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  • 1.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Andre, M
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Rönnmark, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    The importance of a dark ionosphere for ion heating and auroral arc formation2000In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 1635-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present observations from the Freja Satellite to show that density reductions and ion heating at Freja heights are anticorrelated with solar illumination of the ionosphere. When the ionospheric foot-point of a flux-tube is in shadow, the ambient density is lower, transverse ion energization is more common and more intense, and the associated density cavities are deeper. In combination with the suggestion that the electrons must be accelerated to keV energies to carry an imposed current in a low density auroral cavity, these observations may explain the recent observation that auroras are more common when the ionosphere below is in darkness.

  • 2.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Marghitu, O
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Buchert, S
    André, M
    Klecker, B
    Kistler, LM
    Dandouras, I
    The role of the inner tail to midtail plasma sheet in channeling solar wind power to the ionosphere2012In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 117, no A6, p. A06310-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we use Cluster power density (E . J) data from 2001, 2002, and 2004 to investigate energy conversion and transfer in the plasma sheet. We show that a southward IMF B-z is favorable for plasma sheet energy conversion, and that there is an increased particle and Poynting flux toward the Earth at times when Cluster observes an enhanced energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Conversion from electromagnetic to kinetic energy is increasingly dominant farther down-tail, while the generation of electromagnetic power from kinetic energy becomes important toward the Earth with a maximum at roughly 10 R-E. By linking observations of the key quantity E . J to observations of the solar wind input and earthward energy flux, our results demonstrate the role of the inner tail to midtail plasma sheet as a mediator between the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere and the auroral dissipation in the ionosphere.

  • 3.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Marghitu, Octav
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Buchert, Stephan
    Andre, Mats
    Klecker, Berndt
    Kistler, Lynn M
    Dandouras, Iannis
    Energy conversion regions as observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet2011In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 116, no A1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present a review of recent studies of observations of localized energy conversion regions (ECRs) observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet at altitudes of 15–20RE. By examining variations in the power density, E · J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density, we show that the plasma sheet exhibits a high level of fine structure. Approximately three times as many concentrated load regions (CLRs) (E · J > 0) as concentrated generator regions (CGRs) (E · J < 0) are identified, confirming the average load character of the plasma sheet. Some ECRs are found to relate to auroral activity. While ECRs are relevant for the energy conversion between the electromagnetic field and the particles, bursty bulk flows (BBFs) play a central role for the energy transfer in the plasma sheet. We show that ECRs and BBFs are likely to be related, although details of this relationship are yet to be explored. The plasma sheet energy conversion increases rather simultaneously with increasing geomagnetic activity in both CLRs and CGRs. Consistent with large-scale magnetotail simulations, most of the observed ECRs appear to be rather stationary in space but varying in time. We estimate that the ECR lifetime and scale size are a few minutes and a few RE, respectively. It is conceivable that ECRs rise and vanish locally in significant regions of the plasma sheet, possibly oscillating between load and generator character, while some energy is transmitted as Poynting flux to the ionosphere.

  • 4.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Fysik i vardagen: 256 vardagsmysterier avslöjade över en kopp kaffe2005Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Andre, M
    Eriksson, AI
    A statistical study of wave properties and electron density at 1700 km in the auroral region2002In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 107, no A8, p. SIA 21-1-SIA 21-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a comprehensive overview of the electron density and six different wave types in the range similar to1 Hz to similar to1 MHz, and we investigate their occurrence, average wave frequency and amplitude as a function of location, Kp index, and solar illumination. Twenty-one months of Freja observations from the Northern Hemisphere obtained at similar to1700 km altitude and invariant latitudes 40degrees-75degrees are used. We find that waves around the lower hybrid frequency occur in one low-latitude dayside band and one high-latitude nightside band. The latter band correlates with precipitating auroral electrons and coexists with electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. This indicates the importance of energetic electrons for the wave generation. Both broadband ELF waves and broadband high-frequency whistler mode waves are found at high latitudes, but whistler mode emissions are most common in regions of high electron densities on the dayside, while broadband ELF waves are found where the density is reduced on the nightside. Moreover, the average density in the presence of broadband ELF waves is more reduced when the ionosphere is dark than when it is sunlit. However, broadband whistler mode waves, Langmuir waves, and waves with an upper cutoff just below the proton gyrofrequency coincide with density enhancements when the ionosphere is dark. Ion heating correlated with auroral electrons coexists with EMIC waves and the high-latitude band of waves around the lower hybrid frequency. Furthermore, ion heating not correlated with downgoing electrons coexists with broadband ELF waves.

