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  • 1. Athanasiu, Lavinia
    et al.
    Giddaluru, Sudheer
    Fernandes, Carla
    Christoforou, Andrea
    Reinvang, Ivar
    Lundervold, Astri J.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Sundet, Kjetil
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Espeseth, Thomas
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Steen, Vidar M.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Le Hellard, Stephanie
    A genetic association study of CSMD1 and CSMD2 with cognitive function2017In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 61, p. 209-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complement cascade plays a role in synaptic pruning and synaptic plasticity, which seem to be involved in cognitive functions and psychiatric disorders. Genetic variants in the closely related CSMD1 and CSMD2 genes, which are implicated in complement regulation, are associated with schizophrenia. Since patients with schizophrenia often show cognitive impairments, we tested whether variants in CSMD1 and CSMD2 are also associated with cognitive functions per se. We took a discovery-replication approach, using well-characterized Scandinavian cohorts. A total of 1637 SNPs in CSMD1 and 206 SNPs in CSMD2 were tested for association with cognitive functions in the NCNG sample (Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics; n = 670). Replication testing of SNPs with p-value < 0.001 (7 in CSMD1 and 3 in CSMD2) was carried out in the TOP sample (Thematically Organized Psychosis; n =1025) and the BETULA sample (Betula Longitudinal Study on aging, memory and dementia; n = 1742). Finally, we conducted a meta-analysis of these SNPs using all three samples. The previously identified schizophrenia marker in CSMD1 (SNP rs10503253) was also included. The strongest association was observed between the CSMDI SNP rs2740931 and performance in immediate episodic memory (p-value = 5 Chi 10(-6), minor allele A, MAF 0.48-0.49, negative direction of effect). This association reached the study-wide significance level (p <= 1.2 Chi 10(-5)). SNP rs10503253 was not significantly associated with cognitive functions in our samples. In conclusion, we studied n = 3437 individuals and found evidence that a variant in CSMD1 is associated with cognitive function. Additional studies of larger samples with cognitive phenotypes will be needed to further clarify the role of CSMD1 in cognitive phenotypes in health and disease.

