umu.sePublikationer
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
12 1 - 50 av 68
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Brodin , Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Behavioral syndrome over the boundaries of life: carryovers from larvae to adult damselfly2009Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 30-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity is an important behavioral trait that mediates a trade-off between obtaining food for growth and avoiding predation. Active individuals usually experience a higher encounter rate with food items and suffer higher predation pressure than less active individuals. I investigated how activity of the damselfly Lestes congener is affected by larval state and predator presence and if larval behavioral type (BT) can be used to predict larval boldness, foraging success, and adult BT. Activity level of individual larvae was studied without predator at 2 different physiological states (hungry and fed) and in 2 predator treatments: familiar predator cues and unfamiliar predator cues. Larvae did not adjust their activity depending on state or when subjected to unfamiliar predator cues, but a general reduction in activity was seen in the familiar predator treatment. Hence, active individuals remained active compared with their conspecifics, independent of state or predator treatment. Active individuals were also bolder and more efficient foragers than their less active conspecifics. Furthermore, both adult activity and boldness were correlated with larval BT. The results illustrate that BT of a larvae is carried over many different situations keeping active larvae active even in maladaptive situations, demonstrating how a behavioral syndrome may constrain behavioral plasticity. Furthermore, results showed that behavioral syndromes can carry over from larvae through metamorphosis and dictate the BT of the adult.

  • 2.
    Brodin, T
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Johansson, F
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Conflicting selection pressures on the growth /predation trade-off in a damselfly larvae2004Ingår i: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 85, s. 2927-2932Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity is an important behavioral trait that in most animals mediates a trade-off between obtaining food for growth and avoiding predation. Active individuals usually experience a higher encounter rate with food items and predators and, as a consequence, grow faster and suffer higher predation pressure than less active individuals. We investigated how predator-induced mortality and growth of the damselfly Coenagrion hastulatum depend on activity at the level of the genotype. Larvae from six different C. hastulatum families were reared in two different predator treatments: predator present or absent. Families differed in activity, and active families grew to a significantly larger size than less-active families. Within families there was a plastic response to predators. Larvae reared without predators were more active and grew larger than larvae reared with a nonlethal predator. In the presence of a lethal predator the active families experienced higher mortality than the less active families. The results illustrate that the growth/predation-risk trade-off was mediated by activity and clearly show a cost of antipredator behavior. They also suggest that variation in activity level might be genetically regulated and could explain why C. hastulatum are abundant in aquatic systems both with and without potential predators.

  • 3.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Drugs cause fishy behavior2013Ingår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 45, s. IX-IXArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Drotz, Marcus K.
    Lake Vänern Museum Nat & Cultural Hist, S-53154 Linköping, Sweden.
    Individual variation in dispersal associated behavioral traits of the invasive Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis, H. Milne Edwards, 1854) during initial invasion of Lake Vänern, Sweden2014Ingår i: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 60, nr 3, s. 410-416Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and predicting species range-expansions and biological invasions is an important challenge in modern ecology because of rapidly changing environments. Recent studies have revealed that consistent within-species variation in behavior (i.e. animal personality) can be imperative for dispersal success, a key stage in the invasion process. Here we investigate the composition and correlation of two important personality traits associated with invasion success, activity and boldness, and how they are connected to sex and individual size in a newly colonised population of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in Lake Vanern, Sweden. We found no effect of sex or size on behavioral expressions of E. sinensis but a clear positive correlation between boldness and activity. In addition, this study generates important baseline data for monitoring behavioral development, and thereby changing ecological impact, of an invading population over time. This has implications for predicting ecological effects of invasive species as well as for managing ecological invasions.

  • 5.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Drotz, Marcus K
    Larval behavioral syndrome does not affect emergence behavior in a damselfly (Lestes congener)2011Ingår i: Journal of ethology, ISSN 0289-0771, E-ISSN 1439-5444, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 107-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity is a key behavioral trait that oftenmediates a trade-off between finding food for growth andevading predation. We investigated how activity of thedamselfly Lestes congener is affected by larval state andpredator presence and if larval behavioral type (BT) can beused to predict larval emergence behavior. Activity level ofindividual larvae was studied without predators at twodifferent physiological states (hungry, fed) and in twopredator treatments (familiar or unfamiliar predator cues).Larvae did not adjust their activity depending on state orwhen subjected to unfamiliar predator cues but a generalreduction in activity was seen in the familiar predatortreatment. Hence, active individuals remained activecompared to their conspecifics, independent of state orpredator treatment illustrating the presence of a behavioralsyndrome. However, we found no correlation betweenlarval BT and emergence behavior. Active individuals didnot differ from less active individuals in any emergencecharacteristics. The results illustrate that the larval BToccurs in many situations keeping active larvae active evenin maladaptive situations. Furthermore, we show that damselflyemergence behavior can be completely decoupled fromlarvalBT, indicating a loss of stability in individualBT duringcritical stages in ontogeny.

  • 6.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dilute concentrations of a psychiatric drug alter behavior of fish from natural populations2013Ingår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 339, nr 6121, s. 814-815Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. A variety of pharmaceuticals enter waterways by way of treated wastewater effluents and remain biochemically active in aquatic systems. Several ecotoxicological studies have been done, but generally, little is known about the ecological effects of pharmaceuticals. Here we show that a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug (oxazepam) alters behavior and feeding rate of wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) at concentrations encountered in effluent-influenced surface waters. Individuals exposed to water with dilute drug concentrations (1.8 micrograms liter–1) exhibited increased activity, reduced sociality, and higher feeding rate. As such, our results show that anxiolytic drugs in surface waters alter animal behaviors that are known to have ecological and evolutionary consequences.

  • 7.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi och geovetenskap.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi och geovetenskap.
    Conflicting selection pressures on the growth/predation risk trade-off in a damselfly2004Ingår i: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 85, nr 11, s. 2927-2932Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity is an important behavioral trait that in most animals mediates a trade-off between obtaining food for growth and avoiding predation. Active individuals usually experience a higher encounter rate with food items and predators and, as a consequence, grow faster and suffer higher predation pressure than less active individuals. We investigated how predator-induced mortality and growth of the damselfly Coenagrion hastulatum depend on activity at the level of the genotype. Larvae from six different C. hastulatum families were reared in two different predator treatments: predator present or absent. Families differed in activity, and active families grew to a significantly larger size than less-active families. Within families there was a plastic response to predators. Larvae reared without predators were more active and grew larger than larvae reared with a nonlethal predator. In the presence of a lethal predator the active families experienced higher mortality than the less active families. The results illustrate that the growth/predation-risk trade-off was mediated by activity and clearly show a cost of antipredator behavior. They also suggest that variation in activity level might be genetically regulated and could explain why C. hastulatum are abundant in aquatic systems both with and without potential predators.

  • 8.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Predator related oviposition site selection of aquatic beetles (Hydroporus spp.) and effects on offspring life-history2006Ingår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 51, nr 7, s. 1277-1285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Theory predicts that natural selection should favour females that are able to correctly assess the risk of predation and then use that information to avoid high-risk oviposition sites to reduce the risk of offspring predation. Despite the potential significance of such behaviour on individual fitness, population dynamics and community structure, relatively few studies of oviposition behaviour connected to the risk of predation have been carried out.

    2. However, some recent studies suggest that oviposition site selection in response to risk of predation may be a common phenomenon, at least among amphibians and mosquitoes. A vast majority of previous studies have, however, neglected to investigate how the offspring are affected, in terms of fitness related parameters, by the maternal oviposition site choice.

    3. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment we tested the oviposition site selection of female aquatic beetles (Hydroporus spp.) in relation to the presence or absence of a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we monitored how the oviposition site selection affected the behaviour, growth and food resource of the progeny.

