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  • 1. Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    The Liminal Space Between National Tests and ICT for Teaching and Learning: (Dis)Harmony of Teacher Roles2019Ingår i: ECER 2019 - European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany 3rd-6th September 2019: "Education in an Era of Risk – the Role of Educational Research for the Future", 2019, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, a neo-liberal governing of public education has emerged and been enhanced throughout the school- systems in nations (Au, 2016). Following from this, the vehicle of development in the nordic education systems are anchored in a corporate-logic in which economic competition and technological change have taken central places (Antikainen, 2006). An orientation towards goal-management and a marketisation of the school has been displayed in reforms especially from the 1990s and forward, encompassing choice, efficiency and accountability (Rönnberg, 2011).

    Two examples of this is the very predominant practices of the increased use of ICT in teaching and learning and also, increased emphasis on national assessment (Verger, Lubienski & Steiner-Kamsi, 2017). Both of these practices are in the core of making education more efficient and holding higher quality, which is ultimately the teachers responsibility and something that the schools is held accountable for. Enhancement of knowledge and quality is assumed to be an engine for progress and are at the same time means for the state to govern a system that is imprinted by globalisation, decentrantralisation, privatization and local self-governing (Carlbaum, Hult, Lindgren, Novak, Rönnberg, Segerholm, 2014). Data-use in education have then become important tools for producing evidence, as quality indicators and for the settings of goals (Prøitz, Mausethagen & Skedsmo, 2017), which is seen both in the collection of results from the tests and in the use of ICT in the classroom.

    This contribution explores two of the most prominent reforms made in the Swedish school system the last decade, and that have connections to the above depicted global and neo-liberal logic of governing education. 1: Increased emphasis on the use of ICT in teaching and learning and 2: Increased and earlier national assessment and grading. The Swedish context in particular provides a large number of ICT initiatives, so called one-to-one computing, with both laptops and tablets for each student reported in almost all of the 290 Swedish municipalities (Becker & Taawo, 2018). In addition, national testing has been advanced and is now administered to preschool class, third grade, sixth grade and ninth grade in compulsory school.

    They are both very dominant as institutionalised practices in the Swedish school and we state that they carries with them disparate routines, rules and roles for how to be a teacher. At the same time, the nordic school model is characterized by “providing schooling of high and equal quality, regardless of children’s and young people’s resources, origin and location“ (Lundahl, 2016, p. 3). These elements of equity and quality is also a point of departure and argument for implementing changes in school policy. Although equity is not very well demarcated, and heavily weighted with the neo-liberal logic and in addition, depicted as something the schools and teachers are held accountable for (Bagger, Norén, Boistrup & Lundahl, 2019). Therefore, the teachers role become in the core of these changes and how their space of action within the dominant practices of national testing and use of ICT in teaching and learning, important to explore further.

    The purpose of this article is to contribute with knowledge on the teacher role in the practice of using ICT in education and the practice of giving national tests. Three research questions have guided the investigation: RQ1: What does the teachers role include in the practice of giving tests appear. RQ2: What does the teachers’ role include in the practice of using ICT in teaching and learning? RQ3: What differences and similarities are there in the two settings regarding demands, expectations, norms and routines - what “is” it to be a teacher and go between these contexts.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used: Van Leeuwens (2008) theories was the point of departure in our exploration of the teachers’ role in relation to the practice at hand. Therefore, both of these investigated practices are understood as social practices. We then draw on Van Leeuwens (2008) understanding of social practices and how they shape and contribute to the role of the teachers. Van Leeuwen define social practice from 10 different elements: participants, actions, performance modes, eligibility conditions (participants), presentations style, times, locations, eligibility conditions (locations), resources: tools and materials, eligibility conditions (resources). All these concepts shall be understood in relation to the social practice. Thus, the concept of participant concern a specific role of, for example, teachers and students in the two contexts.The actions were then framed as performed in sequences which includes, for example, the pace of an action, performance modes, time and location (Van Leeuwen, 2008). Teachers are within these assumed to construct specific knowledge situated within legitimate perspectives. Hence, prevalent social discursive practices shapes and contributes to the role of the teachers whilst creating a possible space for action at the same time as the teachers shapes and contributes to the social discursive practice. The empirical material originates from two larger research projects (dnr:721-2013-774; drn: 721-208-4646) founded by the Swedish research council. The data comprise 21 teachers in the national test project and 26 teachers in the ICT project. The material contains classroom observations assisted with video, audio and field note documentation and retrospective teacher interviews individually and in groups. In both projects, teachers were interviewed and observed with the purpose of exploring the role of the teacher in the social practice at hand - but with different focus areas. In the NP project the aim was to look into if and how the student was affected by testing and in the ICT project the aim was to examining the kinds of enacted practices that arise from teachers’ organisation of the physical space, including ICTs, and teachers’ communication. We have in this article revisited the data from both projects, with a common methodology which makes the two social practices and their effect on the teachers’ role, comparable. The analytical procedure was to explore which specific participants (teachers) take which particular actions and in which performance modes they are performed, to which time-aspects and locations for the two practices and thereafter compare the teacher's role. 

    Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings: The roles in the national test practice and the ICT practice are here considered as a liminal space between two different social practices. Individually, these bear with them significantly different spaces, times for action, levels of creativity, kinds of questions, answers and support and essentially how the teacher approaches the students and the tasks. The major differences indicate that in the social practice of ICT, the teacher's role is supposed to promote creativity and stimulate curiosity, creativity and activity. Activity is also crucial in the situation of national tests, but the teacher role is in essence supposed to promote students listening, following and focusing on individual achievement. Further, order issues as sound level and how and where to sit, differs greatly. A conclusion is that between these practices, there is a (dis)harmony of acting as a teacher. When we reflect on the outcome, these practices are significantly different in a way that makes us to consider them as a liminal space. Still, the teacher has to move effortless and presumably seamless between these two systems of norms regarding teaching and learning. In periods, it is not very unlikely that the half of the school day is national tests and the other half consists of some kind of collaborative and creative ICT supported learning activity. The liminal space is crucial to acknowledge in terms of the energy involved in changing role, and also that it might be had for some students to understand the changed appearance of their teacher and the changed demands of the situation. The contrasts between these practices highlight probably deeper questions about what knowledge is in today’s school and society, as well as, for whom education is aimed for, and whose interest it is supposed to serve?

  • 2.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Bridging the Distance in Teacher Education: Teachers’ Perspectives on Process-Based Assessment2013Ingår i: Transformative Dialogues, ISSN 1918-0853, Vol. 6, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a research project in which a group of teachers in a pre-school teacher education programme based at a 'satellite' study centre in a distant rural area used digital personal development planning (PDP) as a means to bridge the distance. A qualitative approach was taken that aimed to develop a greater understanding of the teacher-student relationship through research questions addressing the student role, the learning process and the assessment process. A didactical design for process-based assessment was developed and structured into three phases involving questions of the students' previous knowledge, reflections and learning. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and a student questionnaire. The material was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The underpinning principles of power and control were helpful for understanding the social relations in the teacher-student relationship within this online context. The results indicate a conflict between the student-centred curriculum and traditional beliefs in the teacher-student relationship.

  • 3.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Comparative research based on one-to-one computing classroom studies in Sweden and Finland2017Ingår i: Learning and education: material conditions and consequences, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The approach to compare Research topic/Aim:

    The aim of this round table is to discuss methodological and theoretical approaches for comparative analysis. In particular, the focus concerns three aspects: 1) approaches to make comparisons of teachers’ teaching with digital technologies (e.g. one-to-one computing) in Swedish and Finnish compulsory school, and 2) what are the possibilities and challenges of making comparative analysis based on qualitative data?, and 3) what is the needs and reasons for making comparative analysis of teachers’ teaching with digital technologies?

    Theoretical frameworks:

    Methodology/research design:

    The quantitative Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) has showed great impact in comparative studies between countries. PISA compares pupil skills in applying knowledge in new situations. Finland has shown great success in such comparisons while in Sweden an educational crisis in media was reported. A growing body of research argue for a need of both qualitative and quantitative studies between countries. Comparative studies are afflicted with a several difficulties based on unclear purposes regarding what it is that shall be compared (Alexander, 2000). In qualitative comparative research there seems to be an emphasis of policy studies that sometimes are complemented with teacher interviews (e.g. Carlgren & Klette, 2008). One problem with interviews concern that the teachers’ narratives demonstrate the teachers’ wish in contrast to how they actually teach. Against this backdrop, in the comparative studies there is a need for systematically analysis of how teachers really teach based on classroom observations as a complement to policy studies and teacher interviews (Alexander, 2000; Phillips & Schweisfurth, 2014).

