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  • 1. Andersson, Jon
    et al.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hjalten, Joakim
    Short-term response to stump harvesting by the ground flora in boreal clearcuts2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 239-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied short-term ground vegetation responses to stump harvesting by recording the occurrence of all species of bryophytes, vascular plants and the cover of soil disturbance on 20 clearcuts in the Southern and Middle Boreal zone in northern Scandinavia. All 20 clearcuts were slash-harvested and scarified and 10 of the clearcuts were also stump-harvested. The added effect of stump harvesting was assessed by comparing stump-harvested clearcuts with non-stump-harvested clearcuts. We tested whether stump harvesting causes extra soil disturbance compared to conventional forestry and if stump harvesting is affecting the assemblage, species richness and occurrence of individual species of vascular plants and bryophytes in boreal clearcuts. Our results revealed that stump harvesting causes an increase in the area of disturbed soil surface compared to conventional harvesting. Four of the most commonly occurring plant species in this area were significantly affected by stump harvesting, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea had a median occurrence of only 20% of that in non-stump-harvested clearcuts. The large impact on some plant species from a relatively modest increase of soil disturbance caused by stump harvesting suggest that stumps, with their slightly elevated bases, contributes to the survival of certain species on clearcuts.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jon
    et al.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Long-term effects of stump harvesting and landscape composition on beetle assemblages in the hemiboreal forest of Sweden.2012In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 271, p. 75-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on the effects of stump harvesting on forest biodiversity are scarce and studies on long-term effects are until now non-existent. We evaluated such long-term effects by sampling beetles at 14 clear-cuts with and 14 clear-cuts without stump harvesting; harvesting had been done 21–28 years before this study. By using window traps, we collected 6429 individuals belonging to 432 species in 55 taxonomic families. To control for potentially confounding effects of among-site variations in landscape setting we also assessed forest age and volume of deciduous trees within the forest surrounding each site. The long-term effects from harvesting on beetle abundance, species richness and species composition was generally small in comparison to the influence of the characteristics of the surrounding forests. The species richness of the beetle family Latridiidae and the functional group fungivores appeared, however, to be negatively affected by the previous stump harvesting, while several other groups showed strong associations to the characteristics of the surrounding forest. We found little support for considerable long-term effects of stump harvesting on beetles flying in the stands. Long-term effects of stump harvesting at the landscape scale accumulated from harvest of many localities may still be severe, and should be the subject of future studies.

  • 3. Andersson, Jon
    et al.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wood-Inhabiting Beetles in Low Stumps, High Stumps and Logs on Boreal Clear-Cuts: Implications for Dead Wood Management2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0118896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demand for biofuels from logging residues require serious attention on the importance of dead wood substrates on clear-cuts for the many forestry-intolerant saproxylic (wood-inhabiting) species. In particular, the emerging harvest of low stumps motivates further study of these substrates. On ten clear-cuts we compared the species richness, abundance and species composition of saproxylic beetles hatching from four to nine year old low stumps, high stumps and logs of Norway spruce. By using emergence traps we collected a total of 2,670 saproxylic beetles among 195 species during the summers of 2006, 2007 and 2009. We found that the species assemblages differed significantly between high stumps and logs all three years. The species assemblages of low stumps, on the other hand, were intermediate to those found in logs and high stumps. There were also significant difference in species richness between the three examined years, and we found significant effect of substrate type on richness of predators and fungivores. As shown in previous studies of low stumps on clear-cuts they can sustain large numbers of different saproxylic beetles, including red-listed species. Our study does, in addition to this fact, highlight a possible problem in creating just one type of substrate as a tool for conservation in forestry. Species assemblages in high stumps did not differ significantly from those found in low stumps. Instead logs, which constitute a scarcer substrate type on clear-cuts, provided habitat for a more distinct assemblage of saproxylic species than high stumps. It can therefore be questioned whether high stumps are an optimal tool for nature conservation in clear-cutting forestry. Our results also indicate that low stumps constitute an equally important substrate as high stumps and logs, and we therefore suggest that stump harvesting is done after carefully evaluating measures to provide habitat for saproxylic organisms.

  • 4.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Responses of bryophytes to wood-ash recycling are related to their phylogeny and pH ecology2012In: Perspectives in plant ecology, evolution and systematics, ISSN 1433-8319, E-ISSN 1618-0437, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ash generated by the combustion of solid biofuels is increasingly being returned to the fuel’s place of origin (mostly forests). In this way, nutrient depletion and acidification caused by biofuel harvest is counteracted and a waste problem is solved. Concerns about the potential negative effects of ash spreading on forest biodiversity (in particular mosses) have been raised, but little is known. I studied the effects of the application of two types of ash (the most used self-hardened crushed ash including fine particles and a less reactive type, pellets without fine particles) on 28 moss species and 17 liverwort species. In two field experiments, one on transplants of ground-living species and one on wood-inhabiting species in situ, I measured the response during the first two months after ash application. Visible damage (discoloration from green to brown) was assessed for all species and the growth response was measured for 24 ground-living species. The responses to crushed ash were clearly related to the species’ pH ecology and phylogenetic position. The growth of bryophytes associated with acidic conditions (pooled data from 10 species) or considered as being indifferent to pH (4 species) was negatively affected, whereas there was no effect on the growth of bryophytes of non-acidic habitats (10 species). The connection to phylogeny was even clearer. Most taxa responded negatively, but transplants from the moss order Bryales (4 species) and the family Brachytheciaceae (2 species; order Hypnales) grew better when treated with ash. The genera with the clearest negative responses were Sphagnum mosses (5 species), Tetraphis mosses (1 species), Dicranum mosses (6 species), and Barbilophozia liverworts (2 species). The four red-listed wood-inhabiting liverworts studied were not significantly damaged. Concerning ash type, pellets caused smaller effects than crushed ash, both on the positive and negative side. The results show that responses to ash recycling of the bryophyte species included in this study are predictable from their phylogenetic position and/or pH ecology. Further studies are needed to determine the generality of these results and to sort out if phylogeny or current relationship to pH is the primary determinant of the response.

  • 5.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Slow recovery of bryophyte assemblages in middle-aged boreal forests regrown after clear-cutting2015In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 191, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clear-cutting followed by even-aged forestry is transforming forests around the globe. There is growing concern that considerable parts of the native forest biodiversity will not be able to re-colonize these new stands before the next clear-cutting. The development of species assemblages during the full forestry rotation period must be understood in order to assess the need for management adaptations and to get a basis for their design. Knowledge is accumulating from studies of permanent plots before and shortly after clear-cutting, but for later stages only comparative studies have been published (space-for-time substitutions). In this study, I combined this comparative approach with direct monitoring of the pace of assemblage recovery in boreal stands regrown after clear-cutting half a century ago (treatment stands). I found little re-colonization in assemblages of mosses and liverworts between an initial survey to a resurvey 15 years later in 0.1-ha permanent plots of upland and stream-side forest. The assemblages of the treatment stands were still significantly different from those in matched old control forests that had never been clear-cut. The treatment stands had significantly fewer species of liverworts and of the substrate-based species subgroup "wood or bark", and the six most negatively affected species were liverworts more or less specialized to this substrate. The only significant recovery recorded over the 15 years was for the "rocks or boulders" subgroup in upland stands, probably related to a shadier and moister climate resulting from canopy development. During the inter-survey period, some of the upland treatment stands were thinned. All disfavored subgroups recovered less in thinned than in not thinned upland stands, most likely as a result of a return to lighter and drier microclimates and direct mechanical disturbance. The incomplete and slow recovery halfway into the forestry rotation period calls for action. Adaptation of thinning for conservation has rarely been implemented in boreal forest management, but has a large potential. To facilitate re-colonization by disfavored liverworts and mosses growing on wood or bark and/or under shaded and moist conditions, I suggest retention of unlogged patches during thinning and addition of coarse deadwood on the ground in these patches. Such measures would also favor re-colonization of other late-successional species.

  • 6.
    Dynesius, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gibb, Heloise
    Department of Zoology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Surface covering of downed logs: Drivers of a neglected process in dead wood ecology2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 10, p. e13237-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many species use coarse woody debris (CWD) and are disadvantaged by the forestry-induced loss of this resource. A neglected process affecting CWD is the covering of the surfaces of downed logs caused by sinking into the ground (increasing soil contact, mostly covering the underside of the log), and dense overgrowth by ground vegetation. Such cover is likely to profoundly influence the quality and accessibility of CWD for wood-inhabiting organisms, but the factors affecting covering are largely unknown. In a five-year experiment we determined predictors of covering rate of fresh logs in boreal forests and clear-cuts. Logs with branches were little covered because they had low longitudinal ground contact. For branchless logs, longitudinal ground contact was most strongly related to estimated peat depth (positive relation). The strongest predictor for total cover of branchless logs was longitudinal ground contact. To evaluate the effect on cover of factors other than longitudinal ground contact, we separately analyzed data from only those log sections that were in contact with the ground. Four factors were prominent predictors of percentage cover of such log sections: estimated peat depth, canopy shade (both increasing cover), potential solar radiation calculated from slope and slope aspect, and diameter of the log (both reducing cover). Peat increased cover directly through its low resistance, which allowed logs to sink and soil contact to increase. High moisture and low temperatures in pole-ward facing slopes and under a canopy favor peat formation through lowered decomposition and enhanced growth of peat-forming mosses, which also proved to rapidly overgrow logs. We found that in some boreal forests, peat and fast-growing mosses can rapidly cover logs lying on the ground. When actively introducing CWD for conservation purposes, we recommend that such rapid covering is avoided, thereby most likely improving the CWD’s longevity as habitat for many species.