    4. We show that free-flying females of the aquatic beetles Hydroporus incognitus and H. nigrita prefer to oviposit in waters without fish compared with waters with fish. Larval activity of Hydroporus spp. was unaffected by fish presence. Our results indicate that beetle larvae from females that do lay eggs in waters with fish show increased growth compared with larvae in waters without fish. We explain this difference in growth by a higher per-capita food supply in the presence of a fish predator. This finding may have important implications for our understanding of how the variance of oviposition site selection in a population is sustained.

  • 9.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lind, Martin I.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wiberg, Miria Kaltiala
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Personality trait differences between mainland and island populations in the common frog (Rana temporaria)2013Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 67, nr 1, s. 135-143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and predicting species range expansions is an important challenge in modern ecology because of rapidly changing environments. Recent studies have revealed that consistent within-species variation in behavior (i.e., animal personality) can be imperative for dispersal success, a key process in range expansion. Here we investigate how habitat isolation can mediate differentiation of personality traits between recently founded island populations and the main population. We performed laboratory studies of boldness and exploration across life stages (tadpoles and froglets) using four isolated island populations and four mainland populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria). Both tadpoles and froglets from isolated populations were bolder and more exploratory than conspecifics from the mainland. Although the pattern can be influenced by possible differences in predation pressure, we suggest that this behavioral differentiation might be the result of a disperser-dependent founder effect brought on by an isolation-driven environmental filtering of animal personalities. These findings can have important implications for both species persistence in the face of climate change (i.e., range expansions) and ecological invasions as well as for explaining rapid speciation in isolated patches.

  • 10.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Mikolajewski, D.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Behavioural and life history effects of predator diet cues during ontogeny in a damselfly larvae2006Ingår i: Oecologia, Vol. 148, s. 162-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nordling, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Christensen, Bent
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Environmental relevant levels of a benzodiazepine (oxazepam) alters important behavioral traits in a common planktivorous fish, (Rutilus rutilus)2017Ingår i: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, ISSN 1528-7394, E-ISSN 1087-2620, Vol. 80, nr 16–18, s. 963-970Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. A complex mix of pharmaceuticals enters waterways via treated wastewater effluent and many remain biochemically active after the drugs reach aquatic systems. However, to date little is known regarding the ecological effects that might arise following pharmaceutical contamination of aquatic environments. One group of particular concern is behaviorally modifying pharmaceuticals as seemingly minor changes in behavior may initiate marked ecological consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug (oxazepam) on key behavioral traits in wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) at concentrations similar to those encountered in effluent surface waters. Roach exposed to water with high concentrations of oxazepam (280 mu g/L) exhibited increased boldness, while roach at low treatment (0.84 mu g/L) became bolder and more active compared to control fish. Our results reinforce the notion that anxiolytic drugs may be affecting fish behavior in natural systems, emphasizing the need for further research on ecological impacts of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems and development of new tools to incorporate ecologically relevant behavioral endpoints into ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  • 12.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Piovano, Susanna
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Heynen, Martina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ecological effects of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems-impacts through behavioural alterations2014Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 369, nr 1656, s. 20130580-Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of animal behaviour is important for both ecology and ecotoxicology, yet research in these two fields is currently developing independently. Here, we synthesize the available knowledge on drug-induced behavioural alterations in fish, discuss potential ecological consequences and report results from an experiment in which we quantify both uptake and behavioural impact of a psychiatric drug on a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis) and its invertebrate prey (Coenagrion hastulatum). We show that perch became more active while damselfly behaviour was unaffected, illustrating that behavioural effects of pharmaceuticals can differ between species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that prey consumption can be an important exposure route as on average 46% of the pharmaceutical in ingested prey accumulated in the predator. This suggests that investigations of exposure through bioconcentration, where trophic interactions and subsequent bioaccumulation of exposed individuals are ignored, underestimate exposure. Wildlife may therefore be exposed to higher levels of behaviourally altering pharmaceuticals than predictions based on commonly used exposure assays and pharmaceutical concentrations found in environmental monitoring programmes.

  • 13. Conrad, J L
    et al.
    Weinersmith, K L
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Saltz, J B
    Sih, A
    Behavioural syndromes in fishes: a review with implications for ecology and fisheries management2011Ingår i: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 78, nr 2, s. 395-435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This review examines the contribution of research on fishes to the growing field of behavioural syndromes. Current knowledge of behavioural syndromes in fishes is reviewed with respect to five main axes of animal personality: (1) shyness-boldness, (2) exploration-avoidance, (3) activity, (4) aggressiveness and (5) sociability. Compared with other taxa, research on fishes has played a leading role in describing the shy-bold personality axis and has made innovative contributions to the study of the sociability dimension by incorporating social network theory. Fishes are virtually the only major taxon in which behavioural correlations have been compared between populations. This research has guided the field in examining how variation in selection regime may shape personality. Recent research on fishes has also made important strides in understanding genetic and neuroendocrine bases for behavioural syndromes using approaches involving artificial selection, genetic mapping, candidate gene and functional genomics. This work has illustrated consistent individual variation in highly complex neuroendocrine and gene expression pathways. In contrast, relatively little work on fishes has examined the ontogenetic stability of behavioural syndromes or their fitness consequences. Finally, adopting a behavioural syndrome framework in fisheries management issues including artificial propagation, habitat restoration and invasive species, may promote restoration success. Few studies, however, have examined the ecological relevance of behavioural syndromes in the field. Knowledge of how behavioural syndromes play out in the wild will be crucial to incorporating such a framework into management practices.

  • 14. Cote, J
    et al.
    Clobert, J
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fogarty, S
    Sih, A
    Personality-dependent dispersal:  characterization, ontogeny and consequences for spatially structured populations2010Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 365, s. 4065-4076Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal is one of the most fundamental components of ecology, and affects processes as diverse as population growth, metapopulation dynamics, gene flow and adaptation. Although the act of moving from one habitat to another entails major costs to the disperser, empirical and theoretical studies suggest that these costs can be reduced by having morphological, physiological or behavioural specializations for dispersal. A few recent studies on different systems showed that individuals exhibit personality-dependent dispersal, meaning that dispersal tendency is associated with boldness, sociability or aggressiveness. Indeed, in several species, dispersers not only develop behavioural differences at the onset of dispersal, but display these behavioural characteristics through their life cycle. While personality-dependent dispersal has been demonstrated in only a few species, we believe that it is a widespread phenomenon with important ecological consequences. Here, we review the evidence for behavioural differences between dispersers and residents, to what extent they constitute personalities. We also examine how a link between personality traits and dispersal behaviours can be produced and how personality-dependent dispersal affects the dynamics of metapopulations and biological invasions. Finally, we suggest future research directions for population biologists, behavioural ecologists and conservation biologists such as how the direction and the strength of the relationship between personality traits and dispersal vary with ecological contexts.

  • 15. Cote, Julien
    et al.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fogarty, Sean
    Sih, Andrew
    Non-random dispersal mediates invader impacts on the invertebrate community2017Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 86, nr 6, s. 1298-1307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersers are often not a random draw from a population, dispersal propensity being conditional on individual phenotypic traits and local contexts. This non-randomness consequently results in phenotypic differences between dispersers and non-dispersers and, in the context of biological invasions, in an invasion front made of individuals with a biased phenotype. This bias of phenotypes at the front may subsequently modulate the strength of ecological effects of an invasive species on invaded communities. We recently demonstrated that more asocial mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), one of the 100 worst invasive species, disperse further, suggesting a sociability-biased invasion front. As behavioural types are related to the strength of interspecific interactions, an invasion by a biased subset of individuals should have important ecological implications for native communities. Here, we tested the impact of phenotypic biases in dispersing individuals (relative to non-dispersers) on prey communities in experimental mesocosms. We show that dispersers reduce prey abundance more than do non-dispersers during the first 4 weeks after introduction, and that the disperser's social types are likely drivers of these differences. These differences in prey communities disappeared after 8 weeks suggesting prey community resilience against predation in these mesocosm ecosystems. Consequently, we call for the integration of non-random dispersal, dispersal syndromes and more generally intraspecific variation into studies predicting the impacts of invasions.