    Expected conclusions/Findings:

    The session starts with a presentation of two projects about teachers’ didactical design in one-to-one computing classrooms in Sweden and Finland. The Swedish project took place during 2014-2016 and the Finnish project took place during 2015-2016. A possible next step is to make comparative study on the empirical material. The empirical material consists of qualitative data based on 60 classroom observations and 60 teacher interviews and 10 principal interviews collected in compulsory schools in Sweden and Finland. During this session a theoretical framework is presented that possibly can support comparative analysis. Briefly, the theoretical approach is based on Bernstein’s (1990, 2000) concepts for symbolic power (classification) and control (framing). This framework constructs the possibility of a two dimensional analysis. Firstly, the spatial dimension highlights the precondition of the classroom based on the symbolic boarders between different categories such as the relationship between desks, or the symbolic boarders between ICT and other resources. The relative concept of classification indicates privileging features of classroom spatiality, or on whom power is conferred upon. Secondly, the teachers’ teaching is analysed based on the principle of who controls what. The concept of framing indicates who has the right to select content, sequence, pacing, and how assessment is communicated. In the results, an attempt was made to illustrate the relationship between the one-to-one computing classroom spaces in relation to the one-to-one computing teaching practices based on the concepts of classification and framing. After the presentation the floor is open for discussion among the participants.

     

  • 4.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Den andra rapporten för projektet "Lärmiljön för studerande i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad"2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten redovisas den andra intervjuomgången av studenter i masterporgrammet i omvårdnad. Det övergripande syftet är att förstå de kunskaper som studenter i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad förvärvar under utbildningen. För att besvara syftet har följande forskningsfrågor formulerats: 1) Hur ser relationen ut mellan praktiska och teoretiska kunskaper ut i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad? 2) Vilka möjligheter och val ges till studenterna i de kurser de läser i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad? 3) På vilka sätt ”studievägleder” studenten sig själv i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad? Under höstterminen 2014 har totalt sex studenter intervjuats. Intervjuerna fokuserade på följande områden: studentens arbete, studentens val av kurser, examensmål i masterutbildningen. Resultatet indikerar från vilka utgångspunkter studenter väljer kurser samt vilka kunskaper de möter. För studenterna föreligger en fara för reproduktion av horisontell kunskap i kontrast till val av kurser där studenterna möter kunskaper som kommuniceras med ett mer abstrakt språk.

  • 5.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Designing for the unknown: Didactical design for process-based assessment in technology-rich learning environments2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on a study of the development of education through theinnovative use of process-based assessment in technology-rich learningenvironments in teacher and nurse education. The study of process-basedassessment addresses the aim of creating a better understanding of the shiftin emphasis from teaching to learning with regard to theory and practice.The research questions address the use of process-based assessment, andhow the social relationships and issues of content can be understood intechnology-rich learning environments. A methodological approachinvolving design-based research was found to be especially applicable. Thestudy was designed in three iterative didactical design cycles for processbasedassessment in which the first and third cycles were analysed. Theempirical material comprises qualitative semi-structured interviews withteachers and students and questionnaires with students. The empiricalmaterial was analysed through inductive thematic analysis. The theoreticalanalyses in the comprising articles are mainly based on Bernstein’stheoretical framework for studying social relationships through concepts ofsymbolic power and control. For understanding change, with regard to theshift in emphasis from teaching to learning, the analysis is taken to a metalevelby applying Bernstein’s concept of pedagogical device.The results outline the shift in emphasis from teaching to learning fromboth a theoretical and practice perspective. Theoretically, the shift inemphasis from teaching to learning is based upon a shift in symbolic powerand control for teachers. In practice, the shift of symbolic power and controlbetween the teacher, student and content outline considerable overlapsbetween teacher-student, teacher-content and student-content. The overlapshighlight the empirical contribution in this thesis through the concept of“process” that is understood as a negotiation between teacher-student,teacher-content and student-content. The weakening symbolic powerrelationship made a multi-dimensional analysis of the teacher-studentcontentrelationship possible. Theoretically, the shift of symbolic poweroutlines a process of recontextualisation of a new discourse for teaching,learning and assessment. The multi-dimensional analysis highlights thetheoretical contributions to understanding the concept of discourse fromBernstein’s perspective through which the content and context create thediscourse. For practice, process-based assessment frames the notion ofdesigning for the unknown. Designing for the unknown is considered as aframework based upon a set of rules through which teachers and studentsadapt to a problematising approach in teaching, learning and assessment

  • 6.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Didactical design for online process-based assessment in teacher education: Making the informal formal2012Ingår i: Cases on Online Learning Communities and Beyond: Investigations and Applications / [ed] Harrison Hao Yang and Shuyan Wang, Hersey: IGI Global, 2012, s. 403-425Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter reports on a research project in which a group of students in preschoolteacher education participated in an educational intervention based on thedevelopment of process-based assessment. A didactical design was developed andstructured into three phases for supporting students in building formal knowledgefrom their prior informal knowledge. Moreover, the design was implemented in anonline context that facilitated documentation and reflection. A qualitative approachwas taken that aimed to understand the learning environment emerging from thedidactical design through the use of technology by addressing questions about theteacher’s role, the learning process, and the assessment process. Data was collectedthrough in-depth interviews and a questionnaire, which were analyzed through inductivethematic analysis. The concept of variation was used in the analysis of thestudent perspective on the didactical design. The results indicate how the concept ofvariation was helpful in highlighting the underpinning affordances and constraintsof this environment and the associated social relationships.

  • 7.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Kommunikation i webbaserad videokonferens: dialog, form och innehåll2006Ingår i: Fyra studier om fortbildning av universitetslärare i Kvarkenområdet / [ed] Gun-Marie Frånberg, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2006, s. 7-28Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Lärmiljön för studerande i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten sammanfattas den intervjustudie som skett i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad under höstterminen 2013. Programmet sker på distans med 50% studietakt. Projektets målsättning är att studera studentens process genom masterprogrammet. Processen har avgränsats till att dels studera hur studenten själv kan skapa en individuellt anpassad utbildning och dels att studera studenternas lärprocess i de valbara kurserna. Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att förstå hur studenterna uppfattat sin första termin i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad. För att besvara syftet formulerades två forskningsfrågor: 1) Hur beskriver studenterna möjligheterna att individualisera sin utbildning under höstterminen 2013? 2) Vad kännetecknar de valbara eller tillgodoräknade kursernas design och genomförande under höstterminen 2013? Resultatet indikerar tre teman 1) att skapa sin individuella inriktning i programmet 2) Undervisningens utformning 3) Att knäcka koden. Sammanfattningsvis indikerar resultatet att programmets avsikt att skapa självständiga studenter står i relation till att inom de individuellt valda kurserna finns ringa möjligheter till självständighet.

  • 9.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Merging three schools into one new school: training teachers for team-based teaching2019Ingår i: Fjärde nationella konferensen i pedagogiskt arbete: Abstractbok, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a project where three schools in one municipality are involved in a 2-years preparation process of merging three existing schools into one greater newly built school. In each of these schools, training arenas has been set up based on the architecture of the new school building (e.g. principles of room-in-the-room, small amphitheaters, varying furniture and rich access to ICTs). The new school highlights an organizational shift where teachers will move from individual work in classes of 23-30 students to team-based teaching. Each team teaches one whole grade with approx. 100 students in home arenas. This paper focuses on how the three existing schools prepare teachers for such a shift. The aim is to increase the understanding of what skills teachers need and develop for team-based teaching. The research question addressed: what characterizes the pedagogical practice in the training arenas in terms of how the arena is used and teacher-student communication and interaction? A participatory design-based research methodology (Holmgren, 2019) was applied where this paper focus on the initial phase of teachers’ work in the training arenas. The analysis draws on a) classroom observations based on audio recordings from the teachers’ communication, notes, and photographs, and b) teacher and principal interviews. The data were analyzed with support of a typology where Bernstein’s (2000) theory of classification and framing were operationalized into a two-dimensional typology based on the physical organization of space (classification), and teachers’ communication in practice (framing) (Bergström et al., 2017). Preliminary results indicate possibilities and challenges in the pedagogical practice. Possibilities concern a richer environment which provides variation in students’ learning, while challenges concern increase demands on students’ self-regulation when power and control was distributed to the students.     