  • 7.
    Dynesius, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Resilience of bryophyte communities to clear-cutting of boreal stream-side forests2007In: Biological Conservation, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 423-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We asked if short-term changes in bryophyte communities in response to clear-cutting of boreal stream-side forests are persistent and whether species with low resilience may survive in narrow riparian buffer strips. To assess short-term changes and the function of buffer strips we compared the bryophyte community in permanent 0.1 ha plots of mature forest before and after clear-cutting. Persistent changes were inferred by pair-wise comparisons of 0.1 ha plots of mature forests with carefully matched 0.1 ha plots in stands established after clear-cutting 30–50 years earlier. Total bryophyte species richness did not respond significantly to clear-cutting. However, richness changed in many subgroups defined by phylogenetic, habitat or substrate affinity. Numbers of both liverwort and forest species were significantly reduced on clear-cuts and these differences remained significant, although smaller, 30–50 years after clear-cutting. In contrast, there were short-term increases in richness of mosses and of species growing on disturbed mineral soil, but these species numbers returned to mature-forest levels in the young stands. Number of species associated with convex substrates, especially woody debris species, was strongly reduced by clear-cutting and showed no significant recovery after 30–50 years. Hence, most of the negative effects of clear-cutting on bryophyte species persist almost halfway into the next forestry rotation period. However, narrow buffer strips (10 m on each side) prevented most of the short-term extirpations of species with low resilience on clear-cuts. Buffer strips may thus be effective in conserving the bryophyte flora of stream-side forests, but their long-term function as refugia and their contribution to population recovery in other parts of the landscape need further evaluation.

  • 8.
    Dynesius, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Stockholms universitet, Botaniska institutionen.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Botaniska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    High resilience of bryophyte assemblages in streamside compared to upland forests2009In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 90, no 4, p. 1042-1054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscape heterogeneity causes spatial variation in disturbance regimes and resilience. We asked whether the resilience of bryophyte (liverwort and moss) assemblages to clear-cutting differs between streamside and upland boreal forests in northern Sweden. We hypothesized that bryophyte survival and recolonization rates are higher in streamside areas, thus raising resilience. Conversely, disturbance-intolerant but also invading species should be more frequent here, potentially reducing resilience. In each of 18 sites, we compared two 0.1-ha plots (one streamside and one upland) located in old forest that had never been clear-cut with two matching plots in young stands established after clear-cutting of old forests 30-50 years earlier. We used the magnitude of the difference in assemblages between old and young stands as a measure of change and, therefore, resilience (large difference implying low resilience). Species assemblages were more resilient in streamside than in upland forests. Species composition changed significantly in upland but not in streamside forests. Reductions in species richness were more pronounced in upland forests for total richness and for eight subgroups of species. Two results indicated lower survival/recolonization in upland forests: (1) species had a stronger association with old stands in upland areas, and (2) among species present in both the old streamside and old upland plot in a site, fewer appeared in the young upland than in the corresponding streamside plot. Simultaneously, a higher proportion of species invaded streamside areas; 40 of the 262 species encountered in streamside forests increased their occupancy by two or more sites compared to only two of 134 species in uplands. We suggest that in boreal forests spatial variation in resilience of assemblages of forest organisms intolerant of canopy removal is related to factors governed mainly by topography. More generally, we argue that landscape-scale variation in resilience of assemblages is influenced by spatial variation in (1) stress and resource availability, (2) number of  disturbance intolerant species, and (3) magnitude of environmental changes brought about by a disturbance with a specific intensity. We also suggest that rapid recovery in the short term does not necessarily imply higher long-term ability to return to the pre-disturbance state.

  • 9.
    Dynesius, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Evolutionary consequences of changes in species geographical distributions driven by Milankovitch climate oscillations2000In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 97, p. 9115-9120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We suggest Milankovitch climate oscillations as a common cause for geographical patterns in species diversity, species' range sizes, polyploidy, and the degree of specialization and dispersability of organisms. Periodical changes in the orbit of the Earth cause climatic changes termed Milankovitch oscillations, leading to large changes in the size and location of species' geographical distributions. We name these recurrent changes ‘‘orbitally forced species' range dynamics'' (ORD). The magnitude of ORD varies in space and time. ORD decreases gradual speciation (attained by gradual changes over many generations), increases range sizes and the proportions of species formed by polyploidy and other ‘‘abrupt'' mechanisms, selects against specialization, and favor dispersability. Large ORD produces species prone neither to extinction nor gradual speciation. ORD increases with latitude. This produces latitudinal patterns, among them the gradient in species diversity and species' range sizes (Rapoport's rule). Differential ORD and its evolutionary consequences call for new conservation strategies on the regional to global scale.

  • 10.
    Dynesius, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persistence of within-species lineages: a neglected control of speciation rates2014In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 923-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework distinguishing three principal controls of speciation rate: rate of splitting, level of persistence, and length of speciation duration. We contend that discussions on diversification become clearer in the light of this framework, because speciation rate variation could be attributed to any of these controls. In particular, we claim that the role of persistence of within-species lineages in controlling speciation rates has been greatly underappreciated. More emphasis on the persistence control would change expectations of the role of several biological traits and environmental factors, because they may drive speciationrate in one direction through the persistence control and in the opposite direction through the other two controls. Traits and environments have been little studied regarding their influence on speciation rate through the persistence control, with climatic fluctuations being a relatively well-studied exception. Considering the recent advances in genomic and phylogenetic analysis, we think that the time is ripe for applying the framework in empirical research. Variation among clades and areas (and thus among traits and environments) in the importance of the three rate controls could be addressed for example by dating splitting events, detecting within-species lineages, and scanning genomes for evidence of divergent selection.

  • 11.
    Dynesius, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Johansson, Mats E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Intercontinental similarities in riparian-plant diversity and sensitivity to river regulation2004In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 14, p. 173-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We asked whether assemblages of species with separate evolutionary histories differed in their response to similar human interventions. We assessed this by comparing the response of riparian plant communities to river regulation on two different continents. We compared free-flowing and regulated rivers between boreal parts of North America (Alberta and British Columbia) and Europe (Sweden), using a standardized sampling protocol and the same field staff on both continents. Although the two regions shared few species, both riparian plant-species diversity along free-flowing rivers and the response to different kinds of flow regulation were similar between the continents. The number of riparian-plant species and their amount of cover differed among types of water-level regime, but the continental affiliation of a river-margin site did not statistically explain any of the variation. Within continents, the local flora of the regulated river-margin sites was largely similar in species composition to the free-flowing ones, but the sites along storage reservoirs were more species-poor. The similarity in the response to regulation between the continents suggests that general guidelines for rehabilitation of degraded boreal rivers are a realistic goal. The number of species and genera, plant cover, and species numbers in most trait groups (classified according to growth form and life span) were similar between free-flowing river margins in Europe and North America. Moreover, the regional native species pools of northern Sweden and Alberta were similar in size and composition of species groups, despite the fact that only 27% of the species in Alberta were found in northern Sweden. This is presumably because the floras share a common Tertiary origin and because the regions have had largely similar late-Tertiary and Quaternary histories. The most pronounced difference between the continents was that we found no exotic species on the 183 Swedish river-margin sites, whereas 9% of the species found in all 24 North American plots taken together were exotics. All North American exotics found have occurred in Europe since prehistoric times, and the difference in exotic richness most likely reflects a difference in the number of species humans have transferred from one continent to another, rather than a difference in invasibility between the regions.

  • 12.
    Dynesius, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Zinko, U
    Species richness correlations among primary producers in boreal forests2006In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 12, p. 703-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Close correlations in species numbers may make it possible to indirectly assess the species richness of difficult taxonomic groups by investigating indicator groups, for which data are more easily collected. We asked if species numbers correlate among the four dominating groups of primary producers in boreal forests (liverworts, macrolichens, mosses, and vascular plants) and if substrate affiliation of species (ground vs. other substrates), sample plot size (0.01-1000 m2), and stand age (young vs. old) influence correlation strength. We used three sets of study plots from northern Sweden each including wide ranges of species richness. Although there are large differences in the ecophysiology and substrate use of vascular plants and the two bryophyte groups (mosses and liverworts), we found strong positive correlations among them not previously reported from boreal forests. In contrast, no correlation in total species richness was found between macrolichens and the two bryophyte groups, despite large overlaps in their ecology. We suggest that the positive correlations among land plants (liverworts, mosses, and vascular plants) are linked to positive relationships between site moisture and species number for all three groups. In contrast, total species number of macrolichens has not been shown to be strongly associated with moisture. However, ground-living lichens and mosses correlated negatively in old forests. This may relate to the inability of macrolichens to exploit shaded and wet old forest ground, a habitat that is used by many moss species. Furthermore, lichens and mosses of 'other substrates' correlated positively in old forests, probably because the amount of boulders was positively related to species richness in both groups. Generally, correlations became stronger with increasing plot size, whereas stand age had relatively little influence. We conclude that vascular plants could be used as an indicator group for species richness of mosses and liverworts in boreal landscapes.