  • 2. Davies, G.
    et al.
    Armstrong, N.
    Bis, J. C.
    Bressler, J.
    Chouraki, V.
    Giddaluru, S.
    Hofer, E.
    Ibrahim-Verbaas, C. A.
    Kirin, M.
    Lahti, J.
    van der Lee, S. J.
    Le Hellard, S.
    Liu, T.
    Marioni, R. E.
    Oldmeadow, C.
    Postmus, I.
    Smith, A. V.
    Smith, J. A.
    Thalamuthu, A.
    Thomson, R.
    Vitart, V.
    Wang, J.
    Yu, L.
    Zgaga, L.
    Zhao, W.
    Boxall, R.
    Harris, S. E.
    Hill, W. D.
    Liewald, D. C.
    Luciano, M.
    Adams, H.
    Ames, D.
    Amin, N.
    Amouyel, P.
    Assareh, A. A.
    Au, R.
    Becker, J. T.
    Beiser, A.
    Berr, C.
    Bertram, L.
    Boerwinkle, E.
    Buckley, B. M.
    Campbell, H.
    Corley, J.
    De Jager, P. L.
    Dufouil, C.
    Eriksson, J. G.
    Espeseth, T.
    Faul, J. D.
    Ford, I.
    Gottesman, R. F.
    Griswold, M. E.
    Gudnason, V.
    Harris, T. B.
    Heiss, G.
    Hofman, A.
    Holliday, E. G.
    Huffman, J.
    Kardia, S. L. R.
    Kochan, N.
    Knopman, D. S.
    Kwok, J. B.
    Lambert, J-C
    Lee, T.
    Li, G.
    Li, S-C
    Loitfelder, M.
    Lopez, O. L.
    Lundervold, A. J.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Mather, K. A.
    Mirza, S. S.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Oostra, B. A.
    Palotie, A.
    Papenberg, G.
    Pattie, A.
    Petrovic, K.
    Polasek, O.
    Psaty, B. M.
    Redmond, P.
    Reppermund, S.
    Rotter, J. I.
    Schmidt, H.
    Schuur, M.
    Schofield, P. W.
    Scott, R. J.
    Steen, V. M.
    Stott, D. J.
    Van Swieten, J. C.
    Taylor, K. D.
    Trollor, J.
    Trompet, S.
    Uitterlinden, A. G.
    Weinstein, G.
    Widen, E.
    Windham, B. G.
    Jukema, J. W.
    Wright, A. F.
    Wright, M. J.
    Yang, Q.
    Amieva, H.
    Attia, J. R.
    Bennett, D. A.
    Brodaty, H.
    de Craen, A. J. M.
    Hayward, C.
    Ikram, M. A.
    Lindenberger, U.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). ARC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Porteous, D. J.
    Raikkonen, K.
    Reinvang, I.
    Rudan, I.
    Sachdev, P. S.
    Schmidt, R.
    Schofield, P. R.
    Srikanth, V.
    Starr, J. M.
    Turner, S. T.
    Weir, D. R.
    Wilson, J. F.
    Van Duijn, C.
    Launer, L.
    Fitzpatrick, A. L.
    Seshadri, S.
    Jr, T. H. Mosley
    Deary, I. J.
    Genetic contributions to variation in general cognitive function: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in the CHARGE consortium (N=53 949)2015In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    General cognitive function is substantially heritable across the human life course from adolescence to old age. We investigated the genetic contribution to variation in this important, health-and well-being-related trait in middle-aged and older adults. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of 31 cohorts (N = 53 949) in which the participants had undertaken multiple, diverse cognitive tests. A general cognitive function phenotype was tested for, and created in each cohort by principal component analysis. We report 13 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations in three genomic regions, 6q16.1, 14q12 and 19q13.32 (best SNP and closest gene, respectively: rs10457441, P = 3.93 x 10(-9), MIR2113; rs17522122, P = 2.55 x 10(-8), AKAP6; rs10119, P = 5.67 x 10(-9), APOE/TOMM40). We report one gene-based significant association with the HMGN1 gene located on chromosome 21 (P = 1x10(-6)). These genes have previously been associated with neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Meta-analysis results are consistent with a polygenic model of inheritance. To estimate SNP-based heritability, the genome-wide complex trait analysis procedure was applied to two large cohorts, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (N = 6617) and the Health and Retirement Study (N = 5976). The proportion of phenotypic variation accounted for by all genotyped common SNPs was 29% (s.e. = 5%) and 28% (s.e. = 7%), respectively. Using polygenic prediction analysis, similar to 1.2% of the variance in general cognitive function was predicted in the Generation Scotland cohort (N = 5487; P = 1.5 x 10(-17)). In hypothesis-driven tests, there was significant association between general cognitive function and four genes previously associated with Alzheimer's disease: TOMM40, APOE, ABCG1 and MEF2C.

  • 3.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Social relationships and risk of dementia: a population-based study2015In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1391-1399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective was to examine whether aspects of social relationships in old age are associated with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    Methods: We studied 1,715 older adults (≥ 65 years) who were dementia-free at baseline over a period of up to 16 years. Data on living status, contact/visit frequency, satisfaction with contact frequency, and having/not having a close friend were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regressions with all-cause dementia or AD as the dependent variable. To control for reverse causality and to identify potential long-term effects, we additionally performed analyses with delayed entry.

    Results: We identified 373 incident cases of dementia (207 with AD) during follow-up. The variable visiting/visits from friends was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia. Further, a higher value on the relationships index (sum of all variables) was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia and AD. However, in analyses with delayed entry, restricted to participants with a survival time of three years or more, none of the social relationship variables was associated with all-cause dementia or AD.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that certain aspects of social relationships are associated with incident dementia or AD, but also that these associations may reflect reverse causality. Future studies aimed at identifying other factors of a person's social life that may have the potential to postpone dementia should consider the effects of reverse causality.

  • 4.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, L-G
    Leisure-time activity in old age as predictors of impending dementia: A 15-year prospective study.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relationship between leisure activities and risk of dementia in a sample of healthy older individuals, dementia free at the beginning of the project. Data were drawn from a population-based longitudinal study (the Betula project) and the participants were followed up for 15 years. At baseline, participants were asked about their frequency of participation in 15 selected leisure activities. When age, gender, education, APOE and other potential confounders were controlled for, results revealed quite moderate effects on dementia after analysis of the activities separately. However, by weighting each activity into a mental, social and physical dimension (based on valuation by the participants), and then summarizing into a score for each dimension, we further investigated if level of engagement could predict impending dementia. Preliminary results indicate that the dimensions may have influence on the risk of dementia for certain age groups. The study also showed that the strongest predictor of dementia is being a carrier of the APOE ɛ4 allele. The outcomes are discussed in terms of important methodological difference between studies concerning the effects of leisure activities in preventing dementia diseases.