  • 10.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Interaktiva medier och lärande.
    Online process based assessment for learning in higher education: Dialogue or interaction; Engagement or control2008Ingår i: European Conference on Educational Research: ECER 2008, 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A three phase model to support process documentation has been developed for use in online courses in the Department of Interactive Media and Learning at Umeå University since 2005. The aim of this model is to integrate the formative and summative purposes of assessment. The model focuses on students’ previous knowledge at the start of the course, reflections on their experience during the course and finally on their learning on completing the course. This paper reports on the analysis of data from the first phase of three phases with a purpose to highlight students’ learner autonomy. This is a part of a larger study on the development of process based assessment in nurse education in a university setting. The study was conducted during the autumn of 2007 in a 15 credit distance learning course. The aim of this research is to study how students engage with the pedagogical situation in distance education when process documents are used for capturing students’ reflections on their learning outcomes. Qualitative data for understanding phase one consists of interviews with two teachers and eight students, students’ process documents with teachers’ feedback and a student questionnaire. The data is analyzed with support of a hermeneutical approach and transcript analysis for understanding the teacher-student interaction. The theoretical work is underpinned by the concepts of transactional distance (Moore, 2007) the thinking of dialogue (Freire, 1970) and autonomous learner.  The result shows that dialogue suffers by the course criteria, too few open questions in teachers’ feedback and on the students’ engagement.

  • 11.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet.
    Process-based assessment for professional learning in higher education: perspectives on the student-teacher relationship2010Ingår i: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1492-3831, E-ISSN 1492-3831, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 33-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on a study that was carried out in autumn 2007 with students in a professional nurse education distance course at a Swedish university. The study aimed to develop a greater understanding of the student-teacher relationship based on research questions addressing the teachers’ role, the learning process, and the assessment process in traditional approaches to teaching and learning. A didactical design was adopted, focusing on three learning outcomes in three phases. In each of the three phases, these learning outcomes were assessed by each student documenting his/her knowledge at the beginning, middle, and end of the course. Data was collected via in-depth interviews with students (n = 14) and through a questionnaire (n = 40) and was analysed using an inductive thematic analysis of the material. The results indicate a student-teacher relationship involving ambiguity and complexity in relation to the degree of teacher direction as being teacher-centred or learner-centred and also in relation to the learning process as being reproductive or productive. The interpretation of the results shows diverse aspects of the student-teacher relationship arising from students’ beliefs about teaching, learning, and assessment and, in particular, process-based assessment. The locus of control involves the teachers’ role, the learning process, and the assessment process, which illuminates different perspectives of power relations in the student-teacher relationship.

  • 12.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Rapport för projektet: ”Indikatorer och instrument för analys av professionsutveckling”2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten återrapporteras en förstudie där ett utvärderingsinstrument konstruerats och utprovats. Instrumentets konstruktion tar utgångspunkt i Bernsteins (2000) teori för symbolisk makt och kontroll. Projektet har två syften. Syftet är dels att med hjälp av ett instrument utvärdera om utbildningen till ingenjör vid TFE är studentcentrerad. Vidare är syftet också att konstruera och utprova ett utvärderingsinstrument utifrån sociologisk teori. Två forskningsfrågor konstruerades som dels fokuserar på hur lärare-student relationen kan förstås i tre olika program samt hur väl utvärderingsinstrumentet fungerar. Resultatet visar att bland de 14 studenter som besvarade enkäten kan lärare-student relationen betraktas som studentcentrerad. Karaktären på utbildningen indikerar en kollegial relation mellan lärare och elev. En vanlig studie form för att lära sig kursinnehållet är genom projektarbeten. En annan slutsats är behovet av fler respondenter för att kunna utvärdera instrumentets tillförlitlighet.  

  • 13.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Rapport nr 2: "Indikatorer och instrument för analys av professionsutveckling"2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten är skriven för den andra omgången i projektet ”Indikatorer och instrument för professionsutveckling”. I föreliggande projektet studeras undervisningskontexter utifrån Bernsteins (2000) teori för makt och kontroll i den pedagogiska kommunikationen. I studien ingår utbildningarna till högskoleingenjör i programmen Elektronik och datorteknik, Maskinteknik, Medieproducent och civilingenjörsprogrammet i Industriell ekonomi. Syftet är att förstå hur undervisningens reglering påverkar student-lärarrelationen samt hur studenten upplever sin egen möjlighet till inflytande över innehåll, arbetsformer och examination i utbildningen. En forskningsfråga konstruerades för att besvara syftet: Hur påverkar olika undervisningsupplägg student-lärarrelationen? Instrumentet från föregående delrapport (Bergström, 2013) från vt13 distribuerades till fler informanter och program. Resultatet visar att den pedagogiska kommunikationen skiljer sig mellan programmen. Programmen Industriell ekonomi och Maskinteknik har en mer lärarcentrerad kommunikation än programmen Elektronik- och datorteknik och i Medieproducent utbildningen. Dessa skillnader innebär för utbildningarna att det är olika reglering mellan lärare och student i förutsättningarna för lärande.

  • 14.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Shifting the emphasis from teaching to learning: process-based assessment in nurse education2011Ingår i: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1492-3831, E-ISSN 1492-3831, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 108-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifting from an emphasis on teaching to learning is a complex task for both teachers andstudents. This paper reports on a qualitative study of teachers in a nurse specialist educationprogramme meeting this shift in a distance education course. The study aimed togain a better understanding of the teacher-student relationship by addressing researchquestions in relation to the students’ role, the learning process, and the assessment process.A didactical design comprising three phases focusing on distinct learning outcomesfor the course was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with teachersand were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The results indicate a shift towardsa problematising and holistic approach to teaching, learning, and assessment. This shifthighlighted a teacher-student relationship with a shared responsibility in the orchestrationof the learning experience. The overall picture outlines a distance education experience ofprocess-based assessment characterised by the imposition of teachers’ rules and a lack ofcreativity due to the limited role of ICT merely as a container of content.

  • 15.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Interaktiva medier och lärande.
    Process diaries: formative and summative assessment in e-learning courses2007Ingår i: Advanced Principles of Effective e-learning / [ed] Nicole A. Buzzetto-More, Santa Rosa: Informing Science Press , 2007, s. 21-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Häll, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Kuuskorpi, Marko
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Teacher's Didactical Design in Finnish 1:1 Tablet Classrooms: Perspectives on Content and Meaning2016Ingår i: Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, European Educational Research Association, Freie Universität Berlin , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the first year of a two-year study in Finland about Finnish teachers didactical design in one-to-one (1:1) tablet classrooms. In it's simplest form 1:1 means that each student and teacher is equipped with a computing device. In this study all students and teachers are equipped with an Apple iPad. Compared to other European countries (EUN, 2013) the digitalisation of Finnish schools progress at a slow rate where the ratio of computers per child in year 7-9 is among the lowest, but has started to increase. The project is conducted during the transition from the 2004 national curriculum to the 2016 national curriculum. Researchers indicate that equipping each student with a digital device is a great challenge for the so-called ecology of the classroom (Håkansson Lindqvist, 2015). Aspect of digitalisation concerns wireless Internet access (WiFi) and cloud computing. Such technologies highlight the notion of what content students have access to and how content is shared among teachers and students. Traditionally, teaching have been organised with textbooks while with 1:1 computing students got access to a great number of new resources that possibly challenges the thinking of what represents content. However, it is not the content per se that create students learning experience, it is how the teacher design students' learning expedition (Jahnke, Norqvist and Olsson, 2014) with the curriculum and the content.

    Aim and research questions: The aim of this paper is to contribute to knowledge about teachers' didactical design in schools with one-to-one tablet programs.

    - What characterises the students' interaction with the content in one-to-one tablet contexts?

    - How can we understand the teachers' didactical design based on the relationship between the privileging features of the one-to-one tablet context in relation to the teaching practice?

  • 17.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Häll, Lars. O
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Pedagoginen suunnittelu digitaalisissa oppimisympäristöissä: Kaarina 1:1 tablettikoulut - puolivälin muistiinpanoja2016Ingår i: Opetuksen digitalisaatio, uudet oppimisympäristöt ja uusi pedagogiikka / [ed] Marko Kuuskorpi ja Keijo Sipilä, Kaarina: Kaarinan kaupunki , 2016, 1, s. 56-63Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Lindh, Viveca
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Developing the role of Swedish advanced practice nurse (APN) through a blended learning master's program: consequences of knowledge organisation2018Ingår i: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 28, s. 196-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a research study conducted with a group of nurses in Sweden enrolled in a newly developed blended learning master's programme to become advanced practice nurses (APNs). As background, the paper presents the regional needs the programme is intended to address and describes how the programme was designed. The aim was to understand how, from students' perspective, the nurse master's programme structured knowledge for their future position as APNs. The research question focuses on how the master's programme prepares students by meeting their diverse needs for knowledge. Empirical material was collected at two times during the students' first and second years of study through semi-structured qualitative interviews. The findings highlight the process in which these master's students gained a more advanced identity of becoming APNs. This process demonstrates how students perceive their current position as nurses based on a discourse of knowledge in relation to the practical and theoretical knowledge they encounter in the master's programme. This article concludes by recommending that attention should be paid to developing APN role models in the current Swedish healthcare system.