  • 16.
    Cote, Julien
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis, CA, USA .
    Fogarty, Sean
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Weinersmith, Kelly
    Sih, Andrew
    Personality-dependent dispersal in the invasive mosquitofish: group composition matters2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 278, nr 1712, s. 1670-1678Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding/predicting ecological invasions is an important challenge in modern ecology because of their immense economical and ecological costs. Recent studies have revealed that within-species variation in behaviour (i.e. animal personality) can shed light on the invasion process. The general hypothesis is that individuals' personality type may affect their colonization success, suggesting that some individuals might be better invaders than others. We have recently shown that, in the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), social personality trait was an important indicator of dispersal distance, with more asocial individuals dispersing further. Here, we tested how mean personality within a population, in addition to individual personality type, affect dispersal and settlement decisions in the mosquitofish. We found that individual dispersal tendencies were influenced by the population's mean boldness and sociability score. For example, individuals from populations with more asocial individuals or with more bold individuals are more likely to disperse regardless of their own personality type. We suggest that identifying behavioural traits facilitating invasions, even at the group level, can thus have direct applications in pest management.

  • 17. Cote, Julien
    et al.
    Fogarty, Sean
    Tymen, Blaise
    Sih, Andrew
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Personality-dependent dispersal cancelled under predation risk2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, nr 1773, s. 20132349-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal is a fundamental life-history trait for many ecological processes. Recent studies suggest that dispersers, in comparison to residents, display various phenotypic specializations increasing their dispersal inclination or success. Among them, dispersers are believed to be consistently more bold, exploratory, asocial or aggressive than residents. These links between behavioural types and dispersal should vary with the cause of dispersal. However, with the exception of one study, personality-dependent dispersal has not been studied in contrasting environments. Here, we used mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) to test whether personality-dependent dispersal varies with predation risk, a factor that should induce boldness or sociability-dependent dispersal. Corroborating previous studies, we found that dispersing mosquitofish are less social than non-dispersing fish when there was no predation risk. However, personality-dependent dispersal is negated under predation risk, dispersers having similar personality types to residents. Our results suggest that adaptive dispersal decisions could commonly depend on interactions between phenotypes and ecological contexts.

  • 18. Cote, Julien
    et al.
    Fogarty, Sean
    Weinersmith, Kelly
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sih, Andrew
    Personality traits and dispersal tendency in the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 277, nr 1687, s. 1571-1579Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological invasions, where non-native species spread to new areas, grow to high densities and have large, negative impacts on ecological communities, are a major worldwide problem. Recent studies suggest that one of the key mechanisms influencing invasion dynamics is personality-dependent dispersal: the tendency for dispersers to have a different personality type than the average from a source population. We examined this possibility in the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). We measured individual tendencies to disperse in experimental streams and several personality traits: sociability, boldness, activity and exploration tendency before and three weeks after dispersal. We found that mosquitofish display consistent behavioural tendencies over time, and significant positive correlations between all personality traits. Most notably, sociability was an important indicator of dispersal distance, with more asocial individuals dispersing further, suggesting personality-biased dispersal on an invasion front. These results could have important ecological implications, as invasion by a biased subset of individuals is likely to have different ecological impacts than invasion by a random group of colonists.

  • 19.
    Drotz, Marcus K.
    et al.
    Lake Vänern Museum Nat & Cultural Hist, S-53154 Lidköping Vid Vänern, Sweden.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Berggren, Matz
    University of Gothenburg, Inst Marine Ecology Kristineberg, SE-45034 Fiskebackskil, Sweden.
    Distribution patterns of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards, 1853) in Lake Vanern, Sweden2012Ingår i: AQUAT INVASIONS, ISSN 1798-6540, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 243-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The catadromous Chinese mitten crab (CMC), Eriocheir sinensis is well known for its extensive invasion routes across the world. However, little is known about both adult and juvenile behaviour after they arrive to a new region. Particularly if the CMC has utilised freight ship ballast tanks as its invasion vector to new freshwater areas like coastal connected larger lakes. The Swedish Lake Vanern, Europe's third largest freshwater lake, offers a suitable study area since only a handful of CMC had been reported between its first record in 1954 and 2004. Hence, the increased catch of of CMC in the mid 2000s was unexpected and provided a rare opportunity to study the initial phase of a biological invasion. Fortunately local fishermen have traditionally, since the mid 1970s, utilised large stationary fish trap nets, evenly distributed from the inlet to the harbour of Lidkoping outward into the main part of the lake. During the peak occurrence in 2005 the traps captured CMC frequently for 90 days starting on August 10. Daily catch increased from September 19th to October 17th. Thereafter the number decreased until November 7th when the last crab was captured. Only one crab out of the 21 caught in the two traps furthest away from the harbour inlet was caught before September 19th. The number of caught CMC differed significantly between the trap nets. Almost half (48.4 %) of all CMC were caught in the two traps closest to the harbour inlet and 41.9% in the second trap-line, consisting of two traps 6 km from the harbour inlet. The remaining crabs were caught in the traps furthest away. Catch pattern from this unique invasion event is discussed in relation to CMC dispersal/migration, invading sample size, behavioural traits and catch efficiency of traps.

  • 20. Drotz, Marcus K
    et al.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Anders N
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Changing Names with Changed Address: Integrated Taxonomy and Species Delimitation in the Holarctic Colymbetes paykulli Group (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikel-id e0143577Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Species delimitation of geographically isolated forms is a long-standing problem in less studied insect groups. Often taxonomic decisions are based directly on morphologic variation, and lack a discussion regarding sample size and the efficiency of migration barriers or dispersal/migration capacity of the studied species. These problems are here exemplified in a water beetle complex from the Bering Sea region that separates North America from Eurasia. Only a few sampled specimens occur from this particular area and they are mostly found in museum and private collections. Here we utilize the theory of integrated taxonomy to discuss the speciation of the Holarctic Colymbetes paykulli water beetle complex, which historically has included up to five species of which today only two are recognized. Three delimitation methods are used; landmark based morphometry of body shape, variation in reticulation patterns of the pronotum exo-skeleton and sequence variation of the partial mitochondrial gene Cyt b. Our conclusion is that the Palearctic and Nearctic populations of C. paykulli are given the status of separate species, based on the fact that all methods showed significant separation between populations. As a consequence the name of the Palearctic species is C. paykulli Erichson and the Nearctic species should be known as C. longulus LeConte. There is no clear support for delineation between Palearctic and Nearctic populations of C. dahuricus based on mtDNA. However, significant difference in size and reticulation patterns from the two regions is shown. The combined conclusion is that the C. dahuricus complex needs a more thorough investigation to fully disentangle its taxonomic status. Therefore it is here still regarded as a Holarctic species. This study highlights the importance to study several diagnosable characters that has the potential to discriminate evolutionary lineage during speciation.

