asked an open-ended question about their beliefs about what had caused their depression. Answers were obtained from 303 patients. RESULTS: The analysis of the patients' beliefs emerged into 16 different categories of explanations for depression that could be organized into three larger themes: current life stressors, past life events and constitutional factors. Work-related stress was the most commonly mentioned cause, followed by personality and current family situation. Only 3.6% stated biological reasons. LIMITATIONS: We could only count the frequency of mentioned causes, but no ranking of the importance of these causes. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care patients often gave multi-causal explanations to their depression. Biological explanations were rare. Their beliefs were predominantly current life stressors such as work or family situation and also their own personality. Patients' beliefs about their illness are important in the patient-doctor encounter, when developing new treatment strategies aiming at improved adherence to both psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments and also in patient education programs.

  • 20.
    Hansson, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    What made me feel better?: patients' own explanations for the improvement of their depression2012Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 66, nr 4, s. 290-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression is common among primary care patients and the usual treatment often consists of antidepressant medication and supportive counselling/follow-ups. Previous studies have shown that patients and professionals have different beliefs about treatment, which in turn can decrease acceptance of the diagnosis, compliance and treatment outcome. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate previously depressed patients' beliefs about the cause of their improvement. Methods: Depressed primary care patients (n = 184) who considered themselves improved at follow-up answered an open-ended question about what they believed had made them better. Among these 117 patients had, in addition to treatment as usual, participated in an intervention with patient education and group counselling (the Contactus programme), whereas 67 were controls. The groups were comparable at baseline and 82% were on antidepressants. Results: In total, the patients mentioned 14 separate improving factors, which could be organized to the larger themes external factors, self-management, passing spontaneously and professional help. The most frequently mentioned factors for improvement were the Contactus programme (53.0%), antidepressants (40.2%) and personal development (27.2%). Few gender and age differences were seen. The controls who mentioned professional help were more likely to have a better outcome. Conclusions: The patients were generally positive to professional help such as antidepressants and the Contactus programme. Patient education and group counselling seems to be a valuable supplement to treatment of depressed patients in primary care.

  • 21.
    Hansson, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    What made me feel better?: patients’ own explanations for the improvement of their depressionArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression is common among primary care patients and among those recognized the usual treatment often consists of antidepressants and supportive counselling/follow-ups. Previous studies have shown that patients and professionals have different beliefs about treatment which in turn can decrease acceptance of the diagnosis, compliance and treatment outcome.

    Methods: Depressed primary care patients (N=184) who considered themselves improved at follow-up answered an open-ended question about what they believed had made them better. Among these 117 patients had, in addition to treatment as usual, participated in an intervention with patient education and group counselling (the Contactus program) while 67 were controls. The groups were comparable at baseline and 82 % were on antidepressants.

    Results: In total, the patients mentioned 14 separate improving factors which could be organized to the larger themes external factors, self-management, passing spontaneously and professional help. The most frequently mentioned factors for improvement were the Contactus program (53.0 %), antidepressants (40.2 %) and personal development (27.2 %). Few gender and age differences were seen. The controls who mentioned professional help were more likely to have a better outcome.

    Limitations: The construct of the open-ended question did not allow us to analyze the rank order of importance of each improving factor.

    Conclusions: The patients were generally positive to professional help such as antidepressants and the Contactus program. Patient education and group counselling seems to be a valuable supplement to treatment of depressed patients in primary care.