  • 19.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Interaktiva medier och lärande.
    Lindwall, Krister
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Interaktiva medier och lärande.
    Teaching and learning podcasting through blogging2008Ingår i: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning, ISSN 1404-7659, nr 3-4, s. 13-33Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on an online workshop which was held in October 2006 on the topic of contemporary web 2.0 technologies. The workshop was a part of the European project eLene-Teacher Training. The workshop was organised by two teacher educators in Sweden and 33 participants was enrolled from eight countries in Europe. The workshop took place during one week on the Internet in a blog environment. The workshop is analysed from both a pedagogical and technical perspective. The workshop is evaluated with a questionnaire, analysis of blog posts and podcasts and through reflections from the teacher educators. The result indicates that the technical aims were reached i.e. the participants learned to create podcasts and learned to blog. The pedagogical aims suffered from difficulties to discuss for example attitudes to publishing content on the Internet. Instead pedagogical issues should be raised by the participants.

     

  • 20.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Maker pedagogy in Swedish tablet-classrooms2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: students’ perspectives on teachers’ didactical design2018Ingår i: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 160-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a research study that scrutinised the student perspective on teachers’ different didactical designs from lessons in the one-to-one computing classroom. Specifically, the aim was to describe and understand three different clusters of didactical design in the one-to-one computing classroom from the student perspective. Each of the three clusters represents different interactions between teachers and students. The research questions embrace how the teachers or students, through the didactical design, will have an advantage over the other. The empirical material was based on student focus groups interviews, enhanced through the method of stimulated recall where different photographs of teaching and learning situations from the one-to-one computing classroom were shown to the students. The results demonstrate three empirical themes: students’ learning in class, students’ learning outside class, and classroom assessment. From a theoretical lens of power and control, the students’ reasoning demonstrates approaches to how teachers regulate students and to how students can make decisions in their learning process. For handling students’ demands, specifically in pedagogical plans, the one-to-one computing classroom becomes one component for making students’ learning processes smoother regarding when to study and how to study.

  • 22.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Swedish teachers' didactical design from students' perspective: perspectives on digital competences2017Ingår i: Learning and education: material conditions and consequences : NERA 2017 abstracs, Copenhagen: Aalborg University , 2017, artikel-id 610Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/Aim:

    Based on students' perspective, the aim of this study is to understand teachers' didactical design in contemporary one-to-one computing classroom in Sweden. The following research questions were formulated:

    1. How do teachers' organise students' use of one-to-one computing, and what are the effects?
    2. How are social processes constructed in the one-to-one computing learning environment based on students' experience and use?

    Theoretical frameworks:

    In a theoretically informed analysis, we applied Bernstein's (2000) concepts for symbolic power and control: classification and framing. Bernstein's relative concept of classification indicates the symbolic boarders between categories, for example teachers and students. The concept of framing indicates the locus of control, or who controls what. The concepts of classification and framing is relative, either strong or weak. These concepts are used to understand how teachers' either keep symbolic power and control, or shift the symbolic power and control towards the students in teaching and learning situations.

    Methodology/research design:

    This study is part of a greater project about the digitalisation of compulsory schools. Based on results from the bigger project, this study focused on a mixed group of students in compulsory school in grade-2, grade-6, grade-7 and grade-8 studying mathematics, arts and sports. The empirical material consists of four classroom observations, 11 focus group interviews with students and a questionnaire. The focus group interviews were based on three themes: 1) students' basic digital skills, 2) teachers' teaching, and 3) students’ learning. During the interviews, the approach of stimulated recall (Haglund, 2003) was used for probing students' experiences of different teaching approaches by showing the focus groups photography's of different one-to-one computing practices. The focus group interviews lasted between 18 to 35 minutes.

    Expected conclusions/Findings:

    Based on the concepts of classification and framing, three themes were constructed that indicated teachers and students digital competence. The first theme indicated students' basic digital skills. This theme identified for what and how often the most common activities in which the teachers’ ask students to use one-to-one computing. The second theme indicated a piecework approach, which highlighted students' use of one-to-one computing in class and out of class. In class use indicated a formal practice based on the teachers' power and control, while the out of class use indicated practices based on students' power and control. The third theme indicated the symbolic gesture of raising ones hand. This theme indicated diverse aspects how the teacher either held or dislocated symbolic control.

    Relevance for Nordic Educational Research:

    In the Nordic countries, digital competence is either already introduced or on its way to be introduced in the national steering documents. Few studies have so far focused on understanding students' perspective of teachers' didactical design. This study contributes to this field of research and indicates a need for a broader understanding of the concept digital competence beyond basic digital skills. Among other things, this study indicate especially how one-to-one computing constructs a need for diverse digital competences based on students' use of one-to-one computing in class as well as out of class.

  • 23.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Teachers' Digital Didactical Design: Towards Maker Movement Pedagogies In Tablet Mediated Learning2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates a project about digital didactical designs in one-to-one (1:1) computing classrooms in Sweden. The study focuses on schools in four municipalities with 1:1 media tablet (iPads) programs. In Sweden, there have been two major changes that have led to new situations and new challenges for schools. A new school reform started in 2011, at the same time there was a boom using mobile web-enabled technologies in teaching and learning. With the new national curriculum LGR 11 the main changes involves stronger guidance what teachers teaching should involve at the subject level, a new grading system and specific knowledge's students should achieve in school year 3, 6 and 9. The boom of mobile technologies highlights a shift away from separating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and education (e.g. computer labs) (Henderson & Yeow, 2012) into co-located settings (De Chiara, Di Matteo, Manno, & Scarano, 2007). Mobile technology becomes part of classrooms; both merged into new spaces for learning – we call them co-expanded spaces. In general, we assume these new situations affect the designs of teaching and learning in different aspects. Results from our previous studies in Denmark indicate a shift in students' learning culture from consumption of content into production of content (Jahnke & Kumar, 2014) similar to what Hatch (2013) addresses as the maker movement culture. In this study, we explore how teachers meet the new challenges by studying the pedagogical communication. Specifically, from a Digital Didactics approach, we explore how the new situation affects didactical designs in such new settings where physical teaching and learning spaces are expanded by mobile technologies.

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to understand the teaching and learning designs-in-practice, especially the facets of such designs in co-expanded spaces. By studying the innovative teachers' didactical designs in media tablet classrooms, a particular focus is on the social relationship as a function of the teacher-student interaction and communication.

    Research questions

    1. How can the teacher-student relationships be described and understood in relation to tablet mediated learning classroom practice?

    2. How can teachers' communication about tablet mediated teaching and learning be described and understood in relation to tablet mediated classroom practice?

    3. How can the forms of teachers’ digital didactical designs be described and understood in relation to the curriculum?

    Theoretical framework

    For understanding the designs of media tablet classroom practices, we used two sets of theories. Firstly, Jahnke, Norqvist, & Olsson's (2014) approach of digital didactical design that is based on learning intentions, learning activities, assessment, and the social relations was applied for framing the analysis. In this paper the social relations constitute the teacher-student communication, which mirrors the teachers' didactical design. For understanding the teacher-student communication, Bernstein’s (2000) theory of classification and framing was applied. The concepts of classification and framing are translated into power and control relations. Classification highlights the relation between different categories. What turns a category into a unique category is its unique relationship to other categories. The uniqueness of a category is based on its specialisation e.g. teacher or student. The degree of specialisation creates boarders and a space between the categories as either strong or weak. The outcome of the classification analysis indicates practices of media tablet classrooms. These practices are further analysed through the relative concept of framing as either strong or weak. The concept of framing contributes to the understanding of the locus of control in the teacher-student relationship. The locus of control relates to several issues in the teacher student relationship, which reflects Bernstein’s concepts of selection, sequence, pacing and evaluation.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used