  • 21. Drotz, Marcus K.
    et al.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Anders N.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Multiple origins of elytral reticulation modifications in the west palearctic Agabus bipustulatus complex (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)2010Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN eISSN-1932-6203, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. e9034-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Agabus bipustulatus complex includes one of Europe's most widely distributed and common diving beetles. This complex, which is known for its large morphological variation, has a complex demographic and altitudinal variation in elytral reticulation. The various depth of the reticulation imprint, both in smaller and larger meshes, results in both mat and shiny individuals, as well as intermediate forms. The West Palearctic lowland is inhabited by a sexually dimorphic form, with shiny males and mat females. In mountain regions, shiny individuals of both sexes are found intermixed with mat individuals or in pure populations in central and southern areas, whereas pure populations of mat individuals are exclusively found in the northern region at high altitude. Sexual selection is proposed as a driving force in shaping this variation. However, the occurrence of different types of reticulation in both sexes and disjunct geographical distribution patterns suggest an additional function of the reticulation. Here we investigate the phylogeographical history, genetic structure and reticulation variation of several named forms within the Agabus bipustulatus complex including A. nevadensis. The molecular analyses recognised several well-supported clades within the complex. Several of the named forms had two or more independent origins. Few south European populations were uniform in reticulation patterns, and the males were found to display large variation. Reticulation diversity and population genetic variability were clearly correlated to altitude, but no genetic differences were detected among populations with mixed or homogenous forms. Observed reduction in secondary reticulation in female and increased variance in male at high altitude in South Europe may be explained by the occurrence of an additional selective force, beside sexual selection. The combined effect of these selective processes is here demonstrated in an extreme case to generate isolation barriers between populations at high altitudes. Here we discuss this selective force in relation to thermal selection.

  • 22. Drotz, Marcus K.
    et al.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Saura, Anssi
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Giles, Barbara E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ecotype Differentiation in the Face of Gene Flow within the Diving Beetle Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767) in Northern Scandinavia2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. e31381-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The repeated occurrence of habitat-specific polyphyletic evolved ecotypes throughout the ranges of widely distributed species implies that multiple, independent and parallel selection events have taken place. Ecological transitions across altitudinal gradients over short geographical distances are often associated with variation in habitat-related fitness, these patterns suggest the action of strong selective forces. Genetic markers will therefore contribute differently to differences between ecotypes in local hybrid zones. Here we have studied the adaptive divergence between ecotypes of the water beetle Agabus bipustulatus along several parallel altitudinal gradients in northern Scandinavia. This water beetle is well known for its remarkable morphological variation associated with mountain regions throughout the western Palaearctic. Two morphological ecotypes are recognised: a montane type with reduced flight muscles and a lowland type with fully developed muscles. Using a multilocus survey of allozyme variation and a morphological analysis with landmark-based morphometrics, across thirty-three populations and seven altitudinal gradients, we studied the local adaptive process of gene flow and selection in detail. Populations were sampled at three different elevations: below, at and above the tree line. The results indicate that the levels of divergence observed between ecotypes in morphology and allele frequencies at alpha-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase relative to those shown by neutral molecular markers reflects local diversifying selection in situ. Four main lines of evidence are shown here: (1) A repeated morphological pattern of differentiation is observed across all altitudinal transects, with high reclassification probabilities. (2) Allele and genotype frequencies at the alpha-Gpdh locus are strongly correlated with altitude, in sharp contrast to the presumable neutral markers. (3) Genetic differentiation is two to three times higher among populations across the tree line than among populations at or below. (4) Genetic differentiation between ecotypes within independent mountain areas is reflected by different sets of allozymes.

  • 23. Edenius, L
    et al.
    Brodin, T
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    White, N
    Occurrence of Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus in relation to amount of old forest at landscape and home range scales2004Ingår i: Ecol Bull, Vol. 51, s. 241-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 24. Eggermont, Hilde
    et al.
    Balian, Estelle
    Azevedo, Jose Manuel N.
    Beumer, Victor
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Claudet, Joachim
    Fady, Bruno
    Grube, Martin
    Keune, Hans
    Lamarque, Penelope
    Reuter, Katrin
    Smith, Matt
    van Ham, Chantal
    Weisser, Wolfgang W.
    Le Roux, Xavier
    Nature-based Solutions: New Influence for Environmental Management and Research in Europe2015Ingår i: GAIA, ISSN 0940-5550, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 243-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Greening roofs or walls to cool down city areas during summer, to capture storm water, to abate pollution, and to increase human well-being while enhancing biodiversity: nature-based solutions (NBS) refer to the sustainable management and use of nature for tackling societal challenges. Building on and complementing traditional biodiversity conservation and management strategies, NBS integrate science, policy, and practice and create biodiversity benefits in terms of diverse, well-managed ecosystems.

  • 25.
    Fahlman, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Using laboratory incubations to predict the fate of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems2018Ingår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 15, nr 8, s. 463-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental contextEnvironmental persistence of excreted pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems is usually predicted using small-scale laboratory experiments assumed to simulate natural conditions. We studied five pharmaceuticals comparing their removal rates from water under laboratory conditions and under natural environmental conditions existing in a large pond. We found that the laboratory conditions did not fully capture the complexity within the pond, which led to different removal rates in the two systems. AbstractEnvironmental persistence is a key property when evaluating risks with excreted pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems. Such persistence is typically predicted using small-scale laboratory incubations, but the variation in aquatic environments and scarcity of field studies to verify laboratory-based persistence estimates create uncertainties around the predictive power of these incubations. In this study we: (1) assess the persistence of five pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, trimethoprim and oxazepam) in laboratory experiments under different environmental conditions; and (2) use a three-month-long field study in an aquatic ecosystem to verify the laboratory-based persistence estimates. In our laboratory assays, we found that water temperature (TEMP), concentrations of organic solutes (TOC), presence of sediment (SED), and solar radiation (SOL) individually affected dissipation rates. Moreover, we identified rarely studied interaction effects between the treatments (i.e. SOLxSED and TEMPxSOL), which affected the persistence of the studied drugs. Half-lives obtained from the laboratory assays largely explained the dissipation rates during the first week of the field study. However, none of the applied models could accurately predict the long-term dissipation rates (month time-scale) from the water column. For example, the studied antibioticum (trimethoprim) and the anti-anxiety drug (oxazepam) remained at detectable levels in the aquatic environment long after (similar to 150 days) our laboratory based models predicted complete dissipation. We conclude that small-scale laboratory incubations seem sufficient to approximate the short-term (i.e. within a week) dissipation rate of drugs in aquatic ecosystems. However, this simplistic approach does not capture interacting environmental processes that preserve a fraction of the dissolved pharmaceuticals for months in natural water bodies.

  • 26.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Heynen, Martina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Grabicova, Katerina
    Randak, Tomas
    Grabic, Roman
    Kodes, Vit
    Slobodnik, Jaroslav
    Sweetman, Andrew
    Earnshaw, Mark
    Caracciolo, Anna Barra
    Lettieri, Teresa
    Loos, Robert
    Screening of benzodiazepines in thirty European rivers2017Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, s. 324-332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals as environmental contaminants have received a lot of interest over the past decade but, for several pharmaceuticals, relatively little is known about their occurrence in European surface waters. Benzodiazepines, a class of pharmaceuticals with anxiolytic properties, have received interest due to their behavioral modifying effect on exposed biota. In this study, our results show the presence of one or more benzodiazepine(s) in 86% of the analyzed surface water samples (n = 138) from 30 rivers, representing seven larger European catchments. Of the 13 benzodiazepines included in the study, we detected 9, which together showed median and mean concentrations (of the results above limit of quantification) of 5.4 and 9.6 ng L-1, respectively. Four benzodiazepines (oxazepam, temazepam, clobazam, and bromazepam) were the most commonly detected. In particular, oxazepam had the highest frequency of detection (85%) and a maximum concentration of 61 ng L-1. Temazepam and clobazam were found in 26% (maximum concentration of 39 ng L-1) and 14% (maximum concentration of 11 ng L-1) of the samples analyzed, respectively. Finally, bromazepam was found only in Germany and in 16 out of total 138 samples (12%), with a maximum concentration of 320 ng L-1. This study clearly shows that benzodiazepines are common micro-contaminants of the largest European river systems at ng L-1 levels. Although these concentrations are more than a magnitude lower than those reported to have effective effects on exposed biota, environmental effects cannot be excluded considering the possibility of additive and sub-lethal effects.