  • 22.
    Hansson, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nordström, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Comparison of two self-rating scales to detect depression: HADS and PHQ-92009Ingår i: British Journal of General Practice, ISSN 0960-1643, E-ISSN 1478-5242, Vol. 59, nr 566, s. e283-288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: More than half of patients with depression go undetected. Self-rating scales can be useful in screening for depression, and measuring severity and treatment outcome. AIM: This study compares the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) with regard to their psychometric properties, and investigates their agreement at different cut-off scores. METHOD: Swedish primary care patients and psychiatric outpatients (n = 737) who reported symptoms of depression completed the self-rating scales. Data were collected from 2006 to 2007. Analyses with respect to internal consistency, factor analysis, and agreement (Cohen's kappa) at recommended cut-offs were performed. RESULTS: Both scales had high internal consistency (alpha = 0.9) and stable factor structures. Using severity cut-offs, the PHQ-9 (> or =5) diagnosed about 30% more patients than the HADS depression subscale (HADS-D; > or =8). They recognised the same prevalence of mild and moderate depression, but differed in relation to severe depression. When comparing recommended screening cut-offs, HADS-D > or =11 (33.5% of participants) and PHQ-9 > or =10 (65.9%) agreement was low (kappa = 0.35). Using the lower recommended cut-off in the HADS-D (> or =8), agreement with PHQ-9 > or =10 was moderate (kappa = 0.52). The highest agreement (kappa = 0.56) was found comparing HADS-D > or =8 with PHQ-9 > or =12. This also equalised the prevalence of depression found by the scales. CONCLUSION: The HADS and PHQ-9 are both quick and reliable. The HADS has the advantage of evaluating both depression and anxiety, and the PHQ-9 of being strictly based upon the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The agreement between the scales at the best suitable cut-off is moderate, although the identified prevalence was similar. This indicates that the scales do not fully identify the same cases. This difference needs to be further explored.

  • 23. Henningsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Westberg, Lars
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Lundström, Bengt
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Lindström, Eva
    Hellstrand, Monika
    Rosmond, Roland
    Eriksson, Elias
    Landén, Mikael
    Sex steroid-related genes and male-to-female transsexualism2005Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 657-664Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transsexualism is characterised by Lifelong discomfort with the assigned sex and a strong identification with the opposite sex. The cause of transsexualism is unknown, but it has been suggested that an aberration in the early sexual differentiation of various brain structures may be involved. Animal experiments have revealed that the sexual differentiation of the brain is mainly due to an influence of testosterone, acting both via androgen receptors (ARs) and-after aromatase-catalyzed conversion to estradiol-via estrogen receptors (ERs). The present study examined the possible importance of three polymorphisms and their pairwise interactions for the development of male-to-female transsexualism: a CAG repeat sequence in the first exon of the AR gene, a tetra nucleotide repeat polymorphism in intron 4 of the aromatase gene, and a CA repeat polymorphism in intron 5 of the ER beta gene. Subjects were 29 Caucasian male-to-female transsexuals and 229 healthy mate controls. Transsexuals differed from controls with respect to the mean Length of the ER repeat polymorphism, but not with respect to the length of the other two studied polymorphisms. However, binary logistic regression analysis revealed significant partial effects for all three polymorphisms, as well as for the interaction between the AR and aromatase gene polymorphisms, on the risk of developing transsexualism. Given the small number of transsexuals in the study, the results should be interpreted with the utmost caution. Further study of the putative role of these and other sex steroid-related genes for the development of transsexualism may, however, be worthwhile.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Höjerback, Torvald
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    A five-year follow-up study of Swedish adults with gender identity disorder2010Ingår i: Archives of Sexual Behavior, ISSN 0004-0002, E-ISSN 1573-2800, Vol. 39, nr 6, s. 1429-1437Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This follow-up study evaluated the outcome of sex reassignment as viewed by both clinicians and patients, with an additional focus on the outcome based on sex and subgroups. Of a total of 60 patients approved for sex reassignment, 42 (25 male-to-female [MF] and 17 female-to-male [FM]) transsexuals completed a follow-up assessment after 5 or more years in the process or 2 or more years after completed sex reassignment surgery. Twenty-six (62%) patients had an early onset and 16 (38%) patients had a late onset; 29 (69%) patients had a homosexual sexual orientation and 13 (31%) patients had a non-homosexual sexual orientation (relative to biological sex). At index and follow-up, a semi-structured interview was conducted. At follow-up, 32 patients had completed sex reassignment surgery, five were still in process, and five-following their own decision-had abstained from genital surgery. No one regretted their reassignment. The clinicians rated the global outcome as favorable in 62% of the cases, compared to 95% according to the patients themselves, with no differences between the subgroups. Based on the follow-up interview, more than 90% were stable or improved as regards work situation, partner relations, and sex life, but 5-15% were dissatisfied with the hormonal treatment, results of surgery, total sex reassignment procedure, or their present general health. Most outcome measures were rated positive and substantially equal for MF and FM. Late-onset transsexuals differed from those with early onset in some respects: these were mainly MF (88 vs. 42%), older when applying for sex reassignment (42 vs. 28 years), and non-homosexually oriented (56 vs. 15%). In conclusion, almost all patients were satisfied with the sex reassignment; 86% were assessed by clinicians at follow-up as stable or improved in global functioning.