    The methodology in this research project has been pre-tested in a pilot study in Denmark in 2012 to 2014. The qualitative method has been conducted to explore the teachers' designs in Swedish classrooms ranging from preschool to upper secondary school. Applying a purposeful sampling (Patton, 1990), schools were selected where teachers and pupils have been using media tablets longer than six months, preferably within a one-to-one computing program in which the pupils can also use the iPads at home. We focused on innovative teachers and early adopters (Rogers, 2003). In total we studied schools in four municipalities in Sweden in six clusters: one preschool, one preschool class (children at age 6), and classes in school years 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, and 10-12. The schools have been visited two times during the school year 2014/2015. In total we have conducted 20 classroom observations and teacher interviews. Data collection The classroom observations were conducted of 2-3 observers. The field notes were developed, as close as possible to the observation, into thick descriptions (Kullberg, 2004) that are described as narrative, describing, analysing and interpreted. After the observations the thick descriptions were discussed until an agreement was reached among the researchers. During the observations the observer take notes, photos, short video recordings. Each lesson lasted between 40-60 minutes. The subjects range from Native Language, Math, Science, English, Spanish and Social studies. The class sizes were around 20 to 25 students in each class. The observations were followed up with teacher interviews. For the teacher interviews, a half-structured interview guide were used that is divided into five themes with sub-questions: (1) background (age, gender, years as teacher, teaching subjects; first "thought" when implementing iPads); (2) the teachers teaching; (3) Learning (4) Assessment (5) magic wizard offers three wishes (what would teacher wish). The interviews were conducted by at least two researchers; audio-recorded and transcribed. Each interview lasted for about 60 minutes. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or FindingsFindings from the innovative media tablet classrooms indicate two sets of didactical designs. The first set of didactical design demonstrates a majority of blurred boarders between categories, ranging from teachers' organisation of desks in the classroom to the software applications used in teaching and learning. The second set of didactical designs illustrates designs based on clear boarders between categories, which indicates strong power relationships. These two sets of relationship between categories create two kinds of social relationship in the classroom. Media tablet classrooms based on weak classification indicates a pedagogical practice that involves students' decision making to a greater extent than in classrooms based on strong classification. The weak classification between categories in the classrooms becomes the underpinning framework for didactical designs where the media tablets are integrated for making products. The making of products demonstrates students' influence regarding the selection and sequence of content, for example when making films. With regard to the learning intentions in the curriculum, in students' creative work, the teachers' support student learning by using explicit and implicit criteria for keeping the right track in students' learning. An important issue concerns the sociological notion of sharing resources involving signs of changed communication and interaction patterns in the classrooms.

  • 24.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Jahnke, Isa
    University of Missouri-Columbia.
    Variations of symbolic power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: Swedish teachers' enacted didactical design decisions2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 38-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides new insights into Swedish teachers' didactical designs when handling two contemporary challenges regarding the new national curriculum and the increasing digitalisation of schools through one-to-one computing initiatives. The research questions consider how teachers organise physical and digital resources in their classrooms as well as variations in teachers' pedagogical communication. From a study of 23 one-to-one computing classrooms (using tablets), some ethnographic-inspired methods were applied based on classroom observation and recordings of teachers' teaching. The findings show two distinct forms of teachers' classroom organisation that indicate different didactical designs used by teachers to integrate one-to-one computing into the classroom. Variations in teaching resulted in a shift of symbolic power and control from teachers to students, which exploit the potential of using one-to-one computing in the classroom.

  • 25.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Wiklund-Engblom, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Variation of power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: Finnish teachers’ enacted didactical designs in grade 1-62018Ingår i: ECER 2018: Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question and theory

    This study is part of a larger Nordic research project, including a series of substudies with a common research objective of examining teachers’ didactical design in one-to-one computing classrooms in Denmark, Sweden and Finland (Jahnke et al., 2017). The findings presented in this paper is based on 16 classroom observations and 16 teacher interviews in grades 7-9 in Finland. One-to-one computing in K–12 education has grown rapidly worldwide through initiatives based on one laptop or tablet for each student (Islam & Grönlund, 2016). In the Nordic countries, studies on teachers’ working in one-to-one computing classrooms have been performed in Sweden (Fleischer, 2013; Håkansson Lindqvist, 2015; Tallvid, 2015, Bergström et al., 2017), in Norway (Blikstad-Balas, 2012), and in Denmark (Jahnke, Norqvist, & Olsson, 2014), while Finland still seems to be a blind spot on the map (Bocconi, Kampylis, & Punie, 2013). Important knowledge and understanding about Finnish teachers’ teaching in the one-to-one computing classroom is therefore missing. 

    This study focuses on 16 teachers in a Finnish municipality that was among the first to implement a large-scale one-to-one computing initiative in Finland. Finnish teachers are prized for their high academic standards (Sahlberg, 2011), but also criticised for maintaining power and control by organising students in straight lines lectured by one teacher (Carlgren et al., 2006, Simola, 2005). One-to-one computing, is considered to be an innovation in the strive for modernisation of teaching and learning through increased student emancipation (Bocconi et al., 2013). The analysis presented here considers how these teachers’ in a variety of lessons demonstrate similarities and variations regarding their organisation of the classroom space as well as decisions in practice about content, pacing, and assessment. This mix of teachers’ designs of the classroom space and their enacted decisions during teaching form their didactical designs (Bergström et al., 2017). Specifically, this article analysis how Finnish teachers use of power and control across different subjects. This study aims to describe and understand how variations within, as well as, between teachers’ didactical design challenge and reproduce established teacher-student relationships. The following research question were asked: How can variations within, as well as between, different clusters of didactical design be understood in terms of power and control?

    The concept of didactical design follows the European tradition of Didaktik (Klafki, 2000; Sensevy, 2012) where the teaching and learning process is problematized, for example, when considering imitative teaching in contrast to students’ active learning. Such dichotomies serve to illuminate how school environments, school subjects, teachers, students and ICTs are all relays of power and control, and how power and control is maintained, reproduced or challenged. For this study, Bernstein’s (2000, 1990) theory of material conditions of classrooms in relation to teachers’ communication in practice was found to be helpful for analysing teachers’ didactical design regarding the physical space and the enacted practice. In the material conditions of the classroom, Bernstein’s concept of classification was used to analyse power relations between objects for example, the arrangement of desks, ICTs, spaces and teacher-student relations. Depending on the degree of specialisation and insulation between objects, classification is either strong or weak. Strong classification indicates for example desks organised in lines, whereas with weak classification would desks be in groups.  Bernstein’s concept of framing highlight teachers’ communication and describes the locus of control about selection and sequence of content, pacing, evaluation and communication. If framing over selection of content is strong, it is the teacher who control such decisions, whereas if framing is weak the control is distributed to the students. Different power and control relationships give raise to different didactical designs with regard to possibilities and regulations in students learning.  

    Methods

    Four schools were visited twice during 2016. Classroom observations in 16 lessons (about 45minutes each) were conducted by two observers supported by one interpreter. The data comprise audio recordings of the teachers’ communication, field notes and photographs of the physical classroom space and situations. The subjects ranged from Native Language, Mathematics, Physics, English, Slojd, Geography and lessons based on thematic studies about students’ sport holiday and Scandinavia. The class size ranged from 8 to 22 students. The observations were followed up with post-lesson interviews. We asked questions that ranged from specific situations in the observed lesson, to the teachers’ experience to teach in the one-to-one computing classroom. Each interview lasted for about 60 minutes.

    The use of different methods made triangulations of the different data possible. Each lesson was analysed with support of a theory-oriented coding scheme. In the analysis of the didactical design of the classroom environment, power relations were interpreted from photos and field notes. The classification between categories were interpreted on a two-point scale as either strong (C+) or weak (C-). In total, we analysed seven categories of “relations between” objects: desks, the teacher’s space and the students’ space, physical learning resources and one-to-one computing resources, the selection of software applications (apps), teacher and student, student and student, and the classroom and other facilities. In the next step, focus was turned to the teachers’ communication in the audio recordings. The concepts of framing was operationalised into six categories for control: selection, sequence, pacing, evaluation, teacher-student relationship and student-student relationship. These categories were coded on a four-point scale from very strong to very weak framing (F++, F+, F- F--). The results from the classification and framing analysis made it possible to estimate and differentiate different didactical designs. The didactical design findings were then considered in relation to the post-lesson interviews. The interviews provide a richer picture of the observed practice and beyond.

    Expected outcomes 

    For presenting some preliminary results a typology was used to illustrate the interplay between teachers’ didactical design of the physical classroom space and teachers’ enacted practice. In order to illustrate different nuances, quantitative data illustrate the degree to which teachers organised both furniture and digital resources, while qualitative aspects are based on teachers’ communication. From the preliminary analysis we can perceive differences in the material where some lessons demonstrate power and control relationships with similarities to traditional desk teaching. One group of lessons, demonstrate a practice where some of the power and control was distributed to the students. A third group of teachers indicated didactical designs where power and control were distributed to the students to a great extent. These teachers organised the students in groups and ICT resources demonstrated the similar value as printed books. Here, the control was distributed to the students both regarding the content, but also in pacing.  

    This study is relevant since digital technologies in pedagogical practice is increasing world-wide and is assumed to change teaching and learning. However, previous studies have shown that Finnish teachers’ teaching has been reported to maintain previous traditions of teaching and learning through teachers’ power and control. Based on these clash of paradigms, this study has the potential to serve as a good what happens in Finnish classrooms when one-to-one computing is introduced.