  • 27. Hammond, John I.
    et al.
    Luttbeg, Barney
    Brodin, Tomas
    Sih, Andrew
    Spatial scale influences the outcome of the predator-prey space race between tadpoles and predatory dragonflies2012Ingår i: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 522-531Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. How predators and prey distribute themselves across space can have large population and community-level consequences by affecting the frequency and potential strength of interactions between and within trophic levels. The general pattern that emerges from numerous studies is that predators seek areas with higher prey densities and prey avoid areas with higher predation risk. However, little is known about the behavioural mechanisms underlying the emergent spatial patterns between freely interacting predators and prey. 2. We examined the behaviour and space use of groups of Pseudacris regilla (Pacific treefrog) tadpole prey and larval Rhionaeschna multicolor (blue-eyed darner) odonate predators in arenas consisting of four patches of the prey's resources divided into two spatial scales over two observation periods a day apart. Distributions were assayed both alone and together. We predicted scale should inherently affect the resulting spatial patterns because factors such as selection, competition, interference, movement ability and prey responses to predators all have potentially similar effects as scale become larger or smaller. These factors predict that prey should be more able to dictate the spatial pattern at smaller scales and predators at larger scales. 3. Results generally match these predictions with measures of joint space being consistent with the predators dictating the joint space use more than expected at the larger scale. Moreover, at the smaller scale, either the predator and prey responses offset or reverse to favour the prey. We used a model selection approach to look at the underlying behavioural rules shaping these spatial patterns. Prey were more likely to leave patches with lower resources across both scales. However, their response to predators and competitors differed between the scales, with prey appearing to become trapped with predators only at the larger scale and only avoiding other prey at the small scale. 4. These results highlight the importance of investigating freely interacting predators and prey and the factors that are likely to affect the predator's or prey's ability to dictate spatial patterns. An ability to predict predator-prey spatial outcomes should be a great benefit with habitat fragmentation and shifting population densities, distributions and community compositions.

  • 28.
    Hellström, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Finn, Fia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lo
    Alanärä, Anders
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    GABAergic anxiolytic drug in water increases migration behaviour in salmon2016Ingår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 7, artikel-id 13460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to a dilute concentration of a GABAA receptor agonist (oxazepam) increased migration intensity compared with untreated smolt. These results implicate that salmon migration may be affected by human-induced changes in water chemical properties, such as acidification and pharmaceutical residues in wastewater effluent, via alterations in the GABAA receptor function.

  • 29.
    Hellström, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Upscaling behavioural studies to the field using acoustic telemetry2016Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 170, s. 384-389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory-based behavioural assays are often used in ecotoxicological studies to assess the environmental risk of aquatic contaminants. While results from such laboratory-based risk assessments may be difficult to extrapolate to natural environments, technological advancements over the past decade now make it possible to perform risk assessments through detailed studies of exposed individuals in natural settings. Acoustic telemetry is a technology to monitor movement and behaviour of aquatic organism in oceans, lakes, and rivers. The technology allows for tracking of multiple individuals simultaneously with very high temporal and spatial resolution, with the option to incorporate sensors to measure various physiological and environmental parameters. Although frequently used in fisheries research, aquatic ecotoxicology has been slow to adopt acoustic telemetry as a tool in field-based studies. This mini-review intends to introduce acoustic telemetry to aquatic ecotoxicologists, focusing on the potential of the technology to bridge the gap between laboratory assays and natural behaviours when making toxicological risk assessments.

  • 30.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Backstrom, Tobias
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Home alone: the effects of isolation on uptake of a pharmaceutical contaminant in a social fish2016Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 180, s. 71-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of biologically active pharmaceutical residues is present in aquatic systems worldwide. As uptake potential and the risk of effects in aquatic wildlife are directly coupled, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between stress by isolation, uptake and effects of the psychiatric pharmaceutical oxazepam in fish. To do this, we measured cortisol levels, behavioral stress responses, and oxazepam uptake under different stress and social conditions, in juvenile perch (Percafluviatilis) that were either exposed (1.03 mu gl(-1)) or not exposed to oxazepam. We found single exposed individuals to take up more oxazepam than individuals exposed in groups, likely as a result of stress caused by isolation. Furthermore, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) was significantly negatively correlated with fish weight in both social treatments. We found no effect of oxazepam exposure on body cortisol concentration or behavioral stress response. Most laboratory experiments, including standardized bioconcentration assays, are designed to minimize stress for the test organisms, however wild animals experience stress naturally. Hence, differences in stress levels between laboratory and natural environments can be one of the reasons why predictions from artificial laboratory experiments largely underestimate uptake of oxazepam, and other pharmaceuticals, in the wild.

  • 31.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tissue-specific uptake of the benzodiazepine oxazepam in adult Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)2016Ingår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 849-853Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Typically, in field surveys and laboratory studies, muscle or whole - body homogenates are used to quantify pharmaceutical concentrations in biota, although uptake of pharmaceuticals may be tissue - specific. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the tissue - specific (muscle, liver, brain and blood plasma) uptake of the anxiolytic oxazepam in adult Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). In laboratory experiments, perch were exposed to four different concentrations (2, 4, 12 and 20 mu g L-1) of oxazepam for 6 days, and muscle, liver, brain tissue and blood plasma were sampled to determine tissue - specific bioconcentration. We found that the tissue - specific bioconcentration was independent of oxazepam concentration. However, among tissue types, bioconcentration was significantly different, with the concentration in muscle, liver = brain, blood plasma. Hence, it is important to consider the type of tissue used to quantify pharmaceutical uptake in fish, for predictions of species - specific sensitivity and comparisons across studies. Furthermore, our results indicate a somewhat lower transportability (brain/plasma ratio 0.54) of oxazepam from blood to brain in fish compared with in mammals, which should be kept in mind when employing 'read - across' approaches.

  • 32.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Effect of bioconcentration and trophic transfer on realized exposure to oxazepam in 2 predators, the dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis) and the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)2016Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 930-937Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the most common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Although these pharmaceuticals are designed to be efficiently eliminated from the human body, very little is known about their trophic-transfer potential in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to quantify and compare uptake of an anxiolytic (oxazepam) from water (bioconcentration) and via the consumption of contaminated diet (trophic transfer) in 2 common freshwater predators: Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and the dragonfly larvae Aeshna grandis. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of oxazepam were found in both predator species. However, higher bioconcentrations were observed for perch (bioconcentration factor [BCF], 3.7) than for dragonfly larvae (BCF, 0.5). Perch also retained more oxazepam from consumed prey (41%) than dragonfly larvae (10%), whereas the relative contribution via prey consumption was 14% and 42% for perch and dragonflies, respectively. In addition, bioconcentration was negatively correlated with perch weight, indicating that exposure levels in natural contaminated environments differ between individuals of different size or between different developmental stages. Hence, trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals may indeed occur, and estimates of environmental exposures that do not consider intake via food or size-dependent bioconcentration may therefore lead to wrongful estimations of realized exposure levels in natural contaminated ecosystems. (C) 2016 SETAC

  • 33. Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel
    et al.
    Thorlacius, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia
    An approach to incorporate individual personality in modeling fish dispersal across in-stream barriers2017Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 720-732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal personalities are an important factor that affects the dispersal of animals. In the context of aquatic species, dispersal modeling needs to consider that most freshwater ecosystems are highly fragmented by barriers reducing longitudinal connectivity. Previous research has incorporated such barriers into dispersal models under the neutral assumption that all migrating animals attempt to ascend at all times. Modeling dispersal of animals that do not perform trophic or reproductive migrations will be more realistic if it includes assumptions of which individuals attempt to overcome a barrier. We aimed to introduce personality into predictive modeling of whether a nonmigratory invasive freshwater fish (the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus) will disperse across an in-stream barrier. To that end, we experimentally assayed the personalities of 259 individuals from invasion fronts and established round goby populations. Based on the population differences in boldness, asociability, and activity, we defined a priori thresholds with bolder, more asocial, and more active individuals having a higher likelihood of ascent. We then combined the personality thresholds with swimming speed data from the literature and in situ measurements of flow velocities in the barrier. The resulting binary logistic regression model revealed probabilities of crossing a barrier which depended not only on water flow and fish swimming speed but also on animal personalities. We conclude that risk assessment through predictive dispersal modeling across fragmented landscapes can be advanced by including personality traits as parameters. The inclusion of behavior into modeling the spread of invasive species can help to improve the accuracy of risk assessments.