  • 5.
    Fernandes, Carla Patricia Duarte
    et al.
    K.G. Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Dr. Einar Martens Research Group for Biological Psychiatry, Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Westlye, Lars Tjelta
    K.G. Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Norwegian Centre For Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital & Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0317, Norway.
    Giddaluru, Sudheer
    K.G. Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Dr. Einar Martens Research Group for Biological Psychiatry, Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Christoforou, Andrea
    K.G. Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Dr. Einar Martens Research Group for Biological Psychiatry, Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University and Stockholm Brain Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Lundervold, Astri Johansen
    Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, K.G. Jebsen Centre for Research on Neuropsychiatric Disorders, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, Kavli Research Centre for Aging and Dementia, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital.
    Reinvang, Ivar
    Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0317, Norway.
    Steen, Vidar Martin
    K.G. Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Dr. Einar Martens Research Group for Biological Psychiatry, Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Le Hellard, Stéphanie
    K.G. Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Dr. Einar Martens Research Group for Biological Psychiatry, Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Espeseth, Thomas
    K.G. Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Norwegian Centre For Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital & Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0317, Norway.
    Lack of association of the rs1344706 ZNF804A variant with cognitive functions and DTI indices of white matter microstructure in two independent healthy populations2014In: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 222, no 1-2, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rs1344706 single nucleotide polymorphism within intron 2 of the ZNF804A gene is strongly associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This variant has also been associated in some studies with a range of cognitive and neuroimaging phenotypes, but several studies have reported no effect on the same phenotypes in other samples. Here, we genotyped 670 healthy adult Norwegian subjects and 1753 healthy adult Swedish subjects for rs1344706, and tested for associations with cognitive phenotypes including general intellectual abilities, memory functions and cognitive inhibition. We also tested whether rs1344706 is associated with white matter microstructural properties using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 250 to 340 of the Norwegian and Swedish subjects, respectively. Whole-brain voxel-wise statistical modeling of the effect of the ZNF804A variant on two DTI indices, fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD), was performed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), and commonly reported effect sizes were calculated within several large-scale white matter pathways based on neuroanatomical atlases. No significant associations were found between rs1344706 and the cognitive traits or white matter microstructure. We conclude that the rs1344706 SNP has no significant effect on these phenotypes in our two reasonably powered samples.

  • 6.
    Holmgren, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Molander, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Episodic memory in adult age and effects of sibship size and birth order: Longitudinal data2007In: Journal of Adult Development, ISSN 1068-0667, E-ISSN 1573-3440, Vol. 14, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Josefsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Genetic and lifestyle predictors of 15-Year longitudinal change in episodic memory2012In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 60, no 12, p. 2308-2312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To reveal distinct longitudinal trajectories in episodic memory over 15 years and to identify demographic, lifestyle, health-related, and genetic predictors of stability or decline. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Betula Project, Umeå, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand nine hundred fifty-four healthy participants aged 35 to 85 at baseline. MEASUREMENTS: Memory was assessed according to validated episodic memory tasks in participants from a large population-based sample. Data were analyzed using a random-effects pattern-mixture model that considered the effect of attrition over two to four longitudinal sessions. Logistic regression was used to determine significant predictors of stability or decline relative to average change in episodic memory. RESULTS: Of 1,558 participants with two or more test sessions, 18% were classified as maintainers and 13% as decliners, and 68% showed age-typical average change. More educated and more physically active participants, women, and those living with someone were more likely to be classified as maintainers, as were carriers of the met allele of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene. Less educated participants, those not active in the labor force, and men were more likely to be classified as decliners, and the apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele was more frequent in decliners. CONCLUSION: Quantitative, attrition-corrected assessment of longitudinal changes in memory can reveal substantial heterogeneity in aging trajectories, and genetic and lifestyle factors predict such heterogeneity.

  • 8.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Longitudinal data for interdisciplinary ageing research: Design of the Linnaeus Database2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 761-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale: To allow for interdisciplinary research on the relations between socioeconomic conditions and health in the ageing population, a new anonymized longitudinal database – the Linnaeus Database – has been developed at the Centre for Population Studies at Umeå University. This paper presents the database and its research potential.