  • 26.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Årebrand, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    The student-role in the one-to-one computing classroom: tensions between teacher-centred learning and student-centred learning2013Ingår i: Scaling up Learning for Sustained Impact: 8th European Conference, on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2013, Paphos, Cyprus, September 17-21, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Davinia Hernández-Leo, Tobias Ley, Ralf Klamma, Andreas Harrer, Berlin: Springer-Verlag New York, 2013, nr 8, s. 424-429Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One-to-one (1:1) computing has recently been scaled up andintegrated into learning strategies, but there have been rather few studiesabout it so far. This explorative observation and interview studyaims to gain increased understanding about the student role in the 1:1computing classroom in upper secondary school. The results demonstratea media-rich classroom based on four categories of affordances:students’ note-taking; searching the Internet; social media; and laptopsfor duplication. The four categories of affordances delineate how teachers’behaviour is influencing students and their use of laptops in thedesigned learning activities. The designs of the 1:1 classrooms are basedon technology-enhanced consumption of media as opposed to designs fortechnology-enhanced learning. It is concluded that the student role is diverseand stretched between principles of both teacher-centred learningand student-centred learning.

  • 27.
    Häll, Lars O
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Digital Didactical Designs for tablets: experiences from Finland2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how teachers use tablets for learning in secondary schools. The use of tablets in compulsory school education is increasing (Balanskat et al. 2013), and research is has to some extent focused on the affordances and potential of the technology. Calls have been made for research on emergent teaching designs, classroom practices and learning. Part of a larger research effort this paper draws upon observations of, and subsequent interviews with teachers using tablets in their 1:1 Finnish secondary school classrooms. This allows description and comparison of teachers and their different Digital Didactical Designs (DDD) in practice. Grounded in Jahnke's DDD model (e.g. Jahnke et al. 2013), and informed by CSCL research, this paper identifies patterns and challenges in tablet-supported didactical designs. The discussion focus on opportunities to enhance the interactions between learners and their partners that enhances tcollaborative learning with tablets in secondary school education.

  • 28.
    Jahnke, Isa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Lindwall, Krister
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Paulsson, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Vinnervik, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Understanding, reflecting and designing learning spaces of tomorrow2012Ingår i: Proceedings of IADIS Mobile Learning 2012 / [ed] I. Arnedillo Sánchez & P. Isaías, IADIS Press, 2012, s. 147-156Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper describes challenges in the field of Interactive Media and Learning (IML), striving towards a research and teaching field for mobile learning. The theoretical background is provided and arguments are listed, specifically what challenges researchers, practitioners (e.g., teachers, employers, employees) and designers face today on the way to mobile learning. This will be done from an educational perspective, in particular from Educational Technology from a Scandinavian community. The leading issue is how to educate the Homo Interneticus? Is learning supported by mobile devices one option? Is there a need to rethink the learning spaces of today? The paper provides answers by illustrating challenges in research and teaching with regard to mobile learning.

  • 29.
    Jahnke, Isa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. University of Missouri-Columbia.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Häll, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Kumar, Swapma
    University of Florida.
    Digital Didactical Designs as research framework: iPad integration in Nordic schools2017Ingår i: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 113, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, the design of teaching and learning with web-enabled technologies, such as iPads, in 64 one-to-one (1:1) Nordic classrooms was explored using the Digital Didactical Design (DDD) framework. DDD focuses on both teachers' activities and students’ learning activities in the classroom and how web-enabled technologies are integrated into teaching, learning, and assessment. Semi-structured classroom observations were conducted to investigate how teachers apply the elements of DDD in their classroom practice, and what kinds of learning they support. The analysis resulted in three clusters: Cluster A demonstrates integration and alignment toward meaningful learning; Cluster B shows the potential for deep learning but a semi-alignment of teaching, learning, assessment, roles, and technology; and Cluster C indicates non-integration of the five elements. The findings point out that tablet integration needs the alignment of all five DDD elements to achieve meaningful learning. Pedagogy has to evolve to include new uses of the technology: it is a co-evolutionary growth of the five DDD elements together. DDD can be used by teachers for planning, self-assessment or reflective collaboration with peers and by schools to plan, document, evaluate, and rethink the interwoven pedagogy-technology relationship in tablet classrooms.

  • 30.
    Jahnke, Isa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Designs of Digital Didactics: What Designs of Teaching Practices Enable Deeper Learning in Co-located Settings?2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The  approach  of  “Digital  Didactical  Designs”  (Jahnke,  Norqvist, &  Olsson 2013;Norberg & Jahnke, 2013) sounds promising to support a changing perspectiveon designs  for  teaching  and  learning.  It  uses  the  European  tradition  of  Didaktik  and scrutinizes  teaching  and  learning  as  socially  constructed  forms  of  social  practices.There is a difference between the theories of designing for learning and doing it. Our empirical studiesin Denmark and Sweden explore key principles,a) new learning goals where  more  than  one  correct  answer  exists,  b)  focus  on  learning  as  a  process  in informal-in-formal  learning  using  guided  reflections,  c)  making  learning  visible  in different products. Course-based learning turns into learning expeditions.

  • 31.
    Jahnke, Isa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Tablettien Käytön Digitaalis-Didaktist Mallit Kouluissa: TVT on enemmäm kuin pelkkä työkalu2015Ingår i: Digitaalinen oppiminen ja oppimisympäristöt / [ed] Marki Kuuskorpi, Tampere: Juvenes Print – Suomen Yliopistopaino Oy , 2015, s. 65-85Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [fi]

    Vuonna 2012 seitsemään kouluun Odderin kunnassa Tanskassa hankittiin tabletit. Noin 2000 iältään 6–16 vuotiasta oppilasta sekä noin 170 opettajaa saivat käyttöönsä henkilökohtaiset tabletit niin sanotun 1:1 ohjelman puitteissa (yksi tabletti per oppilas). Tutkija-ryhmämme aloitti työn koulujen parissa. Ensimmäinen tavoite oli ymmärtää opettajien didaktisia malleja. Miten opettajat käyttävät tabletteja, mihin tarkoituksiin ja miksi? Näihin kysymyksiin etsittiin vastauksia eri menetelmillä, joita olivat mm. syvähaastattelu, luo-kan observointi, ryhmätapaamiset opettajien ja oppilaiden kans-sa sekä verkkokysely. Olemme tehneet töitä kyseisten koulujen kanssa yli kolme vuotta. Kerromme yksityiskohtaisesti viiden eri oppitunnin opetuskäytännöistä ja -kokemuksista. Teknologian in-tegrointi määritellään digitaalis-didaktisen mallin kautta joka poh-jautuu sosio-teknis-pedagogiseen näkemykseen opetuskäytänteis-tä. Tutkimuksemme osoitti, että TVT on enemmäin kuin pelkkä työkalu ja että TVT ja luokkahuoneet ovat yhdistymässä joksikin uudeksi kokonaisuudeksi – uudeksi kommunikointi- ja viestintä-ympäristöksi.

  • 32.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Bränberg, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Att utveckla en distanslärare: en institutionsövergripande aktivitet?2007Ingår i: Utsikter, insikter, avsikter: universitetspedagogisk konferens i Umeå 27 – 28 februari 2007 / [ed] Mohammad Fazlhashemi och Thomas Fritz, Umeå: Universitetspedagogiskt Centrum, Umeå universitet , 2007, s. 189-200Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det nätburna ingenjörsprogrammet IngOnline skapades 2002 för att tillmötesgå en allt mer ökande efterfrågan på ingenjörer inom teknikområdena tele- och datakommunikation, datateknik, elektronik samt programmering. Lärare aktiva inom programmet har genomgått en kurs för att öka kompetensen inom området pedagogik för nätburna kurser. Kursen utvecklades och gavs i samverkan mellan två institutioner vid Umeå Universitet, Tillämpad Fysik och Elektronik (TFE) samt institutionen för Interaktiva Medier och Lärande (IML). En befintlig kurs hos IML anpassades och modifierades för att passa IngOnline-lärarna. Kursen inleddes med en med en kontaktskapande kursträff samt genomfördes i flexibelt format under en termin. I kursen deltog nio aktiva lärare inom programmet IngOnline.

