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  • 1.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Familial relationships and firm performance: the impact of entrepreneurial family relationships2019In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 31, no 5-6, p. 357-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the family may serve as a resource for entrepreneurs, it has been studied separately in different disciplines. In this paper, we combine the arguments on familial relationships (family firm literature) and skill variety (regional learning literature) to analyse how different forms of entrepreneurial family relationships (co-occurrences) facilitate firm performance, and how familial relationships moderate the effects of skill variety on firm performance. Using longitudinal data (2002-2012) on a sample of privately owned firms with up to 50 employees with matched information on all employees, our results show that entrepreneur children relationship is the dominant dyad familial relationship in family firms. The fixed effects estimates demonstrate that entrepreneurial family relationships do affect firm performance but that this is dependent on the type of familial relationship. Children and spouses show a positive relationship with firm performance while siblings of the entrepreneur show no significant relationship with performance. The estimates further indicate that familial relationships involving spouses abate the negative effects of having too similar or too different types of skills. The paper thus contributes to new knowledge regarding not only whether family relationships matter for performance, but also in what way they matter.

  • 2. Baron, Myriam
    et al.
    Groza, Octavian
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Roth, Hélène
    Salaris, Alessia
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Ysebaert, Ronan
    Des régions aux situations démographiques locales contrastées2010In: Villes et Régions Européennes en Décroissance / [ed] Myriam Baron, Emmanuèle Cunningham-Sabot, Claude Grasland, Dominique Rivière och Gilles Van Hamme, Paris: Lavoisier , 2010, p. 137-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Multi-Agent Systems, Time Geography and Microsimulations2004In: Systems Approaches and their Application: Examples from Sweden, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht , 2004, p. 79-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Dept. of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Morin, Magnus
    VSL Research Labs, Linköping, Sweden.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Impact of precautionary behaviors during outbreaks of pandemic influenza: modeling of regional differences2009In: AMIA Annual Symposium proceedings Archive, ISSN 1942-597X, Vol. 2009, p. 163-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using time geographic theory for representation of population mixing, we set out to analyze the relative impact from precautionary behaviors on outbreaks of pandemic influenza in Europe and Asia. We extended an existing simulator environment with behavioral parameters from a population survey to model different behaviors. We found that precautionary behaviors even among a minority of the population can have a decisive effect on the probability of the outbreak to propagate. The results also display that assumptions strongly influences the outcome. Depending on the interpretation of how many "children" are kept from "school", R(0) changes from a range where outbreak progression is possible to a range where it is improbable in both European (R(0)=1.77/1.23) and Asian (R(0)=1.70/1.05) conditions. We conclude that unprompted distancing can have a decisive effect on pandemic propagation. An important response strategy can be to promote voluntary precautionary behavior shown to reduce disease transmission.