  • 34. Johansson, F.
    et al.
    Brodin, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Stracevicius, Darius
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fürstenberg-Hägg, E.
    Shift in migration phenology of a wintering population of Dippers Cinclus cinclus in northern Sweden2017Ingår i: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 27, nr 2–4, s. 57-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Johansson, F
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Crowley, P H
    Brodin, T
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sexual size dimorphism and sex ratios in dragonflies (Odonata)2005Ingår i: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 86, s. 507-513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 36.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Gardfjell, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Species abundance models and patterns in dragonfly communities: effects of fish predation2006Ingår i: Oikos, Vol. 114, s. 27-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sniegula, S
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Emergence patterns and latitudinal adaptations in development time of odonata in north Sweden and Poland2010Ingår i: Odonatologica, ISSN 0375-0183, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 97-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using exuviae, data are presented on emergence dates of dragonflies from northernSweden and northwestern Poland. The 17 spp. sampled in Sweden showed considerableoverlap in emergence periods. In Sweden, Leucorrhinia rubicunda was thefirst sp. to emerge (May 31) and Sympetrum danae the last (July 19). A comparison offirst dates of emergence of spp. in Sweden and Poland showed a difference between 9and 30 days, with all Polish spp. emerging first. Compared to spring species, summerspecies and obligate univoltine summer species showed less difference in first date ofemergence between Swedish and Polish populations. In a laboratory experiment Leucorrhiniadubia was reared from both regions from the egg to final instar larva undernorthern Swedish and northwestern Polish photoperiods. Swedish larvae developedfaster under a northern Swedish photoperiod compared to a northwestern Polish photoperiod.However, no such difference in development was found for northwesternPolish larvae. This suggests that there are genetic differences between both populationsin response to photoperiod. The results are discussed in the context of compensationof larval development of northern populations in relation to photoperiod.

  • 38.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Piovano, Susanna
    School of Marine Studies, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.
    High-speed imaging reveals how antihistamine exposure affects escape behaviours in aquatic insect prey2019Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 648, s. 1257-1262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic systems receive a wide range of pharmaceuticals that may have adverse impacts on aquatic wildlife. Among these pharmaceuticals, antihistamines are commonly found, and these substances have the potential to influence the physiology of aquatic invertebrates. Previous studies have focused on how antihistamines may affect behaviours of aquatic invertebrates, but these studies probably do not capture the full consequences of antihistamine exposure, as traditional recording techniques do not capture important animal movements occurring at the scale of milliseconds, such as prey escape responses. In this study, we investigated if antihistamine exposure can impact escape responses in aquatic insect, by exposing damselfly (Coenagrion hastulatum) larvae to two environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1 and 1 μg L−1) of diphenhydramine. Importantly, we used a high-speed imaging approach that with high-time resolution captures details of escape responses and, thus, potential impacts of diphenhydramine on these behaviours. Our results show overall weak effects of antihistamine exposure on the escape behaviours of damselfly larvae. However, at stage 2 of the C-escape response, we found a significant increase in turning angle, which corresponds to a reduced swimming velocity, indicating a reduced success at evading a predator attack. Thus, we show that low concentrations of an antihistamine may affect behaviours strongly related to fitness of aquatic insect prey – effects would have been overlooked using traditional recording techniques. Hence, to understand the full consequences of pharmaceutical contamination on aquatic wildlife, high-speed imaging should be incorporated into future environmental risk assessments.

  • 39.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ershammar, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Effects of an antihistamine on carbon and nutrient recycling in streams2015Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 538, s. 240-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In stream ecosystems, microbes and macroinvertebrates consume leaf litter deposited from the riparian vegetation, and thereby recycle resources tied up in the litter. Several environmental variables influence rates of this recycling, but it is not well known if common pharmaceuticals, such as antihistamines, originating from waste-water effluent, have additional impacts. Exposure to dilute concentrations of antihistamines may adversely influence aquatic detritivorous invertebrates, because invertebrates use histamines for neurotransmission, resulting in hampered recycling of resource tied up in leaf detritus. In this study, we therefore investigated if the antihistamine fexofenadine, at a concentration of 2000 ng l(-1), alters rates of leaf litter decomposition in stream microcosms. Stonefly larvae (n = 10, per microcosm), together with natural microbial communities, served as main decomposer organisms on alder leaf litter. First, we used 30 microcosms containing fexofenadine, while the other 30 served as non-contaminated controls, and of each 30 microcosms, 14 contained stonefly larvae and microbes, while the remaining 16 contained only microbes. We found, in contrast to our hypothesis, that fexofenadine had no effect on leaf litter decomposition via impacts on the stonefly larvae. However, independent on if stoneflies were present or not, concentrations of organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (N) were strongly affected, with 20-26 and 24-31% lower concentrations of TOC and N, respectively, in the presence of fexofenadine. Second, in a scaled down follow-up experiment we found that microbial activity increased by 85%, resulting in a 10% decrease in pH, in the presence of fexofenadine. While the antihistamine concentration we used is higher than those thus far found in the field (1-10 ng l(-1)), it is still 100 times lower than the predicted no-effect concentration for fexofenadine. As such, our results indicate that low mu g l(-1) levels of antihistamines can have an effect on carbon and nutrient recycling in aquatic system. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 40.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Antihistamines and aquatic insects: Bioconcentration and impacts on behavior in damselfly larvae (Zygoptera)2014Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, s. 108-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Because aquatic insects use histamines as neurotransmitters, adverse impacts on aquatic insects living in aquatic environments that receive antihistamines with wastewater effluent are plausible. In this study, we exposed damselfly larvae to low concentrations of two commonly used antihistamines (Hydroxyzine and Fexofenadine, 360 +/- 42 and 2200 +/- 43 ng 1(-1), respectively), and recorded damselfly larvae behavior before and after exposure. Further, after the second set of behavioral assays was performed, we quantified bioconcentration of the antihistamines in the damselfly bodies. Our results showed significant changes in damselfly behavior following antihistamine exposure. After Hydroxyzine exposure, the damselfly larvae became less active, and they showed reduced fleeing response (i.e. increased boldness) after being exposed to Fexofenadine, the latter also being significantly different from the non-exposed (control) individuals. Further, we found high levels of bioconcentration in the damselflies; Hydroxyzine showed an average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2000. As such, our results indicate that low concentrations of antihistamines can have sub-lethal effects on aquatic insects manifested as behavioral changes, and that bioconcentration of these substances can be high. Therefore, the need to investigate the impact of emergent aquatic contaminants also on aquatic insects, and on behaviors that are of ecological importance, is further highlighted. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Intermediate predator impact on consumers weakens with increasing predator diversity in the presence of a top-predator2007Ingår i: Acta Oecologica, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 79-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adding or removing a top-predator is known to affect lower trophic levels with potentially large, indirect effects on primary production. However, little is known about how predator diversity may affect lower trophic levels, or how adding or removing a top-predator influences the effects of predator diversity. Using aquatic mesocosms containing three and four trophic levels, we tested whether intermediate predator diversity affected predation on consumers and if top-predator presence influenced such effects. We found that the presence of intermediate predators suppressed the consumer population and that this suppression tended to increase with increased intermediate predator diversity when the top-predator was absent. However, with the top-predator present, increased intermediate predator diversity showed the opposite effect on the consumers compared to without a top-predator, i.e. decreased suppression of consumers with increased diversity. Hence, in our study, the loss of intermediate predator species weakened or strengthened predator–prey interactions depending on if the top-predator was present or not, while loss of the top-predator only strengthened the predator–prey interactions. Therefore, the loss of a predator species may render different, but perhaps predictable effects on the functioning of a system depending on from which trophic level it is lost and on the initial number of species in that trophic level.