  • 13.
    Dynesius, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Åström, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Microclimatic buffering by logging residues and forest edges reduces clear-cutting impacts on forest bryophytes2008In: Applied Vegetation Science, ISSN 1402-2001, E-ISSN 1654-109X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 345-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: The practice of extracting logging residues after clear-cutting for bioenergy purposes is spreading. Logging residues constitute a shelter in clear-cut areas and therefore concerns have been expressed that their removal could make the ground and its vegetation more exposed to extreme micro¬climatic conditions. We asked whether logging residues and forest edges can protect ground-dwelling forest bryophytes from fatal microclimate events following clear-cutting.

    Location: Boreal forests of central Sweden.

    Methods: Using transplants of eight forest floor bryophyte species we experimentally analysed the sheltering effect (less solar radiation and less wind) of logging residues and forest edges in seven clear-cut areas. Transplants were placed in two contrasting positions in each area; near a north-facing forest edge and in the centre of the clear-cut area. In each position, half of the transplants were covered by a layer of spruce branches and the other half was left uncovered. We estimated proportion of apparently living shoots (apparent vitality) and measured radial growth of transplants during one growing season.

    Results: Position in the clear-cut area, but not cover of spruce branches, clearly influenced radial growth. Vitality scores were higher among transplants covered with branches and the lowest apparent vitality was observed in uncovered transplants in the middle of clear-cut areas. The change in area of apparently liv¬ing shoots during the course of the experiment (growth minus mortality) was unaffected by branch cover close to the edge but positively affected in the centre of the clear-cut area. In general, the effect of branch cover on bryophytes was higher in the centre of clear-cut areas. Here, climatic measurements showed that branch cover buffers during periods of extreme microclimates.

    Conclusions: Extraction of logging residues after clear-felling may reduce the survival of some ground-dwelling forest organisms. The additional sheltering provided by branches was unimportant close to forest edges. We suggest smaller clear-cut areas, green-tree retention and other ways to make logged areas shadier and less windy to mitigate the reduced shelter caused by harvest of logging residues.

  • 14. Hjältén, J.
    et al.
    Hägglund, R.
    Löfroth, T.
    Roberge, J-M
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Olsson, J.
    Forest restoration by burning and gap cutting of voluntary set-asides yield distinct immediate effects on saproxylic beetles2017In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 1623-1640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the importance of restoring natural forest disturbance regimes and habitat structures for biodiversity is widely recognized. We evaluated the immediate effects of two restoration methods on wood-inhabiting (saproxylic) beetles in boreal forest voluntary set-asides. We used a before-after control-impact experimental set-up in 15 set-asides; each assigned to one of three treatments: (1) restoration burning, (2) gap cutting and (3) no-treatment reference stands. Before treatment, abundance, species richness and assemblage composition of trapped beetles did not differ significantly among treatments. Burning resulted in a significant change in assemblage composition and increased species richness and abundance compared to reference stands. As predicted, saproxylic species known to be fire favoured increased dramatically after burning. The immediate response shows that, initially, fire favoured species are attracted from the surrounding landscape and not produced on site. Gap cutting increased the abundance of cambium consumers but had no significant effect on total species richness or assemblage composition of saproxylic beetles. The stronger effect of burning compared to gap cutting on saproxylic assemblages is probably due to the very specific conditions created by fires that attracts many disturbance-dependent species, but that at the same time disfavour some disturbance-sensitive species. By contrast, gap cutting maintained assemblage composition, increased abundances and is likely to increase species richness in the years to follow, due to elevated level of dead wood. The restoration methods applied in this study may prove particularly useful, partly because of positive effect on saproxylic beetles, but also due to the cost-efficiency of the measures; the voluntary set-asides were already established and the restoration costs fully covered by revenue from the extracted timber.

