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  • 1. Aglago, Elom K.
    et al.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Murphy, Neil
    Casagrande, Corinne
    Nicolas, Genevieve
    Pischon, Tobias
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Severi, Gianluca
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Fournier, Agnès
    Katzke, Verena
    Kühn, Tilman
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Dahm, Christina C.
    Overvad, Kim
    Lasheras, Cristina
    Agudo, Antonio
    Sánchez, Maria-Jose
    Amiano, Pilar
    Huerta, José Maria
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Karakatsani, Anna
    Martimianaki, Georgia
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Tumino, Rosario
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Panico, Salvatore
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    May, Anne
    Derksen, Jeroen W. G.
    Hellstrand, Sophie
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Skeie, Guri
    Brustad, Magritt
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Cross, Amanda J.
    Ward, Heather
    Riboli, Elio
    Norat, Teresa
    Chajes, Veronique
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Consumption of Fish and Long-chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer in a Large European Cohort2019Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN 1542-3565, E-ISSN 1542-7714Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is an unclear association between intake of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the association between fish consumption, dietary and circulating levels of n-3 LC-PUFAs, and ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA with CRC using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    METHODS: Dietary intake of fish (total, fatty/oily, lean/white) and n-3 LC-PUFA were estimated by food frequency questionnaires given to 521,324 participants in the EPIC study; among these, 6291 individuals developed CRC (median follow up, 14.9 years). Levels of phospholipid LC-PUFA were measured by gas chromatography in plasma samples from a sub-group of 461 CRC cases and 461 matched individuals without CRC (controls). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs), respectively, with 95% CIs.

    RESULTS: Total intake of fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; Ptrend = .005), fatty fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; Ptrend = .009), and lean fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-1.00; Ptrend = .016) were inversely associated with CRC incidence. Intake of total n-3 LC-PUFA (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95; Ptrend = .010) was also associated with reduced risk of CRC, whereas dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA was associated with increased risk of CRC (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18-1.45; Ptrend < .001). Plasma levels of phospholipid n-3 LC-PUFA was not associated with overall CRC risk, but an inverse trend was observed for proximal compared with distal colon cancer (Pheterogeneity = .026).

    CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of dietary patterns of participants in the EPIC study, we found regular consumption of fish, at recommended levels, to be associated with a lower risk of CRC, possibly through exposure to n-3 LC-PUFA. Levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma were not associated with CRC risk, but there may be differences in risk at different regions of the colon.

  • 2. Bamia, C.
    et al.
    Lagiou, P.
    Jenab, M.
    Aleksandrova, K.
    Fedirko, V.
    Trichopoulos, D.
    Overvad, K.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Olsen, A.
    Clavel-Chapelon, F.
    Boutron-Ruault, M-C
    Kvaskoff, M.
    Katzke, V. A.
    Kuehn, T.
    Boeing, H.
    Noethlings, U.
    Palli, D.
    Sieri, S.
    Panico, S.
    Tumino, R.
    Naccarati, A.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(As)
    Peeters, P. H. M.
    Weiderpass, E.
    Skeie, G.
    Quiros, J. R.
    Agudo, A.
    Chirlaque, M-D
    Sanchez, M-J
    Ardanaz, E.
    Dorronsoro, M.
    Ericson, U.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Khaw, K-T
    Wareham, N.
    Key, T. J.
    Travis, R. C.
    Ferrari, P.
    Stepien, M.
    Duarte-Salles, T.
    Norat, T.
    Murphy, N.
    Riboli, E.
    Trichopoulou, A.
    Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a multi-centre, European cohort study2015Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 112, nr 7, s. 1273-1282Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Vegetable and/or fruit intakes in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been investigated in case-control studies conducted in specific European countries and cohort studies conducted in Asia, with inconclusive results. No multi-centre European cohort has investigated the indicated associations. Methods: In 486 799 men/women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, we identified 201 HCC cases after 11 years median follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence for sex-specific quintiles and per 100 g d(-1) increments of vegetable/fruit intakes. Results: Higher vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant, monotonic reduction of HCC risk: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98. This association was consistent in sensitivity analyses with no apparent heterogeneity across strata of HCC risk factors. Fruit intake was not associated with HCC incidence: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92-1.11. Conclusions: Vegetable, but not fruit, intake is associated with lower HCC risk with no evidence for heterogeneity of this association in strata of important HCC risk factors. Mechanistic studies should clarify pathways underlying this association. Given that HCC prognosis is poor and that vegetables are practically universally accessible, our results may be important, especially for those at high risk for the disease.

  • 3.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ahlqwist, Margareta
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Barregard, Lars
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Björkelund, Cecilia
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Blomstrand, Ann
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University.
    Sundh, Valter
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg .
    Mercury in serum predicts low risk of death and myocardial infarction in Gothenburg women2013Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 86, nr 1, s. 71-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Markers of mercury (Hg) exposure have shown both positive and negative associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We assessed the association between serum Hg (S-Hg) and risk of cardiovascular disease in a prospective population-based cohort, with attention to the roles of dental health and fish consumption.

    METHODS: Total mortality, as well as morbidity and mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke, was followed up for 32 years in 1,391 women (initially age 38-60), in relation to S-Hg at baseline, using Cox regression models. Potential confounders (age, socioeconomic status, serum lipids, alcohol consumption, dental health, smoking, hypertension, waist-hip ratio, and diabetes) and other covariates (e.g., fish consumption) were also considered.

    RESULTS: Hazard ratios (HR) adjusted only for age showed strong inverse associations between baseline S-Hg and total mortality [highest quartile: hazard ratio (HR) 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.97], incident AMI (HR 0.56; CI 0.34-0.93), and fatal AMI (HR 0.31; CI 0.15-0.66). Adjustment for potential confounding factors, especially dental health, had a strong impact on the risk estimates, and after adjustment, only the reduced risk of fatal AMI remained statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was a strong inverse association between Hg exposure and CVD. Likely, reasons are confounding with good dental health (also correlated with the number of amalgam fillings in these age groups) and/or fish consumption. The results suggest potential effects of dental health and/or fish consumption on CVD that deserve attention in preventive medicine.

  • 4.
    Bodén, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Myte, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Harlid, Sophia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Shivappa, Nitin
    Hébert, James R
    van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM).
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    The inflammatory potential of diet in determining cancer risk: a prospective investigation of two dietary pattern scores2019Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 4, artikel-id e0214551Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Inflammation-related mechanisms may contribute to the link between diet and cancer. We sought to investigate the inflammatory impact of diet on cancer risk using the Dietary inflammatory index (DII) and an adapted Mediterranean diet score (MDS).

    METHODS: This population-based, prospective cohort study used self-reported dietary data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, including 100,881 participants, of whom 35,393 had repeated measures. Associations between dietary patterns and cancer risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression. We also used restricted cubic splines to test for potential non-linear associations.

    RESULTS: A total of 9,250 incident cancer cases were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 15 years. The two dietary patterns were moderately correlated to each other and had similar associations with cancer risk, predominantly lung cancer in men (DII per tertile decrease: Hazard ratio (HR) 0.81 (0.66-0.99), MDS per tertile increase: HR 0.86 (0.72-1.03)), and gastric cancer in men (DII: 0.73 (0.53-0.99), MDS: 0.73 (0.56-0.96)). Associations were, in general, found to be linear. We found no longitudinal association between 10-year change in diet and cancer risk.

    CONCLUSION: We confirm small, but consistent and statistically significant associations between a more anti-inflammatory or healthier diet and reduced risk of cancer, including a lower risk of lung and gastric cancer in men. The dietary indexes produced similar associations with respect to the risk of cancer.

  • 5.
    Bodén, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Shivappa, Nitin
    Hebert, James R
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Dietary inflammatory index and risk of first myocardial infarction: a prospective population-based study2017Ingår i: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 16, artikel-id 21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic, low-grade inflammation is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The inflammatory impact of diet can be reflected by concentrations of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream and the inflammatory potential of diet can be estimated by the dietary inflammatory index (DII(TM)), which has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk in some previous studies. We aimed to examine the association between the DII and the risk of first myocardial infarction (MI) in a population-based study with long follow-up.

    METHOD: We conducted a prospective case-control study of 1389 verified cases of first MI and 5555 matched controls nested within the population-based cohorts of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS), of which the largest is the ongoing Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) with nearly 100 000 participants during the study period. Median follow-up from recruitment to MI diagnosis was 6.4 years (6.2 for men and 7.2 for women). DII scores were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered in 1986-2006. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using quartile 1 (most anti-inflammatory diet) as the reference category. For validation, general linear models were used to estimate the association between the DII scores and two inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in a subset (n = 605) of the study population.

    RESULTS: Male participants with the most pro-inflammatory DII scores had an increased risk of MI [ORQ4vsQ1 = 1.57 (95% CI 1.21-2.02) P trend = 0.02], which was essentially unchanged after adjustment for potential confounders, including cardiovascular risk factors [ORQ4vsQ1 = 1.50 (95% CI 1.14-1.99), P trend = 0.10]. No association was found between DII and MI in women. An increase of one DII score unit was associated with 9% higher hsCRP (95% CI 0.03-0.14) and 6% higher IL-6 (95% CI 0.02-0.11) in 605 controls with biomarker data available.

    CONCLUSION: A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with an elevated risk of first myocardial infarction in men; whereas for women the relationship was null. Consideration of the inflammatory impact of diet could improve prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  • 6.
    Byhamre, Marja Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Snus use during the life-course and risk of the metabolic syndrome and its components2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 733-740Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between life-course exposure to snus and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood.

    Design and method: Tobacco habits at baseline (age 16) and three follow-ups (ages 21, 30 and 43) were assessed among 880 participants in a population-based cohort in Northern Sweden. Presence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 was ascertained using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Odds ratios and CIs for risk of the metabolic syndrome and its components by snus use at 16, 21, 30 and 43 years were calculated using logistic regression. Cumulative snus use was defined as number of life periods (1-4) with current snus use.

    Results: At age 43, 164 participants (18.6%) were current snus users. We found no association between exclusive snus use at the ages of 16, 21, 30 and 43 years and the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years. Snus use (among non-smokers) was associated with raised triglycerides and high blood pressure in crude analysis, but not in multivariable models. There was no association between cumulative snus use and risk of the metabolic syndrome. Cumulative snus use was associated with central obesity, raised triglycerides and impaired fasting glucose/diabetes mellitus type 2 in crude analyses, but not after adjustments.

    Conclusion: The health consequences of snus exposure from adolescence to mid-adulthood do not seem to include increased risk of the metabolic syndrome or its components. The cardio-metabolic risk of dual exposure to snus and cigarettes may warrant further attention.