    Design: Using the Swedish personal numbers the researchers have, in collaboration with Statistics Sweden and the National Board for Health and Welfare, linked individual records from Swedish register data on death causes, hospitalization and various socioeconomic conditions with two databases – Betula and VIP (Västerbottens Intervention Programme) – previously developed by the researchers at Umeå University. Whereas Betula includes rich information about e.g. cognitive functions, VIP contains information about e.g. lifestyle and health indicators.

    Population and sample size: The Linnaeus Database includes annually updated socioeconomic information from Statistics Sweden registers for all registered residents of Sweden for the period 1990 to 2006, in total 12,066,478. The information from the Betula includes 4,500 participants from the city of Umeå and VIP includes data for almost 90,000 participants. Both datasets include cross-sectional as well as longitudinal information.

    Potential: Due to the coverage and rich information, the Linnaeus Database allows for a variety of longitudinal studies on the relations between, for instance, socioeconomic conditions, health, lifestyle, cognition, family networks, migration and working conditions in ageing cohorts.

    Conclusions: By joining various datasets developed in different disciplinary traditions new possibilities for interdisciplinary research on ageing emerge.

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sternäng, Ola
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Challenging the notion of an early-onset of cognitive decline.2009In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 521-524; discussion 530Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Salthouse claims that cognitive aging starts around 20 years of age. The basis for this claim is cross-sectional data. He dismisses longitudinal data, which typically show the cognitive decline to start much later, around 60 years of age. He states that longitudinal data cannot be trusted because they are flawed. There is a confounding between the effects of maturation and retest effects. We challenge Salthouse's strong claim on four accounts.

  • 10.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Kauppi, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Persson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Stockholm University, Stockholm Brain Institute.
    Age-related and genetic modulation of frontal cortex efficiency2014In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 746-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) is a key region for working memory. It has been proposed that the DLPFC is dynamically recruited depending on task demands. By this view, high DLPFC recruitment for low-demanding tasks along with weak DLPFC upregulation at higher task demands reflects low efficiency. Here, the fMRI BOLD signal during working memory maintenance and manipulation was examined in relation to aging and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met status in a large representative sample (n = 287). The efficiency hypothesis predicts a weaker DLPFC response during manipulation, along with a stronger response during maintenance for older adults and COMT Val carriers compared with younger adults and COMT Met carriers. Consistent with the hypothesis, younger adults and met carriers showed maximal DLPFC BOLD response during manipulation, whereas older adults and val carriers displayed elevated DLPFC responses during the less demanding maintenance condition. The observed inverted relations support a link between dopamine and DLPFC efficiency.

  • 11.
    Nyström, Markus B.T.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University.
    Is Cognitive Functioning Important for Quality in Ageing?2014In: Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 2014, p. 87-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Well-being and happiness are two important aspects of quality in ageing. By using a large scale memory data base (the Betula study) the importance of cognitive status (episodic memory) for an individual’s subjective notion of well-being and happiness were investigated, both among middle- and old aged individuals. When a number of factors where controlled for (e.g., physical health, psycho-social aspects), results indicated no relationships between cognitive status and well-being or happiness, in any age group. However, data suggested that subjective experience of memory capacity seems to play an important role. Further, being married, having low levels of stress, and not having sleeping problems, also seem to be associated with both well-being and happiness. The result suggests that other factors, rather than cognitive status, plays a substantial roll in the quality of ageing. Future studies would benefit from using longitudinal data to be able to investigate these relationships over time.

  • 12.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kalpouzos, Grégoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Preserved hippocampus activation in normal aging as revealed by fMRI.2011In: Hippocampus, ISSN 1050-9631, E-ISSN 1098-1063, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 753-766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hippocampus is deteriorated in various pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and such deterioration has been linked to memory impairment. By contrast, the structural and functional effects of normal aging on the hippocampus is a matter of debate, with some findings suggesting deterioration and others providing evidence of preservation. This constitutes a crucial question since many investigations on AD are based on the assumption that the deterioration of the hippocampus is the breaking point between normal and pathological aging. A growing number of fMRI studies specifically aimed at investigating hippocampal engagement in various cognitive tasks, notably memory tasks, but the results have been inconclusive. Here, we optimized the episodic face-name paired-associates task in order to test the functioning of the hippocampus in normal aging. Critically, we found no difference in the activation of the hippocampus between the young and a group of older participants. Analysis of individual patterns of activation substantiated this impression. Collectively, these findings provide evidence of preserved hippocampal functioning in normal aging.