  • 15. Hudson, Lawrence N.
    et al.
    Newbold, Tim
    Contu, Sara
    Hill, Samantha L. L.
    Lysenko, Igor
    De Palma, Adriana
    Phillips, Helen R. P.
    Alhusseini, Tamera I.
    Bedford, Felicity E.
    Bennett, Dominic J.
    Booth, Hollie
    Burton, Victoria J.
    Chng, Charlotte W. T.
    Choimes, Argyrios
    Correia, David L. P.
    Day, Julie
    Echeverria-Londono, Susy
    Emerson, Susan R.
    Gao, Di
    Garon, Morgan
    Harrison, Michelle L. K.
    Ingram, Daniel J.
    Jung, Martin
    Kemp, Victoria
    Kirkpatrick, Lucinda
    Martin, Callum D.
    Pan, Yuan
    Pask-Hale, Gwilym D.
    Pynegar, Edwin L.
    Robinson, Alexandra N.
    Sanchez-Ortiz, Katia
    Senior, Rebecca A.
    Simmons, Benno I.
    White, Hannah J.
    Zhang, Hanbin
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    Aizen, Marcelo A.
    Albertos, Belen
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    Bros, Vicenc
    Brunet, Jorg
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    Cabra-Garcia, Jimmy
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    Cagle, Nicolette L.
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    Cameron, Sydney A.
    Cancello, Eliana M.
    Caparros, Rut
    Cardoso, Pedro
    Carpenter, Dan
    Carrijo, Tiago F.
    Carvalho, Anelena L.
    Cassano, Camila R.
    Castro, Helena
    Castro-Luna, Alejandro A.
    Cerda, Rolando B.
    Cerezo, Alexis
    Chapman, Kim Alan
    Chauvat, Matthieu
    Christensen, Morten
    Clarke, Francis M.
    Cleary, Daniel F. R.
    Colombo, Giorgio
    Connop, Stuart P.
    Craig, Michael D.
    Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo
    Cunningham, Saul A.
    D'Aniello, Biagio
    D'Cruze, Neil
    da Silva, Pedro Giovani
    Dallimer, Martin
    Danquah, Emmanuel
    Darvill, Ben
    Dauber, Jens
    Davis, Adrian L. V.
    Dawson, Jeff
    de Sassi, Claudio
    de Thoisy, Benoit
    Deheuvels, Olivier
    Dejean, Alain
    Devineau, Jean-Louis
    Diekoetter, Tim
    Dolia, Jignasu V.
    Dominguez, Erwin
    Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth
    Dorn, Silvia
    Draper, Isabel
    Dreber, Niels
    Dumont, Bertrand
    Dures, Simon G.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Edenius, Lars
    Eggleton, Paul
    Eigenbrod, Felix
    Elek, Zoltan
    Entling, Martin H.
    Esler, Karen J.
    De Lima, Ricardo F.
    Faruk, Aisyah
    Farwig, Nina
    Fayle, Tom M.
    Felicioli, Antonio
    Felton, Annika M.
    Fensham, Roderick J.
    Fernandez, Ignacio C.
    Ferreira, Catarina C.
    Ficetola, Gentile F.
    Fiera, Cristina
    Filgueiras, Bruno K. C.
    Firincioglu, Huseyin K.
    Flaspohler, David
    Floren, Andreas
    Fonte, Steven J.
    Fournier, Anne
    Fowler, Robert E.
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    Fraser, Lauchlan H.
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    Freire-, Geraldo B., Jr.
    Frizzo, Tiago L. M.
    Fukuda, Daisuke
    Furlani, Dario
    Gaigher, Rene
    Ganzhorn, Joerg U.
    Garcia, Karla P.
    Garcia-R, Juan C.
    Garden, Jenni G.
    Garilleti, Ricardo
    Ge, Bao-Ming
    Gendreau-Berthiaume, Benoit
    Gerard, Philippa J.
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    Gilbert, Benjamin
    Giordani, Paolo
    Giordano, Simonetta
    Golodets, Carly
    Gomes, Laurens G. L.
    Gould, Rachelle K.
    Goulson, Dave
    Gove, Aaron D.
    Granjon, Laurent
    Grass, Ingo
    Gray, Claudia L.
    Grogan, James
    Gu, Weibin
    Guardiola, Moises
    Gunawardene, Nihara R.
    Gutierrez, Alvaro G.
    Gutierrez-Lamus, Doris L.
    Haarmeyer, Daniela H.
    Hanley, Mick E.
    Hanson, Thor
    Hashim, Nor R.
    Hassan, Shombe N.
    Hatfield, Richard G.
    Hawes, Joseph E.
    Hayward, Matt W.
    Hebert, Christian
    Helden, Alvin J.
    Henden, John-Andre
    Henschel, Philipp
    Hernandez, Lionel
    Herrera, James P.
    Herrmann, Farina
    Herzog, Felix
    Higuera-Diaz, Diego
    Hilje, Branko
    Hofer, Hubert
    Hoffmann, Anke
    Horgan, Finbarr G.
    Hornung, Elisabeth
    Horvath, Roland
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Isaacs-Cubides, Paola
    Ishida, Hiroaki
    Ishitani, Masahiro
    Jacobs, Carmen T.
    Jaramillo, Victor J.
    Jauker, Birgit
    Jimenez Hernandez, F.
    Johnson, McKenzie F.
    Jolli, Virat
    Jonsell, Mats
    Juliani, S. Nur
    Jung, Thomas S.
    Kapoor, Vena
    Kappes, Heike
    Kati, Vassiliki
    Katovai, Eric
    Kellner, Klaus
    Kessler, Michael
    Kirby, Kathryn R.
    Kittle, Andrew M.
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    Koivula, Matti
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    Kone, Mouhamadou
    Koroesi, Adam
    Krauss, Jochen
    Kumar, Ajith
    Kumar, Raman
    Kurz, David J.
    Kutt, Alex S.
    Lachat, Thibault
    Lantschner, Victoria
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    Lasky, Jesse R.
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    Legare, Jean-Philippe
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    Lencinas, Maria V.
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    Li, Qi
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    Liu, Yunhui
    Lo-Man-Hung, Nancy
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    Louhaichi, Mounir
    Lovei, Gabor L.
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    Luja, Victor H.
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    MacSwiney G, M. Cristina
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    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Milder, Jeffrey C.
    Miller, James R.
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    Moir, Melinda L.
    Morales, Carolina L.
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    Muchane, Muchai
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    Munira, A. Nur
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    Munyekenye, B. F.
    Naidoo, Robin
    Naithani, A.
    Nakagawa, Michiko
    Nakamura, Akihiro
    Nakashima, Yoshihiro
    Naoe, Shoji
    Nates-Parra, Guiomar
    Gutierrez, Dario A. Navarrete
    Navarro-Iriarte, Luis
    Ndang'ang'a, Paul K.
    Neuschulz, Eike L.
    Ngai, Jacqueline T.
    Nicolas, Violaine
    Nilsson, Sven G.
    Noreika, Norbertas
    Norfolk, Olivia
    Noriega, Jorge Ari
    Norton, David A.
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    Numa, Catherine
    O'Dea, Niall
    O'Farrell, Patrick J.
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    Parry, Luke
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    Pelissier, Raphael
    Peres, Carlos A.
    Peri, Pablo L.
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    Petanidou, Theodora
    Peters, Marcell K.
    Pethiyagoda, Rohan S.
    Phalan, Ben
    Philips, T. Keith
    Pillsbury, Finn C.
    Pincheira-Ulbrich, Jimmy
    Pineda, Eduardo
    Pino, Joan
    Pizarro-Araya, Jaime
    Plumptre, A. J.
    Poggio, Santiago L.
    Politi, Natalia
    Pons, Pere
    Poveda, Katja
    Power, Eileen F.
    Presley, Steven J.
    Proenca, Vania
    Quaranta, Marino
    Quintero, Carolina
    Rader, Romina
    Ramesh, B. R.
    Ramirez-Pinilla, Martha P.
    Ranganathan, Jai
    Rasmussen, Claus
    Redpath-Downing, Nicola A.
    Reid, J. Leighton
    Reis, Yana T.
    Rey Benayas, Jose M.
    Carlos Rey-Velasco, Juan
    Reynolds, Chevonne
    Ribeiro, Danilo Bandini
    Richards, Miriam H.
    Richardson, Barbara A.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    Macip Rios, Rodrigo
    Robinson, Richard
    Robles, Carolina A.
    Roembke, Joerg
    Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad
    Ros, Matthias
    Rosselli, Loreta
    Rossiter, Stephen J.
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    Rubio, Andre V.
    Ruel, Jean-Claude
    Sadler, Jonathan P.
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    Samnegard, Ulrika
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    Schmiedel, Ute
    Schmitt, Christine B.
    Schon, Nicole L.
    Schuepp, Christof
    Schumann, Katharina
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    Scott, Dawn M.
    Scott, Kenneth A.
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    Seefeldt, Steven S.
    Shahabuddin, Ghazala
    Shannon, Graeme
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    Sheldon, Frederick H.
    Shochat, Eyal
    Siebert, Stefan J.
    Silva, Fernando A. B.
    Simonetti, Javier A.
    Slade, Eleanor M.
    Smith, Jo
    Smith-Pardo, Allan H.
    Sodhi, Navjot S.
    Somarriba, Eduardo J.
    Sosa, Ramon A.
    Soto Quiroga, Grimaldo
    St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues
    Starzomski, Brian M.
    Stefanescu, Constanti
    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf
    Stouffer, Philip C.
    Stout, Jane C.
    Strauch, Ayron M.
    Struebig, Matthew J.
    Su, Zhimin
    Suarez-Rubio, Marcela
    Sugiura, Shinji
    Summerville, Keith S.
    Sung, Yik-Hei
    Sutrisno, Hari
    Svenning, Jens-Christian
    Teder, Tiit
    Threlfall, Caragh G.
    Tiitsaar, Anu
    Todd, Jacqui H.
    Tonietto, Rebecca K.
    Torre, Ignasi
    Tothmeresz, Bela
    Tscharntke, Teja
    Turner, Edgar C.
    Tylianakis, Jason M.
    Uehara-Prado, Marcio
    Urbina-Cardona, Nicolas
    Vallan, Denis
    Vanbergen, Adam J.
    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.
    Vassilev, Kiril
    Verboven, Hans A. F.
    Verdasca, Maria Joao
    Verdu, Jose R.
    Vergara, Carlos H.
    Vergara, Pablo M.
    Verhulst, Jort
    Virgilio, Massimiliano
    Van Vu, Lien
    Waite, Edward M.
    Walker, Tony R.
    Wang, Hua-Feng
    Wang, Yanping
    Watling, James I.
    Weller, Britta
    Wells, Konstans
    Westphal, Catrin
    Wiafe, Edward D.
    Williams, Christopher D.
    Willig, Michael R.
    Woinarski, John C. Z.
    Wolf, Jan H. D.
    Wolters, Volkmar
    Woodcock, Ben A.
    Wu, Jihua
    Wunderle, Joseph M., Jr.
    Yamaura, Yuichi
    Yoshikura, Satoko
    Yu, Douglas W.
    Zaitsev, Andrey S.
    Zeidler, Juliane
    Zou, Fasheng
    Collen, Ben
    Ewers, Rob M.
    Mace, Georgina M.
    Purves, Drew W.
    Scharlemann, Joern P. W.
    Purvis, Andy
    The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 145-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.

