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  • 1.
    Bamford, R. A.
    et al.
    RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom.
    Kellett, B.
    RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom.
    Bradford, W. J.
    RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom.
    Norberg, Carol
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 812, SE-981 28 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Thornton, A.
    York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom.
    Gibson, K. J.
    York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom.
    Crawford, I. A.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Birkbeck College, London, United Kingdom.
    Silva, L.
    Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-00, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Gargate, L.
    Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-00, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Bingham, Ruth
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom and Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom.
    Minimagnetospheres above the lunar surface and the formation of lunar swirls2012Ingår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 109, nr 8, s. 081101-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will present the in-situ satellite data, theory and laboratory validation that show how small scale collisionless shocks and mini-magnetospheres can form on the electron inertial scale length. The resulting retardation and deflection of the solar wind ions could be responsible for the unusual "lunar swirl" patterns seen on the surface of the Moon.

  • 2. Bamford, R.
    et al.
    Gibson, K. J.
    Thornton, A. J.
    Bradford, J.
    Bingham, R
    Gargate, L.
    Silva, L. O.
    Fonseca, R. A.
    Hapgood, M.
    Norberg, Carol
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Todd, T.
    Stamper, R.
    Interaction of a flowing plasma with a dipole magnetic field: measurements and modelling of a diamagnetic cavity relevant to spacecraft protection2008Ingår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled FusionArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Norberg, Carol
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Human Spaceflight and Exploration2013Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4.
    Norberg, Carol
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Rymdvetenskap.
    Recent developments in space education in Kiruna, Sweden2005Ingår i: 17th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, Paris: European Space Agency, 2005, s. 61-62Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The two most northern universities in Sweden, Lulea University of Technology and Umea University have formed a joint Department of Space Science located in Kiruna. The department is responsible for programmes covering a wide spectrum, practically oriented and more theoretical, leading to Bachelor's and Master's degrees in space engineering. In addition the universities have graduate education in space and atmospheric physics and space technology. Recent developments include the award by the European Commission of funding for an Erasmus Mundus Space Master Course, which is a cooperative project with five other European universities and an expansion of the department's summer programme to include a course in manned space flight.

  • 5.
    Norberg, Carol
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Fysik.
    Short Courses at University level as an Inspiration Form2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the 59th International Astronautical Congress, Glascow, Scotland, 29 Sept 3 Oct 2008, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Norberg, Carol
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Fysik.
    Weighton, D.
    Space Education in Kiruna, Sweden2006Ingår i: Proceedings of a conference on Space Tourism: From Lofty Dreams to Commercial Reality, 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Vaverka, Jakub
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. National I nstitute of Polar Research, Tachikawa, Japan; Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Nakamura, Takuji
    Kero, Johan
    Mann, Ingrid
    De Spiegeleer, Alexandre
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Norberg, Carol
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics,Kiruna, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics,Kiruna, Sweden.
    Comparison of Dust Impact and Solitary Wave Signatures Detected by Multiple Electric Field Antennas Onboard the MMS Spacecraft2018Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, nr 8, s. 6119-6129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust impact detection by electric field instruments is a relatively new method. However, the influence of dust impacts on electric field measurements is not completely understood and explained. A better understanding is very important for reliable dust impact identification, especially in environments with low dust impact rate. Using data from Earth-orbiting Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) spacecraft, we present a study of various pulses detected simultaneously by multiple electric field antennas in the monopole (probe-to-spacecraft potential measurement) and dipole (probe-to-probe potential measurement) configurations. The study includes data obtained during an impact of a millimeter-sized object. We show that the identification of dust impacts by a single antenna is a very challenging issue in environments where solitary waves are commonly present and that some pulses can be easily misinterpreted as dust impacts. We used data from multiple antennas to distinguish between changes in the spacecraft potential (dust impact) and structures in the ambient plasma or electric field. Our results indicate that an impact cloud is in some cases able to influence the potential of the electric field antenna during its expansion.

  • 8.
    Vaverka, Jakub
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Kero, Johan
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Mann, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    De Spiegeleer, Alexandre
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Norberg, Carol
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Detection of EMPs generated by meteoroid impacts on the MMS spacecraft and problems with signal interpretation2017Ingår i: 2017 XXXIInd General Assembly and Scientific Symposium of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI GASS), IEEE, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Signatures of hypervelocity dust impacts detected by electric field instruments are still not completely understood. We have used the electric field instrument onboard one of the MMS spacecraft orbiting the Earth since 2015 to study various pulses in the measured electric field detected simultaneously by multiple antennas. This unique instrument allows a detailed investigation of registered waveforms. The preliminary results shown that the solitary waves can generate similar pulses as dust impacts and detected pulses can easily by misinterpreted when only one antenna is used.