  • 6.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Andre, Mats
    Eriksson, AI
    A statistical study of ion energization at 1700 km in the auroral region2002In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 1943-1958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a comprehensive overview of several potentially relevant causes for the oxygen energization in the auroral region. Data from the Freja satellite near 1700 km altitude are used for an unconditional statistical investigation. The data are obtained in the Northern Hemisphere during 21 months in the declining phase of the solar cycle. The importance of various wave types for the ion energization is statistically studied. We also investigate the correlation of ion heating with precipitating protons, accelerated auroral electrons, suprathermal electron bursts, the electron density variations, K-P index and solar illumination of the nearest conjugate ionosphere. We find that sufficiently strong broadband ELF waves, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and waves around the lower hybrid frequency are foremost associated with the ion heating. However, magnetosonic waves, with a sharp, lower frequency cutoff just below the proton gyrofrequency, are not found to contribute to the ion heating. In the absence of the first three wave emissions, transversely energized ions are rare. These wave types are approximately equally efficient in heating the ions, but we find that the main source for the heating is broadband ELF waves, since they are most common in the auroral region. We have also observed that the conditions for ion heating are more favourable for smaller ratios of the spectral densities S-E/S-B of the broadband ELF waves at the oxygen gyrofrequency.

  • 7.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Karlsson, T.
    Nilsson, H.
    Fu, H. S.
    Buchert, S.
    Andre, M.
    Marghitu, O.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Klecker, B.
    Kistler, L. M.
    Dandouras, I.
    The evolution of flux pileup regions in the plasma sheet: Cluster observations2013In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 118, no 10, p. 6279-6290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bursty bulk flows (BBFs) play an important role for the mass, energy, and magnetic flux transport in the plasma sheet, and the flow pattern in and around a BBF has important consequences for the localized energy conversion between the electromagnetic and plasma mechanical energy forms. The plasma flow signature in and around BBFs is often rather complicated. Return flows and plasma vortices are expected to exist at the flanks of the main flow channel, especially near the inner plasma sheet boundary, but also farther down-tail. A dipolarization front (DF) is often observed at the leading edge of a BBF, and a flux pileup region (FPR) behind the DF. Here we present Cluster data of three FPRs associated with vortex flows observed in the midtail plasma sheet on 15 August 2001. According to the principles of Fu et al. (2011, 2012c), two of the FPRs are considered to be in an early stage of evolution (growing FPRs). The third FPR is in a later stage of evolution (decaying FPR). For the first time, the detailed energy conversion properties during various stages of the FPR evolution have been measured. We show that the later stage FPR has a more complex vortex pattern than the two earlier stage FPRs. The two early stage FPR correspond to generators, E<bold></bold>J<0, while the later stage FPR only shows weak generator characteristics and is instead dominated by load signatures at the DF, E<bold></bold>J>0. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is one of the first times BBF-related plasma vortices have been observed to propagate over the spacecraft in the midtail plasma sheet at geocentric distances of about 18R(E). Our observations are compared to recent simulation results and previous observations.

  • 8.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Marghitu, Ocatv
    Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Romania.
    Buchert, Stephan
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Klecker, Berndt
    Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany.
    Kistler, Lynn M
    Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA.
    Dandouras, Iannis
    CESR-CNRS, Toulouse, France.
    Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet2009In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 4131-4146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009) [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs) in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs) as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs). We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail) direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  • 9.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Marghitu, Octav
    Buchert, Stephan
    Klecker, Berndt
    Kistler, Lynn M
    Dandouras, Iannis
    Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion2010In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 28, p. 1813-1825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004) of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs) in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs) and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs) from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

  • 10.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Marghitu, Octav
    Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Romania.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Klecker, Berndt
    Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany.
    Kistler, Lynn M
    Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA.
    Dandouras, Iannis
    CESR-CNRS, Toulouse, France.
    Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet2009In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 4147-4155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009) [Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs) in Earth's plasma sheet. From more than 80 Cluster plasma sheet crossings (660 h data) at the altitude of about 15–20 RE in the summer and fall of 2001, we have identified 116 Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs) and 35 Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs). By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have estimated typical values of the scale size and life time of the CLRs and the CGRs. We find that a majority of the observed ECRs are rather stationary in space, but varying in time. Assuming that the ECRs are cylindrically shaped and equal in size, we conclude that the typical scale size of the ECRs is 2 RE≲ΔSECR≲5 RE. The ECRs hence occupy a significant portion of the mid altitude plasma sheet. Moreover, the CLRs appear to be somewhat larger than the CGRs. The life time of the ECRs are of the order of 1–10 min, consistent with the large scale magnetotail MHD simulations of Birn and Hesse (2005). The life time of the CGRs is somewhat shorter than for the CLRs. On time scales of 1–10 min, we believe that ECRs rise and vanish in significant regions of the plasma sheet, possibly oscillating between load and generator character. It is probable that at least some of the observed ECRs oscillate energy back and forth in the plasma sheet instead of channeling it to the ionosphere.