  • 16. Hudson, Lawrence N.
    et al.
    Newbold, Tim
    Contu, Sara
    Hill, Samantha L. L.
    Lysenko, Igor
    De Palma, Adriana
    Phillips, Helen R. P.
    Senior, Rebecca A.
    Bennett, Dominic J.
    Booth, Hollie
    Choimes, Argyrios
    Correia, David L. P.
    Day, Julie
    Echeverria-Londono, Susy
    Garon, Morgan
    Harrison, Michelle L. K.
    Ingram, Daniel J.
    Jung, Martin
    Kemp, Victoria
    Kirkpatrick, Lucinda
    Martin, Callum D.
    Pan, Yuan
    White, Hannah J.
    Aben, Job
    Abrahamczyk, Stefan
    Adum, Gilbert B.
    Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia
    Aizen, Marcelo A.
    Ancrenaz, Marc
    Arbelaez-Cortes, Enrique
    Armbrecht, Inge
    Azhar, Badrul
    Azpiroz, Adrian B.
    Baeten, Lander
    Baldi, Andras
    Banks, John E.
    Barlow, Jos
    Batary, Peter
    Bates, Adam J.
    Bayne, Erin M.
    Beja, Pedro
    Berg, Ake
    Berry, Nicholas J.
    Bicknell, Jake E.
    Bihn, Jochen H.
    Boehning-Gaese, Katrin
    Boekhout, Teun
    Boutin, Celine
    Bouyer, Jeremy
    Brearley, Francis Q.
    Brito, Isabel
    Brunet, Joerg
    Buczkowski, Grzegorz
    Buscardo, Erika
    Cabra-Garcia, Jimmy
    Calvino-Cancela, Maria
    Cameron, Sydney A.
    Cancello, Eliana M.
    Carrijo, Tiago F.
    Carvalho, Anelena L.
    Castro, Helena
    Castro-Luna, Alejandro A.
    Cerda, Rolando
    Cerezo, Alexis
    Chauvat, Matthieu
    Clarke, Frank M.
    Cleary, Daniel F. R.
    Connop, Stuart P.
    D'Aniello, Biagio
    da Silva, Pedro Giovani
    Darvill, Ben
    Dauber, Jens
    Dejean, Alain
    Diekoetter, Tim
    Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth
    Dormann, Carsten F.
    Dumont, Bertrand
    Dures, Simon G.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Edenius, Lars
    Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Elek, Zoltan
    Entling, Martin H.
    Farwig, Nina
    Fayle, Tom M.
    Felicioli, Antonio
    Felton, Annika M.
    Ficetola, Gentile F.
    Filgueiras, Bruno K. C.
    Fonte, Steven J.
    Fraser, Lauchlan H.
    Fukuda, Daisuke
    Furlani, Dario
    Ganzhorn, Joerg U.
    Garden, Jenni G.
    Gheler-Costa, Carla
    Giordani, Paolo
    Giordano, Simonetta
    Gottschalk, Marco S.
    Goulson, Dave
    Gove, Aaron D.
    Grogan, James
    Hanley, Mick E.
    Hanson, Thor
    Hashim, Nor R.
    Hawes, Joseph E.
    Hebert, Christian
    Helden, Alvin J.
    Henden, John-Andre
    Hernandez, Lionel
    Herzog, Felix
    Higuera-Diaz, Diego
    Hilje, Branko
    Horgan, Finbarr G.
    Horvath, Roland
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Isaacs-Cubides, Paola
    Ishitani, Masahiro
    Jacobs, Carmen T.
    Jaramillo, Victor J.
    Jauker, Birgit
    Jonsell, Mats
    Jung, Thomas S.
    Kapoor, Vena
    Kati, Vassiliki
    Katovai, Eric
    Kessler, Michael
    Knop, Eva
    Kolb, Annette
    Koroesi, Adam
    Lachat, Thibault
    Lantschner, Victoria
    Le Feon, Violette
    LeBuhn, Gretchen
    Legare, Jean-Philippe
    Letcher, Susan G.
    Littlewood, Nick A.
    Lopez-Quintero, Carlos A.
    Louhaichi, Mounir
    Loevei, Gabor L.
    Lucas-Borja, Manuel Esteban
    Luja, Victor H.
    Maeto, Kaoru
    Magura, Tibor
    Mallari, Neil Aldrin
    Marin-Spiotta, Erika
    Marshall, E. J. P.
    Martinez, Eliana
    Mayfield, Margaret M.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Milder, Jeffrey C.
    Miller, James R.
    Morales, Carolina L.
    Muchane, Mary N.
    Muchane, Muchai
    Naidoo, Robin
    Nakamura, Akihiro
    Naoe, Shoji
    Nates-Parra, Guiomar
    Navarrete Gutierrez, Dario A.
    Neuschulz, Eike L.
    Noreika, Norbertas
    Norfolk, Olivia
    Noriega, Jorge Ari
    Noeske, Nicole M.
    O'Dea, Niall
    Oduro, William
    Ofori-Boateng, Caleb
    Oke, Chris O.
    Osgathorpe, Lynne M.
    Paritsis, Juan
    Parra-H, Alejandro
    Pelegrin, Nicolas
    Peres, Carlos A.
    Persson, Anna S.
    Petanidou, Theodora
    Phalan, Ben
    Philips, T. Keith
    Poveda, Katja
    Power, Eileen F.
    Presley, Steven J.
    Proenca, Vania
    Quaranta, Marino
    Quintero, Carolina
    Redpath-Downing, Nicola A.
    Reid, J. Leighton
    Reis, Yana T.
    Ribeiro, Danilo B.
    Richardson, Barbara A.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    Robles, Carolina A.
    Roembke, Joerg
    Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad
    Rosselli, Loreta
    Rossiter, Stephen J.
    Roulston, T'ai H.
    Rousseau, Laurent
    Sadler, Jonathan P.
    Safian, Szabolcs
    Saldana-Vazquez, Romeo A.
    Samnegard, Ulrika
    Schueepp, Christof
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Sedlock, Jodi L.
    Shahabuddin, Ghazala
    Sheil, Douglas
    Silva, Fernando A. B.
    Slade, Eleanor M.
    Smith-Pardo, Allan H.
    Sodhi, Navjot S.
    Somarriba, Eduardo J.
    Sosa, Ramon A.
    Stout, Jane C.
    Struebig, Matthew J.
    Sung, Yik-Hei
    Threlfall, Caragh G.
    Tonietto, Rebecca
    Tothmeresz, Bela
    Tscharntke, Teja
    Turner, Edgar C.
    Tylianakis, Jason M.
    Vanbergen, Adam J.
    Vassilev, Kiril
    Verboven, Hans A. F.
    Vergara, Carlos H.
    Vergara, Pablo M.
    Verhulst, Jort
    Walker, Tony R.
    Wang, Yanping
    Watling, James I.
    Wells, Konstans
    Williams, Christopher D.
    Willig, Michael R.
    Woinarski, John C. Z.
    Wolf, Jan H. D.
    Woodcock, Ben A.
    Yu, Douglas W.
    Zaitsev, Andrey S.
    Collen, Ben
    Ewers, Rob M.
    Mace, Georgina M.
    Purves, Drew W.
    Scharlemann, Joern P. W.
    Purvis, Andy
    The PREDICTS database: a global database of how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human impacts2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 24, p. 4701-4735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity continues to decline in the face of increasing anthropogenic pressures such as habitat destruction, exploitation, pollution and introduction of alien species. Existing global databases of species' threat status or population time series are dominated by charismatic species. The collation of datasets with broad taxonomic and biogeographic extents, and that support computation of a range of biodiversity indicators, is necessary to enable better understanding of historical declines and to project - and avert - future declines. We describe and assess a new database of more than 1.6 million samples from 78 countries representing over 28,000 species, collated from existing spatial comparisons of local-scale biodiversity exposed to different intensities and types of anthropogenic pressures, from terrestrial sites around the world. The database contains measurements taken in 208 (of 814) ecoregions, 13 (of 14) biomes, 25 (of 35) biodiversity hotspots and 16 (of 17) megadiverse countries. The database contains more than 1% of the total number of all species described, and more than 1% of the described species within many taxonomic groups - including flowering plants, gymnosperms, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, beetles, lepidopterans and hymenopterans. The dataset, which is still being added to, is therefore already considerably larger and more representative than those used by previous quantitative models of biodiversity trends and responses. The database is being assembled as part of the PREDICTS project (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems - ). We make site-level summary data available alongside this article. The full database will be publicly available in 2015.

  • 17.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Causes of the large variation in bryophyte species richness and composition among boreal streamside forests2006In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, Vol. 17, p. 333-346Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Nilsson, Christer
    Lie low: substrate form determines the fate of bryophytes in riparian buffer stripsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Substrate form determines the fate of bryophytes in riparian buffer strips2005In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 674-688Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    The fate of clades in a world of recurrent climatic change - Milankovitch oscillations and evolution2002In: Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, ISSN 0066-4162, E-ISSN 2330-1902, Vol. 33, p. 741-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in Earth's orbit with periods of 10-100 thousand years (kyr) (Milankovitch oscillations) have led to recurrent and rapid climatic shifts throughout Earth's history. These cause changes in the geographical distributions of clades, which we term orbitally forced range dynamics (ORD). The magnitude of ORD varies geographically, e.g., with latitude. Climatic shifts cause extinction, splitting, and merging of gene pools and clades. They select among individuals and clades for traits enhancing the ability to survive in situ and to establish new populations. There is also nonadaptive sorting caused by the large geographical variation in ORD, as only gene pools that are in the right place when climate shifts survive. ORD lead to sorting at many levels of genealogic inclusiveness. Clades that have survived climatic shifts during at least one entire period of the longest significant Milankovitch oscillations (100 kyr), we name β-clades. The products of more recent cladogenesis are α-clades, which are always nested within a β-clade. We conclude that ORD may promote α-clade formation but curb rates of β-clade formation. In areas with little ORD, where gene pools persist without going extinct or merging, clade splits and divergence may accumulate leading to high rates of β-clade formation and β-anagenesis (evolutionary change persisting >100 kyr). High ORD should lead to low numbers of β-clades, β-clades with low levels of spatial genetic divergence, little geographical subdivision and large ranges, organisms with high vagility and low specialization, high proportions of β-clades formed by polyploidization, and little β-anagenesis. We predict global and interregional geographic patterns in these variables caused by differential ORD. Thus, ORD potentially explains a wide array of patterns, suggesting ORD as a fundamental factor in evolution. The vulnerability of biotas to many human activities should vary with the magnitude of ORD.

  • 21.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Applied Science, Mittuniversitetet Härnösand.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of river regulation on river-margin vegetation: a comparison of eight boreal rivers2000In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 203-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation and fragmentation by dams belong to the most widespread deliberate impacts of humans on the world's rivers, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. We evaluated the effects of hydroelectric development by comparing the flora of vascular plants in 200-m-long reaches of river margin distributed along eight entire rivers in northern Sweden. Four of these rivers were free-flowing, and four were strongly regulated for hydroelectric purposes. First, we compared species diversity per site between entire free-flowing and regulated rivers. To reduce the effects of natural, between-river variation, we compared adjacent rivers. One regulated river had lower plant species richness and cover than two adjacent free-flowing ones, whereas two other parallel rivers, one regulated and another free-flowing, did not differ significantly. Second, river-margin vegetation responded differently to different types of regulated water-level regimes. Both along run-of-river impoundments, with small but daily water-level fluctuations, and along storage reservoirs, with large fluctuations between low water levels in spring and high levels in late summer and fall, the number of species and their cover per site were lower than along the free-flowing rivers. Regulated but unimpounded reaches were most similar to free-flowing rivers, having lower plant cover per site, but similar numbers of species. For reaches with reduced discharge, evidence was mixed; some variables were lower compared to free-flowing rivers whereas others were not. However, for the last two types of regulation, statistical power was low due to small sample sizes. Third, we classified all plant species according to their dispersal mechanisms and tested whether they respond differently to different types of regulated water-level regimes. Three out of four types of regulation had higher proportions of wind-dispersed species, and two out of four had lower proportions of species without specific mechanisms for dispersal, compared to free-flowing rivers, suggesting that dispersal ability is critical for persistence following regulation. Run-of-river impoundments had higher proportions of long-floating species and species with mechanisms for vegetative dispersal, suggesting that water dispersal may still be important despite fragmentation by dams. Fourth, plant species richness and cover varied with both local factors, such as water-level regime, and regional factors, such as length of the growing season. Presence of clay and silt in the river-margin soil, preregulation position of the contemporary river margin, non-reservoir sites, low altitudes, and long growing seasons were associated with high plant species richness and cover.