  • 13.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Department of Psychology, Aging Research Center (ARC) at Karolinska Institute and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden and Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Karolinska Inst, Aging Res Ctr ARC, S-11330 Stockholm, Sweden and Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-11330 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Longitudinal assessment of default-mode brain function in aging2014In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 2107-2117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related changes in the default-mode network (DMN) have been identified in prior cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Here, we investigated longitudinal change in DMN activity and connectivity. Cognitively intact participants (aged 49-79 years at baseline) were scanned twice, with a 6-year interval, while performing an episodic memory task interleaved with a passive control condition. Longitudinal analyses showed that the DMN (control condition > memory task) could be reliably identified at both baseline and follow-up. Differences in the magnitude of task-induced deactivation in posterior DMN regions were observed between baseline and follow-up indicating reduced deactivation in these regions with increasing age. Although no overall longitudinal changes in within-network connectivity were found across the whole sample, individual differences in memory change correlated with change in connectivity. Thus, our results show stability of whole-brain DMN topology and functional connectivity over time in healthy older adults, whereas within-region DMN analyses show reduced deactivation between baseline and follow-up. The current findings provide novel insights into DMN functioning that may assist in identifying brain changes in patient populations, as well as characterizing factors that distinguish between normal and pathologic aging.

  • 14.
    Pudas, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Persson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute and Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute and Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Midlife memory ability accounts for brain activity differences in healthy aging2014In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 2495-2503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies suggest that hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions underlie individual differences in memory ability in older individuals, but it is unclear how individual differences in cognitive ability in youth contribute to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older age. Here, we investigated the relative influences of midlife memory ability and age-related memory change on memory-related BOLD-signal variability at one time point, using a sample from a longitudinal population-based aging study (N = 203, aged 55-80 years). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that midlife memory ability, assessed 15-20 years earlier, explained at least as much variance as memory change in clusters in the left inferior prefrontal cortex and the bilateral hippocampus, during memory encoding. Furthermore, memory change estimates demonstrated higher sensitivity than current memory levels in identifying distinct frontal regions where activity was selectively related to age-related memory change, as opposed to midlife memory. These findings highlight challenges in interpreting individual differences in neurocognitive measures as age-related changes in the absence of longitudinal data and also demonstrate the improved sensitivity of longitudinal measures.

  • 15.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Flynn effects on sub-factors of episodic and semantic memory: Parallel gains over time and the same set of determining factors2009In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 47, p. 2174-2180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the extent to which time-related gains in cognitive performance, so-called Flynn effects, generalize across sub-factors of episodic memory (recall and recognition) and semantic memory (knowledge and fluency).We conducted time-sequential analyses of data drawnfromthe Betula prospective cohort study, involving four age-matched samples (35–80 years; N= 2996) tested on the same battery of memory tasks on either of four occasions (1989, 1995, 1999, and 2004). The results demonstrate substantial time-related improvements on recall and recognition as well as on fluency and knowledge, with a trend of larger gains on semantic as compared with episodic memory [Rönnlund, M., & Nilsson, L. -G. (2008). The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study. Intelligence], but highly similar gains across the sub-factors. Finally, the association with markers of environmental change was similar, with evidence that historical increases in quantity of schoolingwas a main driving force behind the gains, both on the episodic and semantic sub-factors. The results obtained are discussed in terms of brain regions involved.

  • 16.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Self-reported memory failures: associations with future dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up2015In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 1766-1773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between self-reported memory failures and incident dementia in individuals aged 60 and older.

    DESIGN: Longitudinal, community based.

    SETTING: Betula Prospective Cohort Study, a population-based study in Umea, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with a mean age of 71.5 +/- 8.8 (range 60-90) (N = 1,547).

    MEASUREMENTS: Participants rated the frequency of everyday memory failures using the 16-item Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) and underwent objective memory testing at baseline. Participant self-reports of complaints of poor memory by family and friends were evaluated. Dementia status was followed-up for 10 to 12 years.