  • 7. Chajes, V.
    et al.
    Assi, N.
    Biessy, C.
    Ferrari, P.
    Rinaldi, S.
    Slimani, N.
    Lenoir, G. M.
    Baglietto, L.
    His, M.
    Boutron-Ruault, M. C.
    Trichopoulou, A.
    Lagiou, P.
    Katsoulis, M.
    Kaaks, R.
    Kuehn, T.
    Panico, S.
    Pala, V.
    Masala, G.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    Peeters, P. H.
    van Gils, C.
    Hjartaker, A.
    Olsen, K. Standahl
    Barnung, R. Borgund
    Barricarte, A.
    Redondo-Sanchez, D.
    Menendez, V.
    Amiano, P.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Key, T.
    Khaw, K. T.
    Merritt, M. A.
    Riboli, E.
    Gunter, M. J.
    Romieu, I.
    A prospective evaluation of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the EPIC study2017Ingår i: Annals of Oncology, ISSN 0923-7534, E-ISSN 1569-8041, Vol. 28, nr 11, s. 2836-2842Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting.

    Materials and methods: We assessed the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Sixty fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in pre-diagnostic plasma phospholipids from 2982 incident breast cancer cases matched to 2982 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risk of breast cancer by fatty acid level. The false discovery rate (q values) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. Subgroup analyses were carried out by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in the tumours.

    Results: A high level of palmitoleic acid [odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest OR (Q4–Q1) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14–1.64; P for trend = 0.0001, q value = 0.004] as well as a high desaturation index (DI16) (16:1n–7/16:0) [OR (Q4–Q1), 1.28; 95% C, 1.07–1.54; P for trend = 0.002, q value = 0.037], as biomarkers of de novo lipogenesis, were significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Levels of industrial trans-fatty acids were positively associated with ER-negative tumours [OR for the highest tertile compared with the lowest (T3–T1)=2.01; 95% CI, 1.03–3.90; P for trend = 0.047], whereas no association was found for ER-positive tumours (P-heterogeneity =0.01). No significant association was found between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk, overall or by hormonal receptor.

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that increased de novo lipogenesis, acting through increased synthesis of palmitoleic acid, could be a relevant metabolic pathway for breast tumourigenesis. Dietary trans-fatty acids derived from industrial processes may specifically increase ER-negative breast cancer risk.

  • 8. Del Gobbo, Liana C.
    et al.
    Imamura, Fumiaki
    Aslibekyan, Stella
    Marklund, Matti
    Virtanen, Jyrki K.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Yakoob, Mohammad Y.
    Chiuve, Stephanie E.
    dela Cruz, Luicito
    Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.
    Fretts, Amanda M.
    Guallar, Eliseo
    Matsumoto, Chisa
    Prem, Kiesha
    Tanaka, Tosh
    Wu, Jason H. Y.
    Zhou, Xia
    Helmer, Catherine
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Yuan, Jian-Min
    Barberger-Gateau, Pascale
    Campos, Hannia
    Chaves, Paulo H. M.
    Djousse, Luc
    Giles, Graham G.
    Gomez-Aracena, Jose
    Hodge, Allison M.
    Hu, Frank B.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Koh, Woon-Puay
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
    Lind, Lars
    Luben, Robert N.
    Rimm, Eric B.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Samieri, Cecilia
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Siscovick, David S.
    Stampfer, Meir
    Steffen, Lyn M.
    Steffen, Brian T.
    Tsai, Michael Y.
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Voutilainen, Sari
    Willett, Walter C.
    Woodward, Mark
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biomarkers and Coronary Heart Disease Pooling Project of 19 Cohort Studies2016Ingår i: JAMA Internal Medicine, ISSN 2168-6106, E-ISSN 2168-6114, Vol. 176, nr 8, s. 1155-1166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. Most prior longitudinal studies evaluated self-reported consumption rather than biomarkers. OBJECTIVE To evaluate biomarkers of seafood-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20: 5 omega-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22: 5 omega-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22: 6 omega-3) and plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18: 3 omega-3) for incident CHD. DATA SOURCES A global consortium of 19 studies identified by November 2014. STUDY SELECTION Available prospective (cohort, nested case-control) or retrospective studies with circulating or tissue omega-3 biomarkers and ascertained CHD. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Each study conducted standardized, individual-level analysis using harmonized models, exposures, outcomes, and covariates. Findings were centrally pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was examined by age, sex, race, diabetes, statins, aspirin, omega-6 levels, and FADS desaturase genes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incident total CHD, fatal CHD, and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS The 19 studies comprised 16 countries, 45 637 unique individuals, and 7973 total CHD, 2781 fatal CHD, and 7157 nonfatal MI events, with omega-3 measures in total plasma, phospholipids, cholesterol esters, and adipose tissue. Median age at baseline was 59 years (range, 18-97 years), and 28 660 (62.8%) were male. In continuous (per 1-SD increase) multivariable-adjusted analyses, the omega-3 biomarkers ALA, DPA, and DHA were associated with a lower risk of fatal CHD, with relative risks (RRs) of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84-0.98) for ALA, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85-0.96) for DPA, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84-0.96) for DHA. Although DPA was associated with a lower risk of total CHD (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99), ALA (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.95-1.05), EPA (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87-1.02), and DHA (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-1.00) were not. Significant associations with nonfatal MI were not evident. Associations appeared generally stronger in phospholipids and total plasma. Restricted cubic splines did not identify evidence of nonlinearity in dose responses. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE On the basis of available studies of free-living populations globally, biomarker concentrations of seafood and plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids are associated with a modestly lower incidence of fatal CHD.

  • 9. Dik, Vincent K
    et al.
    Murphy, Neil
    Siersema, Peter D
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Jenab, Mazda
    Kong, So Y
    Hansen, Camilla P
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Dossus, Laure
    Racine, Antoine
    Bastide, Nadia
    Li, Kuanrong
    Kühn, Tilman
    Boeing, Heiner
    Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Barbitsioti, Antonia
    Palli, Domenico
    Contiero, Paolo
    Vineis, Paolo
    Tumino, Rosaria
    Panico, Salvatore
    Peeters, Petra H M
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Skeie, Guri
    Hjartåker, Anette
    Amiano, Pilar
    Sánchez, María-José
    Fonseca-Nunes, Ana
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Chirlaque, María-Dolores
    Redondo, Maria-Luisa
    Jirström, Karin
    Manjer, Jonas
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Bradbury, Kathryn E
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Cross, Amanda J
    Riboli, Elio
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Prediagnostic intake of dairy products and dietary calcium and colorectal cancer survival-results from the EPIC Cohort Study2014Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 23, nr 9, s. 1813-1823Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We investigated whether prediagnostic reported intake of dairy products and dietary calcium is associated with colorectal cancer survival.

    METHODS: Data from 3,859 subjects with colorectal cancer (42.1% male; mean age at diagnosis, 64.2 ± 8.1 years) in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were analyzed. Intake of dairy products and dietary calcium was assessed at baseline (1992-2000) using validated, country-specific dietary questionnaires. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate HR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for colorectal cancer-specific death (n = 1,028) and all-cause death (n = 1,525) for different quartiles of intake.

    RESULTS: The consumption of total dairy products was not statistically significantly associated with risk of colorectal cancer-specific death (adjusted HR Q4 vs. Q1, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97-1.43) nor that of all-cause death (Q4 vs. Q1, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.98-1.36). Multivariable-adjusted HRs for colorectal cancer-specific death (Q4 vs. Q1) were 1.21 (95% CI, 0.99-1.48) for milk, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.88-1.34) for yoghurt, and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.76-1.14) for cheese. The intake of dietary calcium was not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer-specific death (adjusted HR Q4 vs. Q1, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.81-1.26) nor that of all-cause death (Q4 vs. Q1, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.84-1.21).

    CONCLUSIONS: The prediagnostic reported intake of dairy products and dietary calcium is not associated with disease-specific or all-cause risk of death in patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer.

    IMPACT: The impact of diet on cancer survival is largely unknown. This study shows that despite its inverse association with colorectal cancer risk, the prediagnostic intake of dairy and dietary calcium does not affect colorectal cancer survival.

  • 10. Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Koponen, Jani
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Associations between repeated measure of plasma perfluoroalkyl substances and cardiometabolic risk factors2019Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 124, s. 58-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent synthetic chemicals that may affect components of metabolic risk through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor but epidemiological data remain scarce and inconsistent.

    Objective: To estimate associations between repeated measurements of the main PFAS in plasma and total cholesterol, triglycerides and hypertension among the control subjects from a population-based nested case-control study on diabetes type 2 in middle-aged women and men.

    Methods: Participants (n = 187) were free of diabetes at both baseline and follow-up visits to the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, 10 years apart: during 1990 to 2003 (baseline) and 2001 to 2013 (follow-up). Participants left blood samples, completed questionnaires on diet and lifestyle factors, and underwent medical examinations, including measurement of blood pressure. PFAS and lipids were later determined in stored plasma samples. Associations for the repeated measurements were assessed using generalized estimating equations.

    Results: Six PFAS exceeded the limit of quantitation. Repeated measures of PFAS in plasma, cardiometabolic risk factors and confounders, showed an average decrease of triglycerides from −0.16 mmol/l (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.33, 0.02 for PFOA) to −0.26 mmol/l (95% CI: −0.50, −0.08 for PFOS), when comparing the highest tertile of PFAS plasma levels with the lowest. Associations based on average PFAS measurements and follow-up triglycerides revealed similar inverse associations, although attenuated. The estimates for cholesterol and hypertension were inconsistent and with few exception non-significant.

    Conclusions: This study found inverse associations between PFAS and triglycerides, but did not support any clear link with either cholesterol or hypertension.

  • 11. Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Koponen, Jani
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Akesson, Agneta
    Perfluoroalkyl substances and risk of type II diabetes: A prospective nested case-control study2019Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 123, s. 390-398Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have drawn much attention due to bioaccumulation potential and their current omnipresence in human blood. We assessed whether plasma PFAS, suspected to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, were prospectively associated with clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk.

    Methods: We established a nested case-control study within the Swedish prospective population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme cohort. Several PFAS were measured in plasma from a subset of 124 case-control pairs at baseline (during 1990–2003) and at 10-year follow-up. T2D cases were matched (1:1) according to gender, age and sample date with participants without T2D (controls).

    Conditional logistic regressions were used to prospectively assess risk of T2D by baseline PFAS plasma concentrations. Associations between long-term PFAS plasma levels (mean of baseline and follow-up) and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B%) at follow-up were prospectively explored among 178 and 181 controls, respectively, by multivariable linear regressions.