  • 22. Johansson, Therese
    et al.
    Andersson, Jon
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Short-term responses of beetle assemblages to wildfire in a region with more than 100 years of fire suppression2011In: Insect Conservation and Diversity, ISSN 1752-458X, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 142-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Suppression of wildfires in boreal landscapes has become widespread and has seriously affected many fire favoured species. However, little is known about the response of organism assemblages to large wildfires in regions with a long history of effective fire suppression, such as Scandinavia.

    2. We studied the short-term effects of a >1600 ha wildfire on beetle assemblages in northern Sweden. The first summer after fire, beetles were sampled in 12 sites using 36 large window traps, half in old pine forest stands in the burned area and half in similar, but unburned control stands. The entire beetle assemblage and eight subgroups were analysed: saproxylics, non-saproxylics, moderately fire favoured, strongly fire favoured, fungivores, predators, cambium consumers and red-listed species.

    3. Species composition differed markedly between burned and unburned forests in all nine groups. Furthermore, beetle abundance was higher in the burned area for the entire assemblage and for saproxylics, both groups of fire favoured species, predators and cambium consumers. Species number was higher only for non-saproxylics, strongly fire favoured species and cambium consumers.

    4. Our results show that wildfire has rapid and strong effects on a wide range of beetles. However, we only trapped two individuals of fire-dependent beetles, which may suggest a lack of such species in the region, possibly due to >100 years of fire suppression. At the regional scale, the studied wildfire may potentially increase the abundance of these beetles after a longer period of reproduction in the burned area.

  • 23. Johansson, Therese
    et al.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Stenbacka, Fredrik
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Responses of eight boreal flat bug (Heteroptera: Aradidae) species to clear-cutting and forest fire.2010In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal flat bugs include a high proportion of species that are considered negatively affected by forestry. Knowledge on the biology and habitat demands of individual species is generally limited. We examined the influence on flat bugs of stand-age and clear-cutting, comparing five classes of spruce stands. The five classes were: clear-cut, unthinned, and thinned (all three products of current clear-cutting forestry), mature managed and oldgrowth stands (these two had never been clear-cut). We also compared unburned and recently burned mature pine forest. Fire, but not stand age, had a pronounced effect on species richness and total abundance. Aradus depressus showed a significant association with older forest stands. Aradus betulae occurred only in clear-cuts and burned forest indicating that this species is favored by disturbance in general. Aradus lugubris, Aradus crenaticollis and Aradus brevicollis were found only in the burned forest. Aradus brevicollis has not previously been shown to be associated with fire.

  • 24. Jönsson, Mari T.
    et al.
    Fraver, Shawn
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Rydgård, Mats
    Esseen, Per-Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Eighteen years of tree mortality and structural change in an experimentally fragmented Norway spruce forest2007In: Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 242, no 2-3, p. 306-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term experimental forest fragmentation studies remain uncommon, despite their critical role in the advancement of ecological theory and conservation planning. In 1986 five circular forest fragments (1/16–1 ha) were exposed through clearcutting within an old-growth Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest in northern Sweden. Initial responses to fragmentation (1986–1991) showed very high tree mortality and structural degradation of the fragments. In the present study we re-inventoried these fragments to evaluate tree mortality patterns and structural changes occurring over a longer time period (1991–2004). The fragments can readily be viewed as harvest retention patches or ‘woodland key habitats’ (i.e., set-aside patches of high conservation value), allowing us to make inferences about the effectiveness of these novel conservation tools. Tree mortality rates dropped markedly (to 1.2–3.9%/year) compared to the initial responses, yet remained elevated over those of control plots in the nearby unfragmented forest (0.7%). Mortality increased with tree diameter, resulting in smaller-diameter, more homogenous stands. Mortality also generally increased with decreasing fragment size and was dependent of tree location within fragments. Standing death (45% of dead trees, 1991–2004) replaced uprootings (71%, 1986–1991) as the dominant mode of mortality. Numbers of dying and standing dead trees increased during the second sampling period, further adding to structural change and reduced stand density. Elevated tree mortality resulted in uncharacteristically high volumes of coarse woody debris. Results clearly show that adverse edge-related changes to forest structure and function persist up to two decades after fragmentation. Fragments of this size largely fail as remnants intended to maintain forest interior conditions and late-successional forest structure. However, when embedded within a harvested landscape, they: (1) provide abundant coarse woody debris and snags for deadwood-dependent species that risk extirpation in the surrounding matrix and (2) retain important structures for the developing stands.

  • 25.
    Karlsson Tiselius, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Analyzing co-variation patterns between functional and multivariate ecological data – the functional co-inertia analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Ecological phenomena are often better represented by mathematical functions than by discrete values. Examples include population trends, temperatures curves, functional responses of predators and seed size distributions. A collection of such functions describing the same phenomenon in different sites or at different points in time constitutes a functional data set. To facilitate the use of functional data sets, we develop a statistical method that allows for the analysis of co-variation between functional and multivariate data sets.
    2. We extend the multivariate co-inertia analysis framework for analyzing common variation structure between datasets to cases when one or both datasets consist of functional data. We use basis expansions of functions and weighted inner products to extend the concepts of inertia and co-inertia to functional data and present an extension of the RV-coefficient for quantifying the association between datasets. We then derive the functional co-inertia analysis (fCoIA) as a special case of the multivariate method. Using metrics derived from the functions in the basis expansion we express the fCoIA as a multivariate co-inertia analysis of basis expansion coefficients. The new approach is illustrated by coupling non-functional bryophyte species data with a functional dataset describing age-area distributions of young land-uplift islands.
    3. The technique efficiently summarizes the co-variation structure between the two datasets and provides quantifications and visualizations of the contributions from each data set to the co-variation..An important feature of the results is the graphical illustration of the common variation patterns through plots of approximations of cross-covariance function shapes describing the detailed co-variation of each variable in the multivariate data with the functional data.
    4. The methodology provides ecologists (potentially also evolutionary biologists) with a new tool for incorporating functional data into ordination analyses and considerably extends the realm of questions that can be addressed. In the future, the approach might be extended to other multivariate methods (e.g….) building on the co-inertia framework (e.g RLQ analysis) and we envision analyses matching environmental data to function valued species traits (e.g “reaction norms” of plastic phenotypic expressions).
  • 26.
    Karlsson Tiselius, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Exploring Connectivity across Spatial Scales Using Functional Principal Component AnalysisArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interplay between organism dispersal and habitat patch connectivity is crucial for the distribution and dynamics of populations and communities. However, the appropriate spatial scales of connectivity analysis vary among species, populations and individuals, depending on their capacity and propensity to move. This scale dependence poses problems when studying assemblages including species with different appropriate scales or when the scale for a species varies or is difficult to determine. To address these problems, we develop an approach summarizing among-patch variation in structural connectivity across a continuum of scales. We do this by first treating a connectivity metric (e.g. habitat area around a patch) as a continuous function of a scale-defining variable (e.g. distance) for a number of patches. We then extract and summarize information present in the shapes of the resulting collection of “patch connectivity functions”, using methods for functional data analysis (functional principal component analysis, fPCA). We apply the approach to a data set of 36 islands and show that it is possible to effectively summarize the among-patch variation in structural patch connectivity across spatial scales using only a small number of functional principal components. We also show how our functional data analysis approach to connectivity metrics can be useful (i) as an information tool for decisions regarding the design of protected area networks and (ii) in designing spatially explicit ecological studies including multiple species (e.g. metacommunity studies). We explore relationships with widely used methods in landscape ecology and show how continuous function representations can reveal information hidden in single value applications of metrics. The usefulness of the approach for analyses of functional connectivity is discussed. We conclude that the approach provides a powerful methodology to represent variation in connectivity across spatial scales that will serve many purposes within spatial ecology and biogeography

  • 27.
    Karlsson Tiselius, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lundbäck, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lönnell, Niklas
    Artdatabanken, Sverige Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bryophyte community assembly on young land uplift islands: dispersal and habitat filtering assessed using species traits2019In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 2188-2202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To assess habitat filtering and dispersal limitation in spore plant community assembly using bryophytes on recently emerged land uplift islands as study system. Location Gulf of Bothnia, northern Europe. Taxa Bryophytes, including the spore plant phyla Bryophyta (mosses) and Marchantiophyta (liverworts).

    Methods: The species compositions of 20 coastal land uplift islands differing in age, area, connectivity and habitat composition were recorded in the field. In addition, we compiled a list of the regional species pool (446 species) and gathered data on species traits related to habitat affiliations (substrate, light, moisture, and pH) and dispersal capacity (regional abundance, spore size, sporophyte frequency, sexual system, vegetative propagules). For the 420 species with available trait data, we used multivariate generalized linear models to compare trait effects on species occurrence probabilities on the islands.