  • 5. Grasland, Claude
    et al.
    Madelin, Malika
    Ben Rebah, Maher
    Mathian, Hélène
    Sanders, Lena
    Lambert, Nicolas
    Charlton, Martin
    Cheng, Jianquan
    Fotheringham, Stewart
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holme, Kirsten
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lennert, Moritz
    Medina Lockhart, Pablo
    Vandermotten, Christian
    Vincent, Jean-Marc
    Mathis, Philippe
    Serrhini, Kemal
    Rase, Wolf-Dieter
    ESPON 3.4.3: The Modifiable Areas Unit Problem: Final Report2006Report (Other academic)
  • 6. Grasland, Claude
    et al.
    Ysebaert, Ronan
    Corminboeuf, Bernard
    Gaubert, Nicolas
    Lambert, Nicolas
    Salmon, Isabelle
    Baro, Myriam
    Baudet-Michel, Sophie
    Ducom, Estelle
    Rivière, Dominique
    Schmoll, Camille
    Zanin, Christine
    Gensel, Jérome
    Vincent, Jean-Marc
    Plumejeaud, Christine
    Van Hamme, Gilles
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Coppola, Pasquale
    Salaris, Alessia
    Groza, Octavian
    Muntele, Ionel
    Turcanasu, George
    Stoleriu, Oana
    Shrinking Regions: A Paradigm Shift in Demography and Territorial Development2008Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography. Statistics.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Friska, småkrassliga och sjuka2006In: Sjukförsäkring, kulturer och attityder - Fyra aktörers perspektiv, Försäkringskassan , 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Individer, attityder och ohälsa2006In: Sjukförsäkring, kulturer och attityder - Fyra aktörers perspektiv, Försäkringskassan , 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Localised attitudes matter: a study of sickness absence in Sweden2008In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 189-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central issues explored in this article are the importance of geographical location in explaining the attitudes of individuals, and the interplay between these attitudes and overt behaviour. The context is as follows: In the late 1990's, sick-listings in Sweden underwent a substantial increase, causing the public expenses for the general sickness insurance to soar. Moreover, the extent of the usage of the insurance was found to vary significantly across different regions within the country. This development of the sickness insurance generally, and the regional differences specifically, have since been the subject of an intense debate. Differences and/or changes in attitudes toward sick leave within the population have been proposed as possible reasons for the regional variations. Much of the discussion has, however, been based on speculative arguments rather than empirical studies. Using data from a survey conducted in 2005, this research explores whether geographical location influences individual attitudes toward sick leave, and whether these attitudes in turn influence the sickness absence of individuals. The data are analysed using factor analysis, ordinary linear regressions and logistic regressions. The results provide some support for the idea that geographical factors matter to individual attitudes, and that variation in these attitudes is in turn associated with propensity for sickness absence. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 10.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Vilhelmson, Bertil
    University of Gothenburgh, School of Business, Economics and Law, Department of Human and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Proximity, accessibility and choice: a matter of taste or condition?2012In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 65-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on a combination of register data and travel survey data, this research explores changes in the accessibility to different amenities for the Swedish population between 1995 and 2005, as well as the reasons behind the changes: redistribution of either amenities or the population. Overall, proximity has increased concerning most of the amenities during the period. However, despite decreasing 'potential' distances, actual travel distances are growing longer due to, for example, an increasing selectivity in preferences. An analysis of the accessibility development for service amenities shows that restructuring within the service sector is the main cause of the changes, and to a lesser extent population redistribution.

  • 11.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Changes in accessibility 1995-20052009In: Paper presented at the NECTAR Cluster on Accessibility, Cagliari, Italy, Cagliari, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Att lokalisera utbildning, sysselsättning och boende1984Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study methods are developed for locating places of education, employment opportunities and housing.The first model allocates places for upper secondary (Am. High School) education in space with the aid of a location-allocation model using capacity constraints and distance-dependent demand. The solution is obtained by an heuristic node-swapping method. For each line of study it sets down the number of locations that could offer such courses, their physical location, their capacities and their geographical catchment areas. The educational resources are allocated according to a criteria that minimizes a weighted sum of geographical distances between the schools and their potential pupils, their applicants and the labour market. In connection with applications of the model, analyses suggest that the location and dimensioning of upper secondary education are primarily steered by the local pupil demand, secondly by the desire for an even regional allocation and thirdly by the demand from the local labour market.In the second model, government employment programmes are allocated among sectors of the economy and sub-districts within a municipality over time. The aim is to offer a sufficient number of employment opportunities for the lowest possible level of public expenditure - irrespective of which support sectors happened to have resources at their disposal at the time of investigation. Given frequencies of persons employed are sought for various groups of people, e.g. men, women, or peripheral residents in the municipality. One general result is that the existing allocation of support resources on sectors only yields less than half as many employment opportunities as could be provided with the same resource input allocated in a different way. Even with a more efficent resource allocation, the amount of support needs to be at least doubled in order to produce national average levels of employment over the long term, within the studied municipality.The third model represents a local housing market with a varying housing stock and population. The changes of accommodation are described for the individual households, giving information on preferences and restrictions. A large proportion of home moves are due to changes in the household composition, changes which are explained internally within the model. The model shows how the new production of housing should be distributed by types of dwelling in different geographically delimited areas over time. The individual's welfare losses during the wait for a new place to live and the costs of empty accommodation are weighed against each other in the allocation algorithm of the model. The model is qualitatively different from traditional models using aggregated data. However models with data on individuals, individual decision processes, and interplay between different actors can probably be developed into usable bases for decision.