  • 9.
    Vaverka, Jakub
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Kero, Johan
    Mann, Ingrid
    De Spiegeleer, Alexandre
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Norberg, Carol
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Detection of meteoroid hypervelocity impacts on the Cluster spacecraft: First results2017Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, nr 6, s. 6485-6494Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first study of dust impact events on one of the Earth-orbiting Cluster satellites. The events were identified in the measurements of the wide band data (WBD) instrument on board the satellite operating in monopole configuration. Since 2009 the instrument is operating in this configuration due to the loss of three electric probes and is therefore measuring the potential between the only operating antenna and the spacecraft body. Our study shows that the WBD instrument on Cluster 1 is able to detect pulses generated by dust impacts and discusses four such events. The presence of instrumental effects, intensive natural waves, noncontinuous sampling modes, and the automatic gain control complicates this detection. Due to all these features, we conclude that the Cluster spacecraft are not ideal for dust impact studies. We show that the duration and amplitudes of the pulses recorded by Cluster are similar to pulses detected by STEREO, and the shape of the pulses can be described with the model of the recollection of impact cloud electrons by the positively charged spacecraft. We estimate that the detected impacts were generated by micron-sized grains with velocities in the order of tens of km/s.

  • 10.
    Vaverka, Jakub
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Kero, Johan
    Mann, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    De Spiegeleer, Alexandre
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Norberg, Carol
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Potential of Earth Orbiting Spacecraft Influenced by Meteoroid Hypervelocity Impacts2017Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, ISSN 0093-3813, E-ISSN 1939-9375, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 2048-2055Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of hypervelocity impacts on a spacecraft body using electric field instruments has been established as a new method for monitoring of dust grains in our solar system. Voyager, WIND, Cassini, and STEREO spacecraft have shown that this technique can be a complementary method to conventional dust detectors. This approach uses fast short time changes in the spacecraft potential generated by hypervelocity dust impacts, which can be detected by monopole electric field instruments as a pulse in the measured electric field. The shape and the duration of the pulse strongly depend on parameters of the ambient plasma environment. This fact is very important for Earth orbiting spacecraft crossing various regions of the Earth's magnetosphere where the concentration and the temperature of plasma particles change significantly. We present the numerical simulations of spacecraft charging focused on changes in the spacecraft potential generated by dust impacts in various locations of the Earth's magnetosphere. We show that identical dust impacts generate significantly larger pulses in regions with lower electron density. We discuss the influence of the photoelectron distribution for dust impact detections showing that a small amount of energetic photoelectrons significantly increases the potential of the spacecraft body and the pulse duration. We also show that the active spacecraft potential control (ASPOC) instrument onboard the cluster spacecraft strongly reduces the amplitude and the duration of the pulse resulting in difficulties of dust detection when ASPOC is ON. Simulation of dust impacts is compared with pulses detected by the Earth orbiting cluster spacecraft in the last part of Section III.

  • 11.
    Vaverka, Jakub
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. e Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Kero, Johan
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Mann, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    De Spiegeleer, Alexandre
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Norberg, Carol
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Spacecraft potential influenced by meteoroid hypervelocity impacts2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of hypervelocity impacts on a spacecraft body using electric field instruments has been established as a new method for monitoring of dust grains in our solar system. Voyager, WIND, Cassini, and STEREO spacecraft have shown that this technique can be a complementary method to conventional dust detectors. This approach uses fast short time changes in the spacecraft potential generated by hypervelocity dust impacts, which can be detected by monopole electric field instruments as a pulse in the measured electric field. The shape and the duration of the pulse strongly depend on parameters of the ambient plasma environment. This fact is very important for Earth orbiting spacecraft crossing various regions of the Earth's magnetosphere where the concentration and the temperature of plasma particles change significantly. We present the numerical simulations of spacecraft charging focused on changes in the spacecraft potential generated by dust impacts in various locations of the Earth's magnetosphere. We show that identical dust impacts generate significantly larger pulses in regions with lower electron density. We discuss the influence of the photoelectron distribution for dust impact detections showing that a small amount of energetic photoelectrons significantly increases the potential of the spacecraft body and the pulse duration. We also show that the active spacecraft potential control (ASPOC) instrument onboard the cluster spacecraft strongly reduces the amplitude and the duration of the pulse resulting in difficulties of dust detection when ASPOC is ON. Simulation of dust impacts is compared with pulses detected by the Earth orbiting cluster spacecraft in the last part of Section III.

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