    Results: Occurrence probabilities depended strongly on habitat affiliations. In addition, occurrence probabilities were lower for predominantly asexual species than for sexual species and for regionally rare than for regionally abundant species. Having specialized asexual propagules increased occurrence probabilities, but compensated only partly for the reductions in asexual species. No effect of the size of sexually produced spores was detected. Comparison of trait effects across island size and connectivity gradients revealed (a) reduced habitat filtering on larger islands and (b) decreasing negative effects of being predominantly asexual with increasing island connectivity.

    Conclusions: Both habitat filtering and dispersal capacities affect the community assembly of spore plants on land uplift islands. Asexual mosses and liverworts show landscape scale (<= 10 km) dispersal limitation. The weak or absent relationships between island connectivity and the effects of dispersal traits suggest that colonization is regulated mainly by habitat availability and the abundance of each species in a "regional spore rain" from which colonists are recruited.

  • 28.
    Kuglerová, Lenka
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, Forest Science Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada .
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Relationships between plant assemblages and water flow across a boreal forest landscape: a comparison of liverworts, mosses, and vascular plants2016In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 170-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of water across landscapes affects the diversity and composition of ecological communities, as demonstrated by studies on variation in vascular plant communities along river networks and in relation to groundwater. However, nonvascular plants have been neglected in this regard. Bryophytes are dominant components of boreal flora, performing many ecosystem functions and affecting ecosystem processes, but how their diversity and species composition vary across catchments is poorly known. We asked how terrestrial assemblages of mosses and liverworts respond to variation in (i) catchment size, going from upland-forest to riparian settings along increasingly large streams and (ii) groundwater discharge conditions. We compared the patterns found for liverworts and mosses to vascular plants in the same set of study plots. Species richness of vascular plants and mosses increased with catchment size, whereas liverworts peaked along streams of intermediate size. All three taxonomic groups responded to groundwater discharge in riparian zones by maintaining high species richness further from the stream channel. Groundwater discharge thus provided riparian-like habitat further away from the streams and also in upland-forest sites compared to the non-discharge counterparts. In addition, soil chemistry (C:N ratio, pH) and light availability were important predictors of vascular plant species richness. Mosses and liverworts responded to the availability of specific substrates (stones and topographic hollows), but were also affected by soil C: N. Overall, assemblages of mosses and vascular plants exhibited many similarities in how they responded to hydrological gradients, whereas the patterns of liverworts differed from the other two groups.

  • 29. Lenoir, Jonathan
    et al.
    Graae, Bente Jessen
    Aarrestad, Per Arild
    Alsos, Inger Greve
    Armbruster, W. Scott
    Austrheim, Gunnar
    Bergendorff, Claes
    Birks, H. John B.
    Brathen, Kari Anne
    Brunet, Jorg
    Bruun, Hans Henrik
    Dahlberg, Carl Johan
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Diekmann, Martin
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ejrnaes, Rasmus
    Grytnes, John-Arvid
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Klanderud, Kari
    Luoto, Miska
    Milbau, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Moora, Mari
    Nygaard, Bettina
    Odland, Arvid
    Ravolainen, Virve Tuulia
    Reinhardt, Stefanie
    Sandvik, Sylvi Marlen
    Schei, Fride Hoistad
    Speed, James David Mervyn
    Tveraabak, Liv Unn
    Vandvik, Vigdis
    Velle, Liv Guri
    Virtanen, Risto
    Zobel, Martin
    Svenning, Jens-Christian
    Local temperatures inferred from plant communities suggest strong spatial buffering of climate warming across Northern Europe2013In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1470-1481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies from mountainous areas of small spatial extent (<2500km2) suggest that fine-grained thermal variability over tens or hundreds of metres exceeds much of the climate warming expected for the coming decades. Such variability in temperature provides buffering to mitigate climate-change impacts. Is this local spatial buffering restricted to topographically complex terrains? To answer this, we here study fine-grained thermal variability across a 2500-km wide latitudinal gradient in Northern Europe encompassing a large array of topographic complexities. We first combined plant community data, Ellenberg temperature indicator values, locally measured temperatures (LmT) and globally interpolated temperatures (GiT) in a modelling framework to infer biologically relevant temperature conditions from plant assemblages within <1000-m2 units (community-inferred temperatures: CiT). We then assessed: (1) CiT range (thermal variability) within 1-km2 units; (2) the relationship between CiT range and topographically and geographically derived predictors at 1-km resolution; and (3) whether spatial turnover in CiT is greater than spatial turnover in GiT within 100-km2 units. Ellenberg temperature indicator values in combination with plant assemblages explained 4672% of variation in LmT and 9296% of variation in GiT during the growing season (June, July, August). Growing-season CiT range within 1-km2 units peaked at 6065 degrees N and increased with terrain roughness, averaging 1.97 degrees C (SD=0.84 degrees C) and 2.68 degrees C (SD=1.26 degrees C) within the flattest and roughest units respectively. Complex interactions between topography-related variables and latitude explained 35% of variation in growing-season CiT range when accounting for sampling effort and residual spatial autocorrelation. Spatial turnover in growing-season CiT within 100-km2 units was, on average, 1.8 times greater (0.32 degrees Ckm1) than spatial turnover in growing-season GiT (0.18 degrees Ckm1). We conclude that thermal variability within 1-km2 units strongly increases local spatial buffering of future climate warming across Northern Europe, even in the flattest terrains.

  • 30.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Reidy, Catherine A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Revenga, Carmen
    Fragmentation and flow regulation of the world's large river systems2005In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 308, no 5720, p. 405-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A global overview of dam-based impacts on large river systemsshows that over half (172 out of 292) are affected by dams,including the eight most biogeographically diverse. Dam-impactedcatchments experience higher irrigation pressure and about 25times more economic activity per unit of water than do unaffectedcatchments. In view of projected changes in climate and waterresource use, these findings can be used to identify ecologicalrisks associated with further impacts on large river systems.

  • 31. Shackelford, Nancy
    et al.
    Starzomski, Brian M.
    Banning, Natasha C.
    Battaglia, Loretta L.
    Becker, Alistair
    Bellingham, Peter J.
    Bestelmeyer, Brandon
    Catford, Jane A.
    Dwyer, John M.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gilmour, James
    Hallett, Lauren M.
    Hobbs, Richard J.
    Price, Jodi
    Sasaki, Takehiro
    Tanner, Edmund V. J.
    Standish, Rachel J.
    Isolation predicts compositional change after discrete disturbances in a global meta-study2017In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 40, no 11, p. 1256-1266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, anthropogenic disturbances are occurring at unprecedented rates and over extensive spatial and temporal scales. Human activities also affect natural disturbances, prompting shifts in their timing and intensities. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand and predict the response of ecosystems to disturbance. In this study, we investigated whether there are general determinants of community response to disturbance across different community types, locations, and disturbance events. We compiled 14 case studies of community response to disturbance from four continents, twelve aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem types, and eight different types of disturbance. We used community compositional differences and species richness to indicate community response. We used mixed-effects modeling to test the relationship between each of these response metrics and four potential explanatory factors: regional species pool size, isolation, number of generations passed, and relative disturbance intensity. We found that compositional similarity was higher between pre- and post-disturbance communities when the disturbed community was connected to adjacent undisturbed habitat. The number of generations that had passed since the disturbance event was a significant, but weak, predictor of community compositional change; two communities were responsible for the observed relationship. We found no significant relationships between the factors we tested and changes in species richness. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to search for general drivers of community resilience from a diverse set of case studies. The strength of the relationship between compositional change and isolation suggests that it may be informative in resilience research and biodiversity management.

  • 32.
    Stenbacka, Fredrik
    et al.
    Vilt, fisk och miljö. Sveriges LantbruksUniversitet.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Vilt, fisk och miljö. Sveriges LantbruksUniversitet.
    Hilszczanski, Jacek
    Vilt, fisk och miljö. Sveriges LantbruksUniversitet.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Vilt, fisk och miljö. Sveriges LantbruksUniversitet.
    Saproxylic and non-saproxylic beetle assemblages in boreal spruce forests of different age and forestry intensity2010In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 2310-2321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current clear-cutting forestry practices affect many boreal organisms negatively, and those dependent on dead wood (saproxylics) are considered as particularly vulnerable. The succession of species assemblages in managed forest habitats regenerating after clearcutting is, however, poorly known. We compared beetle assemblages in three successional stages of managed boreal spruce forests established after clear-cutting and two types of olderspruce forests that had not been clear-cut. We also assessed whether saproxylic and nonsaproxylic beetle assemblages show similar biodiversity patterns among these forest types. Beetles were collected in window traps in nine study areas, each encompassing a protected oldgrowth forest (mean forest age ;160 years, mean dead wood volume 34 m3/ha), an unprotected mature forest (;120 years old, 15 m3/ha), a middle-aged commercially thinned forest (53 years old, 3 m3/ha), a young unthinned forest (30 years old, 4 m3/ha), and a clearcut (5–7 years after harvest, 11 m3/ha). Saproxylic beetles, in particular red-listed species, were more abundant and more species rich in older forest types, whereas no significant differences among forest types in these variables were detected for non-saproxylics. The saproxylic assemblages were clearly differentiated; with increasing forest age, assemblage compositions gradually became more similar to those of protected old-growth forests, but the assemblage composition in thinned forests could not be statistically distinguished from those of the two oldest forest types. Many saproxylic beetles adapted to late-successional stages were present in thinned middle-aged forests but absent from younger unthinned forests. In contrast, nonsaproxylics were generally more evenly distributed among the five forest types, and the assemblages were mainly differentiated between clearcuts and forested habitats. The saproxylic beetle assemblages of unprotected mature forests were very similar to those of protected old-growth forests. This indicates a relatively high conservation value of mature boreal forests currently subjected to clear-cutting and raises the question of whether future mature forests will have the same qualities. Our results suggest a high beetle conservation potential of developing managed forests, provided that sufficient amounts and qualities of dead wood are made available (e.g., during thinning operations). Confirming studies of beetle reproduction in dead wood introduced during thinning are, however, lacking.