  • 11.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Rönnmark, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Fellgård, D
    The importance of solar illumination for discrete and diffuse aurora2005In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 23, p. 3481-3486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Karlsson, T.
    Nilsson, H.
    Andre, M.
    Buchert, S.
    Vaivads, A.
    Marghitu, O.
    Klecker, B.
    Kistler, L. M.
    Dandouras, I.
    Evidence for the braking of flow bursts as they propagate toward the Earth2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 119, no 11, p. 9004-9018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we use energy conversion arguments to investigate the possible braking of flow bursts as they propagate toward the Earth. By using EJ data (E and J are the electric field and the current density) observed by Cluster in the magnetotail plasma sheet, we find indications of a plasma deceleration in the region -20 R-E < X < - 15 R-E. Our results suggest a braking mechanism where compressed magnetic flux tubes in so-called dipolarization fronts (DFs) can decelerate incoming flow bursts. Our results also show that energy conversion arguments can be used for studying flow braking and that the position of the flow velocity peak with respect to the DF can be used as a single-spacecraft proxy when determining energy conversion properties. Such a single-spacecraft proxy is invaluable whenever multispacecraft data are not available. In a superposed epoch study, we find that a flow burst with the velocity peak behind the DF is likely to decelerate and transfer energy from the particles to the fields. For flow bursts with the peak flow at or ahead of the DF we see no indications of braking, but instead we find an energy transfer from the fields to the particles. From our results we obtain an estimate of the magnitude of the deceleration of the flow bursts, and we find that it is consistent with previous investigations.

  • 13.
    Minnhagen, Petter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wiklund, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    ABC-bok för fysiknyfikna2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Nobelfysik i vardagen: 100 Nobelpris förklarade i en mordgåta2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wiklund, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Hollywoodfysik: folkvett i filmens värld?2006In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 2, p. 32-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wiklund, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Hollywoodfysik: undervisande underhållning2006In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 4, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Space and Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    IMF dependence of the azimuthal direction of earthward magnetotail fast flows2013In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 40, no 21, p. 5598-5604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cluster magnetotail data together with ACE solar wind data from 2001 to 2009 are used to investigate the dependence of the azimuthal flow direction of earthward magnetotail fast flows on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We find an indication that fast flows have favored azimuthal directions that have dependence on the IMF. Our results suggest that for positive IMF By, the favored azimuthal direction of the fast flows is dawnward in the northern plasma sheet and duskward in the southern plasma sheet. For negative IMF By, an opposite situation takes place, the favored azimuthal flow directions are then duskward and dawnward in the northern and southern plasma sheet, respectively. As a possible explanation for the results, it is suggested that the untwisting reconnected magnetic field lines may direct the fast flows in the magnetotail, the field line twist itself being dependent on the IMF.

  • 18.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Karlsson, Tomas
    KTH, Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Hans
    IRF-K, Kiruna.
    Kullen, Anita
    KTH, Stockholm.
    Imber, Suzanne M.
    University of Leicester, UK.
    Milan, Steve M.
    University of Leicester, UK.
    Azimuthal velocity shear within an Earthward fast flow: further evidence for magnetotail untwisting?2015In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 33, p. 245-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that nonzero interplanetary magnetic field By conditions lead to a twisted magnetotail configuration. The plasma sheet is rotated around its axis and tail magnetic field lines are twisted, which causes an azimuthal displacementof their ionospheric footprints. According to the untwisting hypothesis, the untwisting of twisted field lines is suggested to influence the azimuthal direction of convective fast flows in the nightside geospace. However, there is a lack of in situ magnetospheric observations, which show actual signatures of the possible untwisting process. In this paper, we report detailed Cluster observations of an azimuthal flow shear across the neutral sheet associated with an Earthward fast flow on 5 September 2001. The observations show a flow shear velocity pattern with a Vperpy sign change, near the neutral sheet (Bx  0) within a fast flow during the neutral sheet flapping motion over the spacecraft. Firstly, this implies that convective fast flows may not generally be unidirectional across the neutral sheet, but may have a more complex structure. Secondly, in this event tail By and the flow shear are as expected by the untwisting hypothesis. The analysis of the flow shear reveals a linear dependence between Bx and Vperpy close to the neutral sheet and suggests that Cluster crossed the neutral sheet in the dawnward part of the fast flow channel. The magnetospheric observations are supported by the semi-empirical T96 and TF04 models. Furthermore, the ionospheric SuperDARN convection maps support the satellite observations proposing that the azimuthal component of the magnetospheric flows is enforced by a magnetic field untwisting. In summary,the observations give strong supportive evidence to the tail untwisting hypothesis. However, the T96 ionospheric mapping demonstrates the limitations of the model in mapping from a twisted tail.

  • 19.
    Reiniusson, Annie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Stenberg, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Eriksson, A.I.
    Rönnmark, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Enhancement of electric and magnetic wave fields at density gradients2006In: Annales Geophysicae, Vol. 24, p. 367-79Article in journal (Refereed)
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