    Results: After adjusting for gender, age, sample year, diet and body mass index, the odds ratio of T2D for the sum of PFAS (Σ z-score PFAS) was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.20, 1.36), comparing third with first tertile; and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.00) per one standard deviation increment of sum of log-transformed PFAS. Among the controls, the adjusted β of HOMA2-IR and HOMA-B% for the sum of PFAS were −0.26 (95% CI: −0.52, −0.01) and −9.61 (95% CI: −22.60, 3.39) respectively comparing third with first tertile.

    Conclusions: This prospective nested case-control study yielded overall inverse associations between individual PFAS and risk of T2D, although mostly non-significant. Among participants without T2D, long-term PFAS exposure was prospectively associated with lower insulin resistance.

  • 12. Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    et al.
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants in Plasma, Blood Pressure, and Hypertension in a Longitudinal Study2018Ingår i: Hypertension, ISSN 0194-911X, E-ISSN 1524-4563, Vol. 71, nr 6, s. 1258-1268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) have shown to be involved in the atherosclerotic process and to cause endothelial cell dysfunction. To assess longitudinally whether plasma concentrations of different POPs were associated with blood pressure and risk of hypertension in middle-aged women and men. Study subjects were 850 participants in the VIP (Västerbotten Intervention Programme) with 2 blood samples and blood pressure measurements, 10 years apart, during 1990 to 2003 (baseline) and during 2000 to 2013 (follow-up). Dioxin-like and nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs, NDL-PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured. Associations were assessed using generalized estimating equations. At baseline sampling 49% and at follow-up 64% had hypertension. DL-PCBs and DDE, but not NDL-PCBs or hexachlorobenzene, were associated with hypertension. Only the association for DL-PCBs remained statistically significant after lipid-standardization and adjustment for body mass index and total serum lipids. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of hypertension based on repeated measurements were 1.52 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.13) for DL-PCBs (third versus first tertile of lipid-standardized POPs). In stratified adjusted analyses, odds ratio for those born after 1950 increased to 3.99 (95% confidence interval, 2.15-7.43), whereas no association was observed among those born earlier. Based on repeated measurements, the accumulated exposure to DL-PCBs and DDE, although less clear for the latter, may disrupt the normal blood pressure levels and increase the odds of hypertension. Moreover, individuals experiencing early-life POP exposure may be at elevated risk of vascular POP effects.

  • 13. Duarte-Salles, Talita
    et al.
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Stepien, Magdalena
    Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    Bamia, Christina
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam
    Hansen, Louise
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    His, Mathilde
    Boeing, Heiner
    Katzke, Verena
    Kühn, Tilman
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Valanou, Elissavet
    Kritikou, Maria
    Masala, Giovanna
    Panico, Salvatore
    Sieri, Sabina
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Tumino, Rosario
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As
    Peeters, Petra H
    Hjartåker, Anette
    Skeie, Guri
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Bonet, Catalina
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Quirós, J Ramón
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Sjöberg, Klas
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Travis, Ruth C
    Wareham, Nick
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Freisling, Heinz
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Cross, Amanda J
    Gunter, Marc
    Lu, Yunxia
    Jenab, Mazda
    Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort2015Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 137, nr 11, s. 2715-2728Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-hr diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC = 122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/day, HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk.

  • 14. Duarte-Salles, Talita
    et al.
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Stepien, Magdalena
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Bamia, Christina
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Trepo, Elisabeth
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Racine, Antoine
    Cadeau, Claire
    Kühn, Tilman
    Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Tsiotas, Konstantinos
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Panico, Salvatore
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as
    Dik, Vincent K
    Peeters, Petra H
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Torhild Gram, Inger
    Hjartåker, Anette
    Ramón Quirós, Jose
    Fonseca-Nunes, Ana
    Molina-Montes, Esther
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Navarro Sanchez, Carmen
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Lindkvist, Björn
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Travis, Ruth C
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Riboli, Elio
    Jenab, Mazda
    Dairy products and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition2014Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 135, nr 7, s. 1662-1672Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intake of dairy products has been associated with risk of some cancers, but findings are often inconsistent and information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is limited, particularly from prospective settings. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between consumption of total and specific dairy products (milk/cheese/yogurt) and their components (calcium/vitamin D/fats/protein), with first incident HCC (N(cases) = 191) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, including a nested case-control subset (N(cases) = 122) with the assessment of hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus infections status, liver damage and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels. For cohort analyses, multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For nested case-control analyses, conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% CI. A total of 477,206 participants were followed-up for an average of 11 years (person-years follow-up = 5,415,385). In the cohort study, a significant positive HCC risk association was observed for total dairy products (highest vs. lowest tertile, HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.13-2.43; p(trend) = 0.012), milk (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.24; p(trend) = 0.049), and cheese (HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38; p(trend) = 0.101), but not yogurt (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.65-1.35). Dietary calcium, vitamin D, fat and protein from dairy sources were associated with increased HCC risk, whereas the same nutrients from nondairy sources showed inverse or null associations. In the nested case-control study, similar results were observed among hepatitis-free individuals. Results from this large prospective cohort study suggest that higher consumption of dairy products, particularly milk and cheese, may be associated with increased HCC risk. Validation of these findings in other populations is necessary. Potential biologic mechanisms require further exploration.

  • 15. Emaus, Marleen J.
    et al.
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Bakker, Marije F.
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Dossus, Laure
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine
    Baglietto, Laura
    Fortner, Renee T.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Boeing, Heiner
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Masala, Giovanna
    Pala, Valeria
    Panico, Salvatore
    Tumino, Rosario
    Polidoro, Silvia
    Skeie, Guri
    Lund, Eiliv
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Travier, Noemie
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Winkvist, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Key, Timothy J.
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Gunter, Marc
    Riboli, Elio
    van Gils, Carla H.
    Vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in the EPIC cohort2016Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 103, nr 1, s. 168-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The recent literature indicates that a high vegetable intake and not a high fruit intake could be associated with decreased steroid hormone receptor–negative breast cancer risk.

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit intake and steroid hormone receptor–defined breast cancer risk.

    Design: A total of 335,054 female participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were included in this study (mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 9.8 y). Vegetable and fruit intake was measured by country-specific questionnaires filled out at recruitment between 1992 and 2000 with the use of standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at recruitment and study center and were adjusted for breast cancer risk factors.

    Results: After a median follow-up of 11.5 y (IQR: 10.1–12.3 y), 10,197 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed [3479 estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+); 1021 ER and PR negative (ER−PR−)]. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5–quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER−PR− breast cancer (ER−PR−: HRquintile 5–quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5–quintile 1: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.05; P-trend = 0.14), the test for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status was not significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.09). Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor–defined breast cancer risk.

    Conclusion: This study supports evidence that a high vegetable intake is associated with lower (mainly hormone receptor–negative) breast cancer risk.

  • 16. Engeset, Dagrun
    et al.
    Braaten, Tonje
    Teucher, Birgit
    Kühn, Tilman
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B
    Leenders, Max
    Agudo, Antonio
    Bergmann, Manuela M
    Valanou, Elisavet
    Naska, Androniki
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Key, Timothy J
    Crowe, Francesca L
    Overvad, Kim
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Peeters, Petra H
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Jansson, Jan Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Dossus, Laure
    Dartois, Laureen
    Li, Kuanrong
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Ward, Heather
    Riboli, Elio
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Huerta, José María
    Sánchez, María-José
    Tumino, Rosario
    Altzibar, Jone M
    Vineis, Paolo
    Masala, Giovanna
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Muller, David C
    Johansson, Mattias
    Luisa Redondo, M
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Olsen, Karina Standahl
    Brustad, Magritt
    Skeie, Guri
    Lund, Eiliv
    Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort2015Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 57-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish is a source of important nutrients and may play a role in preventing heart diseases and other health outcomes. However, studies of overall mortality and cause-specific mortality related to fish consumption are inconclusive. We examined the rate of overall mortality, as well as mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cancer in relation to the intake of total fish, lean fish, and fatty fish in a large prospective cohort including ten European countries. More than 500,000 men and women completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1999 and were followed up for mortality until the end of 2010. 32,587 persons were reported dead since enrolment. Hazard ratios and their 99 % confidence interval were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Fish consumption was examined using quintiles based on reported consumption, using moderate fish consumption (third quintile) as reference, and as continuous variables, using increments of 10 g/day. All analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. No association was seen for fish consumption and overall or cause-specific mortality for both the categorical and the continuous analyses, but there seemed to be a U-shaped trend (p < 0.000) with fatty fish consumption and total mortality and with total fish consumption and cancer mortality (p = 0.046).

  • 17. Engström, Karin S
    et al.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Department of Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Ulf
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Rentschler, Gerda
    Vessby, Bengt
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Broberg, Karin
    Evaluation of the impact of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes on the association between methylmercury or n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study2011Ingår i: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 10, s. Article nr 33-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are present in fish, are protective against myocardial infarction. However, fish also contains methylmercury, which influences the risk of myocardial infarction, possibly by generating oxidative stress. Methylmercury is metabolized by conjugation to glutathione, which facilitates elimination. Glutathione is also an antioxidant. Individuals with certain polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes may tolerate higher exposures to methylmercury, due to faster metabolism and elimination and/or better glutathione-associated antioxidative capacity. They would thus benefit more from the protective agents in fish, such as eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and selenium. The objective for this study was to elucidate whether genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes modify the association between eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or methylmercury and risk of first ever myocardial infarction.

    METHODS: Polymorphisms in glutathione-synthesizing (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, GCLC and glutamyl-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, GCLM) or glutathione-conjugating (glutathione S-transferase P, GSTP1) genes were genotyped in 1027 individuals from northern Sweden (458 cases of first-ever myocardial infarction and 569 matched controls). The impact of these polymorphisms on the association between erythrocyte-mercury (proxy for methylmercury) and risk of myocardial infarction, as well as between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and risk of myocardial infarction, was evaluated by conditional logistic regression. The effect of erythrocyte-selenium on risk of myocardial infarction was also taken into consideration.

    RESULTS: There were no strong genetic modifying effects on the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction risk. When eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury were divided into tertiles, individuals with GCLM-588 TT genotype displayed a lower risk relative to the CC genotype in all but one tertile; in most tertiles the odds ratio was around 0.5 for TT. However, there were few TT carriers and the results were not statistically significant. The results were similar when taking plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid, erythrocyte-selenium and erythrocyte-mercury into account simultaneously.

    CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant genetic modifying effects were seen for the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction. Still, our results indicate that the relatively rare GCLM-588 TT genotype may have an impact, but a larger study is necessary for confirmation.