  • 33.
    Ström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Botaniska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Different long-term and short-term responses of land snails to clear-cutting of boreal stream-side forests.2009In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 142, p. 1580-1587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of clear-cutting on biodiversity have mainly been studied in the short-term, although knowledge of longer term effects are often more important for managers of forest biodiversity. We assessed relatively long-term effects of clear-cutting on litter dwelling land snails, a group with slow active dispersal and considered to be intolerant to microclimate changes. In a pair wise design we compared snail abundance, species density, and species composition between 13 old seminatural stream-side stands and 13 matched young stands developed 40–60 years after clear-cutting. Using a standardized semi-quantitative method, we identified all snail specimens in a 1.5 l subsample of a pooled litter sample collected from small patches within a 20 × 5 m plot in each stream-side stand. From the young stands a mean of 135 shells and 9.5 species was extracted which was significantly higher than the 58.1 shells and 6.9 species found in old forests. Only two of the 16 species encountered showed a stronger affinity to old than to young forests. In short-term studies of boreal stream-side forests land snail abundance is reduced by clear-cutting. Our results indicate that this decline is transient for most species and within a few decades replaced by an increase. We suggest that local survival in moist stream-side refugia makes the land snails able to benefit from the higher pH and more abundant non-conifer litter in young than in old boreal forests. Our results highlight the importance of longer term studies as a basis for management guidelines for biodiversity conservation.

  • 34. Wasof, Safaa
    et al.
    Lenoir, Jonathan
    Aarrestad, Per Arild
    Alsos, Inger Greve
    Armbruster, W. Scott
    Austrheim, Gunnar
    Bakkestuen, Vegar
    Birks, H. John B.
    Bråthen, Kari Anne
    Broennimann, Olivier
    Brunet, Jörg
    Bruun, Hans Henrik
    Dahlberg, Carl Johan
    Diekmann, Martin
    Dullinger, Stefan
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ejrnaes, Rasmus
    Gegout, Jean-Claude
    Graae, Bente Jessen
    Grytnes, John-Arvid
    Guisan, Antoine
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg S.
    Kapfer, Jutta
    Klanderud, Kari
    Luoto, Miska
    Milbau, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Moora, Mari
    Nygaard, Bettina
    Odland, Arvid
    Pauli, Harald
    Ravolainen, Virve
    Reinhardt, Stefanie
    Sandvik, Sylvi Marlen
    Schei, Fride Hoistad
    Speed, James D. M.
    Svenning, Jens-Christian
    Thuiller, Wilfried
    Tveraabak, Liv Unn
    Vandvik, Vigdis
    Velle, Liv Guri
    Virtanen, Risto
    Vittoz, Pascal
    Willner, Wolfgang
    Wohlgemuth, Thomas
    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.
    Zobel, Martin
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Disjunct populations of European vascular plant species keep the same climatic niches2015In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1401-1412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Previous research on how climatic niches vary across species ranges has focused on a limited number of species, mostly invasive, and has not, to date, been very conclusive. Here we assess the degree of niche conservatism between distant populations of native alpine plant species that have been separated for thousands of years. Location European Alps and Fennoscandia. Methods Of the studied pool of 888 terrestrial vascular plant species occurring in both the Alps and Fennoscandia, we used two complementary approaches to test and quantify climatic-niche shifts for 31 species having strictly disjunct populations and 358 species having either a contiguous or a patchy distribution with distant populations. First, we used species distribution modelling to test for a region effect on each species' climatic niche. Second, we quantified niche overlap and shifts in niche width (i.e. ecological amplitude) and position (i.e. ecological optimum) within a bi-dimensional climatic space. Results Only one species (3%) of the 31 species with strictly disjunct populations and 58 species (16%) of the 358 species with distant populations showed a region effect on their climatic niche. Niche overlap was higher for species with strictly disjunct populations than for species with distant populations and highest for arctic-alpine species. Climatic niches were, on average, wider and located towards warmer and wetter conditions in the Alps. Main conclusion Climatic niches seem to be generally conserved between populations that are separated between the Alps and Fennoscandia and have probably been so for 10,000-15,000 years. Therefore, the basic assumption of species distribution models that a species' climatic niche is constant in space and time-at least on time scales 104 years or less-seems to be largely valid for arctic-alpine plants.

  • 35.
    Zinko, Ursula
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Nilsson, Christer
    Seibert, Jan
    The importance of soil moisture and pH for the spatial variation of plant species numbers in boreal forests.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Zinko, Ursula
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Seibert, Jan
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    The role of soil pH in linking groundwater flow and plant species density in boreal forest landscapes2006In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 515-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In hilly boreal landscapes topography governs groundwater flow which strongly influences soil development, and thus vegetation composition. Soil pH is known to correlate well with plant species density and composition, but in boreal forests this relationship has been little studied. Previously, we successfully used a topography-based hydrological index, the topographical wetness index (TWI), as an approximation of the variation in groundwater flow to predict local plant species density in a boreal forest landscape. Data on species indicator values demonstrated that soil pH can be an important soil variable linking groundwater flow and plant species density. In the present paper we explore this link by relating measured soil pH to species numbers of vascular plants and TWI in 200-m2 plots within two boreal forest landscapes, differing in average soil pH. The two landscapes showed almost identical relationships between plant species number and soil pH, implying that this relationship is robust. The landscapes also had similar relationships between soil pH and TWI as well as between plant species number and TWI except at high TWI values, which indicate groundwater discharge areas. In these areas soil pH and plant species numbers were higher in the high-pH landscape at any given TWI value. We conclude that for predictive mapping of the species density of vascular plants in boreal forests, soil pH is a major factor. However, TWI as a measure of groundwater flow is a practical alternative predictor.

  • 37.
    Zinko, Ursula
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Seibert, Jan
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Plant species number predicted by a topography based groundwater-flow index2005In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 430-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of a clear understanding of the factors governing the often-great variation of species numbers over entire landscapes confounds attempts to manage biodiversity. We hypothesized that in a topographically variable boreal forest landscape the availability of shallow groundwater is a major determinant of plant species numbers. We then developed a topographically derived hydrologic index based on multidirectional flow algorithms to account for the variation in availability of such groundwater in the landscape. We found a positive correlation between species numbers of vascular plants in plots ranging from 0.01 to 200 m2 and the hydrologic index. Generally, the landscape was relatively dry and species-poor, but interspersed patches with shallow groundwater had high species numbers and high proportions of regionally uncommon plant species. The index explained 30% of the variation in vascular plant number and correlated quite well (rs = 0.50) with groundwater level, but not as well with a community H+concentration value (instead of community pH, rs = −0.31), based on species composition. In addition, we found a very strong correlation between species number and the community H+ concentration value (rs−0.84). The hydrologic index is a useful tool for the identification of spatial of species number patterns across entire landscapes. This is an important step in identifying the areas most in need of protection or restoration, designing survey techniques, and understanding the fundamental processes that control the spatial distribution of species.

  • 38.
    Åström, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of slash harvest on bryophytes and vascular plants in southern boreal forest clear-cuts2005In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1194-1202Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Åström, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Slope aspect modifies community responses to clear-cutting in boreal forests2007In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 749-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slope aspect modifies microclimate and influences ecological processes and spatial distribution of species across forest landscapes, but the impact of slope aspect on community responses to disturbance is poorly understood. Such insight is necessary to understand landscape community dynamics and resilience. We compared bryophyte (liverworts and mosses) communities in matched 0.02-ha plots of four boreal stand types in central Sweden: recently clear-felled and mature stands dominated by Norway spruce in south-facing and north-facing slopes. Differences between forests and clear-cuts were interpreted as effects of clear-cutting, and differences between south- and north-facing slopes as effects of aspect. In response to clear-cutting, bryophyte cover and composition changed more in south-facing slopes. Only one out of ten significantly declining species in south-facing slopes also declined significantly in north-facing slopes. North-facing slopes lost fewer bryophyte species, and among those, fewer forest species and fewer species associated with wood and bark. In north-facing slopes, the average proportions of mosses and liverworts shared between the forest and the clear-cut plot were 88% and 74%, respectively. Corresponding numbers for south-facing slopes were 79% and 33%. In addition, more bryophyte species were added in north- than south-facing slopes after clear-cutting, somewhat reducing the difference in compositional change between aspects. South- and north-facing mature forests differed in species composition, mostly due to higher richness of mosses in south-facing slopes. The smaller changes in bryophyte communities on north-facing slopes in response to clear-cutting have implications for ecosystem dynamics and management as high local survival may enhance landscape-level resilience.

1 - 39 of 39
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