  • 13.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holme, Kirsten
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Mäkilä, Kalle
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Schrödl, Daniel
    Tid för arbete2004Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Vad ska man ha ett land till?: Matchning av bosättning, arbete och produktion för tillväxt2013Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Socio-economic impacts of locating a nuclear waste repository in Sweden1997In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holme, Kirsten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Transfereringar och arbete2004Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    SVERIGE2007In: Modelling our Future: Population Ageing, Health and Aged Care, Elsevier, Amsterdam , 2007, p. 543-549Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    The SVERIGE spatial micro simulation model2006In: 8th Nordic Seminar on Microsimulation Models, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Arbete och tillväxt i hela landet: Betydelsen av arbetskraftsmobilisering2004Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Dynamic microsimulation2000In: Spatial Models and GIS: New Potential and New Models / [ed] A. Stewart Fotheringham and Michael Wegener, London: Taylor & Francis, 2000, p. 143-165Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Mäkilä, Kalle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Simulating an entire nation1996In: Microsimulation for urban and regional policy analysis / [ed] Clarke, G.P., London: Pion , 1996, p. 164-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Socioekonomiska effekter av stora investeringar i Oskarshamn: En framtidsstudie2008Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Socioekonomiska effekter av stora investeringar i Östhammar: En framtidsstudie2007Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Rephann, Terrence
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Economic-Demographic Effects of Immigration: Results from a dynamic, spatial microsimulation model2004In: International Regional Science Review, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 379-410Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Sanders, Lena
    Spatial Microsimulation Models2007In: Models in Spatial Analysis., 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Spatial data creation for Europe: A test case2011Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Timpka, Toomas
    A discrete time-space geography for epidemiology: from mixing groups to pockets of local order in pandemic simulations2007In: MEDINFO 2007 - Proceedings of the 12th World Congress on Health (Medical) Informatics: Building Sustainable Health Systems, 2007, p. 464-468Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Haugen, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Place, kinship, and employment2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 3, article id e2118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the magnitude and composition of kinship ties at Swedish workplaces. By analysing official register data and illustrating findings from interviews with HR personnel at different workplaces, the following questions are discussed: How much kinship concentration is there today on the labour market in a modern Western society such as Sweden? How is the kin‐based selection of workplace members structured by place? The study is based on an analysis of individually connected register information on all workplaces in Sweden in 2012. The number of individual links between relatives and couples at an average workplace amounts to 14% of the number of employees as derived from 310, 000 couples and pairs of relatives among 4.3 million workers. So, even today in Sweden, kinship is a common phenomenon observable for most workers at most workplaces. Of all such connected pairs of kin at workplaces, more than a third contain counterparts living in the same household. A non‐linear individual‐level regression reveals that population density in the vicinity of the workplace is substantially related to kin density. Large agglomerations seem to coexist with low kin density workplaces. Although some level of kin membership is unavoidable especially at workplaces in sparsely populated places, removing this part still reveals that kinship above an unavoidable level seems to exist. The study contributes to the discussion of kinship in workplaces by examining the magnitude and composition of kinship ties in the whole work force and complementing findings with interviews.

  • 29.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Öberg, Sture
    Contagious social practice?2004In: Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 86B, no 4, p. 297-314Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Statistics. Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Social and Economic Geography.
    Spatial dynamic micro-simulation of demographic development2007In: 1st General Conference of the International Microsimulation Association: Celebrating 50 Years of Microsimulation, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world of changing demographical patterns, tools for keeping track of these changes are of great importance. Different regions are in different stages of the demographic transition and are affected differently of migration patterns. A tool to project the demographic development at a regional level is therefore of great importance. This article we discusses the demographic development in the county Västerbotten in Sweden and in that context why and how a micro simulation model can be used for these purposes.

  • 31.
    Jansson, Bruno
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Jakobsen, Leif
    Hvidberg, M.
    Asmussen, M.
    Sandberg, M.
    Engström, C.
    Effektutvärdering av de geografiska målprogrammen inom EG:s strukturfonder2004Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Li, Wenjuan
    et al.
    Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning of CAAS.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Linking spatial scale to changes in workplace earnings: an exploratory approach2015In: CyberGeo: European Journal of Geography, ISSN 1278-3366, E-ISSN 1278-3366, article id 740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates the importance of spatial scale for changes in earnings at the workplace by using spatial regression applied to workplace-level micro data in an exploratory purpose. A floating grid technique is used to define equal-sized workplaces and their daily-reach surrounding zones as divided into three spatial entities: working-square, local area and hinterland. On the basis of geo-referenced information on workplaces and places of residence along with numerous individual-level socio-economic indicators, the results of the regression models reveal that the indicators of the daily-reach area play a dominant role and that their contribution varies over spatial entities. Among the spatial entities, the working-square (km square) surrounding the workplace is more important than the workplace itself, the local area and the hinterland. Moreover, the results suggest that internal factors related to population size, diversity of trade and industry and educational level contribute to about one-third of changes in work income at the workplace level. It can be concluded that knowledge, learning and human capital are strongly associated with increased earnings.

  • 33.
    Li, Wenjuan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Localised conditions for economic growth: testing the endogenous growth hypothesisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 34. Lidestav, Gun
    et al.
    Thellbro, Camilla
    Sandström, Per
    Lind, Torgny
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Karppinen, Heimo
    Ficko, Andrej
    Interactions between forest owners and their forests2017In: Globalisation and change in forest ownership and forest use: natural resource management in transition / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 97-137Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than half of the forest land in Europe is privately owned, and ownership structure is known to have implications for management, production of timber and other forest products and services that support the transformation towards a green economy. This chapter provides examples of how we can gain knowledge about the forest and forest owner/user relationship from a structural point of view. Sweden is taken as an example because of the accessibility of continuous data on forest conditions, ownership and demographic data. It is concluded that the pace of change in ownership structure and forest management behaviour is slow. Further, neither the ongoing migration, urbanisation, ageing population nor the increased proportion of women seems to reduce the willingness to manage and harvest.

  • 35.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Analyzing Socio-Economic Impacts of Large Investments by Spatial Microsimulation2007In: 1st General Conference of the International Microsimulation Association: Celebrating 50 Years of Microsimulation, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, a nuclear waste repository will be located in either Östhammar or Oskarshamn, two Swedish municipalities. This is a major investment that is likely to have socio-economic implications at the local level for several decades. In order to analyze the indirect local effects of such large investments, a spatial and dynamic microsimulation model (SVERIGE 3) has been constructed. The model simulates demographic events (e.g., fertility and migration) as well as education and the labor market. In this study, the simulation model is utilized to evaluate a number of scenarios comprising various potential investments in Östhammar, one of which is the nuclear waste repository. As part of the study, the direct local effect of the investments was estimated. When running the model, the estimated direct local effects function as exogenous economic input to concerned labor market sectors. The results of the simulations indicate that investments such as the nuclear waste repository will have some economic and demographic effects. However, infrastructure projects that increase accessibility seem to generate more profound and long-lasting effects at the local level. A municipality such as Östhammar, located close the Stockholm metropolitan area, may be especially likely to benefit by such infrastructure investments.

  • 36.
    Rephann, Terence
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Mäkilä, Kalle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Microsimulation for local impact analysis: An application to plant shutdown2005In: Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 45, p. 183-222Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Rivière, Dominique
    et al.
    Groza, Octavian
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Le rôle de l’Etat-Providence2010In: Villes et Régions Européennes en Décroissance / [ed] Myriam Baron, Emmanuèle Cunningham-Sabot, Claude Grasland, Dominique Rivière och Gilles Van Hamme, Paris: Lavoisier , 2010, p. 215-236Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38. Rivière, Dominique
    et al.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Salaris, Alessia
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Vers une gouvernance multiscalaire de la décroissance2010In: Villes et Régions Européennes en Décroissance / [ed] Myriam Baron, Emmanuèle Cunningham-Sabot, Claude Grasland, Dominique Rivière och Gilles Van Hamme, Paris: Lavoisier , 2010, p. 237-265Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Using downscaled population in local data generation: A country-level examination2010Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Spreco, Armin
    Timpka, Toomas
    Place-based social contact and mixing: a typology of generic meeting places of relevance for infectious disease transmission2017In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 145, no 12, p. 2582-2593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to develop a typology of generic meeting places based on social contact and mixing of relevance for infectious disease transmission. Data was collected by means of a contact diary survey conducted on a representative sample of the Swedish population. The typology is derived from a cluster analysis accounting for four dimensions associated with transmission risk: visit propensity and its characteristics in terms of duration, number of other persons present and likelihood of physical contact. In the analysis, we also study demographic, socioeconomic and geographical differences in the propensity of visiting meeting places. The typology identifies the family venue, the fixed activity site, the family vehicle, the trading plaza and the social network hub as generic meeting places. The meeting place typology represents a spatially explicit account of social contact and mixing relevant to infectious disease modelling where the social context of the outbreak can be highlighted in light of the actual infectious disease.

  • 41. Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Gursky, Elin
    Nyce, James
    Morin, Magnus
    Jenvald, Johan
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Population-based simulations of influenza pandemics: validity and significance for public health policy2009In: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, ISSN 0042-9686, E-ISSN 1564-0604, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 305-311Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Department of Computer Science, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gursky, Elin
    National Strategies Support Directorate, ANSER/Analytic Services Inc, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Department of Computer Science, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Department of Computer Science, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Valter, Lars
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nyce, James
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Requirements and design of the PROSPER protocol for implementation of information infrastructures supporting pandemic response: A nominal group study2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 3, p. e17941-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Advanced technical systems and analytic methods promise to provide policy makers with information to help them recognize the consequences of alternative courses of action during pandemics. Evaluations still show that response programs are insufficiently supported by information systems. This paper sets out to derive a protocol for implementation of integrated information infrastructures supporting regional and local pandemic response programs at the stage(s) when the outbreak no longer can be contained at its source.

    Methods

    Nominal group methods for reaching consensus on complex problems were used to transform requirements data obtained from international experts into an implementation protocol. The analysis was performed in a cyclical process in which the experts first individually provided input to working documents and then discussed them in conferences calls. Argument-based representation in design patterns was used to define the protocol at technical, system, and pandemic evidence levels.

    Results

    The Protocol for a Standardized information infrastructure for Pandemic and Emerging infectious disease Response (PROSPER) outlines the implementation of information infrastructure aligned with pandemic response programs. The protocol covers analyses of the community at risk, the response processes, and response impacts. For each of these, the protocol outlines the implementation of a supporting information infrastructure in hierarchical patterns ranging from technical components and system functions to pandemic evidence production.

    Conclusions

    The PROSPER protocol provides guidelines for implementation of an information infrastructure for pandemic response programs both in settings where sophisticated health information systems already are used and in developing communities where there is limited access to financial and technical resources. The protocol is based on a generic health service model and its functions are adjusted for community-level analyses of outbreak detection and progress, and response program effectiveness. Scientifically grounded reporting principles need to be established for interpretation of information derived from outbreak detection algorithms and predictive modeling.

  • 43. Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Spreco, Armin
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures2016In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 144, no 10, p. 2031-2042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10·6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.

  • 44.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Department of Computer Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Department of Computer Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nyce, James
    Department of Anthropology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN.
    Gursky, Elin
    ANSER, Arlington, VA.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    A neighborhood susceptibility index for planning of local physical interventions in response to pandemic influenza outbreaks2010In: American Medical Informatics Association Annual Symposium proceedings, ISSN 1942-597X, Vol. 2010, p. 792-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global spread of a novel A (H1N1) influenza virus in 2009 has highlighted the possibility of a devastating pandemic similar to the 'Spanish flu' of 1917-1918. Responding to such pandemics requires careful planning for the early phases where there is no availability of pandemic vaccine. We set out to compute a Neighborhood Influenza Susceptibility Index (NISI) describing the vulnerability of local communities of different geo-socio-physical structure to a pandemic influenza outbreak. We used a spatially explicit geo-physical model of Linköping municipality (pop. 136,240) in Sweden, and employed an ontology-modeling tool to define simulation models and transmission settings. We found considerable differences in NISI between neighborhoods corresponding to primary care areas with regard to early progress of the outbreak, as well as in terms of the total accumulated share of infected residents counted after the outbreak. The NISI can be used in local preparations of physical response measures during pandemics.

  • 45.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Östergötland County Council, Department of Public Health; Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences; Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science .
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences; Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Gursky, Elin
    ANSER/Analytic Services Inc., National Strategies Support Directorate, Arlington, VA.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Östergötland County Council, Department of Public Health; Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Östergötland County Council, Department of Public Health; Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences; Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Valter, Lars
    Östergötland County Council, Department of Public Health; Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences; Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Age as a determinant for dissemination of seasonal and pandemic influenza: An open cohort study of influenza outbreaks in Östergötland County, Sweden2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 2, p. e31746-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An understanding of the occurrence and comparative timing of influenza infections in different age groups is important for developing community response and disease control measures. This study uses data from a Scandinavian county (population 427,000) to investigate whether age was a determinant for being diagnosed with influenza 2005–2010 and to examine if age was associated with case timing during outbreaks. Aggregated demographic data were collected from Statistics Sweden, while influenza case data were collected from a county-wide electronic health record system. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether case risk was associated with age and outbreak. An analysis of variance was used to explore whether day for diagnosis was also associated to age and outbreak. The clinical case data were validated against case data from microbiological laboratories during one control year. The proportion of cases from the age groups 10–19 (p<0.001) and 20–29 years old (p<0.01) were found to be larger during the A pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 than during the seasonal outbreaks. An interaction between age and outbreak was observed (p<0.001) indicating a difference in age effects between circulating virus types; this interaction persisted for seasonal outbreaks only (p<0.001). The outbreaks also differed regarding when the age groups received their diagnosis (p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis showed a tendency for the young age groups, in particular the group 10–19 year olds, led outbreaks with influenza type A H1 circulating, while A H3N2 outbreaks displayed little variations in timing. The validation analysis showed a strong correlation (r = 0.625; p<0.001) between the recorded numbers of clinically and microbiologically defined influenza cases. Our findings demonstrate the complexity of age effects underlying the emergence of local influenza outbreaks. Disentangling these effects on the causal pathways will require an integrated information infrastructure for data collection and repeated studies of well-defined communities.

  • 46.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Spreco, A.
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, O.
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Ö.
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gursky, E. A.
    National Strategies Support Directorate, ANSER/Analytic Services Inc, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Ekberg, J.
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hinkula, J.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nyce, J. M.
    Department of Anthropology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, United States of America.
    Eriksson, H.
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Predictive performance of telenursing complaints in influenza surveillance: a prospective cohort study in Sweden2014In: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 19, no 46, p. 20966-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Syndromic data sources have been sought to improve the timely detection of increased influenza transmission. This study set out to examine the prospective performance of telenursing chief complaints in predicting influenza activity. Data from two influenza seasons (2007/08 and 2008/09) were collected in a Swedish county (population 427,000) to retrospectively determine which grouping of telenursing chief complaints had the largest correlation with influenza case rates. This grouping was prospectively evaluated in the three subsequent seasons. The best performing telenursing complaint grouping in the retrospective algorithm calibration was fever (child, adult) and syncope (r=0.66; p<0.001). In the prospective evaluation, the performance of 14-day predictions was acceptable for the part of the evaluation period including the 2009 influenza pandemic (area under the curve (AUC)=0.84; positive predictive value (PPV)=0.58), while it was strong (AUC=0.89; PPV=0.93) for the remaining evaluation period including only influenza winter seasons. We recommend the use of telenursing complaints for predicting winter influenza seasons. The method requires adjustments when used during pandemics.

  • 47. Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Spreco, Armin
    Dahlström, Orjan
    Eriksson, Olle
    Gursky, Elin
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Karlsson, David
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Nyce, James
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Performance of eHealth data sources in local influenza surveillance: a 5-year open cohort study2014In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 216-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is abundant global interest in using syndromic data from population-wide health information systems-referred to as eHealth resources-to improve infectious disease surveillance. Recently, the necessity for these systems to achieve two potentially conflicting requirements has been emphasized. First, they must be evidence-based; second, they must be adjusted for the diversity of populations, lifestyles, and environments.

    OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to examine correlations between data from Google Flu Trends (GFT), computer-supported telenursing centers, health service websites, and influenza case rates during seasonal and pandemic influenza outbreaks. The secondary objective was to investigate associations between eHealth data, media coverage, and the interaction between circulating influenza strain(s) and the age-related population immunity.

    METHODS: An open cohort design was used for a five-year study in a Swedish county (population 427,000). Syndromic eHealth data were collected from GFT, telenursing call centers, and local health service website visits at page level. Data on mass media coverage of influenza was collected from the major regional newspaper. The performance of eHealth data in surveillance was measured by correlation effect size and time lag to clinically diagnosed influenza cases.

    RESULTS: Local media coverage data and influenza case rates showed correlations with large effect sizes only for the influenza A (A) pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 (r=.74, 95% CI .42-.90; P<.001) and the severe seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2011-2012 (r=.79, 95% CI .42-.93; P=.001), with media coverage preceding case rates with one week. Correlations between GFT and influenza case data showed large effect sizes for all outbreaks, the largest being the seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2008-2009 (r=.96, 95% CI .88-.99; P<.001). The preceding time lag decreased from two weeks during the first outbreaks to one week from the 2009 A pH1N1 pandemic. Telenursing data and influenza case data showed correlations with large effect sizes for all outbreaks after the seasonal B and A H1 outbreak in 2007-2008, with a time lag decreasing from two weeks for the seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2008-2009 (r=.95, 95% CI .82-.98; P<.001) to none for the A p H1N1 outbreak in 2009 (r=.84, 95% CI .62-.94; P<.001). Large effect sizes were also observed between website visits and influenza case data.

    CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between the eHealth data and influenza case rates in a Swedish county showed large effect sizes throughout a five-year period, while the time lag between signals in eHealth data and influenza rates changed. Further research is needed on analytic methods for adjusting eHealth surveillance systems to shifts in media coverage and to variations in age-group related immunity between virus strains. The results can be used to inform the development of alert-generating eHealth surveillance systems that can be subject for prospective evaluations in routine public health practice.

  • 48. Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Spreco, Armin
    Gursky, Elin A
    Eriksson, Olle
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Karlsson, David
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: A cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, p. e91060-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure to incorporate the beliefs and attitudes of the public into theoretical models of preparedness has been identified as a weakness in strategies to mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a representative sample (n = 443) of the Swedish adult population to examine whether self-reported intentions to improve personal hygiene and increase social distancing during influenza outbreaks could be explained by trust in official information, self-reported health (SF-8), sociodemographic factors, and determinants postulated in protection motivation theory, namely threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The interviewees were asked to make their appraisals for two scenarios: a) an influenza with low case fatality and mild lifestyle impact; b) severe influenza with high case fatality and serious disturbances of societal functions. Every second respondent (50.0%) reported high trust in official information about influenza. The proportion that reported intentions to take deliberate actions to improve personal hygiene during outbreaks ranged between 45–85%, while less than 25% said that they intended to increase social distancing. Multiple logistic regression models with coping appraisal as the explanatory factor most frequently contributing to the explanation of the variance in intentions showed strong discriminatory performance for staying home while not ill (mild outbreaks: Area under the curve [AUC] 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.82;0.89), severe outbreaks AUC 0.82 (95% CI 0.77;0.85)) and acceptable performance with regard to avoiding public transportation (AUC 0.78 (0.74;0.82), AUC 0.77 (0.72;0.82)), using handwash products (AUC 0.70 (0.65;0.75), AUC 0.76 (0.71;0.80)), and frequently washing hands (AUC 0.71 (0.66;0.76), AUC 0.75 (0.71;0.80)). We conclude that coping appraisal was the explanatory factor most frequently included in statistical models explaining self-reported intentions to carry out non-pharmaceutical health actions in the Swedish outlined context, and that variations in threat appraisal played a smaller role in these models despite scientific uncertainties surrounding a recent mass vaccination campaign.

  • 49.
    Wenjuan, Li
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Attractive vicinities2009In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 15, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the significance of spatial and socioeconomic factors in determining place attractiveness, and it suggests an explorative method for the analysis of detailed patterns of spatial attractiveness. By departing from a simple spatial model that distinguishes between different hinterlands at varying distances from the individuals’ immediate neighbourhood, we analyse the relative importance of demographic, labour-market, service as well as physical factors for income levels and in-migration rates. Based on a longitudinal spatially referenced microdatabase covering over 100 annual attributes per individual and digital land-use information for the entire territory, vicinity characteristics were calculated for every populated square kilometre (108,000 squares). Regression, a partial F test and h2 were used to decompose explained variation in attractiveness into indicators classified insocioeconomic categories and spatial ranges. The findings indicate a  considerable variation across the spatial scale. For example, the characteristics of the vicinity (km2) seem to have a much larger influence on variation inplace attractiveness than the characteristics of the hinterland (within 5 to 50 km). Moreover, place attractiveness seems to be determined to a very small extent by physical factors in the immediate vicinity. Demographic andsocioeconomic factors appear to be the main determinants of place attractiveness.

  • 50.
    Westin, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Do trees make people more rooted?: Private forest owners’ migration behavior2018In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 94, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forestland is a tangible asset, likely both indicating and creating attachment to the forest site for the owners. Forest ownership can both create and maintain a strong motive for developing the forest holding and its surroundings. Decisions made by non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners can therefore be expected to influence population development in the local communities. This paper addresses forest owners' migration propensity, and whether forest ownership influences migration to and from the municipality where the forest holding is located. Comparing the non-forest owners to the group of local NIPF owners, we found that the latter are more sedentary. Forest owners living in their forest municipalities seldom move out – about a third annually compared to others in the same age group. When moving, about half of absentee forest owners select their forest municipality as their destination and thus become local forest owners. Although private forest ownership significantly contributes to population development in small, remote rural municipalities, policies for local and rural development rarely acknowledge the potential private forest owners represent for economic and population development in rural areas.

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