  • 33.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    A.I.D.A. the digital receptionist: An Artificial Intelligent Assistant solution for Dental Healthcare2018Ingår i: The 6th Swedish Workshop on Data Science (SweDS18), Umeå, November 20-21, 2018 / [ed] Lili Jiang, Johanna Björklund, Monowar Hussain Bhuyan, Erik Elmroth, Kary Främling, Amro Najjar, Kai-Florian Richter, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A.I.D.A. the digital receptionist – An Artificial Intelligent Assistant solution for Dental Healthcare

    Swedish dental healthcare is facing several challenges that are shared with the rest of the western world regarding how to develop effective dental healthcare in a digitized society. For society, the challenges concern a growing population at the same time as growing staff shortages. It is not possible to address the shortage of dentists and dental nurses by traiing more and it is therefore necessary to find other solutions. In addition, there is an ongoing digitization of dental healthcare and increased demands are being made for developing new innovative solutions, as well as those made on existing structures and systems. The focus is on creating effective dental healthcare in combination with an agile and innovative way of meeting the challenges of the future. The use of Artificial intelligence (AI) in dental healthcare brings the hope of increased quality and effectiveness as well as increased growth and better welfare. This project is about an on-going applied study in dental healthcare. The study context embraces a newly built public dental clinic in the city centre of Umea, Sweden that opened for patients in September 2018.

    The clinic’s vision is to become the world’s smartest dental clinic, using smart digital tools and developing smart working methods. Furthermore, the clinic aims to be a fully functioned test bed within two years. The clinic is fully digitized with the latest equipment it is possible to obtain for dental healthcare. The staff recruited have a specific responsibility to be part of the exploration and share their experiences of how to develop dental healthcare for the future. Another focus concerns how to conduct more effective dental healthcare for the patients. One of the on-going projects is an AI-based communication-solution under development called A.I.D.A. – the digital receptionist (e.g. Artificial Intelligent Dental Assistant).

    Aim and method

    The study aims to investigate how an AI-system can optimize the communication between patient and staff as well as the communication between the staff within the clinic. The research questions focus on patients’ and staffs’ experiences and their use of the developed AI-system concerning opportunities as well as challenges. Design-based research methods will be used as a means to develop an approach to meet the challenges of staff shortages based on the use of AI. Three types of data will be collected based on staff interviews, patient interviews and log data from the AI system. The theoretical framework is based on activity theory, where motives, goals, actions and operations are key starting points. Activity theory embraces an exploration and an understanding of a context in relation to how social relations and materials, tools and intentions affect acting in different situations.

    Thematic analysis will be used to construct an understanding and sense of the collected empirical material and to identify key themes and emerging patterns based on the study’s aim and research questions.

  • 34.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Digital transformation in Swedish schools: Principals’ strategic leadership and organisation of tablet-based one-to-one computing initiatives2018Ingår i: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 174-187Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a research study about principals’ strategic leadership and organisation of schools within established tablet-based one-to-one computing initiatives. The aim was to investigate how principals lead and guide one-to-one computing initiatives in K–12 education. The research questions focused on principals’ expressed intentions and their strategic leadership and organisation when implementing tablet-based one-to-one computing initiatives in Swedish schools. The empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews with seven principals in five municipalities where the schools had used tablets for more than six months within a one-to-one computing initiative. The findings are organised by themes concerning one-to-one computing as a strategy to change teaching and working methods, using technology for adapting teaching and learning to every pupil’s needs, and strategies for organisation. The findings show that marketisation of schools (e.g. the school-choice reform) in combination with the annual presentation of national rankings have had an impact on the financial situations of schools because they receive a voucher for every attending pupil. The participating principals’ strategic leadership concerning their intentions and applied strategies on how to lead and organise the digitalised school are an attempt to meet the demands that the marketisation and digitalisation of Swedish schools requires.

  • 35.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jahnke, Isa
    University of Missouri, Columbia .
    Is the tablet a teacher or a student tool?: Emergent practices in tablet-based classrooms2019Ingår i: Emergent practices and material conditions in learning and teaching with technologies / [ed] Teresa Cerratto Pargman, Isa Jahnke, Springer, 2019, 1, s. 89-105Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to understand how digitalization of K–12 education has been carried out in Sweden. The focus lied on investigating 26 teacher's teaching designs in tablet-based one-to-one computing initiatives in Sweden. Further, the aim was to explore teachers' motives and practical implementation for teaching and learning in the one-to-one computing classroom. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 26 teachers along with 26 classroom observations in grades 2 to 12 (e.g. students from 8 to 18 years old). Activity theory was used for analyzing the participated teachers' motives, goals, actions, and operations involved in the integration of the tablets in the classroom. This study was part of a broader research project with classroom observations and student group interviews that was conducted during 2011–2015. The findings illuminate emergent practices based on teachers' strategies for constructing a teaching design that attempts to fulfill each student's individual needs. The findings also make clear that teachers are struggling for providing a customized education for all. In addition, the findings contribute to knowledge about how principals' strategic leadership (i.e. leadership and organization of the work in the school) has an impact on teachers' design practices.

  • 36.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jahnke, Isa
    University of Missouri, Columbia, USA.
    Teachers' Digital Didactical Designs: Motives, Goals and Practical Implementation of one-to-one computing in Swedish Schools2017Ingår i: Learning and education: material conditions and consequences, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers' Digital Didactical Designs - Motives, Goals and Practical Implementation of one-to-one computing in Swedish Schools

    Research topic/Aim

    The aim of this paper is to understand and describe, at different levels, how digitalization of K-12 education is carried out in practice in Sweden. Therefore we studied principals, teachers and pupils experiences and narratives about the implementation of one-to-one computing.

    Research questions

    1. How do principals lead and guide the process of implementing one-to-one computing in K-12 education? What are they trying to achieve?
    2. How do teachers design for teaching and learning in the one-to-one computing classroom? What are they trying to achieve?
    3. What are the pupils’ experiences of one-to-one computing in school?

    Theoretical framework

    Activity theory (Leontiev, 1986) has been used for analysing the empirical material on different levels (e.g. triangulation) where motives, goals, actions and the actual operationalization in the classroom are important perspectives.

    Methodology/research design

    To study the research questions interviews with school leaders, classroom observations, teacher interviews and student group interviews have been applied in grade 2-12. Focus of the principal interviews (No. 6) was on their intentions with the one-to-one implementation and their leadership during the process. For the teacher interviews (No. 27), focus was on their teaching design (e.g. intentions and planning) and the actual operationalization of their design in the classroom. The interviews with principals and teachers lasted around 60 minutes. The pupils were interviewed in groups of 3-5 pupils in each group (in total 15 focus groups). The approach of stimulated recall (Haglund, 2003) was used for investigating pupils expericences of different teaching designs. The interviews with pupils lasted around 18-35 minutes.

    Expected conclusions/findings

    Four themes emerged from the triangulation of principal interviews, classrooms observations, teacher interviews and pupil interviews: 1) striving for pedagogical participation for increasing pupils’ achievement and approvement, 2) designing assignment for creating self-propelling pupils, 3) using variation as a method for creating motivated and active pupils, 4) designing assignments for creating variation and indivdualization by pupils’ choice.

    The four themes illustrates a chain of actions affected by each other – from expressed motives and goals on different levels, down to the teaching design implemented in the classroom. The themes also illustrate a hiearachy from the principals view of the digitalisation of the school and his/her motives of the 1:1 initiative from a pedagogic leader persepctive. This in turn, affect the participating teachers own expressed focus and goals for their teaching design and thus, the pupils actual use of the tablets in the assignments given during the schoolday.

    Relevance for Nordic educational researchA growing body of research, reports on the difficulties of implementing one-to-one computing into K-12 education, and the Nordic countries is not an exception. The contribution of this study demonstrates a chain of actions on different levels regarding possibilities and challenges in the take up and use of one-to-one computing. The results from this study contribute to an understanding on how the digitalization process of K-12 education is carried out in practice in Swedish schools.

  • 37.
    Rönnlund, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå University.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Tieva, Åse
    Umeå universitet.
    Space for active learning: Envisioned and practiced school design.2019Ingår i: NERA 2019, 6-8 March, Uppsala, Sweden: Education in a globalized world, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study of trends and transitions in the context of Nordic school design. The aim is to explore how local stakeholders in Sweden (principals, school leaders and architects) involved in school building projects envision a ‘good’ learning environment and what perceptions of teaching and learning that underlie their visions. By including various groups of stakeholders, we also aim at exploring how their views relate to each other. Drawn on the results, we discuss their ideas in relation to wider discourses on teaching and learning in late modern society with focus on local – global transitions.

    The study draws on a relational understanding of space (Massey 2005; McGregor 2004), and the idea that physical, social and pedagogical dimensions of learning space are generated together and continuously in process. Furthermore, we understand learning spaces as areas where power relations, control and agency are performed. In line with this understanding the analysis draws on Bernstein’s concepts ‘classification’ and ‘framing’ (Bernstein 2000).

    We conducted semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at different levels (municipality level, school level) involved in projects concerning construction and reconstruction of school buildings. At the level of municipalities, interviews where held with 8 officials/school leaders and 3 architects. At the school level, interviews where held with 9 principals (n 20). Interview data was analysed inspired by Critical Discourse Analysis as advocated by Wodac and Fairclough (1997).