  • 25. Kuckertz, Jennie M.
    et al.
    Gildebrant, Elena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liliequist, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Karlström, Petra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Väppling, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap.
    Stenlund, Thérese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Hofmann, Stefan G.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Amir, Nader
    Carlbring, Per
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moderation and mediation of the effect of attention training in social anxiety disorder2014Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 53, s. 30-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While attention modification programs (AMP) have shown promise as laboratory-based treatments for social anxiety disorder, trials of internet-delivered AMP have not yielded significant differences between active and control conditions. To address these inconsistencies, we examined the moderational and mediational role of attention bias in the efficacy of attention training. We compared data reported by Carlbring et al. (2012) to an identical AMP condition, with the exception that participants were instructed to activate social anxiety fears prior to each attention training session (AMP + FACT; n = 39). We also compared all attention training groups to an internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (iCBT) condition (n = 40). Participants in the AMP + FACT group experienced greater reductions in social anxiety symptoms than both active (n = 40) and control (n = 39) groups reported by Carlbring et al., and did not differ in symptom reductions from the iCBT group. Higher attention bias predicted greater symptom reductions for participants who completed AMP, but not for the control group. Moreover, change in attention bias mediated the relationship between AMP group (active condition reported by Carlbring et al. versus AMP + FACT) and change in social anxiety symptoms. These results suggest the importance of interpreting findings related to symptom change in attention training studies in the context of bias effects. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26. Langworth, Sven
    et al.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Ågren, Hans
    Efficacy and tolerability of reboxetine compared with citalopram: a double-blind study in patients with major depressive disorder2006Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0271-0749, E-ISSN 1533-712X, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 121-127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to compare efficacy and tolerability of the selective noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor reboxetine with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram, in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). In total, 357 outpatients with MDD were randomized to treatment with reboxetine 8-10 mg or citalopram 20-40 mg per day during 24 weeks. Primary end-point was change from baseline in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, 21 items). Sexual function/dysfunction was measured by the Sexual Function scale (SF). Observed case analysis showed that both treatments yielded a gradual reduction of HAM-D scores: reboxetine with -21.4 and citalopram with -22.1 points (NS). LOCF analysis showed a greater reduction of the HAM-D scores with citaloprarn compared with reboxetine (- 19.6 vs. - 17.8; P = 0.034). The response rate was 90.3% for reboxetine and 92.7% for citalopram (NS). The most common side effect in the reboxetine group was dry mouth, and in the citalopram group sexual dysfunction. At week 24, anorgasmia was reported by 5.9% of the sexually active women in the reboxetine group vs 39% in the citalopram group. The dropout number was 91 in the reboxetine group, and 54 in the citaloprarn group. To summarize, both treatments gave a satisfactory antidepressant effect. The side effect profile differed between the groups, with a notably high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in the citalopram group. The high number of dropouts in the reboxetine group, is considered as a result of the non-titration starting dose of 8 mg reboxetine per day, which gave a high incidence of early side-effects.

  • 27. Lindström, Ulf
    et al.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    [Professional development. Gradual introduction of the subject in medical education in Umeå]2008Ingår i: Lakartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 105, nr 12-13, s. 909-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Lindström, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Professionell utveckling: Så förs ämnet stegvis in i läkarutbildningen i Umeå2008Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, nr 12-13, s. 909-913Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 90's a course called Professional Development (PD) runs through all terms of Medical School in Umeå. The course has continuously been reformed on the basis of course evaluations. Today there is a well-reasoned progression in the curricula to synthesize students' actual knowledge level, skills, and attitudes into professionalism. The teaching items and the pedagogical methods in PU all aim to develop the students' reflective stance, gender awareness, empathy, ethical reasoning and consultations skills. Taking communication as an example: During the first terms, theories and small-group training sessions are introduced. By clinical courses, students video-tape their own consultations and get structured feedback in tutor-guided groups. The last terms, role plays on difficult clinical situations are staged for training, but also to challenge attitudes on for instance ethnicity and sexuality. Finally, insights in communication theories and their applicability are examined in a written video case exam.

  • 29. Mansson, Kristoffer N. T.
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Engman, Jonas
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Amygdala Changes After Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Attention Bias Modification via the Internet: An fMRI-Study2013Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 73, nr 9, s. 72S-72SArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Månsson, Kristoffer NT
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala University.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Furmark, Thomas
    Uppsala University.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University.
    Altered neural correlates of affective processing after internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder2013Ingår i: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 214, nr 3, s. 229-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Randomized controlled trials have yielded promising results for internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) forpatients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). The present study investigated anxiety-related neural changes after iCBT for SAD. The amygdala is a critical hub in the neural fear network, receptive to change using emotion regulation strategies and a putative target for iCBT.

    Twenty-two subjects were included in pre- and post-treatment functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T assessingneural changes during an affective face processing task. Treatment outcome was assessed using social anxiety self-reports and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale.

    ICBT yielded better outcome than ABM (66% vs. 25% CGI-I responders). A significant differential activation of the left amygdala was found with relatively decreased reactivity after iCBT. Changes in the amygdala were related to a behavioral measure of social anxiety. Functional connectivity analysis in the iCBT group showed that the amygdala attenuation was associated with increased activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and decreased activity in the right ventrolateral and dorsolateral (dlPFC) cortices. Treatment-induced neural changes with iCBT were consistent with previously reported studies on regular CBT and emotion regulation in general.

  • 31.
    Naesström, Matilda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    A systematic review of psychiatric indications for deep brain stimulation, with focus on major depressive and obsessive-compulsive disorder2016Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 70, nr 7, s. 483-491Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Deep brain stimulation is a treatment under investigation for a range of psychiatric disorders. It has shown promising results for therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Other indications under investigation include Tourette's syndrome, anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders.Aims: To review current studies on psychiatric indications for deep brain stimulation (DBS), with focus on OCD and MDD.Method: A systematic search was carried out in MEDLINE, and the literature was searched to identify studies with DBS for psychiatric disorders. The identified studies were analysed based on patient characteristics, treatment results and adverse effects of DBS.Results: A total of 52 papers met the inclusion criteria and described a total of 286 unique patients treated with DBS for psychiatric indications; 18 studies described 112 patients treated with DBS for OCD in six different anatomical targets, while nine studies presented 100 patients with DBS for MDD in five different targets.Conclusion: DBS may show promise for treatment-resistant OCD and MDD but the results are limited by small sample size and insufficient randomized controlled data. Deep brain stimulation for OCD has received United States Food and Drug Administration approval. Other psychiatric indications are currently of a purely experimental nature.

  • 32.
    Naesström, Matilda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Djup hjärnstimulering vid psykiska sjukdomar visar lovande resultat - Men behandlingen är fortfarande experimentell2016Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113, nr 40, artikel-id DYHLArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Deep brain stimulation is an established treatment for movement disorders. It has been proven to be a safe method; only minor complications have been reported in larger studies. New indications for deep brain stimulation are under investigation; among them major depressive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Deep brain stimulation for severe and therapy-resistant major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive-disorder shows promising results. However, the experience of deep brain stimulation in psychiatric disorders is limited. Several potential target areas for stimulation have been presented; which are the most effective is still an open question. Deep brain stimulation in psychiatric disorders is a highly experimental treatment and should only be performed by a multidisciplinary team with extensive experience with deep brain stimulation in other conditions.