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Forslund, Ann-Sofi
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Kardiologi.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Greater decreases in cholesterol levels among individuals with high cardiovascular risk than among the general population: the northern Sweden MONICA study 1994 to 20142016Ingår i: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 37, nr 25, s. 1985-1992Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Decreasing cholesterol levels in Western populations is the main reason for decreasing mortality due to coronary heart disease. Our aim was to analyze trends in cholesterol levels in the population during a period of 20 years in relation to previous cardiovascular disease (CVD), other cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 4546 women and 4349 men aged 25-74 years participated in five population-based surveys in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study between 1994 and 2014 (participation rate 76.8-62.5%). Total cholesterol levels decreased from 6.2 mmol/L (95% confidence interval, CI, 6.1-6.2) in 1994 to 5.5 mmol/L (CI 5.4-5.5) in 2014. The decrease was more pronounced in elderly vs. younger participants (1.0 vs. 0.5 mmol/L). In 2014, participants with previous CVD, diabetes, or hypertension had lower cholesterol levels than the general population, whereas their levels were higher or similar to the general population in 1994. The use of lipid-lowering drugs increased markedly and was used by 14.3% in 2014. Previously described differences in cholesterol levels between participants with obesity and normal weight, and between those with and without university education, diminished, or vanished over time.

    CONCLUSION: Cholesterol levels decreased by 0.7 mmol/L over 20 years with no sign of abating. The improvement occurred in all age and gender groups but more prominently among those at high risk of ischaemic heart disease.

  • 19. Hughes, David J
    et al.
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Jenab, Mazda
    Schomburg, Lutz
    Méplan, Catherine
    Freisling, Heinz
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As
    Hybsier, Sandra
    Becker, Niels-Peter
    Czuban, Magdalena
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Outzen, Malene
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Racine, Antoine
    Bastide, Nadia
    Kühn, Tilman
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Panico, Salvatore
    Peeters, Petra H
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Skeie, Guri
    Dagrun, Engeset
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Sánchez, Maria-Jose
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Ljuslinder, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Bradbury, Kathryn E
    Vineis, Paolo
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Palli, Domenico
    Boeing, Heiner
    Overvad, Kim
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Jakszyn, Paula
    Cross, Amanda J
    Quirós, Jose Ramón
    Stepien, Magdalena
    Kong, So Yeon
    Duarte-Salles, Talita
    Riboli, Elio
    Hesketh, John E
    Selenium status is associated with colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation of cancer and nutrition cohort.2015Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 136, nr 5, s. 1149-1161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Suboptimal intakes of the micronutrient selenium (Se) are found in many parts of Europe. Low Se status may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We assessed Se status by measuring serum levels of Se and Selenoprotein P (SePP) and examined the association with CRC risk in a nested case-control design (966 CRC cases; 966 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Se was measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and SePP by immunoluminometric sandwich assay. Multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Respective mean Se and SePP levels were 84.0 μg/L and 4.3 mg/L in cases and 85.6 μg/L and 4.4 mg/L in controls. Higher Se concentrations were associated with a non-significant lower CRC risk (IRR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.03 per 25 μg/L increase). However, sub-group analyses by sex showed a statistically significant association for women (ptrend  = 0.032; per 25 μg/L Se increase, IRR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.97) but not for men. Higher SePP concentrations were inversely associated with CRC risk (ptrend  = 0.009; per 0.806 mg/L increase, IRR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.98) with the association more apparent in women (ptrend  = 0.004; IRR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94 per 0.806 mg/L increase) than men (ptrend  = 0.485; IRR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 per 0.806 mg/L increase). The findings indicate that Se status is suboptimal in many Europeans and suggest an inverse association between CRC risk and higher serum Se status, which is more evident in women.

  • 20. Huseinovic, E.
    et al.
    Winkvist, A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Slimani, N.
    Park, M. K.
    Freisling, H.
    Boeing, H.
    Buckland, G.
    Schwingshackl, L.
    Weiderpass, E.
    Rostgaard-Hansen, A. L.
    Tjønneland, A.
    Affret, A.
    Boutron-Ruault, M. C.
    Fagherazzi, G.
    Katzke, V.
    Kühn, T.
    Naska, A.
    Orfanos, P.
    Trichopoulou, A.
    Pala, V.
    Palli, D.
    Ricceri, F.
    Santucci de Magistris, M.
    Tumino, R.
    Engeset, D.
    Enget, T.
    Skeie, G.
    Barricarte, A.
    Bonet, C. B.
    Chirlaque, M. D.
    Amiano, P.
    Quirós, J. R.
    Sánchez, M. J.
    Dias, J. A.
    Drake, I.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Boer, J. M. A.
    Ocké, M. C.
    Verschuren, W. M. M.
    Lassale, C.
    Perez-Cornago, A.
    Riboli, E.
    Ward, H.
    Bertéus Forslund, H.
    Meal patterns across ten European countries: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study2016Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 19, nr 15, s. 2769-2780Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize meal patterns across ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study utilizing dietary data collected through a standardized 24 h diet recall during 1995-2000. Eleven predefined intake occasions across a 24 h period were assessed during the interview. In the present descriptive report, meal patterns were analysed in terms of daily number of intake occasions, the proportion reporting each intake occasion and the energy contributions from each intake occasion.

    SETTING: Twenty-seven centres across ten European countries.

    SUBJECTS: Women (64 %) and men (36 %) aged 35-74 years (n 36 020).

    RESULTS: Pronounced differences in meal patterns emerged both across centres within the same country and across different countries, with a trend for fewer intake occasions per day in Mediterranean countries compared with central and northern Europe. Differences were also found for daily energy intake provided by lunch, with 38-43 % for women and 41-45 % for men within Mediterranean countries compared with 16-27 % for women and 20-26 % for men in central and northern European countries. Likewise, a south-north gradient was found for daily energy intake from snacks, with 13-20 % (women) and 10-17 % (men) in Mediterranean countries compared with 24-34 % (women) and 23-35 % (men) in central/northern Europe.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found distinct differences in meal patterns with marked diversity for intake frequency and lunch and snack consumption between Mediterranean and central/northern European countries. Monitoring of meal patterns across various cultures and populations could provide critical context to the research efforts to characterize relationships between dietary intake and health.

  • 21. Huseinovic, Ena
    et al.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 459, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Freisling, Heinz
    Slimani, Nadia
    Boeing, Heiner
    Buckland, Genevieve
    Schwingshackl, Lukas
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Stepien, Magdalena
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Mancini, Francesca
    Artaud, Fanny
    Kühn, Tilman
    Katzke, Verena
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Naska, Androniki
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Tumino, Rosario
    Masala, Giovanna
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Santucci de Magistris, Maria
    Ocké, Marga C
    Brustad, Magritt
    Jensen, Torill Enget
    Skeie, Guri
    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Huerta, José María
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Quirós, José Ramón
    Jakszyn, Paula
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Key, Timothy J
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Riboli, Elio
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Bertéus Forslund, Heléne
    Timing of eating across ten European countries: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study2019Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 324-335Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine timing of eating across ten European countries.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study using standardized 24 h diet recalls collected during 1995-2000. Eleven predefined food consumption occasions were assessed during the recall interview. We present time of consumption of meals and snacks as well as the later:earlier energy intake ratio, with earlier and later intakes defined as 06.00-14.00 and 15.00-24.00 hours, respectively. Type III tests were used to examine associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables with timing of energy intake.

    SETTING: Ten Western European countries.

    SUBJECTS: In total, 22 985 women and 13 035 men aged 35-74 years (n 36 020).

    RESULTS: A south-north gradient was observed for timing of eating, with later consumption of meals and snacks in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries. However, the energy load was reversed, with the later:earlier energy intake ratio ranging from 0·68 (France) to 1·39 (Norway) among women, and from 0·71 (Greece) to 1·35 (the Netherlands) among men. Among women, country, age, education, marital status, smoking, day of recall and season were all independently associated with timing of energy intake (all P<0·05). Among men, the corresponding variables were country, age, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI and day of recall (all P<0·05).

    CONCLUSIONS: We found pronounced differences in timing of eating across Europe, with later meal timetables but greater energy load earlier during the day in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-02-01 09:57
  • 22. Jankovic, Nicole
    et al.
    Geelen, Anouk
    Streppel, Martinette T.
    de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.
    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Bamia, Christina
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Bobak, Martin
    Pikhart, Hynek
    Kee, Frank
    O'Doherty, Mark G.
    Buckland, Genevieve
    Woodside, Jayne
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Struijk, Ellen A.
    Pajak, Andrzej
    Malyutina, Sofia
    Kubinova, Ruzena
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Park, Yikyung
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Kampman, Ellen
    Feskens, Edith J.
    WHO guidelines for a healthy diet and mortality from cardiovascular disease in European and American elderly: the CHANCES project2015Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 102, nr 4, s. 745-756Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a leading cause of mortality worldwide, especially in the elderly. Lowering the number of CVD deaths requires preventive strategies targeted on the elderly. Objective: The objective was to generate evidence on the association between WHO dietary recommendations and mortality from CVD, coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke in the elderly aged >= 60 y. Design: We analyzed data from 10 prospective cohort studies from Europe and the United States comprising a total sample of 281,874 men and women free from chronic diseases at baseline. Components of the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) included saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, mono- and disaccharides, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and fruit and vegetables. Cohort-specific HRs adjusted for sex, education, smoking, physical activity, and energy and alcohol intakes were pooled by using a random-effects model. Results: During 3,322,768 person-years of follow-up, 12,492 people died of CVD. An increase of 10 HDI points (complete adherence to an additional WHO guideline) was, on average, not associated with CVD mortality (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.03), CAD mortality (HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.14), or stroke mortality (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.03). However, after stratification of the data by geographic region, adherence to the HDI was associated with reduced CVD mortality in the southern European cohorts (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.96; I2 = 0%) and in the US cohort (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.87; I2 = not applicable). Conclusion: Overall, greater adherence to the WHO dietary guidelines was not significantly associated with CVD mortality, but the results varied across regions. Clear inverse associations were observed in elderly populations in southein Europe and the United States.

  • 23.
    Johansson, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Johansson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Lind, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Alcohol Consumption and Risk of First-Time Venous Thromboembolism in Men and Women2019Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis, ISSN 0340-6245, Vol. 119, nr 6, s. 962-970Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between alcohol intake and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unclear. Men and women differ in their drinking habits, which may affect a possible association.

    OBJECTIVE: This article investigates the association between alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and VTE in the total population as well as in men and women separately.

    METHODS: We performed a prospective, population-based cohort study in northern Sweden. Study participants were 108,025 (51% women) persons aged 30 to 60 years who underwent a health examination between 1985 and 2014. We assessed alcohol consumption and defined alcohol dependence using a questionnaire. The outcome was a validated first-time VTE.

    RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 13.9 years, and 2,054 participants had a first-time VTE. The mean alcohol consumption was 3.5 standard drinks weekly in men and 1.5 in women. Alcohol dependence was found in 10% of men and 3% of women. There was an association between alcohol consumption (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.03 per standard drink weekly) as well as alcohol dependence (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.06-1.52) and VTE after adjustments. In men, the risk of VTE increased over quartiles of weekly alcohol consumption (p for trend 0.02), with a HR of 1.22 (95% CI, 1.01-1.47) for the highest quartile. Alcohol dependence was associated with VTE in men (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.07-1.59). In women, there were no significant associations.

    CONCLUSION: High alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence were associated with increased risk of first-time VTE in men, but not in women.

  • 24. Key, Timothy J.
    et al.
    Appleby, Paul N.
    Bradbury, Kathryn E.
    Sweeting, Michael
    Wood, Angela
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Kühn, Tilman
    Steur, Marinka
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Würtz, Anne Mette Lund
    Agudo, Antonio
    Andersson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Arriola, Larraitz
    Boeing, Heiner
    Boer, Jolanda M. A.
    Bonnet, Fabrice
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Cross, Amanda J.
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Gunter, Marc
    Huerta, José María
    Katzke, Verena
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Krogh, Vittorio
    La Vecchia, Carlo
    Matullo, Giuseppe
    Moreno-Iribas, Conchi
    Naska, Androniki
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Olsen, Anja
    Overvad, Kim
    Palli, Domenico
    Panico, Salvatore
    Molina-Portillo, Elena
    Quirós, J. Ramón
    Skeie, Guri
    Sluijs, Ivonne
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Stepien, Magdalena
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Tzoulaki, Ioanna
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Verschuren, W. M. Monique
    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Forouhi, Nita
    Wareham, Nick
    Butterworth, Adam
    Riboli, Elio
    Danesh, John
    Consumption of Meat, Fish, Dairy Products, Eggs and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease: A Prospective Study of 7198 Incident Cases Among 409,885 Participants in the Pan-European EPIC Cohort2019Ingår i: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 139, nr 25, s. 2835-2845Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the relevance of animal foods to the etiology of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined meat, fish, dairy products and eggs and risk for IHD in the pan-European EPIC cohort.

    METHODS: A prospective study of 409,885 men and women in nine European countries. Diet was assessed using validated questionnaires, calibrated using 24-hour recalls. Lipids and blood pressure were measured in a subsample. During 12.6 years mean follow up, 7198 participants had a myocardial infarction or died from IHD. The relationships of animal foods with risk were examined using Cox regression with adjustment for other animal foods and relevant covariates.

    RESULTS: The hazard ratio (HR) for IHD was 1.19 (95% CI 1.06-1.33) for a 100 g/d increment in intake of red and processed meat, and this remained significant after excluding the first 4 years of follow-up (HR 1.25 [1.09-1.42]). Risk was inversely associated with intakes of yogurt (HR 0.93 [0.89-0.98] per 100 g/d increment), cheese (HR 0.92 [0.86-0.98] per 30 g/d increment) and eggs (HR 0.93 [0.88-0.99] per 20 g/d increment); the associations with yogurt and eggs were attenuated and non-significant after excluding the first 4 years of follow-up. Risk was not significantly associated with intakes of poultry, fish or milk. In analyses modelling dietary substitutions, replacement of 100 kcal/d from red and processed meat with 100 kcal/d from fatty fish, yogurt, cheese or eggs was associated with approximately 20% lower risk of IHD. Consumption of red and processed meat was positively associated with serum non-HDL cholesterol concentration and systolic blood pressure, and consumption of cheese was inversely associated with serum non-HDL cholesterol.

    CONCLUSIONS: Risk for IHD was positively associated with consumption of red and processed meat, and inversely associated with consumption of yogurt, cheese and eggs, although the associations with yogurt and eggs may be influenced by reverse causation bias. It is not clear whether the associations with red and processed meat and cheese reflect causality, but they were consistent with the associations of these foods with plasma non-HDL cholesterol, and for red and processed meat with systolic blood pressure, which could mediate such effects.

  • 25.
    Larsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljung Björklund, Karin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, Brita
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindh, Christian H
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Bo A G
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Berglund, Marika
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children2014Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, s. 323-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (6-11 years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 mother-child couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ΣDEHP 65.5 μg/L; ΣDiNP 37.8 μg/L; MBzP 19.9 μg/L; MnBP 76.9 μg/L) than the mothers (ΣDEHP 38.4 μg/L; ΣDiNP 33.8 μg/L; MBzP 12.8 μg/L; MnBP 63.0 μg/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8 μg/L; ProP 13.9 μg/L) and MEP (43.4 μg/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8 μg/L; ProP 2.1 μg/L) and MEP (28.8 μg/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p=<0.001; MnBP p=0.001-0.002), which is probably due to higher presence of PVC in floorings and wall coverings in this area, whereas the levels of parabens were higher among the children in the urban area (MetP p=0.003; ProP p=0.004) than in the rural area. The levels of high molecular weight phthalates were associated with consumption of certain foods (i.e. chocolate and ice cream) whereas the levels of parabens were associated with use of cosmetics and personal care products.

  • 26. Leenders, Max
    et al.
    Siersema, Peter D
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Bastide, Nadia
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Katzke, Verena
    Kühn, Tilman
    Boeing, Heiner
    Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Klinaki, Eleni
    Masala, Giovanna
    Grioni, Sara
    Santucci De Magistris, Maria
    Tumino, Rosario
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Peeters, Petra H M
    Lund, Eiliv
    Skeie, Guri
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Quirós, J Ramón
    Agudo, Antonio
    Sánchez, María-José
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Navarro, Carmen
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Jirström, Karin
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Key, Timothy J
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Cross, Amanda J
    Murphy, Neil
    Riboli, Elio
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Subtypes of fruit and vegetables, variety in consumption and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition2015Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 137, nr 11, s. 2705-2714Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, a lower risk of colorectal cancer was observed with fruit and vegetable consumption in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition within a follow-up period of 9 years which was not fully supported by a recent meta-analysis. Therefore, we were interested in the relation with extended follow-up, also focusing on single subtypes and a variety of intake of fruit and vegetables. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed at baseline. After an average of 13 years of follow-up, 3,370 participants were diagnosed with colon or rectal cancer. Diet diversity scores were constructed to quantify variety in fruit and vegetable consumption. A lower risk of colon cancer was observed with higher self-reported consumption of fruit and vegetable combined (HR Q4 vs. Q1 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-1.01, p for trend 0.02), but no consistent association was observed for separate consumption of fruits and vegetables. No associations with risk of rectal cancer were observed. The few observed associations for some fruit and vegetable subtypes with colon cancer risk may have been due to chance. Variety in consumption of fruits and vegetables was not associated with a lower risk of colon or rectal cancer. Although a lower risk of colon cancer is suggested with high consumption of fruit and vegetables, this study does not support a clear inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and colon or rectal cancer beyond a follow-up of more than 10 years. Attenuation of the risk estimates from dietary changes over time cannot be excluded, but appears unlikely.

  • 27. Marklund, Matti
    et al.
    Wu, Jason H Y
    Imamura, Fumiaki
    Del Gobbo, Liana C
    Fretts, Amanda
    de Goede, Janette
    Shi, Peilin
    Tintle, Nathan
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Aslibekyan, Stella
    Chen, Tzu-An
    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C
    Hirakawa, Yoichiro
    Eriksen, Helle Højmark
    Kröger, Janine
    Laguzzi, Federica
    Lankinen, Maria
    Murphy, Rachel A
    Prem, Kiesha
    Samieri, Cécilia
    Virtanen, Jyrki
    Wood, Alexis C
    Wong, Kerry
    Yang, Wei-Sin
    Zhou, Xia
    Baylin, Ana
    Boer, Jolanda M A
    Brouwer, Ingeborg A
    Campos, Hannia
    Chaves, Paulo H M
    Chien, Kuo-Liong
    de Faire, Ulf
    Djoussé, Luc
    Eiriksdottir, Gudny
    El-Abbadi, Naglaa
    Forouhi, Nita G
    Gaziano, J Michael
    Geleijnse, Johanna M
    Gigante, Bruna
    Giles, Graham
    Guallar, Eliseo
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Harris, Tamara
    Harris, William S
    Helmer, Catherine
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Hodge, Allison
    Hu, Frank B
    Jacques, Paul F
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Kalsbeek, Anya
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Koh, Woon-Puay
    Laakso, Markku
    Leander, Karin
    Lin, Hung-Ju
    Lind, Lars
    Luben, Robert
    Luo, Juhua
    McKnight, Barbara
    Mursu, Jaakko
    Ninomiya, Toshiharu
    Overvad, Kim
    Psaty, Bruce M
    Rimm, Eric
    Schulze, Matthias B
    Siscovick, David
    Skjelbo Nielsen, Michael
    Smith, Albert V
    Steffen, Brian T
    Steffen, Lyn
    Sun, Qi
    Sundström, Johan
    Tsai, Michael Y
    Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh
    Uusitupa, Matti I J
    van Dam, Rob M
    Veenstra, Jenna
    Verschuren, W M Monique
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Willett, Walter
    Woodward, Mark
    Yuan, Jian-Min
    Micha, Renata
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Risérus, Ulf
    Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 30 Cohort Studies2019Ingår i: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 139, nr 21, s. 2422-2436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies.

    METHODS: We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytical plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as % of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (i.e., the range between the mid-point of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available).

    RESULTS: In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15,198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68,659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower CHD risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; comparing extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships.

    CONCLUSIONS: In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.

  • 28. Muller, David C.
    et al.
    Fanidi, Anouar
    Midttun, Oivind
    Steffen, Annika
    Dossus, Laure
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Severi, Gianluca
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Katzke, Verena
    Alonso de la Torreon, Ramon
    Gonzalez, Carlos A.
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Santiuste, Carmen
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Giotaki, Maria
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Palli, Domenico
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    Panico, Salvatore
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Murphy, Neil
    Riboli, Elio
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Boeing, Heiner
    Brennan, Paul
    Johansson, Mattias
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), Lyon, France.
    Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-3 in Relation to Renal Cell Carcinoma Incidence and Survival in the EPIC Cohort2014Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 180, nr 8, s. 810-820Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Normal renal function is essential for vitamin D metabolism, but it is unclear whether circulating vitamin D is associated with risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We assessed whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3) was associated with risk of RCC and death after RCC diagnosis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC recruited 385,747 participants with blood samples between 1992 and 2000. The current study included 560 RCC cases, 557 individually matched controls, and 553 additional controls. Circulating 25(OH)D-3 was assessed by mass spectrometry. Conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Death after RCC diagnosis was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models and flexible parametric survival models. A doubling of 25(OH)D-3 was associated with 28% lower odds of RCC after adjustment for season of and age at blood collection, sex, and country of recruitment (odds ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.86; P = 0.0004). This estimatewas attenuated somewhat after additional adjustment for smoking status at baseline, circulating cotinine, body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), and alcohol intake (odds ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.99; P = 0.038). There was also some indication that both low and high 25(OH)D-3 levels were associated with higher risk of death from any cause among RCC cases.