    We identified two main discourses about how learning space shall be constituted, that differed in terms of classification. One which celebrated clear boundaries and separations between different places/localities, i.e. strong classification in physical space, and one which celebrated more blurred boundaries and separations in physical space, i.e. weak classification between localities. Furthermore, the framing came in different forms in the two discourses - more strong framing of student-teacher relations and communication in the first discourse and more weak framing in the second discourse. Thus, strongly classified physical space seemed to entail (or operate with) strong framing of communication and behaviour (clear and explicit rules and principles for classroom practices), and weak classified physical space seemed to entail (or operate with) more weak framing of practices (the rules and principles for learning being merely implicit). No matter of what discourse or profession they represented, the stakeholders advocated a pedagogical approach directed towards ‘active’ learning and saw the student as an ‘active learner‘.

  • 38.
    Spikol, Daniel
    et al.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Eliasson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Bridging the Distance from Research to Practice: Designing for Technology Enhanced Learning2012Ingår i: NGL 2012: Next Generation Learning Conference: Conference proceedings, Falun: Dalarna University , 2012, s. 1-9Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A grand challenge for educational research is to remove its weak link to practice. One of the strategies to confront these challenges can be through the use of Design-Based Research (DBR). A DBR approach includes working iterations of design, implementation and evaluation in real world learning contexts, making it especially suitable for research in Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). This paper describes and contextualizes a workshop that points out the need to examine different design approaches and digital technology tools to explore TEL in educational practices. Since the goal of the workshop is to use multidiscipline perspectives of education and didactics (ED), computer science (CS), interaction design (ID), to show the complexity for supporting next generation learning, these perspectives will in the paper be described and put in relation to each other. What research questions within and in between the three perspectives should be included in a DBRapproach in order to inform and facilitate TELpractices. In the end, of the paper a multidisciplinary DBR-approach allowing a more holistic understanding of educational practices usin g TEL will be argued for.

  • 39.
    Wiklund-Engblom, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Finnish teachers’ didactical design for power and control: Exploring their motives and intentions for one-to-one computing2018Ingår i: ECER 2018: Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction 

    This study is part of a larger Nordic research project, including a series of substudies with a common research objective of examining teachers’ didactical design in one-to-one computing classrooms in Denmark, Sweden and Finland (Jahnke et al., 2017). In this research project, one didactical design represents one lesson, which is documented through classroom observations, written documentation, photographs, and audio recordings. In addition to this teacher interviews are conducted to corroborate discoveries from other data. 

    The findings presented in this paper is based on 14 teacher interviews in grades 7-9 in Finland. The analysis is a triangulation of findings (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004)from one earlier analysis of the observational data from the same Finnish substudy. The main discoveries of the first analysis revealed two clusters related to power and control as described by Berstein (2000). The first cluster involved practices described as rather traditional where the teachers make the decisions, while the second cluster involved practices described as student active where students are involved in making decisions (Bergström, submitted 2018). Regarding this issue, Laurillard and Derntl (2014) argue that one aspect of design concerns the extent to which students are allowed to take some controlin the teaching and learning process. Otherwise, they warn that the use of ICTs can simply replicate previous traditions for teaching and learning. Further, in Klein and Kleinman’s (2002) perspective on the social construction of technology the enacted didactical design in the one-to-one computing classroom should be considered as a design process. In this process, powerindicates the interaction between teachers and students, the rules that order the interactions, and how other factors contribute to differences in theirrelationship. 

    The concept of didactical design is used based on the European tradition of Didaktik regarding the teacher–student–content triad (Klafki, 2000). These are all relays of symbolic power and control. Bernstein’s (1990, 2000) concepts of classification and framing were found to be helpful for analysing such relations. The concept of classification refers to power relations that emerge between objects (e.g. desks) or contexts, as either strong or weak. Strong classification, can be found in classrooms with desks organised in straight lines, whereas weak classification indicates distribution of power based on increased “disorder” (e.g. desks in groups). The concept of framing refers to the locus of control in the teachers’ narratives with regard to the selection and sequence of content, pacing, evaluation and hierarchical between teacher-student and student-student. If framing is strong, teachers are in control, for example how fast the content shall be acquired, while weak framing indicates increased possibilities for students to affect the pace.

    This project was conducted during the transition from the 2004 Finnish national curriculum to the 2016 national curriculum that emphasised, among other things, digital competence. However, implementing digital devices, and in this case at a 1:1 ratio, is in many ways a challenge for the ecology of the classroom (Håkansson Lindqvist, 2015). It is known from earlier research that ICT-implementation needs to be pedagogically integrated in order to be of use for learning (Genlott & Grönlund, 2016). It is the teachers’ didactical design and orchestration of the classroom activities that determine the success of the 1:1 implementation in the classroom (Jahnke, Norqvist & Olsson, 2014).

    The aim is to contribute to a deeper understanding of Finnish teachers’ didactical design in one-to-one computing classrooms. More specifically: How do the two clusters, pertaining to power and control, relate to how teachers reflect on their motives and intentions in their planning, their ideas about learning and assessment, as well as perceived changes from introducing one-to-one computing?

    Method 

    Fourteen semi-structured teacher interviews were conducted at two schools. These teachers (9 female; 5 male) were selected based on suggestions from the principals, because of their frequent use of one-to-one computing in their teaching. The work experience of the sample ranged between 2 and 40 years. The interview themes covered: teacher background, planning, learning, assessment, and perceptions of change. The teachers were given the opportunity to explain their motives and intentions for the iPad integration during the observed lecture, and the researchers were able to ask questions related to these classroom practices. Thus, the interviews were similar to a retrospective ethnographic interview with elements of stimulated recall, as teachers often went back to the digital devices to show content and apps (Dempsey, 2010). Each interview were conducted by either two or three researchers, lasting approximately 60 minutes. They were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim.  

    The purpose for conducting the teacher interviews was to be able to triangulate these data with the prior observational data. Data triangulation is used to cross-validate sources of data against each other during analysis. This is a verification against error in the research process, as multiple methods provide stronger evidence, decrease potential weaknesses of any single method (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004) and prevent biased perspectives due to methodological distortion (Hodkinson & Macleod, 2007). A true triangulation is done by integrating multiple types of data during analysis, in contrast to merely comparing findings (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004). 

    A qualitative content analysis was made on all interview transcripts using the QSR NVivo software. In the first phase, each meaning unit was coded separately in accordance to the themes: planning, learning, assessment, and perceptions of change. These were, furthermore, divided into a number of subcategories. During the second phase of coding, meaning condensations were made for each coded meaning unit, in order to further reduce the material (Flick, 1998/2002). The third phase consisted of an integrated data analysis, using both interview and observational data. Each of the 14 teachers were given attribute values (Bazeley, 2007) of their designated power-cluster, resulting in seven teachers in each cluster. This dichotomised classification of teachers was then correlated to the coded subcategories.

    Expected results/outcomes

    Not only do the teachers have to be content experts, but they also have to configure and orchestrate artefacts, environment, and people (Goodyear & Dimitriadis, 2013). Prior findings based on observational data (Bergström et al. 2017) illustrate how teachers’ arrangements of the classroom space create different privileging teaching practices. Such practices indicate how teachers’ design in practice constrained by the precondition of the classroom space. But why do they choose certain practices?

    This phase of the larger Nordic study focused on triangulating interview data with observational data from the Finnish substudy. It targeted how teachers talked about their own perceptions, expectations, and attitudes towards the change the one-to-one tablet introduction had brought to their classrooms. But most importantly, it presented the opportunity to further explain differences in perceptions and motives for planning, learning, and assessment between the power-and-control-based clusters of teachers (cf. Bernstein 1990; 2000) found in the prior analysis. It is expected that these two patterns of didactical design in relation to power and control will also be visible in teachers’ reflections during the retrospective interviews.

    The triangulation of data enables an examination of the subcategories of each theme. The first two phases of this second analysis of the Finnish substudy have resulted in a number of subcategories derived from the interview data. For instance, the theme Planning a lectureinclude the following subcategories: activating students, considering emotions, producing material, instructional design, iPad integration, learning goals, curriculum guidance, furnishing the room, collaboration, and providing teasers for engagement. The theme Learning includes the following subcategories: adjustment to learner needs, feedback, feed forward, focus on the learning process, peer learning, motivation, repetition, scaffolding, documentation, and students taking own initiative. The theme Assessment includes how teachers reflected on assessment criteria, students own interest, group work, holistic assessment, communicating assessment criteria to students, self-assessment, and assessing students’ class activity. 

     

  • 40.
    Wolming, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    A web-based university course on computer-based assessment: Descriptions and reflections2005Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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