    RESULTS: Over the study period, 225 participants developed dementia (132 with Alzheimer's disease (AD)). In Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for demographic factors, PRMQ z-scores predicted incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.21 for all-cause dementia; HR = 1.25 for AD, Ps < .01). The significant associations remained when depressive symptoms and objective memory performance were adjusted for, when low performers on objective memory (= 1 standard deviations below the age group mean) were excluded, and in analyses with delayed entry (survival time = 5 years). Similar patterns were observed for the prospective and retrospective subscales, although including how often participants self-reported that others complained about their poor memory eliminated the association between PRMQ scores and dementia and itself emerged as a significant predictor.

    CONCLUSION: Self-reported memory failure predicted future dementia or AD independent of objective memory performance. Subjective reports of complaints by family and friends appear to be an even more-important indicator of preclinical impairments, and physicians should not ignore them, even in the absence of objective memory deficits.

  • 17.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Subjective memory impairment in older adults predicts future dementia independent of baseline memory performance: Evidence from the Betula prospective cohort study2015In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 1385-1392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The objective was to examine whether subjective memory impairment (SMI) predicts all-cause dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a population-based study with long-term follow-up (median = 10 years).

    METHODS: A total of 2043 initially dementia-free participants (≥ 60 years) made three memory ratings ("compared with others", "compared with five years ago", and "complaints from family/friends") at baseline. During follow-up, 372 participants developed dementia (208 with AD).

    RESULTS: Cox regression revealed that subjective memory impairment ratings predicted all-cause dementia in models adjusting for age and sex (hazard ratio or HR from 2.04 to 3.94), with even higher values for AD (HR from 2.29 to 5.74). The result persisted in models including other covariates, including baseline episodic memory performance, and in analyses restricted to participants with long time to dementia diagnosis (≥ 5 years).

    DISCUSSION: The findings underscore the usefulness of subjective memory assessment in combination with other factors in identifying individuals at risk for developing dementia.

  • 18.
    Stomby, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Higher diurnal salivary cortisol levels are related to smaller prefrontal cortex surface area in elderly men and women2016In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 175, no 2, p. 117-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Elevated cortisol levels with aging have been associated with atrophy of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as with impaired cognitive functions in men. However, coexisting diseases have confounded many studies examining these relationships. Studies in women are lacking. Our objective was to test whether salivary cortisol levels were related to morphology of the hippocampus and the PFC, and to cognitive performance. Design: A cross-sectional study including 200 elderly (55-80 years old) men and women. Method: We used magnetic resonance imaging, tests of episodic-, semantic-, and working memory, visuospatial ability, and cortisol levels in four saliva samples collected during 1 day. Results: Area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol levels was negatively related to cortical surface area of the left anterior cingulate gyrus (caudal P < 0.001; rostral P = 0.006), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (P = 0.004), and right rostral middle frontal gyrus (P = 0.003). In women, there was also a negative relationship with cortical surface area in the left rostral middle frontal gyrus (P = 0.006). No relationship was found between cortisol levels and hippocampal volume. Conclusion: This study suggests that the structure of the medial PFC is related to cortisol levels in both elderly women and men.

  • 19.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Bergdahl, M
    Public Dental Service Competence Centre of Northern Norway (TkNN), PB 2406, N-9271, Norway .
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Cognitive status in persons with amalgam-related complaints2010In: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 89, no 11, p. 1236-1240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported cognitive symptoms are frequent in persons with amalgam-related complaints, but few studies have focused on their cognitive function. The aim was to examine a symptom profile and whether participants with amalgam-related complaints have cognitive deficits in comparison with control individuals. We drew 342 participants with amalgam-related complaints and 342 one-to-one matched control individuals from a longitudinal population-based study. For 81 of the participants with amalgam-related complaints and controls, data were available approximately five years before the onset of complaints, making a longitudinal analysis possible. All participants were assessed by a self-reported health questionnaire and a comprehensive cognitive test battery. The participants with amalgam-related complaints reported more symptoms, mainly musculoskeletal and neuropsychological, compared with control individuals (p < 0.001). The results revealed no significant difference between the amalgam and control group, either cross-sectionally or longitudinally, for any of the cognitive tests. These results suggest that cognitive decline is not associated with amalgam-related complaints.

  • 20.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Institute of Clinical Dentistry, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Stressful negative life events and amalgam-related complaints2011In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:  The role of stressful life events in the onset of self-reported amalgam-related complaints is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between life events and amalgam-related complaints.