  • 42.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Anderson, N. J.
    Fahlman, J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Long-Term Persistence of an Anxiolytic Drug (Oxazepam) in a Large Freshwater Lake2015Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 17, s. 10406-10412Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Production and human consumption of pharmaceuticals result in contamination of surface waters worldwide. Little is known about the long-term (i.e., over decades) fate of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems. Here, we show that the most prescribed anxiolytic in Sweden (oxazepam) persists in its therapeutic form for several decades after being deposited in a large freshwater lake. By comparing sediment cores collected in 1995 and 2013, we demonstrate that oxazepam inputs from the early 1970s remained in the sediments until sampling in 2013, despite in situ degradation processes and sediment diagenesis. In laboratory and pond experiments, we further reveal that therapeutic forms of oxazepam can persist over several months in cold (5 degrees C) lake water free from UV light. We conclude that oxazepam can persist in lakes over a time scale much longer than previously realized and that levels can build up in lakes due to both a legacy of past inputs and a growing urban population.

  • 43.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergman, Eva
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Drug-Induced Behavioral Changes: Using Laboratory Observations to Predict Field Observations2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 4, artikel-id 81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral assays constitute important research tools when assessing how fish respond to environmental change. However, it is unclear how behavioral modifications recorded in laboratory assays are expressed in natural ecosystems, a limitation that makes it difficult to evaluate the predictive power of laboratory-based measurements. In this study, we hypothesized that exposure to a benzodiazepine (i.e., oxazepam) increases boldness and activity in laboratory assays as well as in field assays – that is, laboratory results can be used to predict field results. Moreover, we expected the modified behavior to affect other important ecological measures such as habitat selection and home range. To test our hypothesis, we exposed European perch (Perca fluviatilis) to oxazepam and measured subsequent changes in behavioral trials both in laboratory assays and in a lake ecosystem populated with a predatory fish species, pike (Esox lucius). In the lake, the positions of both perch and pike were tracked every three minutes for a month using acoustic telemetry. In the laboratory assay, the oxazepam-exposed perch were bolder and more active than the non-exposed perch. In the lake assay, the oxazepam-exposed perch were also more bold and active, had a larger home range, and used pelagic habitats more than the non-exposed perch. We conclude that ecotoxicological behavioral assays are useful for predicting the effects of exposure in natural systems. However, although individual responses to exposure were similar in both the laboratory and field trials, effects were more obvious in the field study, mainly due to reduced variability in the behavior measures from the lake. Hence, short-term behavioral assays may fail to detect all the effects expressed in natural environments. Nevertheless, our study clearly demonstrates that behavior modifications observed in laboratory settings can be used to predict how fish perform in aquatic ecosystems. 

  • 44.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The conceptual imperfection of aquatic risk assessment tests: highlighting the need for tests designed to detect therapeutic effects of pharmaceutical contaminants2014Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 9, nr 8, s. 084003-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardized ecotoxicological tests still constitute the fundamental tools when doing risk-assessment of aquatic contaminants. These protocols are managed towards minimal mortality in the controls, which is not representative for natural systems where mortality is often high. This methodological bias, generated from assays where mortality in the control group is systematically disregarded, makes it difficult to measure therapeutic effects of pharmaceutical contaminants leading to lower mortality. This is of concern considering that such effects on exposed organisms still may have substantial ecological consequences. In this paper, we illustrate this conceptual problem by presenting empirical data for how the therapeutic effect of Oxazepam-a common contaminant of surface waters-lower mortality rates among exposed Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) from wild populations, at two different life stages. We found that fry hatched from roe that had been exposed to dilute concentrations (1.1 +/- 0.3 mu g l(-1)) of Oxazepam for 24 h 3-6 days prior to hatching showed lower mortality rates and increased activity 30 days after hatching. Similar effects, i.e. increased activity and lower mortality rates were also observed for 2-year old perch exposed to dilute Oxazepam concentrations (1.2 +/- 0.4 mu g l(-1)). We conclude that therapeutic effects from pharmaceutical contaminants need to be considered in risk assessment assays to avoid that important ecological effects from aquatic contaminants are systematically missed.

  • 45.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    No evidence of increased growth or mortality in fish exposed to oxazepam in semi-natural ecosystems2018Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 615, s. 608-614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of short-term laboratory studies on fish reports behavioral effects from exposure to aquatic contaminants or raised carbon dioxide levels affecting the GABAAreceptor. However, how such GABAergic behavioral modifications (GBMs) impact populations in more complex natural systems is not known. In this study, we induced GBMs in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) via exposure to a GABA agonist (oxazepam) and followed the effects on growth and survival over one summer (70 days) in replicated pond ecosystems. We hypothesized that anticipated GBMs, expressed as anti-anxiety like behaviors (higher activity and boldness levels), that increase feeding rates in laboratory assays, would; i) increase growth and ii) increase mortality from predation. To test our hypotheses, 480 PIT tagged perch of known individual weights, and 12 predators (northern pike, Esox lucius) were evenly distributed in 12 ponds; six control (no oxazepam) and six spiked (15.5 ± 4 μg l− 1 oxazepam [mean ± 1 S.E.]) ponds. Contrary to our hypotheses, even though perch grew on average 16% more when exposed to oxazepam, we found no significant difference between exposed and control fish in growth (exposed: 3.9 ± 1.2 g, control: 2.9 ± 1 g [mean ± 1 S.E.], respectively) or mortality (exposed: 26.5 ± 1.8 individuals pond− 1, control: 24.5 ± 2.6 individuals pond− 1, respectively). In addition, we show that reduced prey capture efficiency in exposed pike may explain the lack of significant differences in predation. Hence, our results suggest that GBMs, which in laboratory studies impact fish behavior, and subsequently also feeding rates, do not seem to generate strong effects on growth and predation-risk in more complex and resource limited natural environments.

  • 46.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bioaccumulation of five pharmaceuticals at multiple trophic levels in an aquatic food web: Insights from a field experiment2016Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 568, s. 208-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals derived from manufacturing and human consumption contaminate surface waters worldwide. To what extent such pharmaceutical contamination accumulates and disperses over time in different compartments of aquatic food webs is not well known. In this study we assess to what extent five pharmaceuticals (diphenhydramine, oxazepam, trimethoprim, diclofenac, and hydroxyzine) are taken up by fish (European perch) and four aquatic invertebrate taxa (damselfly larvae, mayfly larvae, waterlouse, and ramshorn snail), by tracing their bioconcentrations over several months in a semi-natural large-scale (pond) system. The results suggest both significant differences among drugs in their capacity to bioaccumulate and differences among species in uptake. While no support for in situ uptake of diclofenac and trimethoprim was found, oxazepam, diphenhydramine, and hydroxyzine were detected in all analyzed species. Here, the highest bioaccumulation factor (tissue:water ratio) was found for hydroxyzine. In the food web, the highest concentrations were found in the benthic species ramshorn snail and waterlouse, indicating that bottom-living organism at lower trophic positions are the prime receivers of the pharmaceuticals. In general, concentrations in the biota decreased over time in response to decreasing water concentrations. However, two interesting exceptions to this trend were noted. First, mayfly larvae (primarily grazers) showed peak concentrations (a fourfold increase) of oxazepam, diphenhydramine, and hydroxyzine about 30 days after initial addition of pharmaceuticals. Second, perch (top-predator) showed an increase in concentrations of oxazepam throughout the study period. Our results show that drugs can remain bioavailable for aquatic organism for long time periods (weeks to months) and even re-enter the food web at a later time. As such, for an understanding of accumulation and dispersion of pharmaceuticals in aquatic food webs, detailed ecological knowledge is required.