  • 29.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Department of Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Sunderby Hospital, Luleå.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Department of Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital.
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Consumption of filtered and boiled coffee and the risk of fist acute myocardial infarction: a nested case/referent study2010Ingår i: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 20, nr 7, s. 527-535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim

    In northern Sweden, consumption of both filtered and boiled coffee is common. Boiled coffee, especially popular in rural areas, is known to raise blood lipids, a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (MI). To our knowledge, only one epidemiological study, a case-control study from Sweden, has investigated boiled coffee in MI, noting an increased risk at high consumption levels in men, and no association in women. The aim of the present nested case-referent study was to relate consumption of filtered and boiled coffee to the risk of first MI.

    Methods and results

    The study subjects were 375 cases (303 men, 72 women) and 1293 matched referents from the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Coffee consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Risk estimates were calculated by conditional logistic regression. A statistically significant positive association was found between consumption of filtered coffee and MI risk in men [odds ratio for consumption ≥4 times/day versus ≤1 time/day 1.73 (95% CI 1.05–2.84)]. In women, a similar association was observed, but for boiled coffee [odds ratio 2.51 (95% CI 1.08–5.86)]. After adjustment for current smoking, postsecondary education, hypertension, and sedentary lifestyle, the results for women were no longer statistically significant.

    Conclusion

    Consumption of filtered coffee was positively associated with the risk of a first MI in men. A similar tendency was observed for boiled coffee in women, but the result was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Further investigation in a larger study is warranted.

  • 30. Obón-Santacana, Mireia
    et al.
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Freisling, Heinz
    Cadeau, Claire
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Fortner, Renée T
    Boeing, Heiner
    Ramón Quirós, J
    Molina-Montes, Esther
    Chamosa, Saioa
    Castaño, José María Huerta
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Key, Tim
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Naska, Androniki
    Palli, Domenico
    Grioni, Sara
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    De Magistris, Maria Santucci
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B
    Peeters, Petra H
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Vesper, Hubert
    Riboli, Elio
    Duell, Eric J
    Dietary and lifestyle determinants of acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort2017Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 56, nr 3, s. 1157-1168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Acrylamide was classified as 'probably carcinogenic' to humans in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In 2002, public health concern increased when acrylamide was identified in starchy, plant-based foods, processed at high temperatures. The purpose of this study was to identify which food groups and lifestyle variables were determinants of hemoglobin adduct concentrations of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) in 801 non-smoking postmenopausal women from eight countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    METHODS: Biomarkers of internal exposure were measured in red blood cells (collected at baseline) by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) . In this cross-sectional analysis, four dependent variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, sum of total adducts (HbAA + HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to identify determinants of the four outcome variables. All dependent variables (except HbGA/HbAA) and all independent variables were log-transformed (log2) to improve normality. Median (25th-75th percentile) HbAA and HbGA adduct levels were 41.3 (32.8-53.1) pmol/g Hb and 34.2 (25.4-46.9) pmol/g Hb, respectively.

    RESULTS: The main food group determinants of HbAA, HbGA, and HbAA + HbGA were biscuits, crackers, and dry cakes. Alcohol intake and body mass index were identified as the principal determinants of HbGA/HbAA. The total percent variation in HbAA, HbGA, HbAA + HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA explained in this study was 30, 26, 29, and 13 %, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Dietary and lifestyle factors explain a moderate proportion of acrylamide adduct variation in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

  • 31.
    Oudin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Fish consumption and ischemic stroke in southern Sweden2011Ingår i: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 10, nr 109, s. 5-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between fish intake and stroke incidence has been inconsistent in previous Swedish studies. Here, we report the risk of stroke and fish intake in a cohort from southern Sweden.

    Findings: Data were obtained from an already available population based case-control study where the cases were defined as incident first-time ischemic stroke patients. Complete data on all relevant variables were obtained for 2722 controls and 2469 cases. The data were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. Stroke risk decreased with fat fish intake ([greater than or equal to] 1/week versus <1/month) in both men and women; adjusted pooled Odds Ratio (OR) 0.69, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.54-0.89. However, stroke risk for women increased with intake of lean fish; adjusted OR 1.63 (95% CI: 1.17-2.28), whereas there was no association with men's lean fish intake; adjusted OR 0.97(95% CI: 0.73-1.27). Fish intake was self-reported retrospectively, yielding uncertain exposure assessment and potential recall bias. The findings regarding lean fish could be explained by recall bias if an individual's inclination to report lean fish consumption depended on both disease status and sex. The fact that the association between fat fish intake and stroke was similar in men and women does not support such a differential in recall.

    Conclusions: The results suggest fat fish intake to decrease ischemic stroke risk and lean fish intake to increase women's stroke risk. The inconsistent relationship between fish intake and stroke risk reported in previous studies is further stressed by the results of this study.

  • 32. Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    et al.
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Appleby, Paul N.
    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Overvad, Kim
    Katzke, Verena
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Peppa, Eleni
    Kritikou, Maria
    Sieri, Sabina
    Palli, Domenico
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Tumino, Rosario
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. (as)
    Agudo, Antonio
    Larranaga, Nerea
    Molina-Portillo, Elena
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Lasheras, Cristina
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Drake, Isabel
    Malm, Johan
    Schmidt, Julie A.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Gunter, Marc
    Freisling, Heinz
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Cross, Amanda J.
    Riboli, Elio
    Key, Timothy J.
    Fruit and vegetable intake and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)2017Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 141, nr 2, s. 287-297Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several dietary factors have been studied in relation to prostate cancer; however, most studies have not reported on subtypes of fruit and vegetables or tumor characteristics, and results obtained so far are inconclusive. This study aimed to examine the prospective association of total and subtypes of fruit and vegetable intake with the incidence of prostate cancer overall, by grade and stage of disease, and prostate cancer death. Lifestyle information for 142,239 men participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition from 8 European countries was collected at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up time of 13.9 years, 7,036 prostate cancer cases were identified. Compared with the lowest fifth, those in the highest fifth of total fruit intake had a significantly reduced prostate cancer risk (HR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.83-0.99; p-trend = 0.01). No associations between fruit subtypes and prostate cancer risk were observed, except for citrus fruits, where a significant trend was found (HR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.86-1.02; p-trend = 0.01). No associations between total and subtypes of vegetables and prostate cancer risk were observed. We found no evidence of heterogeneity in these associations by tumor grade and stage, with the exception of significant heterogeneity by tumor grade (p(heterogeneity)<0.001) for leafy vegetables. No significant associations with prostate cancer death were observed. The main finding of this prospective study was that a higher fruit intake was associated with a small reduction in prostate cancer risk. Whether this association is causal remains unclear. What's new? The role of diet in prostate-cancer etiology is uncertain, and associations may vary by tumor characteristics. In this prospective, longitudinal study, the authors examined the association of total and subtypes of fruit and vegetable intake with the overall incidence of prostate cancer. They then analyzed incidence by grade, stage of disease, and prostate-cancer death. They found that higher fruit intake was associated with a small reduction in prostate cancer risk, and that this association did not differ by tumor characteristics.

  • 33. Romaguera, Dora
    et al.
    Ward, Heather
    Wark, Petra A
    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire
    Peeters, Petra H
    van Gils, Carla H
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Jenab, Mazda
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Dossus, Laure
    Dartois, Laureen
    Hansen, Camilla Plambeck
    Dahm, Christina Catherine
    Buckland, Genevieve
    Sánchez, María José
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Navarro, Carmen
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Key, Timothy J
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Tsironis, Christos
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Masala, Giovanna
    Pala, Valeria
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    Panico, Salvatore
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Siersema, Peter D
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Jirström, Karin
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Kühn, Tilman
    Katzke, Verena
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick J
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Boeing, Heiner
    Quirós, José R
    Gunter, Marc J
    Riboli, Elio
    Norat, Teresa
    Pre-diagnostic concordance with the WCRF/AICR guidelines and survival in European colorectal cancer patients: a cohort study2015Ingår i: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 13, artikel-id 107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cancer survivors are advised to follow lifestyle recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body fatness proposed by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) for cancer prevention. Previous studies have demonstrated that higher concordance with these recommendations measured using an index score (the WCRF/AICR score) was associated with lower cancer incidence and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between pre-diagnostic concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations and mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.

    METHODS: The association between the WCRF/AICR score (score range 0-6 in men and 0-7 in women; higher scores indicate greater concordance) assessed on average 6.4 years before diagnosis and CRC-specific (n = 872) and overall mortality (n = 1,113) was prospectively examined among 3,292 participants diagnosed with CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (mean follow-up time after diagnosis 4.2 years). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality.

    RESULTS: The HRs (95% CIs) for CRC-specific mortality among participants in the second (score range in men/women: 2.25-2.75/3.25-3.75), third (3-3.75/4-4.75), and fourth (4-6/5-7) categories of the score were 0.87 (0.72-1.06), 0.74 (0.61-0.90), and 0.70 (0.56-0.89), respectively (P for trend <0.0001), compared to participants with the lowest concordance with the recommendations (category 1 of the score: 0-2/0-3). Similar HRs for overall mortality were observed (P for trend 0.004). Meeting the recommendations on body fatness and plant food consumption were associated with improved survival among CRC cases in mutually adjusted models.

    CONCLUSIONS: Greater concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body fatness prior to CRC diagnosis is associated with improved survival among CRC patients.