    Method:  The participants were selected from a longitudinal population-based study. One-to-one matching of 337 participants with amalgam-related complaints to 337 participants without such complaints was performed. For 81 of the participants with amalgam-related complaints and their matched controls, data was also available approximately 5 years before the onset of complaints, making longitudinal analysis possible. All participants completed questionnaires assessing the occurrence of 55 life events.

    Results:  The results showed that many participants with amalgam-related complaints experienced negative life events before and at the onset of amalgam-related complaints. They also reported more unexpected and uncontrollable events difficult to adjust to in comparison with controls. The groups did not differ on positive or neutral life events. Somatic illness or surgical operation was the most common life event. Death of a very close family member and a major change in financial situation were also commonly reported.

    Conclusions:  This study indicates that adverse negative life events could play a vital role in understanding and explaining amalgam-related complaints.

  • 21.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Cruts, M.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Van Broeckhoven, C.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    APOE influences on neurosychological function after mild head injury: within-person comparisons2004In: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 62, no 11, p. 1963-1966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the relationship between neuropsychological outcome following mild head injury (MHI) and APOE genotype.

    Methods: Data from a population-based longitudinal study (n = 3,500) were used to identify 34 adults who experienced MHI during the course of the study. Their pre- and postinjury performances on a battery of nine neuropsychological tests were compared within person, and the postinjury performance was compared with that of age- and gender-matched control subjects.

    Results: The within-person comparisons showed that participants with at least oneAPOE ε4 allele (n = 11) had a significantly decreased postinjury performance on three of the tests, whereas the postinjury performance for APOE ε4-negative participants (n = 23) was unchanged. There was no significant difference in postinjury performance between participants with/without the ε4 allele, and neither group was impaired relative to controls.

    Conclusions: APOE genotype may influence the outcome following an MHI. Pre/postinjury within-person comparisons seem more sensitive than control group comparisons for detecting injury-related effects.

  • 22.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Cognitive performance before and after mild head injury.2002In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. Suppl, no B77, p. 60-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stressful life events are not associated with development of dementia2014In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 26, p. 147-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The impact of stressful life events as a risk factor of dementia diseases is inconclusive. We sought to determine whether stressful negative life events are associated with incidental dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up. We also tested the hypothesis that the occurrence of positive life events could mitigate or overcome the possible adverse effects of negative life events on dementia conversion.

    Methods: The study involved 2,462 dementia-free participants aged 55 years and older. Information on life events was ascertained at baseline from a comprehensive Life Event Inventory, which included 56 questions about specific life events. For each life event, the emotional impact (both positive and negative) and emotional adjustment were asked for.

    Results: During follow-up, 423 participants developed dementia; of these, 240 developed Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cox regression analysis showed no association between the total number of negative life events and the incidence of dementia when adjusted solely for age and gender (hazard ratio = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.92-1.02), or with multiple adjustments for a range of covariates (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.01). Similarly, neither emotional impact nor emotional adjustment to these life events was associated with incident dementia. A separate analysis of AD did not alter the results.

    Conclusions: The result of this population-based study finds no association between negative or positive life events and dementia. Accordingly, our results reject the hypothesis that stressful life events trigger the onset of dementia diseases.

  • 24.
    Sörman Eriksson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, 113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social network size and cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations2017In: Journal of Adult Development, ISSN 1068-0667, E-ISSN 1573-3440, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 77-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present study was to examine relations between social network size and three cognitive abilities (episodic memory, semantic memory, visuospatial ability) in middle-aged adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data on social network size and cognitive functioning that were available for 804 participants aged 40–60 years. In addition, we examined 5- and 10-year follow-up measurements of cognitive functioning that were available for 604 and 255 participants, respectively. Cross-sectional analyses revealed a positive association between social network size and each of the three cognitive abilities. Baseline network size was positively related to 5-year changes in semantic memory, and to 10-year changes in semantic as well as episodic memory, but was unrelated to changes in visuospatial performance. A minor portion of the sample (n = 131) had 10-year follow-up data on network size. Cross-lagged panel correlations revealed that baseline network size was associated with follow-up measurement in cognitive functioning (episodic memory, semantic memory), whereas baseline cognitive performance was unrelated to future network size. Together, the results demonstrate a small but positive relation between network size and declarative memory abilities, in line with models proposing a cognitive reserve built up by factors such as the increased cognitive stimulation associated with a more extensive social network.

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