  • 47.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Saaristo, Minna
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Australia. Department of Biosciences, Åbo Academy University, Turku, Finland..
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden..
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Martin, Jake M.
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Australia..
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wong, Bob B.M.
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Australia..
    Fish on steroids: Temperature dependent effects of 17β-trenbolone on anti-predator, risk-taking and exploratory behaviours2018Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Hormonal growth promoters (HGPs), widely used in beef cattle production globally, make their way into the environment as agricultural effluent—with potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. One HPG of particular concern is 17β-trenbolone, which is persistent in freshwater habitats and can affect the development, morphology and reproductive behaviors of aquatic organisms. Despite this, few studies have investigated impacts of 17β-trenbolone on non-reproductive behaviors linked to growth and survival, like boldness and predator avoidance. None consider the interaction between 17β-trenbolone and other environmental stressors, such as temperature, although environmental challenges confronting animals in the wild seldom, if ever, occur in isolation. Accordingly, this study aimed to test the interactive effects of trenbolone and temperature on organismal behavior. To do this, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were subjected to an environmentally-relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone (≤ 5.1 ± 0.5 ng/L) or freshwater (i.e. control) for 21 days under one of two temperatures (20 and 30°C), after which the predator escape, boldness and exploration behavior of fish were tested. Predator escape behavior was assayed by subjecting fish to a simulated predator strike, while boldness and exploration were assessed in a separate maze experiment. We found that trenbolone exposure increased boldness behavior. Interestingly, some behavioural effects of trenbolone depended on temperature, sex, or both. Specifically, significant effects of trenbolone on male predator escape behavior were only noted at 30°C, with males becoming less reactive to the simulated threat. Further, in the maze experiment, trenbolone-exposed fish had a higher activity and explored the maze faster than control fish, but only at 20°C. We conclude that field detected concentrations of 17β-trenbolone can impact ecologically important behaviors of fish, and such effects can be temperature dependent. Such findings underscore the importance of considering the potentially interactive effects of other environmental stressors when investigating behavioural effects of environmental contaminants.

  • 48.
    McCallum, Erin S.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Krutzelmann, Emily
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Balshine, Sigal
    Exposure to wastewater effluent affects fish behaviour and tissue-specific uptake of pharmaceuticals2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 605-606, s. 578-588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) are increasingly being reported in wastewater effluents and surface waters around the world. The presence of these products, designed to modulate human physiology and behaviour, has created concern over whether PhACs similarly affect aquatic organisms. Though laboratory studies are beginning to address the effects of individual PhACs on fish behaviour, few studies have assessed the effects of exposure to complex, realistic wastewater effluents on fish behaviour. In this study, we exposed a wild, invasive fish species—the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)—to treated wastewater effluent (0%, 50% or 100% effluent dilutions) for 28 days. We then determined the impact of exposure on fish aggression, an important behaviour for territory acquisition and defense. We found that exposure to 100% wastewater effluent reduced the number of aggressive acts that round goby performed. We complimented our behavioural assay with measures of pharmaceutical uptake in fish tissues. We detected 11 of 93 pharmaceutical compounds that we tested for in round goby tissues, and we found that concentration was greatest in the brain followed by plasma, then gonads, then liver, and muscle. Fish exposed to 50% and 100% effluent had higher tissue concentrations of pharmaceuticals and concentrated a greater number of pharmaceutical compounds compare to control fish exposed to no (0%) effluent. Exposed fish also showed increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver tissue, suggesting that fish were exposed to planar halogenated/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PHHs/PAHs) in the wastewater effluent. Our findings suggest that fish in effluent-dominated systems may have altered behaviours and greater tissue concentration of PhACs. Moreover, our results underscore the importance of characterizing exposure to multiple pollutants, and support using behaviour as a sensitive tool for assessing animal responses to complex contaminant mixtures, like wastewater effluent.

  • 49.
    McCallum, Erin S.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Stability and uptake of methylphenidate and ritalinic acid in nine-spine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and water louse (Asellus aquaticus)2019Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, nr 9, s. 9371-9378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of human pharmaceuticals in the environment has garnered significant research attention because these compounds may exert therapeutic effects on exposed wildlife. Yet, for many compounds, there is still little research documenting their stability in the water column and uptake in organism tissues. Here, we measured the uptake and stability of methylphenidate (Ritalin (R), a frequently prescribed central nervous system stimulant) and its primary metabolite, ritalinic acid, in (1) water only or (2) with nine-spine stickleback and water louse. Methylphenidate degraded to ritalinic acid in both studies faster at a higher temperature (20 degrees C versus 10 degrees C), with concentrations of ritalinic acid surpassing methylphenidate after 48-100 h, depending on temperature. The concentration of methylphenidate in stickleback was highest at the first sampling point (60 min), while the concentration in water louse tissues reached comparatively higher levels and peaked after similar to 6 days. Neither stickleback nor water louse took up ritalinic acid in tissues despite being present in the water column. Our findings provide valuable data for use in future risk assessment of methylphenidate and will aid in the design of studies aimed at measuring any ecotoxicological effects on, for example, the behaviour or physiology of aquatic organisms.

  • 50.
    McCallum, Erin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Alanärä, Anders
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Investigating tissue bioconcentration and the behavioural effects of two pharmaceutical pollutants on sea trout (Salmo trutta) in the laboratory and field2019Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 207, s. 170-178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals entering aquatic ecosystems via wastewater effluents are of increasing concern for wild animals. Because some pharmaceuticals are designed to modulate human behaviour, measuring the impacts of exposure to pharmaceuticals on fish behaviour has become a valuable endpoint. While laboratory studies have shown that pharmaceuticals can affect fish behaviour, there is a lack of understanding if behaviour is similarly affected in natural environments. Here, we exposed sea trout (Salmo trutta) smolts to two concentrations of two pharmaceutical pollutants often detected in surface waters: temazepam (a benzodiazepine, anxiolytic) or irbesartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker, anti-hypertensive). We tested the hypothesis that changes to behavioural traits (anxiety and activity) measured in laboratory trials following exposure are predictive of behaviour in the natural environment (downstream migration). Measures of anxiety and activity in the laboratory assay did not vary with temazepam treatment, but temazepam-exposed fish began migrating faster in the field. Activity in the laboratory assay did predict overall migration speed in the field. In contrast to temazepam, we found that irbesartan exposure did not affect behaviour in the laboratory, field, or the relationship between the two end-points. However, irbesartan was also not readily taken up into fish tissue (i.e. below detection levels in the muscle tissue), while temazepam bioconcentrated (bioconcentration factor 7.68) rapidly (t(1/2) < 24 h). Our findings add to a growing literature showing that benzodiazepine pollutants can modulate fish behaviour and that laboratory assays may be less sensitive at detecting the effects of pollutants compared to measuring effects in natural settings. Therefore, we underscore the importance of measuring behavioural effects in the natural environment.

12 1 - 50 av 68
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf