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  • 1. Doering, Adam
    et al.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Critical Tourism Studies and The World: Sense, Praxis and the Politics of Creation2018Ingår i: Tourism Analysis, ISSN 1083-5423, E-ISSN 1943-3999, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 227-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade Critical Tourism Studies (CTS) has endeavored to create a better “tourism world” while also drawing attention to tourism’s “worldmaking” force. However, the question of “the world” itself has escaped the critical lens of CTS. Reading Jean-Luc Nancy’s philosophy of the world alongside Jia Zhangke’s 2004 film The World, this article aims to develop an open and emergent sense of the world for CTS to consider. We do this in four parts. First, we introduce Nancy’s “sense of the world” as always already in creation through our immanent relations with one another. Secondly, the relationship between world, creation, and praxis is addressed. Through a close reading of the emancipatory praxis and critical pedagogy common to CTS, we question the underlying assumption that the world comes into creation only when it is named, represented, and negotiated. Thirdly, we speculate on how an alternative “praxis” might unfold once this reconsidered sense of the world is taken into account. With the help of an exemplary long take scene in The World we detail three key features that give texture to Nancy’s idea of the world as praxis: relationality, exposure, and spacing. We conclude by returning to the end of the film, or its “opening,” in an effort to open up unfamiliar routes to reinvigorate the critical and creative agenda that underpins CTS.

  • 2. Shelton, Eric
    et al.
    Tucker, Hazel
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    A political ecology of the yellow-eyed penguin in southern New Zealand: a conceptual and theoretical approach2017Ingår i: Wildlife tourism, environmental learning and ethical encounters: ecological and conservation aspects / [ed] Ismar Borges de Lima, Ronda J. Green, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017, s. 21-32Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we engage with the political and ecological story of the yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes), a major tourist attraction, during four years of dramatically declining numbers of breeding pairs (New Zealand Department of Conservation in Unpublished census of yellow-eyed penguin breeding pairs 2015–16, 2016). One site, Long Point, is useful for presenting the possibilities of thematic integration since, using the principles of reintroduction biology (Seddon et al. in Conserv Biol 21(2):303–312, 2007; Armstrong and Seddon in Trends Ecol Evol 23:20–25, 2008), it is being used specifically to produce habitat for seabirds, rather than the more traditional restoration ecology approach. Also, the demands of tourism, for example to show respect through product offering (Zhang and Shelton in Tourism Anal 20(3):343–353, 2015) are, from the outset, being reinterpreted and integrated into the design and management of the site. Political ecology of tourism (Mostafanezhad et al. in Political ecology of tourism: communities, power and the environment. Routledge, London, pp 1–22, 2016) potentially is a fruitful analytic tool for formulating such thematic integration of 'wildlife tourism', 'applied ecology', and 'environmental education and interpretation'. Political ecology emerged as a critique of an allegedly apolitical cultural ecology and ecological anthropology, and illustrates the unavoidable entanglement of political economy with ecological concerns (Zimmerer in Prog Hum Geogr 32(1):63–78, 2006). Also, political ecology has been described as 'an urgent kind of argument or text … that examines winners or losers, is narrating using dialectics, begins and/or ends in a contradiction, and surveys both the status of nature and stories about the status of nature' (Robbins in Political ecology: a critical introduction. Wiley-Blackwell, New York, 2004, p. viii). Relevant examples of such narratives include Shelton and Tucker's (Tourism Rev Int 11(3):205–212, 2008, p. 198) text that constituted 'the restoration narrative … central to the long-term viability of tourism in New Zealand because environmental preservation, conservation and restoration facilitate the continuation, and possible expansion, of nature-based tourism' and Reis and Shelton's (Tourism Anal 16(3):375–384, 2011, p. i) demonstration that 'nature-based tourism activities are highly modulated by how Nature has been constructed in modern Western societies.' It is this textual, discursive approach that differentiates political ecology from other approaches to issues surrounding 'natural area tourism', for example, the impacts approach of Newsome et al. (Natural Area Tourism: Ecology, impacts and management. Channel View Publications, Bristol, 2013).

  • 3.
    Tucker, Hazel
    et al.
    University of Otago.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    On Western-centrism and “Chineseness” in tourism studies2016Ingår i: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 61, s. 250-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Political ecology of tourism worldmaking: a case of Shangri-La County, Southwest China2013Ingår i: Tourism in the global south: heritages identities and development / [ed] João Sarmento, Eduardo Brito Henriques, Lisbon: Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Universitade de Lisboa , 2013, s. 193-207Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Zhang, Jundan
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Rethinking ecotourism in environmental discourse in Shangri-La: An antiessentialist political ecology perspective2016Ingår i: Political ecology of tourism: community, power and the environment / [ed] Mary Mostafanezhad, Eric Shelton, Roger Norum and Anna Thompson-Carr, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, s. 151-168Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Zhang, Jundan
    University of Otago.
    Review: Tales of Kha ba dkar po2014Ingår i: Asian Highlands Perspectives, Vol. 35, s. 255-274Artikel, recension (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    The Irreducible Ethics in Reflexivity: Rethinking Reflexivity in Conducting Ethnography in Shangri-La, Southwest China2017Ingår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 19-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Because this research started in Shangri-La County in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Southwest China, I have had different people in different occasions ask me similar questions: Are you a Han or a Tibetan? Why do you want to do research in Shangri-La? These are indeed common questions to start with if one is studying a place and people that are different from one's own "origins." However, if we take such questions seriously and look deeper, we can see that they are not only posed on the condition of knowledge or assumptions, but also posed as a concern and sometimes curiosity on how the researcher may reflect upon her research as a political action and deal with relations with other people, especially in a situation that research seems to be institutionalized and the researcher appears to have more influence and power. In this article, I attempt to look into the contents and contexts of the recent "reflexive calls" in tourism studies and social research in general. Through critically questioning what "reflexivity" is and what context it has been applied, I argue that both the researcher and the researched subjects are a mixture of "selves," and they both go through the process of interpreting information and thus always attempt to negotiate with their surroundings. Therefore, I argue that we must rethink the current normalized ideas of "reflexivity" in social research, to examine/self-examine the researcher's intention or actual capacity to practice "reflexivity." Hence, the ethical way for me to follow in this research is to not claim myself being "reflexive," rather to act on it.

  • 8.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Tourism and environmental subjectivities in the Anthropocene: observations from Niru Village, Southwest China2019Ingår i: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 488-502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasingly popular notion of Anthropocene urges us to reflect and review the role of the human, the Anthropos, as part of the planet earth. In this context, tourism has been singled out as a global industry that is driven by neoliberal economic principles and is inevitably intertwined in the production of the Anthropocene. At the same time, tourism has been adopted also as part of environmental governance and management, aiming for a more sustainable economy. Based on the idea that ecotourism contributes to the discourse of “nature” (and Anthropocene) disruptively as well as productively in unsettling the normative ideas of “nature” and “culture”, in this article I attempt to understand more specifically how ecotourism may enable individuals' subject formation in relation to the broader environmental discourse. Drawn on fieldwork in Niru Village, Shangri-La, Southwest China, I employ a political ecology approach and examine the ways individuals relate themselves to “nature”, through a process of negotiation and exchange with others engaged in ecotourism activities. The tourism encounters in Niru Village, therefore are also embodied encounters of different environmental subjectivities.

  • 9. Zhang, Jundan (Jasmine)
    et al.
    Shelton, Eric J.
    Ordering the Disordered Subject: A Critique Of Chinese Outbound Tourists as New Zealand Seeks to Become China Ready2015Ingår i: Tourism Analysis, ISSN 1083-5423, E-ISSN 1943-3999, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 343-353Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, expanding Chinese outbound tourism attracts significant practical research effort utilizing various conceptual approaches in many countries. In this Review Article, J. Zhang and Shelton note that this form of tourism to New Zealand is notably increasing and the nature of the experience is accordingly changing from group coach travel to FIT. In their critique, J. Zhang and Shelton argue that despite the increased and careful scrutiny of both the tourism industry and the tourism studies academia on this development, most of the analytic effort (such as that on push/pull factors) is founded upon a dominant and unchallenged Western discourse around self and subject. They maintain that the term "subject position" might be a concept that is common across the broader social sciences but is uncommon in outbound tourism research itself. In this Review Article, the authors are interested in the extent to which, in a Chinese cultural setting, Western formulations of self and subjectivity are actually appropriate, and, they question whether "Chinese outbound tourism to New Zealand" indeed acts to produce the ordered subject. In this light, they critique the very demand that New Zealand becomes China Ready, and they contend that, before their arrival, the Chinese outbound tourist to New Zealand already will have been hailed by a set of subjectivities operating in China, which will act to significantly disorder their touristic performances. Thus, Zhang and Shelton suggest that New Zealand policymakers and tourism product providers must understand these multiple and discursive subjectivities, which are likely to be barriers for any prescriptive reading of the individual tourist. This review is thus intended to help both operational practitioners and field researchers realize that New Zealand-and, indeed, each and every large international destination-must produce compelling/relevant/satisfying supply-side subject positions that may profitably be mapped onto such individual tourists both before and during their visits.

  • 10.
    Zhang, Jundan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Tourism and the Sámi in transition: a discourse analysis of Swedish newspapers from 1982 to 20152018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 163-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to a more nuanced understanding of how tourism in Sápmi is positioned in the broader discourses that contribute to the construction of Sámi identities. This is done through examining how the tourism industry is represented in the ethno-political discourses in newspaper media. Employing a discourse analysis framework, we collected 165 articles from 29 major Swedish newspapers for the period 1982–2015. The results show that the ethno-political discourses construct, and are constructed by, the discursive practice of tourism in Sápmi, thus forming an ongoing dialectical process. This process entails three aspects. First, while some narratives in newspapers construct a social knowledge that portrays the Sámi people as “exotic others” in the global and domestic tourism industry, others show that tourism can also be an opportunity to challenge such a view. Second, these news narratives demonstrate how the ethno-political discourses are intertwined in the social relations between tourism and other natural-resource-based industries. Third, an ever-changing social identity construction shows that, with the changing role of reindeer herding in the Sámi identity, how tourism assists or challenges this association is becoming increasingly important.

  • 11. Zhang, Jundan
    et al.
    Shelton, Eric
    Authentic Antipodean Chineseness? A Scholar's Garden in Aotearoa/New Zealand2012Ingår i: Journal of China Tourism Research, ISSN 1938-8160, E-ISSN 1938-8179, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 248-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    “Chineseness” may be linked to the Chinese garden and ancient Chinese poetry. This article presents a study set in a Chinese garden in Dunedin, New Zealand. This scholar’s garden ismarketed as being authentic in that it was designed in China, constructed using traditional materials imported from China, and built according to traditional principles by Chinese artisans. In this article we critique the use of the term authentic in this setting and argue that it is the visitors’ experiences of the garden that act to authenticate authenticity, or otherwise, depending on their personal characteristics. In addition, we argue that ancient Chinese poetry is a suitable and important medium through which to offer visitors opportunities to engage with the garden and with Chineseness.

  • 12.
    Zhang, Jundan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Tucker, Hazel
    University of Otago.
    Knowing subjects in an unkown place: producing identity through tourism and heritage in Niru Village, Southwest China2018Ingår i: Heritage at the interface: interpretation and identity / [ed] Glenn Hooper, Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2018, s. 106-120Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
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