  • 34. Skeie, Guri
    et al.
    Braaten, Tonje
    Olsen, Anja
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Landberg, Rikard
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Overvad, Kim
    Åsli, Lene Angell
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Lund, Eiliv
    Intake of whole grains and incidence of oesophageal cancer in the HELGA Cohort2016Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 405-414Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Few prospective studies have investigated the association between whole-grain consumption and incidence of oesophageal cancer. In the Scandinavian countries, consumption of whole grains is high and the incidence of oesophageal cancer comparably low. The aim of this paper was to study the associations between consumption of whole grains, whole-grain products and oesophageal cancer, including its two major histological subtypes. The HELGA cohort is a prospective cohort study consisting of three sub-cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Information regarding whole-grain consumption was collected through country-specific food frequency questionnaires. Cancer cases were identified through national cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated in order to assess the associations between whole grains and oesophageal cancer risk. The analytical cohort had 113,993 members, including 112 cases, and median follow-up time was 11 years. When comparing the highest tertile of intake with the lowest, the oesophageal cancer risk was approximately 45 % lower (adjusted HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31-0.97 for whole grains, HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.30-0.88 for whole-grain products). Inverse associations were also found in continuous analyses. Whole-grain wheat was the only grain associated with lower risk (HR 0.32, 95 % CI 0.16-0.63 highest vs. lowest tertile). Among whole-grain products, the results were less clear, but protective associations were seen for the sum of whole-grain products, and whole-grain bread. Lower risk was seen in both histological subtypes, but particularly for squamous cell carcinomas. In this study, whole-grain consumption, particularly whole-grain wheat, was inversely associated with risk of oesophageal cancer.

  • 35. Stepien, Magdalena
    et al.
    Duarte-Salles, Talita
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Bamia, Christina
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Hansen, Louise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Severi, Gianluca
    Kühn, Tilman
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    Boeing, Heiner
    Klinaki, Eleni
    Palli, Domenico
    Grioni, Sara
    Panico, Salvatore
    Tumino, Rosario
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Skeie, Guri
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Parr, Christine L.
    Quirós, José Ramón
    Buckland, Genevieve
    Molina-Montes, Esther
    Amiano, Pilar
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Bradbury, Kathryn E.
    Ward, Heather A.
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Jenab, Mazda
    Consumption of soft drinks and juices and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in a European cohort2016Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 55, nr 1, s. 7-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess associations between intake of combined soft drinks (sugar sweetened and artificially sweetened) and fruit and vegetable juices and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IHBC) and biliary tract cancers (GBTC) using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort of 477,206 participants from 10 European countries.

    METHODS: After 11.4 years of follow-up, 191 HCC, 66 IHBC and 236 GBTC cases were identified. Hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (HR; 95 % CI) were estimated with Cox regression models with multivariable adjustment (baseline total energy intake, alcohol consumption and intake pattern, body mass index, physical activity, level of educational attainment and self-reported diabetes status).

    RESULTS: No risk associations were observed for IHBC or GBTC. Combined soft drinks consumption of >6 servings/week was positively associated with HCC risk: HR 1.83; 95 % CI 1.11-3.02, p trend = 0.01 versus non-consumers. In sub-group analyses available for 91 % of the cohort artificially sweetened soft drinks increased HCC risk by 6 % per 1 serving increment (HR 1.06, 95 % CI 1.03-1.09, n cases = 101); for sugar-sweetened soft drinks, this association was null (HR 1.00, 95 % CI 0.95-1.06; n cases = 127, p heterogeneity = 0.07). Juice consumption was not associated with HCC risk, except at very low intakes (<1 serving/week: HR 0.60; 95 % CI 0.38-0.95; p trend = 0.02 vs. non-consumers).

    CONCLUSIONS: Daily intake of combined soft drinks is positively associated with HCC, but a differential association between sugar and artificially sweetened cannot be discounted. This study provides some insight into possible associations of HCC with sugary drinks intake. Further exploration in other settings is required.

  • 36.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Rylander, Lars
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants and type 2 diabetes - A population-based study with pre- and post- diagnostic plasma samples2019Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 174, s. 35-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but causality is uncertain.

    OBJECTIVE: Within longitudinal population-based data from northern Sweden, we assessed how POPs associated with T2D prospectively and cross-sectionally, and further investigated factors related to individual changes in POP concentrations.

    METHODS: For 129 case-controls pairs matched by age, sex and date of sampling, plasma concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB-118 and PCB-156), and non-dioxin like (NDL-PCB: PCB-74, -99, -138 -153, -170, -180, -183 and PCB-187) were analyzed twice (baseline and follow-up, 9-20 years apart). The cases received their T2D diagnose between baseline and follow-up. Prospective (using baseline data) and cross-sectional (using follow-up data) odds ratios (ORs) for T2D on lipid standardized POPs (HCB, p,p'-DDE, ∑DL-PCBs, ∑NDL-PCBs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipids. The influence of BMI, weight-change, and plasma lipids on longitudinal changes in POP concentrations were evaluated among non-diabetic individuals (n = 306).

    RESULTS: POPs were associated with T2D in both the prospective and cross-sectional assessments. Of a standard deviation increase in POPs, prospective ORs ranged 1.42 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.06) for ∑NDL-PCBs to 1.55 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.38) for HCB (p < 0.05 only for HCB), and cross-sectional ORs ranged 1.62 (95% CI: 1.13; 2.32) for p,p'-DDE to 2.06 (95% CI: 1.29, 3.28) for ∑DL-PCBs (p < 0.05 for all POPs). In analyses of non-diabetic individuals, higher baseline BMI, decreased weight and decreased plasma lipid concentrations were associated with a slower decrease of POPs. Cases had, besides a higher BMI, reduced cholesterol and weight gain at follow-up compared to controls, which can explain the higher ORs in the cross-sectional assessments.

    DISCUSSION: The association between POPs and T2D was confirmed, but an indication that individuals body fat history might influence POP-T2D associations weakens the epidemiological support for a causal association. It also warrants studies based on other exposure metrics than biomonitoring. In addition, we note that a cross-sectional design overestimates the ORs if T2D cases have successfully intervened on weight and/or blood lipids, as changes in these factors cause changes in POPs.

  • 37. Weihe, Pál
    et al.
    Bjerregaard, Peter
    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva
    Dudarev, Alexey
    Halling, Jónrit
    Hansen, Solrunn
    Muckle, Gina
    Nøst, Therese
    Odland, Jon Øyvind
    Petersen, Maria Skaalum
    Rautio, Arja
    Veyhe, Anna Sofia
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Overview of ongoing cohort and dietary studies in the Arctic2016Ingår i: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 75, artikel-id 33803Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article gives an overview of the ongoing cohort and dietary studies underlying the assessment of population health in the Arctic. The emphasis here is on a description of the material, methods and results or preliminary results for each study. Detailed exposure information is available in an article in this journal, whereas another paper describes the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The cohort descriptions have been arranged geographically, beginning in Norway and moving east to Finland, Sweden, Russia and the other Arctic countries and ultimately to the Faroe Islands. No cohort studies have been reported for Alaska or Iceland.

  • 38.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Biomarkers of fish consumption and risk of stroke or myocardial infarction2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of fish consumption on the risk of cardiovascular disease has been extensively studied. Omega-3 fatty acids present in fish, namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been found to have beneficial effects through several mechanisms. In addition, selenium, an antioxidant, may be protective. Fish also represents the main human exposure source to the pollutant methylmercury (MeHg), which is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk in previous studies. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate whether MeHg is associated with the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke, whether EPA+DHA or selenium (Se) have protective associations, and if the overall association between fish consumption and risk of stroke or MI is detrimental or protective.

    A prospective incident case-control study design was used to study effects on stroke or MI. Three hundred and sixty-nine cases with twice as many matched controls were included in the study on stroke, while 431 cases with 499 controls participated in the MI study, all from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. The data was collected from health examinations of the population from 1986 until 1999. Also, time trends in burdens of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in erythrocytes (Ery) from 1990 to 1999 were examined. The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the case-control studies was correlated with measurements of fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes as biomarkers of intake.

    In this northern Swedish population, levels of Ery-Hg and Ery-Pb decreased during the 1990´s, but Ery-Cd decreased only in smoking men. No significant associations were found between Ery-Hg or levels of EPA+DHA and the risk of stroke. Men reporting fish consumption >3 meals/week had an elevated risk of stroke. In the MI study, higher levels of Ery-Hg were associated with lower risk of MI. No clear associations were found for reported fish consumption, levels of EPA+DHA or Ery-Se. The validated FFQ has a fair reliability in estimating intake of fatty acids EPA and DHA. However, the low variation in fish consumption in the general population in combination with different versions of the FFQ (with pre-defined, multiple choice alternatives) decreased the reliability of self-reported fish consumption in the case-control studies on risk of stroke or MI.

    In conclusion, MeHg has no harmful association regarding the risk of stroke or MI in this population with generally low exposure levels. The protective association regarding risk of MI is probably due to Ery-Hg being a biomarker for consumption of fish, a source of other beneficial nutrients. Thus, in this population the benefits of the nutrients in fish appear to overcome the potential harm of MeHg.

    The finding of elevated stroke risk related to high fish consumption in men will be investigated further.

  • 39.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Högre exponering för miljöföroreningar hos högkonsumeter av viltkött?2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I norra Sverige är en högre konsumtion av viltkött vanligare än i södra delarna av landet. Syftet med detta projekt var att genom en kunskapssammanställning undersöka om det finns anledning att mäta nivåer av miljöföroreningar hos högkonsumenter av viltkött.

    Sammanställningen ger inte belägg för att högkonsumenter av viltkött skulle vara i riskzonen för höga intag av miljöföroreningar, i någon större utsträckning än högkonsumenter av nötkött eller fisk. En reservation finns: Renkött innehåller mer HCB än annat kött och fisk. Nivåerna av HCB i renkött är dock betydligt lägre än gränsvärdet för kött. Långt ifrån alla organiska miljöföroreningar finns uppmätta i livsmedel, men de data vi har funnit visar på att hög konsumtion av förorenad fet fisk (från Vänern, Vättern och Östersjön) utgör den största risken för höga intag av flera organiska miljöföroreningar. P.g.a. tidstrender blir det lättare att jämföra framtida mätningar i olika köttslag om jämförelser görs på kött slaktat vid ungefär samma tidpunkt samt att omräkningar görs till halt i kött, i de fall mätningarna har gjorts i fett. Vid eventuella mätningar av organiska miljöföroreningar eller kvicksilver hos människor med hög konsumtion av viltkött är det viktigt att ha kunskap om deltagarnas fiskkonsumtion.

  • 40.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Utvärdering av resultat som underlag till AMAP-arbetet – finns det skillnader mellan norra och södra Sverige i människors exponering för organiska miljöföroreningar och metaller?2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige deltar i det arktiska samarbetet AMAP, som följer exponering av miljöföroreningar i arktiska områden. Det är av intresse att känna till om det finns regionala skillnader i Sverige när det gäller människors exponering för miljöföroreningar. Om skillnaderna är små kan data från norra Sverige både användas inom AMAP och för att skaffa kunskap om resten av landet, och vice versa. Syftet med detta projekt var att utvärdera de data som finns avseende skillnader i exponering mellan norra och södra Sverige.