  • 33.
    Naesström, Matilda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: knowledge and concerns among psychiatrists, psychotherapists and patients2017Ingår i: Surgical neurology international, ISSN 2229-5097, Vol. 8, artikel-id 298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is under investigation for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to other therapies. The number of implants worldwide is slowly increasing. Therefore, it is of importance to explore knowledge and concerns of this novel treatment among patients and their psychiatric healthcare contacts. This information is relevant for scientific professionals working with clinical studies for DBS for this indication. Especially, for future study designs and the creation of information targeting healthcare professionals and patients. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and concerns toward DBS among patients with OCD, psychiatrists, and cognitive behavioral therapists.

    Methods: The study was conducted through web-based surveys for the aimed target groups -psychiatrist, patients, and cognitive behavioral therapists. The surveys contained questions regarding previous knowledge of DBS, source of knowledge, attitudes, and concerns towards the therapy.

    Results: The main source of information was from scientific sources among psychiatrists and psychotherapists. The patient's main source of information was the media. Common concerns among the groups included complications from surgery, anesthesia, stimulation side effects, and the novelty of the treatment. Specific concerns for the groups included; personality changes mentioned by patients and psychotherapists, and ethical concerns among psychiatrists.

    Conclusion: There are challenges for DBS in OCD as identified by the participants of this study; source and quality of information, efficacy, potential adverse effects, and eligibility. In all of which the current evidence base still is limited. A broad research agenda is needed for studies going forward.

  • 34.
    Nordström, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Every third patient in primary care suffers from depression, anxiety or alcohol problems2008Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 62, nr 3, s. 250-255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were to explore the prevalence of patients with depression and anxiety in primary care, its co-occurrence with hazardous/harmful alcohol use, and its relation to gender, age and reason for visit. A questionnaire, including the self-rating Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, was consecutively distributed to 1800 patients at 11 primary healthcare centres in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. The response rate was 77.3% (1392 patients), 38% men and 62% women. A total of 31.9% showed symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, with no gender differences. Harmful/hazardous alcohol use was found in 11.9% of the patients, 17.3% in men and 8.8% in women, although the region in Sweden has relatively low alcohol consumption among the population. Age was an important factor. Incidences of the conditions often occurred simultaneously. About half (51%) of those with harmful/hazardous alcohol use also showed symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. The most common causes for patients with symptoms of depression, anxiety or risk consumption of alcohol to seek care were the same as for the general population, namely complaints of pain or infection. Only 7.8% visited the primary care for psychiatric reasons, according to their own given reasons. In all, 38% of the patients showed signs of psychiatric symptoms and/or alcohol problems or a combination of these. The fact that every third patient showed symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or alcohol problems underlines the strategic position for early identification, intervention and treatment within primary healthcare.

  • 35.
    Ottosson, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Ekselius, L
    Grann, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    von Knorring, Lars
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Lindström, E
    Söderberg, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    DSM-IV and ICD-10 personality disorders: a comparison of a self-report questionnaire (DIP-Q) with a structured interview1998Ingår i: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 246-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    DIP-Q can be used as a screening instrument for personality disorders according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. Self-report questionnaires such as DIP-Q will probably play an increasingly important role in future epidemiological studies.

  • 36. Sundbom, Elisabet
    et al.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Prediction of outcome in transsexualism by means of the Defense Mechanism Test and multivariate modeling: a pilot study.1999Ingår i: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 88, nr 1, s. 3-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To elaborate the predictive value of the projective method using the Defense Mechanism Test in a 5-yr. follow-up study of 16 transsexuals, all subjects were approved for sex reassignment surgery and had completed the baseline assessments and the 5-yr. follow-up evaluation. Furthermore, we intended to create an outcome model based on the test data for prior patients wherein new consecutive applicants for sex change could be tested to predict the outcome in individual cases. Outcomes after five years showed that 62% of the transsexuals were judged as improved in a variety of areas of psychosocial functioning, 19% were unchanged, and 19% were worsened. Firstly, the analysis of the test data confirmed differences between the improved transsexuals and those who were not. Secondly, sex differences were found, with female-to-male transsexuals having a better outcome and being more homogeneous than their male counterparts. Thirdly, there was good correspondence in prediction of outcome between the model based on the Defense Mechanism Test and a clinical judgment made by a psychiatrist for two new applicants for sex reassignment surgery. It appears the Defense Mechanism Test has a predictive ability for patients with gender-identity disorder.

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