    Det finns bara ett fåtal studier som kan användas för att klarlägga skillnader mellan norra och södra Sverige i människors exponering för organiska miljöföroreningar och metaller. De studier som gjorts visar små eller inga skillnader mellan norra och södra Sverige.

    Om Sverige inom det arktiska samarbetet karaktäriserar miljöföroreningsexponering hos populationer i norra Sverige, så kommer dessa data snarare att avspegla tillståndet i Sverige än en särskild arktisk exponeringssituation. Data från sådana studier, t.ex. om nivåer och tidstrender, skulle alltså ge information som kan förväntas relativt väl avspegla tillståndet även i övriga Sverige. Omvänt så kan data från andra delar av Sverige förväntas avspegla även tillståndet hos populationen i den arktiska delen av Sverige. Eftersom bara några ämnen är undersökta kan det inte uteslutas att det finns miljöföroreningar med betydande regional variation.

  • 41.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Strömberg, Ulf
    Wessby, Bengt
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Fish consumption and myocardial infarction: a second prospective biomarker study from northern Sweden2011Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 93, nr 1, s. 27-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A beneficial role of fish consumption on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported, mostly ascribed to n-3 fatty acids. However, fish also contains methylmercury, which may increase the risk of MI.

    Objective: Describe how fish consumption and erythrocyte concentrations of mercury (Ery-Hg) and selenium (Ery-Se) are related to the risk of MI, and whether n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) in plasma phospholipids (P-EPA+DHA) are protective.

    Design: This is a case-control study nested within the northern Sweden cohort with prospectively collected data and samples. It comprises 431 cases with an MI after data and sample collection, including 81 sudden cardiac deaths (SCD), and 499 matched controls. Another 69 female cases with controls from a breast cancer screening registry were included in sex-specific analyses.

    Results: Odds ratio (OR) for the third tertile versus the first were for Ery-Hg: 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.91); Ery-Se: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.06) and P-EPA+DHA: 0.78 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.11). No association was seen for reported fish consumption. Multivariate modelling did not change these associations significantly. Sex-specific analyses revealed no differences in risk associations for Ery-Hg, but a tendency to a higher protective association with P-EPA+DHA for women. High levels of Ery-Se were associated with increased risk of SCD.

    Conclusions: Ery-Hg, a stable biomarker for fish consumption, is associated with a decreased risk of MI. The result indicates a protective effect of fish consumption against MI, even though data on self-reported fish consumption do not reveal any clear protective association.

  • 42.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Medicin.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Strömberg, Ulf
    Vessby, Bengt
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Medicin.
    Fish intake, mercury, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of stroke in northern Sweden2007Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 98, nr 5, s. 1038-1045Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Poor breakfast habits in adolescence predict the metabolic syndrome in adulthood2015Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 122-129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyse whether poor breakfast habits in adolescence predict the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood. Previous studies suggest that regular breakfast consumption improves metabolic parameters. Design: Prospective. Breakfast habits and other lifestyle variables at age 16 years were assessed from questionnaires. Poor breakfast habits were defined as skipping breakfast or only drinking or eating something sweet. At age 43 years, the effective sample consisted of 889 participants defined as having the metabolic syndrome or not, using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Setting: The Northern Swedish Cohort, a longitudinal population-based cohort with 27-year follow-up. Subjects: Adolescents (age 16 years). Results: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years was 27.0%. Of the participants, 9.9% were classified with poor breakfast habits at age 16 years. Adjusted odds for the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years was OR = 1.68 (95% CI 1.01, 2.78) for those with poor breakfast habits at age 16 years compared with breakfast eaters. Looking at the metabolic syndrome components, poor breakfast habits at age 16 years were associated with central obesity (OR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.00, 2.92) and high fasting glucose (OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.01, 3.02) at age 43 years, even after multivariate adjustments. Conclusions: Poor breakfast habits in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Of the metabolic syndrome components, poor breakfast habits in adolescence predicted central obesity and high fasting glucose in adulthood. Further research is needed to fully understand the relationship between early breakfast habits and adult metabolic syndrome.

  • 44.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Socialmedicin.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Socialmedicin.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Socialmedicin.
    Irregular eating of meals in adolescence and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood: results from a 27-year prospective cohort2016Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 667-673Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective was to investigate whether irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicts the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood, and if any specific meal is of particular importance. Design: Prospective cohort study with 27 years of follow-up. Information on meals (breakfast, school lunch and dinner with family), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking habits, physical activity, consumption of sweets and pastries) at age 16 years was assessed from questionnaires, and presence or not of the metabolic syndrome and its components were defined at age 43 years in 889 participants (82.1 % of total cohort). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Setting: The Northern Swedish Cohort; all school-leavers of the 9th grade in the town Lulea in 1981. Subjects: Adolescents (age 16 years). Results: Irregular eating of meals at age 16 years was associated with higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years (OR=1.74; 95 % CI 1.12, 2.71), but this was explained by concurrent unhealthy lifestyle at age 16 years. Poor breakfast at age 16 years was the only meal associated with the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years, independent of other meals, BMI (kg/m2) and lifestyle at age 16 years (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI 1.00, 2.80). Conclusions: Irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood, but not independently of BMI and lifestyle in adolescence. Poor breakfast in adolescence was the only specific meal associated with future metabolic syndrome, even after adjustments. Breakfast eating should be encouraged in adolescence.

  • 45.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Strömberg, Ulf
    Wiklund, Per-Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Fish consumption and risk of stroke: a second prospective case-control study from northern Sweden2016Ingår i: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikel-id 98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Fish consumption has been concluded to be associated with decreased risk of stroke in several reviews. However, among men, but not women, an increased risk of stroke was previously found at high fish consumption (>3 meals/week) in northern Sweden. This study investigates if previous results on elevated stroke risk with high fish consumption in men in northern Sweden can be confirmed in a larger study with new cases in the same population.

    METHODS: A prospective nested case-control study was performed within the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study cohort. Information on fish consumption, other lifestyle and medical data was collected at baseline. Incident stroke cases (1987-2007, n = 735) were identified and 2698 controls matched for gender, age, year of baseline and geographical region.

    RESULTS: There were no associations between total fish or fatty fish consumption and stroke risk; thus the previous finding of increased risk of stroke with high fish consumption in men could not be repeated. High intake of lean fish (>twice/week compared to < once/month) was associated with increased stroke risk in men [OR 1.80 (95% CI 1.00, 3.21), but not in women [OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.24, 1.10)]. The association was driven by men living alone.

    CONCLUSIONS: The previous association between high total fish consumption and risk of stroke in men could not be repeated. The increased risk found in men with high intake of lean fish may be due to chance or confounding specific for this group.

  • 46.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Jönsson, Bo AG.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindh, Christian H
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Organic pollutants in urine 2014 and levels of bisphenol A 2009 and 2014 in the adult population of Northern Sweden2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Lindh, Christian
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Organiska miljöföroreningar i urin hos unga i norra och södra Sverige2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är viktigt att följa halter av miljöföroreningar hos människor, för riskvärdering och för att få kunskap om hur exponeringen kan minskas.

    Organiska miljöföroreningar (ftalat-metaboliter, bisfenol A, bisfenol F, triklosan, pesticiderna 3-PBA och TCP samt PAH-metaboliten 1-HP) analyserades i urin hos 204 unga i Skåne (gymnasieelever, år 2013) och hos 143 unga i MONICA-studien i norra Sverige (25-35 år, år 2014). Koncentrationer jämfördes statistiskt mellan studierna och kopplingar till levnadsvanor som efterfrågades i båda studierna undersöktes (rökning, fiskintag, intag av mat från konserver och typ av golv i sovrum). En kompletterande enkätstudie gjordes på deltagarna i MONICA-studien som uppgav att de hade plastgolv i sovrummet (n=65), för att utröna om golvvärme under plastgolv i sovrummet kan öka exponering av "plast-ftalaten" MBzP.

    De statistiskt säkerställda skillnader som uppdagades var att de unga i norr hade högre koncentration av de flesta ftalat-metaboliter och av pesticiden 3-PBA medan de unga i söder hade högre koncentration av triklosan.

    Ftalat-metaboliten MBzP kunde kopplas till att ha plastgolv i sovrummet i båda studiepopulationerna. Då endast fyra personer i MONICA-studien uppgav golvvärme under plastgolv och den gruppen inte hade anmärkningsvärt hög MBzP-koncentration i urin kan inte högre användning av golvvärme i norr vara förklaringen till högre koncentration av MBzP i norra Sverige.

    Skillnader i levnadsförhållanden av betydelse för exponering av miljöföroreningarna som beror på den åldersskillnad som fanns mellan studiepopulationerna i norr och söder, och inte undersöktes i den här studien, kan inte uteslutas. Framtida geografiska jämförelser av miljöföroreningar hos människor bör om möjligt göras på människor i samma åldersintervall.

  • 48.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Medicin.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Medicin.
    Custodio, Hipolito M
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Time trends in burdens of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the population of northern Sweden2006Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 100, nr 3, s. 330-338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Time trends of lead and cadmium in the adult population of Northern Sweden 1990-20142015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Time trends and exposure determinants of lead and cadmium in the adult population of northern Sweden 1990-20142017Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, s. 111-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: This study follows cadmium and lead concentrations in blood in the adult population in northern Sweden over 24 years.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Concentrations of lead and cadmium were measured in single whole blood samples (B-Pb and B-Cd) from 619 men and 926 women participating in the Northern Sweden WHO MONICA Study on one occasion 1990-2014. Associations with smoking and dietary factors were investigated. Consumption of moose meat was asked for in 2014.

    RESULTS: In the adult population in northern Sweden, the median B-Pb in 2014 was 11.0µg/L in young (25-35 years) men and 9.69µg/L in young women. In an older age-group (50-60 years), the median B-Pb was 15.1µg/L in men and 13.1µg/L in women. B-Pb decreased from 1990 to 2009, after which time no further decrease was observed. B-Pb was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In never-smokers, positive associations were found between B-Pb and consumption of wine and brewed coffee (women only) in 2004-2014. Higher B-Pb with consumption of moose meat was demonstrated in men, but not in women. B-Cd was essentially stable over the whole period, but an increase in B-Cd, of 3% per year, was detected in never-smoking women between 2009 and 2014. In 2014, median B-Cd in never-smokers in the four groups was; 0.11µg/L in younger men, 0.15µg/L in younger women, 0.14µg/L in older men, and 0.21µg/L in older women. B-Cd was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The only positive association between B-Cd and food items in 2004-2014 was with consumption of brewed coffee (men only).

    CONCLUSIONS: The lack of a decrease in B-Cd from 1990 to 2014 and the absence of a further decrease in B-Pb after 2009 are unsatisfactory considering the health risks these metals pose in the general population at current concentrations.

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